The cream of low carbon ideas

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					      Global Cleantech 100                                                                                                                                                                               In association with the Carbon
      09.09.09 Society Guardian The top 100 companies in clean technology |                                                                                            Trust and the Cleantech Group

                              As we enter a new era of innovation
                              driven by the emerging low-carbon
                              economy, we must ensure bright
                              ideas get the funding they need
                              Lord Mandelson, page 5


                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worldwide concern
                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is the launch of the first
                                                                                                                                                                                                  global Cleantech 100. The panel of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  experts believe these companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                  have ground-breaking low-carbon
                                                                                                                                                                                                  technologies to make them
                                                                                                                                                                                                  among the world’s most promising
                                                                                                                                                                                                  contenders to propel the planet to a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  greener, safer place.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     This list provides a showcase for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  these companies with a web address
                                                                                                                                                                                                  to find out more. For those without
                                                                                                                                                                                                  millions of pounds to invest, it is
                                                                                                                                                                                                  a chance to see how green slime,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  silicon, new batteries, sunshine and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  human ingenuity can be put together
                                                                                                                                                                                                  in any number of combinations in an
                                                                                                                                                                                                  effort to save civilisation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     The list has been compiled by
                                                                                                                                                                                                  the Cleantech Group, a provider of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  global research, events and advisory
                                                                                                                                                                                                  services on cleantech innovation, in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  collaboration with the Guardian. It
                                                                                                                                                                                                  names 100 companies; not in order
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of merit but grouped alphabetically
                                                                                                                                                                                                  into solar, wind, water and waste
                                                                                                                                                                                                  water etc. There are many companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                  competing in some sections and only
                                                                                                                                                                                                  a few in others. All are worth having
                                                                                                                                                                                                  a look at – if only to cheer yourself up
                                                                                                                                                                                                  about the prospects for the future.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     There are also articles by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  business secretary, Lord Mandelson,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  who talks about Britain’s plans for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  cleantech; Tony Juniper, a Cambridge
                                                                                                                                                                                                  academic, who exorts governments
                                                                                                                                                                                                  to do even more and grab the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  opportunity these technologies
                                                                                                                                                                                                  have to offer; and interviews with
                                                                                                                                                                                                  investors, cheerful about the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  prospects of more than doubling
      Power for 1,000 homes: a section of the SeaGen tidal system, developed by Marine Current Turbines and now in operation in Strangford Narrows, Northern Ireland                              their money.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lastly, there is the experience

      The cream of low-carbon ideas
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of a company that appeared in last
                                                                                                                                                                                                  year’s European Cleantech 100, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  first attempt to boost this sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                  by selecting promising companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and their products. CamSemi has
                                                                                                                                                                                                  prospered and – along with 36 other
                                                                                                                                                                                                  European companies – made it into
      With the Copenhagen climate summit a mere three months away, innovative and viable                                                                                                          the first global 100. Its success story
      solutions in cleantech are in the spotlight. Here are 100 companies to watch, says Paul Brown                                                                                               appears on page 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paul Brown
               t is easy to get depressed about       to all aspects of human activity – in the     field of biofuels. One produced from          Mandelson, secretary of state for business,
               global warming. All the scientific
               evidence is that the situation is
                                                      home, factory and farm, providing clean
                                                      water and dealing with human and com-
                                                                                                    pond scum has already been used to fly
                                                                                                    commercial airliners, while rivals use
                                                                                                                                                  innovation and skills, when referring to his
                                                                                                                                                  department’s new initiatives. “We cannot        Inside
               getting rapidly worse; even most       mercial waste.                                other algae grown on waste which, it is       let ground-breaking ideas fail simply due
               politicians would agree that so far       There were thousands of companies          claimed, also provide high grade oil for      to a lack of business know-how.”
               their actions to combat climate        with many diverse ideas considered,           planes and cars.                                 In the recession the investors’ view         02 The experts
               change have been too little, too       whittled down to 100 with the help of 35         Another large and promising sector is      of cleantech has become more cautious,          What were the selection criteria, and who
               late. Against that view the opti-      experts. One of the central issues in the     energy storage, which poses one of the        as even the best ideas and new products         made the difficult choices?
      mists have always contended that man’s          judging was not just whether the tech-        greatest problems of the renewable revo-      have been taking longer to get a return on
      ingenuity will get us out of the mess we        nology was promising, but that it had a       lution and is the greatest barrier to turn-   capital. But despite setbacks the venture       03 The top countries
      have created. The crisis and the threat to      wide application across the world and         ing road and sea transport away from fossil   capitalists are still expecting three to five    Which countries dominate the Global
      civilisation will lead to rapid technologi-     frequently that someone with capital          fuels to batteries and fuel cells. Ten com-   times more back than they invested.             Cleantech 100 list?
      cal advance.                                    had already shown enough faith to put         panies believe they have found at least
         If there was ever a moment for the opti-     money into its development. Saving the        some of the answers.                          Opportunities abound                            04-06 Energy generation
      mists, this is it. The scientists are telling   planet by this method is not a sentimental       With less than three months to go          Scott MacDonald, a partner with Emerald
      us that carbon dioxide emissions must be        business – new technology is a calculated     before the Copenhagen climate talks,          Technology Ventures in Montreal, Canada,        07-08 Energy efficiency
      reduced immediately. This must be done          gamble. Entrepreneurs know the market         when a new deal must be signed by poli-       is reviewing hundreds of companies in the
      to avoid the temperature getting above the      for cleantech is now so vast that the right   ticians to cut carbon emissions, world        field. He says times have been tough but he      08 Manufacturing
      2C rise that would be dangerous for human       investment will make a fortune.               leaders will be looking to these tech-        is optimistic that there are lots of opportu-
      populations and too warm for many of the                                                      nologies to reduce the political pain of      nities out there to get back five times his      10 Water treatment
      planet’s natural systems to thrive.             Exciting developments                         the necessary transition to a low-carbon      planned investments and is looking for
         So the crisis is here. Is the technology     However, there are no guarantees that         economy. Knowing the challenges they          companies with billion-dollar markets.          10-11 Transportation
      available to meet it? The answer probably       everyone will be a marvel. If all 100 com-    face, politicians are at last finding the         “We have weathered the worst of the
      lies in the following pages. Here are 100       panies named thrived then the world’s         political will and the money to foster this   storm and now we expect things to pick          11-12 Energy storage
      companies offering technological break-          carbon addiction would be on the way to       sector and in the process create new jobs     up. When the recovery does happen, it
      throughs that will make a large dent in the     a cure, but some will not do so. As it is,    in the recession.                             will move fast … It’s a time of opportunity     12 Agriculture/Recycling
      carbon problem. There is no single silver       some are already successful, employing           “As we enter a new era of innovation,      for green tech in particular.”
      bullet – there never was going to be – but      hundreds of people and doing excellent        driven by the emerging low carbon econ-           But perhaps the most eloquent advo-         Commissioning editor Paul Brown
      within this amazing range of scientific         business, but looking to expand faster.       omy, we must ensure bright ideas are get-     cates for the Cleantech 100 companies are       Editorial: 020-3353 3934/4189
      ideas turned into products there is room        These are often the companies in the more     ting the funding they need to become via-     the technologies themselves, beacons of         Produced by Guardian Creative for
      for enormous hope that disaster may             mature markets like energy efficiency and       ble commercial propositions… ,” says Lord     ingenuity and optimism. The publicity           Guardian Professional, a commercial
      be averted.                                     wastewater management . The greater                                                         the companies gain from being in the list       division of Guardian News and Media,

         In these pages are companies offer-          uncertainty lies in energy generation,                                                      gives a world-wide audience the chance to       to a brief agreed with the Carbon
      ing well researched and ingenious new           the biggest single category, with solar the   Saving the planet                             be cheered up and see that there is still all   Trust. The top 100 list has been
      methods of producing power from the             largest sector. There are, however, excit-                                                  to play for in the battle to survive climate    compiled by the Cleantech Group in
      sun, wind, tides and waves. There is a new      ing developments, for example, a concen-      in this way is not a                          change. At the same time the investors get      collaboration with the Guardian
      generation of biofuels that do not use food
      crops or land needed to feed the world’s
                                                      trated solar power plant that uses mirrors
                                                      to boil water and a series of super-thin
                                                                                                    sentimental business                          the chance to get in on the ground floor.        Paid for by the Carbon Trust. All editorial
                                                                                                                                                                                                  content commissioned by the Guardian
      growing population. There is also a raft of
      companies developing energy efficiency
                                                      solar panels, some even printed on a roll
                                                      like newspapers.
                                                                                                    – new technology is a                         Paul Brown is the Guardian’s former
                                                                                                                                                  environment correspondent and author
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Contact Adrian Dennison on 020-3353
                                                                                                                                                                                                  4563. For information on supplements
      in appliances and technologies relevant            There is also a lot happening in the       calculated gamble                             of eight books on the environment               visit:
2                                                                                                               The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 The experts

Candidates for a cleantech future
Deciding which companies would make it on to this list was no easy task, given the broad range and complexity of
innovative technologies throughout the world. Paul Brown breaks down the selection criteria

                 inding the 100 most prom-                                                                      year. Reflecting the difficulty in choosing
                 ising cleantech companies                                                                      between technologies and various candi-
                 in the world is no picnic. It                                                                  dates at different stages of development,
                 is not that there is a short-                                                                  each section is in alphabetical order rather
                 age of candidates, the                                                                         than trying to create an order of merit.
                 problem is whittling them                                                                         There are additional questions about
                 down. There are many                                                                           the list published on subsequent pages,
                 different technologies                                                                         and the qualifications for being consid-
with potential and the right credentials                                                                        ered for inclusion. The companies named
for inclusion. The question is: which are                                                                       in this list all have to be unlisted, private
the best?                                                                                                       and independent companies. Most have
   Judging would have been difficult                                                                            already attracted traditional venture
enough if it had been confined to innova-                                                                       capital funding and will probably need
tions in just one field say, solar power. But                                                                   considerably more before realising their
judges had to compare solar with water,                                                                         market potential and becoming able to
wind, geothermal and other clean meth-                                                                          support further expansion purely from
ods for generating electricity and still more                                                                   profits. This method of funding appears
taxing, pitting these technologies against                                                                      to skew the list in favour of the United
developments of new style batteries and a                                                                       States, Europe and countries that have
host of ideas to promote energy efficiency.                                                                     an Anglo-Saxon style economy or at least
Some fields were far more developed than                                                                        are open to using venture capital to launch
others. Many energy efficiency and water                                                                        promising companies.
treatment products were already in opera-                                                                          Some countries that undoubtedly
tion while a large proportion of the solar                                                                      have brilliant scientists and engineers to
and biofuel companies had their main                                                                            create cleantech products do not have a
innovations still very much in the devel-                                                                       culture which then allows entrepreneur-
opment stage.                                                                                                   ial involvement to bring the product to
   Input into which companies should                                                                            market – China and Japan, both absent
be included was received from hundreds                                                                          from the list, are prime examples. India
of cleantech experts around the world                                                                           has only three entries on the list, but that
– investors, entrepreneurs, and other                                                                           is explained by an economy that is only
industry insiders. They had been asked:                                                                         recently embracing the idea of western
“which private cleantech companies show                                                                         venture capitalism.
the most commercial promise, which have                                                                            Japan’s exclusion is put down to its
the most potential and highest likelihood                                                                       record of producing innovation from
of achieving high growth and high market                                                                        within government-funded projects or
impact?” The Cleantech Group, advised by                                                                        from the research and development of
a panel of 35 experts, who also participated                                                                    big corporations – rarely through venture
in the first round, then drew up a shortlist                                                                    capital. Some judges think this model of
based on the collective, weighted opinion                                                                       development will change across Asia, and
of the hundreds-strong expert community                                                                         they expect China and Japan to figure in
originally involved. More than 3,500 com-                                                                       future Cleantech 100 lists.
panies were whittled down to 100.                                                                                  The final list is a fascinating glimpse into
   It was also a new experience because                                                                         the future. Some entries have established
this was the first attempt at a global 100.                                                                     products and merely need more capital to
Last year there was a similar exercise con-                                                                     expand faster, while others need time to
fined to Europe. For outsiders one of the                                                                       prove they are on to a winner. All invite
interesting speculations was how many                                                                           scrutiny by venture capitalists. Some
European companies would survive the                                                                            might not hit the jackpot but, if they have
list being widened to the whole world. The                                                                      made it into this list, all have the potential
answer was 36, although some of these                                                                           to make magnificent returns for the inves-
were new names that did not appear last                                                                         tor, and the planet.

The experts
                        Sylvia Burks,            Damian                Hans Dellenbach,     John Denniston,                             Stephan
                        partner, Pillsbury       Carrington, head      chief financial      partner, Kleiner                            Dolezalek,
                        Winthrop Shaw            of environment,       officer, Emerald     Perkins Caufield                            technology
                        Pittman                  the Guardian          Technology           and Byers                                   specialist,
                                                                       Ventures, Zurich                                                 VantagePoint
                                                                                                                                        Venture Partners

                        Robert Markus            Rick Fratus, senior   Ben Goldsmith,       Peter S H                                   Rhea Hamilton,
                        Feldmann,                vice-president,       leading investor     Grubstein,                                  senior investment
                        partner, practice        Macquarie Funds       and board            founder and                                 manager, Robeco
                        leader cleantech         Group                 member, WHEB         managing director                           Private Equity
                        and renewables,                                Ventures             NGEN Partners

                        Elke Heiss,              Bjarne Henning        Katie Hill, energy   Alex Hook,                                  Alok Jha, science
                        marketing for            Jensen,               portfolio manager,   manager,                                    and environment
                        technology               investment            Acumen Fund          cleantech sector,                           correspondent,
                        companies,               director in                                Nesta                                       the Guardian
                        Sterling                 cleantech,
                        Communications           Vaekstfonden.

                        Ajay Mehta,              Gregory Miller,       Astorre Modena,      Mike Noonan,                                Henrik Olsen,
                        managing                 director,             founder and          managing                                    founding partner,
                        director and             philanthropic         general partner,     director, NYSE                              Environmental
                        chief executive          affairs,   Terra Venture        Euronext                                    Technologies
                        officer, Crossover                             Partners                                                         Fund

                        Iyad Omari,              Ron Ondechek Jr,      Rodrigo              Whitney Rockley,                            Samer Salty,
                        investment               board member,         Prudencio,           partner, Nomura                             founder, Zouk
                        director, cleantech      Altira Group          partner, Nth Power   New Energy and                              Ventures
                        sector, Frog             companies                                  Clean Technology
                        Capital                                                             Ventures

                        Glen Schwaber,           Sandeep Singhal,      Michael Stuer        Patrick Tam,                                Dharmesh
                        partner, Israel          venture capital       Lauridsen,           general partner,                            Thakker,
                        Cleantech                specialist, Nexus     partner,             Tsing Capital                               cleantech and IT
                        Ventures                 Capital               BankInvest                                                       adviser, Advanced

                        Andrew Thomson,          Ravi Viswanathan,     Adam Workman,        Richard                                     Yong Zhang,
                        head of company          partner, New          partner, CT          Youngman,                                   cleantech practice
                        research,                Enterprise            Investment           managing partner,                           partner, Qiming
                        Cleantech Group          Associates            Partners             Cleantech Group                             Venture Partners
The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                   3

Global Cleantech 100 Top countries

BrightSource Energy: thousands of small mirrors reflect sunlight on to a boiler on top of a tower to produce high-temperature steam

Trailblazers in innovation
The US, the UK and Germany are ahead of the pack, with companies in each country leading the way in all categories
including energy generation, storage and efficiency systems, transportation and water treatment, says Paul Brown
The industrial revolution began in the UK     the high costs that have held back the         established in 2004, supplies advanced         RLtec
and the country has been justly proud of      spread of solid-state lighting. As well        metering products that let utilities deliver   London, UK. Founded 1999
its inventive skills ever since. Now it is    as addressing cost issues, the Array           higher levels of customer service and          Employees: 9
the turn of the green revolution and the      products are designed to optimise the          information, reduce operational costs,         Classification: Energy efficiency
British are again helping to change the       quantity of light, energy efficiency, colour   and provide innovative new programs,           Product description: Smart grid technology
way the world makes its manufactured          rendering and beam uniformity.                 thus allowing consumers to change    
goods and generates and uses electricity                                                     their consumption behaviour to take
so we can all have a better, safer place      BrightSource Energy                            advantage of lower market prices.
for civilisation to thrive. While the US      California, US. Founded 2004                                                                  How clever is your fridge? The problem
dominates the Global Cleantech 100            Employees: 30                                                                                 with renewable energy, such as wind
with 55 entries, the UK is second with 13     Classification: Energy generation
                                                                                             UK                                             or solar power, is that it’s difficult
entries and Germany comes third with          Product description: Solar plants              Acal Energy                                    to plan supply and, if the sun stops
10 entries. On this page we reflect the                         Cheshire, UK. Founded 2004                     shining or wind drops at times of high
strengths of these three countries with                                                      Employees: 22                                  network usage, you’d have a melted ice
a selection of companies from each.                                                          Classification: Energy storage                 cream problem. Among RLtec’s smart
All have different ideas and products         BrightSource builds and runs solar             Product description: Proton exchange           grid solutions is Dynamic Demand,
designed to transform our lives. Solar        energy plants around the world, aiming         membrane fuel cell systems                     a system which allows appliances to
is the top technology on the following        to provide reliable and low-cost energy                               monitor their own usage and work out
pages but the UK’s contribution varies        for both industrial and utility use. Its                                                      if they can move to lower power states for
                                                                                                                                                                                           Odersun’s copper tape wiring system
from intelligent chip technology              tested and proven LPT 550 energy system                                                       a time to limit their demand. It displaces
engineered to improve energy efficiency       uses thousands of small mirrors to             New technologies such as Acal Energy’s         high-carbon emitting generation with
to wave and tidal energy generation.          reflect sunlight on to a boiler on the top     low-cost proton exchange membrane              lower-carbon alternatives as much              Although it produces less energy that
                                              of a tower to produce high-temperature         fuel cell systems are gradually replacing      as possible and helps to facilitate the        standard solar cells, its unique ability to
                                              steam. The steam is then piped to a            traditional combustion engines. The            integration of renewable energy into           be integrated en masse into the fabric of
US                                            conventional turbine, which generates          Runcorn-based company believes it is           the grid.                                      the building is a huge asset.
A123 Systems                                  electricity. To conserve water, the            now the world leader in this market. It
Massachusetts, US. Founded 2001               steam is air-cooled and piped back into        promises substantial cost savings and                                                         Sic Processing
Employees: 1,800                              the system. The company is running             performance improvements to clients            Germany                                        Hirschau, Germany. Founded 2000
Classification: Energy storage                a demonstration tower scheme in the            through this clean, quiet and efficient        Odersun                                        Employees: N/A
Product description: Advanced batteries       Negev Desert in Israel.                        technology which was also a crucial            Frankfurt, Germany. Founded 2002               Classification: Recycling                                                                              feature of the Gemini space missions, the      Employees: 90                                  Product description: Recycling of material for
                                              Tesla                                          first manned US flights outside the earth’s    Classification: Energy efficiency              silicon wafer production
                                              San Carlos, California, US. Founded 2003       atmosphere. Acal’s systems are powered         Product description: Solar cells     
One of the world’s leading suppliers of       Employees: 400                                 by its proprietary platinum-free cathode
high-power lithium-ion batteries, A123        Classification: Transportation                 technology (FlowCath). Other projects
specialises in transport, electric grid       Product description: Electric sportscar        include modules and consumable                                                                Silicon carbide and glycol are key
and portable power manufacturing. It                                chemicals for a range of uses, including       Making solar cells that are lightweight,       materials in the process of making
is working with Chrysler, for instance,                                                      stationary, residential and automotive         cost-effective and efficient yet able to be    silicon wafers for solar panels but much
on battery modules and battery packs                                                         applications requiring more than 1kw           integrated into the aesthetics of buildings    is lost in the manufacturing process. Sic
for Chrysler’s range-extended electric        The Tesla Roadster proves that electric        of power.                                      will result in a major growth of the sector.   Processing’s technologically advanced
vehicle and battery-only electric vehicle     cars have a future beyond short shopping                                                      Odersun has proved that it can be done:        hydrocyclone recycling system can
production programmes. In China, it is        trips or commuting. Weight is the enemy        CamSemi                                        it has already supplied “sun roofs” for        recover significant amounts of both
providing the batteries to power a new        of efficiency in all cars, and especially      Cambridge, UK. Founded 2000                    buildings at Beijing’s Olympic Park. It        materials from the slurry arising from
hybrid car in Shanghai, the SAIC Hybrid       those powered by electric but, thanks to       Employees: 51                                  does this using thin-film solar modules        silicon wafer production panels — this
electric vehicle due out next year.           its lightweight sportscar body, and the        Classification Energy efficiency               in a glass-foil laminate, and an innovative    can then be reused by the manufacturer.
                                              latest lithium-ion batteries, the Tesla        Product description: Power management          copper tape wiring system, which allows        As a result, the cost of this vital
Bridgelux                                     Roadster accelerates to 60mph in 3.9           integrated circuits                            a significantly higher amount of modules       energy-harnessing product can be
California, US. Founded 2002                  seconds, generates a third of the CO2 of                                    to be interconnected in one string.            significantly reduced.
Employees: 85                                 hybrid cars, and has an impressive range
Classification: Energy efficiency             of 240 miles at a cost of £3. The next
Product description: Lighting                 challenge: a seven-seater saloon model         CamSemi is a leader in intelligent                                 launching in 2011.                             power-management integrated circuits,
                                                                                             helping the consumer electronics sector
                                              Trilliant                                      develop much more energy-efficient
Bridgelux believes it is the first, new       Redwood City, California, US. Founded 2004     power supplies, lighting and other power
US-based LED (light-emitting diode)           Employees: 110                                 conversion products at low cost. Products
manufacturer of the past 20 years. It         Classification: Energy efficiency              based around CamSemi chips have
helps customers switch from traditional,      Product description: Smart grid metering and   simple circuitry, offer high performance
less efficient lighting systems (such as      management                                     and exceed the demands of Energy
incandescent, halogen and fluorescent                               Star, the European code of conduct and
lighting) to solid-state lighting solutions                                                  other energy-efficiency regulations. The
that are less wasteful because they                                                          company’s C2160 products – launched
generate less heat as a by-product.           With sales of more than 1m two-way,            this July – are designed to allow mobile
It provides higher performance and            intelligent communication devices              phone and other manufacturers to
energy-efficient white light for indoor       for smart grid management for water,           introduce highly energy-efficient
and exterior application areas. With its      gas and electricity, Trilliant can claim       chargers – quickly and at low cost.
latest innovations, Bridgelux LED Arrays,     to be one of the biggest players in a          CamSemi also has centres in Tapei,
the company believes it will drive down       fast-emerging market. The company,             Taiwan and Shenzhen, China.
4                                                                                                                                                                                               The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy generation

Energy generation

Concentrix Solar
Freiburg, Germany. Founded 2005
Employees: 60
Product description: Concentrator

This German company is one of the
pioneers of concentrator photovoltaics.
Instead of using the conventional flat-
plate, silicon modules that dominate
the solar market, Concentrix is
developing panels that concentrate
the sun’s rays through lenses and
mirrors and can make the production
of electricity 10-20% more effective.
High-performance cells have also been
developed to convert sun rays into
energy. Concentrix says these cells have
shown “almost double the efficiency of
conventional solar cells”. It installed its
first demonstration plant in San Diego,
California, in July.

High efficiency: Concentrix Solar

                                              SolarCity: one of America’s largest providers of solar energy systems for private and corporate clients

                                              units do not need ground penetration              nanostructures that create synthetic              renewable planning and development            except that they obtain their
                                              and concrete supports is a feature that           crystals with no defects for solar cells          process, from land appraisal through          energy input through concentrated
                                              helps keep costs down. GreenVolts is              that can absorb the optimum amount                to design, installation and marketing.        solar radiation, rather than fossil
Enphase                                       constructing a power plant in Tracy,              of light for conversion to electricity.           Having been in the business for more          fuels, and then convert it to high-
California, US. Founded 2006                  California, based on this technology and          This means that, unlike commercial                than 10 years, the firm has helped            temperature steam or gas to drive
Employees: 70                                 plans to start generating energy from it          solar cells that typically convert about          thousands of homes and businesses go          a turbine or motor engine. This
Product description: Solar microinverts       next year.                                        20% of the light energy absorbed into             solar, including the Eden Project, and        difference means that no pollutants                                                                               electricity, QuantaSol estimates it can           is the founder of the schools initiative,     are emitted in producing the
                                              Heliatek                                          achieve nearly 30%.                               Solar4Schools. In 2007 it was awarded         electricity. Solel provides the key
                                              Dresden, Germany. Founded 2006                                                                      an Ashden award for its commitment to         technology for new solar power plants
Solar panels can become up to 25% more        Employees: 13                                     Solairedirect                                     renewable energy.                             in the US and Spain and other sun-
effective, depending on the way the           Product description: Organic solar cell systems   Paris, France. Founded 2006                                                                     rich locations.
energy is captured and converted into                                      Employees: 150                                    SolarCity
grid-compliant power. The Enphase                                                               Product description: Installation and operation   Foster City, California, US. Founded 2006     Solexant
microinverter is one way of improving                                                           of residential and commercial solar power         Employees: 300                                San Jose, California, US. Founded 2006
the efficiency and reliability of solar       Working with BASF, Bosch and                                              Product description: Solar power system       Employees: 35
energy systems in this way. It improves       academics from Ulm and Dresden,                                                                     design, financing, installation, monitoring   Product description: ultra-thin photovoltaic
the energy harvest, converts the DC           Heliatek hopes to get into pilot                                                                                           technology
output from each solar panel into AC          production in 2011 with a solar energy            Solairedirect is one of France’s fastest                                              
power and provides detailed monitoring        technology that could make solar power            growing green companies, having
advice on what the system is producing        financially viable without government             already sold and installed about 1,500            Making alternative energy available to
every five minutes. Traditional solar         subsidies. The technology – proven                residential solar power systems. But it           a massmarket, SolarCity is one of the         This ultra-thin flexible material is
systems convert DC to AC power in one         in principle – relates to the creation of         has bigger plans: thanks to a round of            largest providers of solar energy systems     being used to produce solar panels that
large box (an invert) attached to the         organic nano-material to be used as the           financing raising €20m, it is aiming for          in America, providing home-owners,            deliver electricity to the grid without
side of the building. Enphase uses more       photovoltaic base of solar panels. Costs          300 megawatts of solar parks, equivalent          businesses and government with system         subsidy. Described as third-generation
effective individual microinverters that      are brought down by the production of             to €1.2bn in projects. As well as arranging       design, financing, installation and           photovoltaic, this nanocrystal solar
are tucked away under each panel.             lightweight and flexible large-area solar         financing for photovoltaic systems, the           monitoring services. Customers include        cell allows high-volume, continuous
                                              cells, using little material and low energy       company installs panels through its               the Department of Homeland Security,          production of the panels. The technique
G24 Innovations                               consumption. Only about one gram                  subsidiary, Solairedirect Installation. It        Intel and eBay. Its groundbreaking            has won recognition as a significant
Cardiff, UK. Founded 2006                     of organic semiconductor materials is             says its mission is to provide everyone           SolarLease offering makes it possible for     technological breakthrough.
Employees: 65                                 required for one square metre of solar            with the choice of clean and home-based           home-owners to switch to clean solar
Product description: Thin film solar cells    cell area, bringing the cost below that of        electricity, producing reliable, high-            power for less money than they currently      Solyndra                                      existing systems.                                 performance, low-cost and smart solar             pay for electricity. The firm now serves      Fremont, California, US. Founded 2005
                                                                                                kilowatt-hours.                                   more than 500 communities in California,      Employees: 500
                                              Infinia Corporation                                                                                 Arizona and Oregon.                           Product description: Photovoltaic systems/
Even without direct sunlight, G24             Washington, US. Founded 2003                                                                                                                      solar panels
                                                                                                Solairedirect: photovoltaic systems for all
Innovations can create electric energy. It    Employees: 175                                                                                      SolarEdge Technologies              
uses a new class of advanced solar cells      Product description: Solar power generation                                                         Palo Alto, California, US. Founded 2006
which are the closest we have come to                                                                                     Employees: 70
replicating photosynthesis. This is done                                                                                                          Product description: Solar cell output        Solyndra designs and makes solar
by creating an extremely thin, flexible                                                                                                           management                                    cell systems, comprising panels and
and versatile nano-enabled photovoltaic       Infinia Corporation is a solar energy                                                                                      mounting hardware, for commercial
material that converts light energy into      technology company and the developer                                                                                                              buildings. That means employing high-
electric energy, even under low-light,        of the Infinia Solar System, a proprietary                                                                                                        volume manufacturing processes and
indoor conditions. The company is             solar power generation product.                                                                     As solar panels vary in the amount            proprietary systems. President Obama is
working on applying this in a range of        This system is initially being sold to                                                              of output power they offer, due to            impressed: as part of his administration’s
consumer and industrial applications          energy asset developers, utilities,                                                                 construction or climatic conditions,          investment in renewable energy, the
from mobile phones and energy                 commercial companies and others                                                                     manufacturers often have difficulty           firm has been offered a $535m loan
generation in remote locations to LED         engaged in deploying large-scale solar                                                              checking the efficiency of last scale         guarantee to support the construction of
lighting and water purification.              asset projects. The company is working                                                              installations. This can be due to             a commercial-scale manufacturing plant
                                              on deals that could see its employee                                                                partial shading of some panels or             for its cylindrical solar photovoltaic
GreenVolts                                    numbers reach 800 by 2013. Since                                                                    failure to match them up correctly.           panels. The company expects to create
California, US. Founded 2005                  1985, Infinia has been delivering super-                                                            SolarEdge offers a power tracking             thousands of new jobs in the US while
Employees: 42                                 high reliability, zero-maintenance,                                                                 device to detect such problems                deploying its solar panels across the
Product description: Concentrating            free-piston Stirling engines and power                                                              which identifies inefficiencies that          country and around the world.
photovoltaics                                 systems to commercial companies                                                                     might otherwise go undetected,                                (including Bosch and Merloni) and US                                                                substantially improving the output            Sulfurcell
                                              government agencies.                                                                                of solar electricity.                         Berlin, Germany. Founded 2001
                                                                                                Solarcentury                                                                                    Employees: 185
Making solar energy economical is             QuantaSol                                         London UK. Founded 1998                           Solel                                         Product description: Sleek solar cells integral
the mission of San Francisco-based            Kingston, UK. Founded 2007                        Employees: 110                                    Beit Shemesh, Israel. Founded 1995            to a building’s construction
GreenVolts. Its main products are solar       Employees: 12                                     Product description: Solar energy consultancy     Employees: 400                      
units (concentrating photovoltaics or         Product description: Solar cells                  for buildings                                     Product description: Large-scale solar
CPVs) made up of numerous reflectors                                                             thermal power plants
and receivers. These are designed to                                                                                                                                         Sulfurcell produces sleek solar modules
catch incoming solar energy in a more                                                                                                                                                           that prove green can be the new black
efficient way than traditional panels.        Higher efficiency, longer lifetimes               For homeowners, schools and                                                                     in solar-powered building design. The
They are mounted on a base, the               and lower cost of ownership are the               businesses daunted by the thought of              Solar thermal power plants, built             company’s cells are based on copper-
CarouSol, which is easier to erect and        targets QuantaSol has set itself for its          converting their building to run on solar         by Israeli firm Solel, produce                indium-sulfide (CIS), a material which,
dismantle than the widely-used pole-          new generation solar cells. To do this,           energy, Solarcentury provides support             electricity in much the same way              due to its super-efficient absorption
mounted CPVs. The fact the CarouSol           it has invented a system of complex               and guidance throughout the entire                as conventional power stations,               properties, can be reduced to 1% of
The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy generation/Comment

the thickness of a common solar cell,                                                                                                                                                    IQWind
allowing buildings to be covered in a                                                                                                                                                    Bazra, Israel. Founded 2007
stylish, environmentally-friendly black                                                                                                                                                  Employees: 20
sheen, rather than having cells bolted on                                                                                                                                                Product description: Wind power
top of the structure.                                                                                                                                                          

Beltsville Maryland, US. Founded 2003                                                                                                                                                    IQWind believes it has solved one of the
Employees: 400                                                                                                                                                                           main problems restricting the growth
Product description: Solar energy installation                                                                                                                                           of the wind turbine sector. Its flagship                                                                                                                                                                            product, a new gear system, allows rotors
                                                                                                                                                                                         to move faster than they currently do.
                                                                                                                                                                                         Traditionally, the blades have had to
More than 250 clean-energy facilities                                                                                                                                                    turn at a constant speed and have been
have benefited from SunEdison’s                                                                                                                                                          unable to take advantage of periods of
expertise in solar energy. As north                                                                                                                                                      the fastest wind flow. The company has
America’s largest solar energy services                                                                                                                                                  applied for a patent for the system, which
provider, SunEdison develops,                                                                                                                                                            can be fixed to existing as well as new
finances, operates and monitors solar                                                                                                                                                    wind farms, and could also have sea tide
plants across the globe, with work                                                                                                                                                       energy applications.
ranging from conducting on-site
assessment of a company’s energy                                                                                                                                                         Nordic Windpower
needs and solar production potential                                                                                                                                                     Berkeley, California, US, and Bristol, UK.
through to taking advantage of local tax                                                                                                                                                 Founded 2005
incentives and grants, and organising                                                                                                                                                    Employees: 20
the installation.                                                                                                                                                                        Product description: Wind turbines
Tigo Energy
Los Gatos, California, US. Founded 2007
Employees: 35                                                                                                                                                                            Wind turbines weighing less and cheaper
Product description: Electronic system for                                                                                                                                               to transport, install and maintain are
maximising solar cell output                                                                                                                                                             behind the offering of Nordic Windpower                                                                                                                                                                           – a merger of Swedish, US and UK
                                                                                                                                                                                         firms in 2005. Due to their lightweight
                                                                                                                                                                                         materials and innovative ability to flex
Getting the maximum possible efficiency                                                                                                                                                  in the face of the wind, Nordic’s turbines
from solar cells is vital to making them                                                                                                                                                 are less prone to component fatigue or
viable, but because individual cells can                                                                                                                                                 damage in high winds, the firm claims.
perform very differently – affected by                                                                                                                                                   It says over a 10-year span turbines
shading, dust, debris, temperature and                                                                                                                                                   used in the field have performed at 98%
degradation over time – the installation                                                                                                                                                 reliability, with no major component
is limited by the weakest module. An                                                                                                                                                     failures, for more than 100,000
individual module’s power output                                                                                                                                                         hours of operation.
can be improved by more than 20% by
harvesting additional watts, thanks to
Tigo’s Maximizer System.                                                                                                                                                                 Marine
                                                                                                                                                                                         Marine Current Turbines
Xunlight Corporation                                                                                                                                                                     Bristol, UK. Founded 1989
Toledo, Ohio, US. Founded 2002                                                                                                                                                           Employees: 15
Employees: 40                                                                                                                                                                            Product description: Tidal power turbines for
Product description: Flexible solar cells                                                                                                                                                energy generation                                                                                                                                                                   

Xunlight makes high-efficiency silicon                                                                                                                                                   Harnessing the vast yet completely
solar modules that come in a flexible,                                                                                                                                                   predictable power of ocean tides
lightweight and thin film. Available on                                                                                                                                                  using devices that act like underwater
a three-feet wide roll, Xunlight’s cells                                                                                                                                                 windmills is the specialty of Marine
can be installed either directly on the                                                                                                                                                  Current Turbines. Its SeaGen turbine,
existing roof or integrated with the                                                                                                                                                     operating off the Irish coast, generates
roofing membrane. With a factory in                                                                                                                                                      enough power to meet the energy
Toledo, Xunlight aims to bring down                                                                                                                                                      needs of 1,000 homes, the highest
the cost of solar cells to a level where                                                                                                                                                 anywhere in the world for such a
they can be used on a mass-market scale                                                                                                                                                  system. Twin 15-metre rotors are
for building.                                                                                                                                                                            spun by the force of the sea and can be
                                                                                                                                                                                         raised above water for maintenance.
                                                                                                                                                                                         Almost entirely submerged, silent and
Wind                                                                                                                                                                                     immovable, the system has numerous
ChapDrive                                                                                                                                                                                environmental benefits, alongside its
Trondheim, Norway. Founded 2006                                                                                                                                                          clean energy generation.
Employees: 20
Product description: Wind power                                                                                                                                                          Pelamis Wave Power                                                                                                                                                                            Edinburgh, Scotland. Founded 1998
                                                                                                                                                                                         Employees: 70
                                                                                                                                                                                         Product description: Wave power generation
ChapDrive aims to produce more                                                                                                                                                 
efficient wind turbines for offshore use.
It has patented a system of hydraulic
transmission that could significantly                                                                                                                                                    A giant, near-200-metre long plastic
cut running costs by reducing the much                                                                                                                                                   snake, the Pelamis Wave Energy
higher failure rate of traditional turbines                                                                                                                                              Converter is a semi-submerged,
running on mechanical gearboxes.                                                                                                                                                         articulated structure composed of
Potential problems are also minimised                                                                                                                                                    cylindrical sections. The wave-induced
by transferring more of the weight of                                                                                                                                                    motion of these joints is resisted by
the individual turbines to the lower part                                                                                                                                                hydraulic rams, which pump high-
of their structures. This system could                                                                                                                                                   pressure fluid through hydraulic
reduce installation costs. The world                                                                                                                                                     motors to electrical generators that
market has been dominated by large,                                                                                                                                                      produce electricity. With a number able
international suppliers that have tended                                                                                                                                                 to be linked together, and the power
to produce a standard product. The                                                                                                                                                       conducted back to land by wires attached
ChapDrive technology, currently being                                                                                                                                                    to the sea bed, each snake can provide
field-tested, would enable smaller players                                                                                                                                               sufficient power to meet the annual
to participate.                                  Elegant design meets efficiency: the Marine Current Turbines SeaGen turbine (top) and Xunlight’s lightweight solar modules (above)      electricity demand of about 500 homes.

‘Low carbon is at the forefront of the government’s agenda’
                                                    As we enter a new era of innovation,         Over the past decade, we’ve provided         Later this year we will launch a              We’ll launch a national skills strategy
                                                 driven by the emerging low-carbon            sustained investment in research and         symposium with investors, policy              later this year, with the aim of addressing
                                                 economy, we must ensure bright ideas         science through organisations like           officials and innovators to discuss           potential skills gaps before they arise.
                                                 are getting the funding they need to         the Technology Strategy Board (TSB).         developments and barriers to investment       We’ll also ensure our higher education
                                                 become viable commercial propositions.       Meanwhile, the establishment of the          in the low-carbon sector and to ensure        strategy incorporates the needs of
                                                 Our UK low-carbon industrial strategy,       Energy Technology Institute (ETI) has        investors understand the policies we          business, so that firms have access to
                                                 which sets out the government’s long-        enabled the development of low-carbon        have put in place to support the transition   graduates with low-carbon skills. They
                                                 term plans to establish the right policy     technologies and solutions in the areas      to low carbon.                                are, after all, the future generation of
                                                 framework, cements our commitment to         of offshore wind, marine, carbon capture        It is also vital these young companies     designers, engineers and scientists.
Peter Mandelson                                  low carbon, enabling businesses to invest    and storage, transport, buildings, energy    understand the business market and               It’s impossible to set out in such a
Comment                                          confidently in the market.
                                                    I want to commend all 100 firms
                                                                                              networks and distributed energy.
                                                                                                 There’s been a notable drop in
                                                                                                                                           know where to turn for help. That means
                                                                                                                                           building on current incubator schemes,
                                                                                                                                                                                         short space just how important low
                                                                                                                                                                                         carbon will be to this economy – not only
                                                 featured in this supplement. They are        investment in low-carbon projects over       like those offered by the Carbon Trust and    in terms of money, but in the number

                                                 examples of the sort of ingenuity and        the past year across Europe. This has no     the Energy Innovation Centre. Working         of jobs it creates, new industries it
              his country excels in              skills this country and others have          doubt been exacerbated by the recession      with the regional development agencies,       forms and, perhaps most importantly,
              developing innovative,             to offer.                                    – we need to take action.                    we aim to increase the availability of        the positive impact it will have on our
              cutting-edge products                 Many of the companies that will              So, we will maintain the research         these types of schemes to more start-ups.     environment. I can assure every business
              and services. Our                  play an integral role in the transition      and development tax credit, which has           But our plans are not just business-       that the transition to low carbon is,
              designers, scientists and          to low carbon will be those seeking to       already provided £3bn to UK businesses.      focused, they are skills-focused too.         and will remain, at the forefront of this
              engineers are responsible          commercialise innovative concepts.           And we will cornerstone the newly            Our workers need to be equipped with          government’s agenda.
              for some of the most               Unfortunately, market failures may           created UK Innovation Investment Fund        the skills to compete in the low-carbon
              significant inventions             create a funding gap for commercialising     with £150m, with the aim of leveraging       economy, the skills to produce new            Lord Mandelson is secretary of state for
– from the lawnmower to the internet –           innovation and so we need to use             the fund up to £1bn through the private      products and services that will pave our      business, innovation and skills, Department
that have changed our lives.                     government policy to help close that gap.    sector over the next 10 years.               transition to low carbon.                     of Business, Innovation and Skills
6                                                                                                                                                                                          The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy generation

Amyris Biotechnologies
California, US. Founded 2003
Employees: 200
Product description: Biofuels

This biotech company first became
famous for producing the anti-malarial
drug, Artemisinin, in collaboration with
the University of California, Berkeley.
Turning its focus to the wider uses of
synthetic biology, Amyris is now using
genetic engineering to produce yeasts
that can create highly efficient biofuels.
It opened a pilot plant last November
and plans to produce 900m litres a year
of biofuel for commercial sale by 2011. It
is using sugarcane, a far more efficient
base than corn, as a base for producing a
diesel fuel with performance properties
that equal or exceed petrol-based fuels
and other existing biofuels.

Ballerup, Denmark. Founded 2006
Employees: 25
Product description: Biofuels

If BioGasol is correct in its scientific
assumptions and predictions, it could
be making bioethanol as a fuel for
about half the current price (after taxes)
of petrol in the US. It has developed
proprietary technologies for biogas
pretreatment and production, including
a unique fermentation process that
maximises ethanol output. There
is more than 90% use of the energy
potential in the biomass it treats. The
production of other biofuels, such as
methane hydrogen and solid fuels, adds
value to the overall process benefit. It is
working on a demonstration plant on the
island of Bornholm and hopes to go into
industrial production in 2011.

Stockholm, Sweden. Founded 1991
Employees: 30
Product description: Biofuels

Chemrec AB is a Swedish-based
biomass-to-energy technology firm
with a US subsidiary near Chicago. It
has developed a proprietary gasification
technology that converts black liquor,        Mascoma: a sustainable alternative to corn-based biofuel, which uses yeasts and bacteria to break down biomass and non-edible plant matter
a waste stream in pulp and paper mills,
into high-quality synthesis gas which         Coskata                                       biomass, LS9’s DesignerMicrobes – an            Solazyme                                       claims it leapfrogs the yield and CO2
can then be processed into a variety of       Illinois, US. Founded 2006                    engineered group of new enzymes –               San Francisco, California, US. Founded 2003    problems associated with traditional
advanced biofuels or green chemicals          Employees: 50+                                are used in a one-step fermentation             Employees: 60                                  and cellulosic-based ethanol processes
or used to drive turbines to make             Product description: Feedstock-flexible,      process to produce biofuels that have           Product description: Algae-based biofuel for   (which use crops and large areas of
electricity. The technology is fully          syngas-to-ethanol platform                    higher energetic content than ethanol           air and road transport                         land), thereby offering the highest
proven and can transform a pulp mill                                   or butanol and have fuel properties                                      yield, at the lowest cost, with the lowest
into an integrated biorefinery, bringing                                                    essentially indistinguishable from                                                             fossil carbon footprint of any known
with it cashflow and profits. Its main                                                      those of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.                                                        biorefining method.
investors are leading venture capital         Located just outside Chicago, Coskata         The firm believes its products have the         Solazyme creates its biofuel products by
cleantech firms.                              is a biology-based renewable energy           ability to change the transportation            placing algae and other discarded plant        Ze-gen
                                              company. It is working on low-cost ways       fuels landscape, turning the global fuel        matter into kettles for brewing into           Boston, Massachusetts, US. Founded 2004
                                              of developing ethanol by using a wide         industry into an agricultural rather than       algal blooms (rapid growths of algae           Employees: 30
                                              variety of input material such as biomass     industrial economy.                             in an aquatic system), which is then           Product description: Synthetic gas made from
                                              and agricultural and municipal wastes                                                         harvested as an oil, using a variety of        waste
                                              (including wood chips and old tyres).         Mascoma                                         algae strains. This oil is produced with
                                              Using proprietary micro-organisms and         Lebanon, New Hampshire, US. Founded 2005        a significant lower amount of effort,
                                              patented bioreactor designs, Coskata will     Employees: 80                                   water and land mass than the corn grain
                                              produce feedstock-flexible ethanol when,      Product description: Bioprocessing of biomass   used in ethanol. In September 2008             Boston-based renewable energy
                                              if all goes to plan, it begins commercial     into cellulosic ethanol                         the company claimed it produced the            company Ze Gen is emerging as a
                                              production in 2012. It is proud of its                                     world’s first jet fuel derived from an         leader in the development of advanced
                                              output ratios that can exceed 100 gallons                                                     algal source, while also powering cars         gasification technology for converting
                                              of ethanol per dry ton of feedstock.                                                          with a version of its fuel.                    wood debris and other solid waste into
                                              The company has several patents               Producing biofuel from biomass – wood,                                                         a synthesis gas of carbon monoxide
                                              in operation.                                 grasses, or the non-edible parts of plants                                                     and hydrogen. This can then be used
                                                                                            – rather than wide expanses of corn or                                                         as a renewable fuel in conventional
                                              Gevo                                          cane sugar is the holy grail of sustainable                                                    power and industrial facilities,
                                              Colorado, US. Founded 2005                    transport fuel. But, it is expensive,                                                          replacing natural gas or residual oil for
                                              Employees: 40                                 complex and slow, and this is where                                                            industrial burner use and boilers. It
                                              Product description: Biofuels                 Mascoma’s new generation of microbes,                                                          can also be used to generate renewable
                                                                          yeasts and bacteria step in: they rapidly                                                      electricity or be processed into
                                                                                            break down the components of biomass,                                                          liquid fuels.
                                                                                            convert a range of sugars and polymers
                                              To develop a new generation of biofuels       to ethanol and thrive in a manufacturing
Chemrec converts black liquor into gas
                                              to replace petrochemicals such as             environment, making large-scale                                                                Geothermal
                                              gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is the          production of low-cost biofuels a reality                                                      AltaRock Energy
                                              reason the Gevo team is working to            in the near future.                                                                            California, US. Founded 2007
Cobalt Biofuels                               make isobutanol and other advanced                                                                                                           Employees: 14
California, US. Founded 2005                  biofuels ready for a range of commercial      Sapphire Energy                                                                                Product description: Engineered geothermal
Employees: 25                                 uses. Isobutanol is more effective            San Diego, California, US. Founded 2007                                                        systems
Product description: Biofuels                 than other first-generation biofuels          Employees: 100+                                                                                                  (such as ethanol) because, says Gevo,         Product description: Algae-based biofuel
                                              it has a higher energy content per  
                                              gallon, could be transported through                                                                                                         AltaRock Energy is a renewable energy
Developing a superior alternative             existing oil and gas pipes and could be                                                                                                      development company focused on
to gasoline is the aim of this north          used in gas-powered vehicles without          Pond scum – the fuel of the future?                                                            the research and development of
                                                                                                                                            Solazyme: algae-based biofuels
California-based company, which is            modification or blending. A proprietary       Sapphire Energy is producing gasoline                                                          engineered geothermal systems
concentrating on the next-generation          process has been developed at Gevo to         from algae that meets industry standards                                                       (EGS). Partly funded by the US
biofuel – biobutanol, produced                convert agricultural waste products into      and, by 2011, expects to produce 1m             ZeaChem                                        Department of Energy, it is developing
from corn and a range of “non-food            different types of renewable, alcohol-        gallons of biodiesel and jet fuel per           Lakewood, Colorado, US. Founded 2002           a demonstration project in which it
feedstocks”. It has an energy density         based, liquid fuels.                          year. The obvious main benefit from             Employees: 25                                  will engineer fractures at an existing
similar to gasoline, leaving a carbon                                                       its algae-based oil, which is chemically        Product description: Ethanol from biomass      well and power plant, and flow water
footprint one-third smaller, and it can       LS9                                           identical to molecules in crude oil, is                                    through the fractures into a new well
be transported in gasoline pipelines.         San Francisco, California, US. Founded 2005   considerably lower carbon emissions and                                                        and up into existing power plants
Cobalt is applying advances in strain         Employees : 60+                               sustainability. And it works: Sapphire                                                         above. The water will heat up along this
improvement, reaction management              Product description: Biofuels                 Energy has successfully tested its fuel         Using a hybrid biochemical and                 route and also produce steam that will
and separation technology to make                                          with two commercial airlines. Using             thermochemical process, ZeaChem                then be used to generate electric power.
biobutanol production a sustainable                                                         photosynthetic micro-organisms, it              has developed a biorefinery capable of         AltaRock has filed patent applications
commercial enterprise. These advances                                                       requires only sunlight, CO2 and non-            producing ethanol fuel from cellulosic         for a portfolio of patents in the EGS area
are said to lower the production costs        Starting from low-carbon, natural sources     potable water – and can be produced on a        biomass. As it is using biomass –              and holds exclusive licenses for related
of biobutanol.                                of sugar such as sugar cane and cellulosic    massive scale on non-arable land.               effectively plant leftovers – ZeaChem          intellectual property.
The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                  7

Global Cleantech 100 Energy efficiency/Investors’ views

Energy efficiency                                                                                                                                  Investors’ views Now is the time for venture capital

                                                                                                                                                   If you’re a green entrepreneur looking      company he wants to invest in. It must
Lighting                                                                                                                                           for investment, you have not chosen an      have intellectual property that can be
Albeo Technologies                                                                                                                                 easy time, according to Adam Workman,       protected and produce value. It needs a
Colorado, US. Founded 2004                                                                                                                         a partner at the Carbon Trust’s venture     core management team with technical
Employees: 20                                                                                                                                      capital arm, CT Investment Partners         expertise and commercial experience. Its
Product description: LED lighting                                                                                                                  LLP (CTIP).                                 technology must be addressing a market                                                                                                                                          “There is an air of nervousness in      big enough to create a serious business
                                                                                                                                                   the current market. It’s taking longer      opportunity. Commercial success must
                                                                                                                                                   to raise money. Growth is slower. So        be achievable within five years. And it
An industry leader in solid-state                                                                                                                  companies need more money than              must bring with it significant reductions
LED lighting, Boulder-based Albeo                                                                                                                  originally anticipated. Investors are       in carbon emissions, especially in the UK
Technologies produces lighting for                                                                                                                 having to devote more time and money        but also globally.
the general commercial and industrial                                                                                                              to existing investments, and this is            The theme is echoed by Scott
sectors. Manufacturing and marketing                                                                                                               limiting their ability to cut new deals.    MacDonald, a partner with Emerald
white state-of-the-art LED lighting, it                                                                                                            Last year was bad, this year is worse.      Technology Ventures (ETV) in Montreal:
also aims to cut down operating costs                                                                                                              The challenge we face is: how to invest     “The first principle is that you have
(with its low-energy consumption and                                                                                                               in capital-intensive companies and get      to be operating in a market of $1bn
low-maintenance designs) and to reduce                                                                                                             a return, not just in the UK but across     or more.” Then you have to find a
greenhouse gas emissions. Its LED                                                                                                                  Europe.”                                    technology that provides a product that
Academy publishes papers, “webinars”                                                                                                                   But the news is not all bad. CTIP was   has a significant potential return on
and case studies for the advancement                                                                                                               founded in 2002 with £30m to invest         investment, not incremental but say a
and adoption of LED lighting technology.                                                                                                           as part of the Carbon Trust’s mission to    ratio of $5 return on every $1 invested.
All its products are covered by a five-year                                                                                                        encourage low carbon businesses and         Alternatively, it could be a new way of
warranty. Furthermore, it says that its                                                                                                            their technologies. Having financed         doing business but again with a high
products “last up to 10 times longer than                                                                                                          15 companies to date, it has closed         return on investment; then you need the
fluorescent bulbs, are non-breakable and                                                                                                           more deals than any comparable fund         right people with the experience and
do not contain mercury”.                                                                                                                           in Europe – and it still has half of its    capability to do great things.
                                                                                                                                                   money left for new opportunities.               Every year ETV evaluates 1,000
D.light Design                                                                                                                                     “We are very much at the early end of       business plans, of which only five or six
New Delhi, India. Founded 2006                                                                                                                     the financing chain – pre-profit and        will get funded. “The bar is high to find
Employees: 50                                                                                                                                      usually pre-revenue,” says Workman.         the right companies,” says MacDonald.
Product description: Low-cost LED lighting                                                                                                         “We look to invest £250,000 to              “The top 10% are fundable but there is                                                                                                                                   £3m per company and we aim for              not the cash for that. We aim to create
                                                                                                                                                   returns of three to five times over the     billion-dollar companies so we only pick
                                                                                                                                                   investment cycle.”                          the very few that we can best help to
D.light Design aims to be providing                                                                                                                    So far, three investments have paid     achieve their audacious goals.”
safe and reliable LED lighting to 10                                                                                                               off handsomely. Two were floated on             He is bullish on future prospects for
million people by 2010, and to 15                                                                                                                  the Alternative Investment Market           the sector. “With the economics we are
million by 2015. Trying to find safe,                                                                                                              (AIM), and one was snapped up by a          now in, it is the time for venture capital.
high-quality replacements for kerosene                                                                                                             trade buyer. Not that these returns are     It is a time of opportunity for green tech
lanterns (notorious in developing                                                                                                                  guaranteed. Three companies supported       in particular. I am really excited.
countries for falling over and causing                                                                                                             by CTIP have fallen by the wayside –            ”We have weathered the worst of
fires), the D.light founders are using                                                                                                             mainly due to delays in developing          the storm and expect things to pick up.
energy-efficient LEDs, designed in                                                                                                                 technology to commercial viability          When the recovery does happen, it will
Silicon Valley, for new lighting systems                                                                                                           levels. Risk is part of the package, says   move fast. Meanwhile, we are looking to
designed to provide years of service. Its                                                                                                          Workman. “But at least equity financing     grow our portfolio and make sure there
flagship product, the Nova Mobile S200,                                                                                                            gives us the prospect of a return, giving   is no ‘lost generation’ of companies. We
can give up to 12 hours of bright light                                                                                                            tax payers a far better deal than the       have got the capital for pre-profitability
on a day’s charge, and it can recharge                                                                                                             grant model. We should be able to take      businesses and we do intend to invest
a mobile phone in two hours. D.light’s                                                                                                             a profit the same as other investors do.”   over the next three years.”
                                                D.Light’s safe LED alternatives to
current main markets are India and                                                                                                                     He has a clear vision of the kind of    Oliver Tickell
                                                traditional kerosene lamps
east Africa.

Novaled                                                                                                                                                                                        Serious Materials
Dresden, Germany. Founded 2001                                                                                                                                                                 Sunnvale, California, US. Founded 2002
Employees: 100                                                                                                                                                                                 Employees: 200
Product description: Oled technology and                                                                                                                                                       Product description: Environmentally friendly
materials                                                                                                                                                                                      building materials                                                                                                                                                                          

This world-leading company in organic                                                                                                                                                          Manufacturing at four US sites,
light-emitting diodes (Oleds) hopes                                                                                                                                                            Serious Materials develops and makes
its electronics will help make TV, PDA                                                                                                                                                         sustainable, green building materials
and laptop screens more efficient, as                                                                                                                                                          that dramatically reduce the impact of
well as providing signage and lighting                                                                                                                                                         the built environment on the climate.
that uses less power. An Oled is a light-                                                                                                                                                      These include Serious Windows, high-
emitting diode made of a thin film of                                                                                                                                                          performance insulated windows and
organic compounds. It has a significant                                                                                                                                                        glass that can reduce heating and cooling
advantage over traditional LEDs because         AlertMe: home electricity monitoring                                                                                                           energy costs and emissions by up to
it needs no backlight to function,                                                                                                                                                             40%, and EcoRock, a green alternative
although life expectancy of the organic         an online service that can be viewed via                                                                                                       to standard drywall that uses 80% less
compound is not as long. Oleds not only         computer or mobile phone, anywhere,                                                                                                            energy to produce its core, resulting in
save power but can also be “printed” on         anytime. The package constantly                                                                                                                80% lower CO2 emissions.
to almost any surface. They can even            measures and controls the home’s overall
be rolled up, making TV on your T-shirt         energy usage and turns off or down many                                                                                                        SynapSense
a possibility.                                  household appliances, thereby cutting                                                                                                          Folsom, California, US. Founded 2006
                                                energy consumption and costs.                                                                                                                  Employees: 10
                                                                                                                                                                                               Product description: Wireless management for
Glass                                           Climate Well                                                                                                                                   building environments
ChromoGenics                                    Hägersten, Sweden. Founded 2001                                                                                                      
Uppsala, Sweden. Founded 2003                   Employees: 51
Employees: 21                                   Product description: Air-conditioning systems
Product description: Glass                                                                                                                                            Virtually all facilities with critical                                                                                                                                                                                thermal targets, such as IT data centres
                                                                                                                                                                                               or labs, over-cool their environments
                                                Climate Well is developing solar-                                                                                                              to ensure adequate safeguards,
A world leader in glass technology,             powered air-conditioning systems for                                                                                                           potentially costing millions of pounds.
                                                                                                Novaled: organic light technology
ChromoGenics is developing a range              households and commercial use. Central                                                                                                         SynapSense’s systems help avoid this by
of products that could transform                to its innovations is what it describes                                                                                                        providing facility managers – an energy-
the way we control temperature and              as “something many thought was                                                                                                                 efficiency system that allows companies
heat. It has run laboratory trials on           impossible: a “heat pump” able to store         MHz-frequency bands) suitable for use             during times of energy price spikes.         to measure and manage their energy
the developments it has made in                 energy and convert hot water to cooling         worldwide. As they draw their energy              The company is working with at least         usage and global carbon footprint in real
electrochromism – the science of how            and heating without electricity. It             from their environment (light and                 three utilities companies on energy-         time, using wireless instrumentation,
materials can change colour when                estimates the heat pump could harness           heat), they do not need batteries or              efficiency schemes.                          networking and management software,
electrical charges are applied to them.         free solar energy to cover 85% of the           cords and can run for decades without                                                          and thus avoiding the need for
There are numerous applications,                heating and air conditioning of most            being changed or checked. EnOcean                 Powerit Solutions                            expensive and disruptive wiring.
ranging from smart windows in                   buildings. The pump technology, called          GmbH was founded as a spin-off                    Seattle, US. Founded 2005
“intelligent housing” to display                Triple-State Absorption, is proprietary.        from Siemens.                                     Employees: 52                                Tendril
technologies. The company is about to           The company has completed                                                                         Product description: Energy management       Boulder, Colorado, US. Founded 2004
start its first customer deliveries. Glass is   construction of its factory in Spain and        Ice Energy                                        systems                                      Employees: 50
the new steel, it claims.                       is selling in various national markets          Colorado, US. Founded 2003                                       Product description: Remote appliance
                                                including Dubai, Italy and France.              Employees: 60                                                                                  and energy management
                                                                                                Product description: Ice-based air conditioning                                      
Buildings                                       EnOcean                                                                   Using electricity in a more clever,
AlertMe                                         Munich, Germany. Founded 2001                                                                     efficient way is behind Powerit
Cambridge, UK. Founded 2006                     Employees: 45                                                                                     Solutions’ Spara technology,                 Smart energy software is one thing,
Employees: 26                                   Product description: Building sensors           Using patented technology, Ice Energy             which analyses a company’s power             doing something with it is quite another.
Product description: Smart energy service                                     has developed an air-conditioning                 usage and sets out more efficient            But Tendril’s Tree Platform not only                                                                                     system (Ice Bear) that stores cooling             operating routines – whether it be           tells consumers what is using power
                                                                                                energy at night by freezing water in an           manipulating equipment to operate            and when, but it then links up with
                                                Wireless, self-powered, virtually               insulated storage tank, and then cools            during less expensive periods, or            your home’s appliances to allow you to
AlertMe estimates that its energy-saving        maintenance-free sensors designed               buildings during the day by circulating           closing down air conditioning when           control them remotely, programming
technology can save consumers up to             and patented by Oberhaching-                    the chilled refrigerant. It has also              not needed. As a result, the company         them to operate at more efficient or
25% of their yearly energy costs, often         based EnOcean are now operating in              developed advanced software systems               reckons firms can save as much as 30%        cheaper times. Next year, the company
paying for itself in the first 12 months        over 100,000 buildings around the               and intelligent two-way controls to make          of their energy expenditure by using         aims to introduce an application for
and knocking one tonne off the average          world. The sensors control the settings         it easier for utilities to manage peaks in        its predictive control software and also     iPhones, allowing consumers to keep
home’s annual CO2 emissions. Users of           of heat, light and air-conditioning             energy demand, and to take advantage,             working with the power generators to         track of their home’s energy usage and
its Energy Kit connect it to their home’s       equipment and work by transmitting              through Ice Bear, of their low-demand             take advantage of lower pricing and off-     be able to turn off the heating or turn
broadband connection and then receive           radio signals (on 868 MHz and 315               periods, an area of growing importance            peak rates.                                  on the cooker, remotely.
                                                                                                                                                                                           The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy efficiency/Manufacturing

Saving power                                  CamSemi A 2008 contender makes it to the 2009 Global Cleantech 100 list
New York, US. Founded 2000
Employees: 80                                 Think of clean energy technology and
Product description: Energy management        what comes to mind? Wind turbines on                                  our mountain tops? Millions of roofs
                                              covered with solar cells? Futuristic cars
                                              from a sci-fi movie? Well, try again.
CPower focuses on reducing its clients’           Think of something the size of a
energy consumption – and energy               matchhead that you will probably never
bills – by delivering targeted energy-        see, or even know it’s there. Think
management services, including                super-efficient power conversion chips
demand-response and energy-efficiency.        inside your mobile phone charger, laptop
These services allow companies to             power supply, lighting systems and other
optimise their facilities and operations      mains-powered devices. The chips may
and feel the benefit on the bottom line.      be minute and out of sight, but the new
CPower is an industry pioneer that has        energy-saving technologies they contain,
grown into one of the largest energy          developed by Cambridge-based CamSemi,
management firms in the world, by             could be transformational. The company’s
combining an understanding of energy          power management controllers promise
management technologies, energy               to set off a quiet revolution in the
markets and the daily challenges              electronics industry - and save hundreds
of achieving cost-efficient energy            of millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide
sustainability.                               emissions.
                                                  “Your old cordless phone is probably
eMeter                                        wasting a third of the electricity it
California, US. Founded 1999                  consumes - and that’s in a product that
Employees: 140                                is left plugged in all the time,” says
Product description: Smart metering           CamSemi’s chief executive officer, David                                    Baillie. “Your mobile phone charger is
                                              probably throwing away half the energy
                                              while it’s actually charging, and all the
The latest product from this San              time it’s left plugged in on the wall it’s
Mateo-based metering company                  burning a watt, day in day out. It doesn’t
is a software management kit that             sound like much but multiply that watt by
helps utility companies tell their            a billion chargers around the world and
customers about their real-time energy        it’s a gigawatt, or a big coal fired power
usage and potential energy savings.           station. And many people have more than
Consumers can track their usage and           one mobile phone, they have mp3 players,
associated costs – down to hourly             digital cameras, bluetooth headsets,
intervals – online, via mobile device or      portable games machines ... so it’s not just
email. Over the last decade, eMeter has       mobile phones but the whole consumer
built smart grid management software          electronics sector.”
for electric, gas and water utilities in          The world consumer market for
the US, Canada, Europe, Australia and         chargers and power supplies is about
New Zealand. It has over 24m meters           2 billion units a year – and CamSemi is
under contract today. Swifter billing and     aiming to take a “leadership position” in
improved customer service (facilitated        the sector, getting its chips into at least
by spotting problems or unexpected            20% of them. “We believe our technology        David Baillie: ‘There are multiple green aspects in what we do’
developments quicker) are by-products         is the best around for manufacturers
of the process.                               of chargers or adapters for mobile             waste and electronics landfill. “There are      places where we could play.”                  the importance of clean-tech investors
                                              phones, and for consumer networking            multiple green aspects in what we do,” says        The lighting market is an example.         who have been financing CamSemi since
EPS Corp                                      technologies like modems and routers           Baillie. “Not having to make holes in the       Incandescent or filament bulbs are one of     2002, most recently culminating in a
California, US. Founded 2001                  and WiFi access points,” says Baillie. “So     ground, smelt metals and dump electronic        the few products to run directly from the     third investment round in April 2008 in
Employees: 75                                 we have every hope of achieving that           waste is definitely part of our mission.”       mains - but they throw away 95% of their      which the Carbon Trust and BankInvest
Product description: Energy management        ambition.”                                        Moreover, CamSemi is eyeing up even          energy as heat, turning only 5% into light.   joined existing investors to subscribe
systems                                           Paradoxically, CamSemi is supporting       bigger markets. “Power conversion is            Thanks to efficiency regulations, this 10     $34m. “Having the Carbon Trust on board                                    efforts to reduce the size of its market by    everywhere - it is ubiquitous,” says Baillie.   billion-unit-a-year market is disappearing,   adds a lot of value through its industry
                                              developing a “universal charger solution”      “Hardly anything that plugs into the mains      to be taken over by compact fluorescent       connections but it also validates our
                                              so that a wide range of mobile phones          does not contain a power conversion and         bulbs and LEDs - both of which need power     green credentials and adds reassurance,”
From its Costa Mesa base, EPS Corp            and other devices can share chargers via       electronic control somewhere. Energy            converters.                                   says Baillie. “Our job now is to deliver a
has developed a three-step approach           a PC-type USB interface. Apart from the        efficiency legislation will drive everything       The company is thinking big but remains    great return - for our investors and for
for Fortune 500 companies wanting             convenience to consumers, this would           to have intelligent power conversion and        small for now: it turned over $2m last        the environment.”
to reduce their carbon footprint. Over        have a huge “green” payoff by reducing         the sky is the limit. There are so many         year and has yet to make a profit. Hence      Oliver Tickell
100 companies are using its systems,
particularly in its target markets of
food processing, manufacturing, dairy
and utilities. Its EPS xChangePoint          Power Plus Communications                       management product allows businesses            methods. Silver Spring estimates its          environmental impacts though the use
system, for instance, was designed for       Manheim, Germany. Founded 2001                  to control the amount of power used             systems could see energy savings of           of sustainable and recyclable materials,
manufacturing organisations, and it          Employees: 30                                   by their IT network, using a smart              up to 20%.                                    such as road salt, and less power
measures both energy use and carbon          Product description: Internet-based smart       central management system. Intelligent                                                        and waste.
emissions in real time, making reports       metering                                        policies maximise energy savings by             SmartSynch
to management by setting and tracking                                       placing machines into a lower power             Jackson, Mississippi, US. Founded 1999        Luca Technologies
key performance indicators. As well                                                          state without interfering with end-user         Employees: 70                                 Colorado, US. Founded 2003
as reducing emissions and increasing                                                         productivity, desktop maintenance or            Product description: Smart grid technology    Employees: 72
energy efficiency, the system can also       Understanding energy use is vital for           upgrades, and cutting utility costs by as                                Product description Emissions control
generate general productivity gains.         lowering its consumption, and Power             much as 30%, the company claims.                                                    
                                             Plus Communications’ smart metering
Nujira                                       system allows households to see at any                                                          Instead of installing expensive
Cambridge, UK. Founded 2002                  time how much gas and electricity is            Smart Grids                                     private wireless networks to operate          Biotech specialist Luca Technologies
Employees: 50                                being used, and by which appliances.            GridPoint                                       across the grid, SmartSynch uses              is developing one of the most novel
Product description: Efficient signal        Using a broadband internet system, it           Virginia, US. Founded 2003                      public wireless networks from                 ways of reducing US dependency
amplification                                gathers data from intelligent meters in         Employees: 130                                  telephone companies and other                 on foreign gas resources. It seeks to                                   the electricity grid within seconds and         Product description: Smart grid software        communication installations to                generate clean, renewable energy by
                                             makes power consumption data                    platform                                        hook up a network of smart meters.            harnessing the power of anaerobic
                                              available for use immediately. Together                                   With 100 north American electric              micro-organisms (those living
Nujira’s compact power amplifiers            with energy suppliers, the firm has                                                             utility customers needing to manage           without oxygen) that can metabolise
are reducing by half the amount of           successfully connected more than                                                                their power output, the SmartSynch            oil, organic-rich shale and coal into
power needed to run the base stations        300,000 households across Europe.               GridPoint’s software is used to load            system keeps them informed of peaks           natural gas. As well as studying the
and transmitters integral to mobile                                                          energy on to the grid, store it and then        and troughs in supply so they can             commercial potential of these natural
phone networks – an energy-saving            Ubidyne                                         release it to users at the exact point          efficiently adjust output without             “geobioreactors”, the company is
technology that could provide massive        Ulm, Germany. Founded 2005                      when it is needed. Utility companies            having to install their own private           charting various zones in which
benefits globally. Such is the increase      Employees: 63                                   can balance supply and demand more              networks. The US Department of                these organisms exist. It is also
in transmission efficiency, and              Classification: Wireless communications         efficiently and improve grid reliability.       Energy says the total potential               examining ways of turning old oil
therefore battery life, that many major      Product description:                            Consumers can also use GridPoint                benefit of implementing smart grid            wells into man-made georbioreactors.
communications networks are assessing                                                        software to manage their energy                 technologies over the next 20 years is        The company is currently working
the Cambridge-based firm’s technology                                                        consumption. The software is capable of         conservatively estimated at $75bn.            to demonstrate the viability of
for future integration into their cellular   Ubidyne’s digital, active antenna system        taking into account a wide range of energy                                                    its technology.
and digital products.                        for technology such as mobile phones            sources and uses, including plug-in
                                             and digital radio is designed to reduce         electric vehicles, solar panels, advanced       Manufacturing                                 Xylophane
                                             energy consumption significantly                storage technologies and household                                                            Gothenburg, Sweden. Founded 2004
                                             while improving signal performance.             devices such as thermostats, electric                                                         Employees: 8
                                             It eliminates the need for numerous             water heaters and pool pumps.                   Metalysis                                     Product description: Biodegradable barrier
                                             cables and amplifiers on antenna towers                                                         Rotherham, UK. Founded 2001                   material for food packaging
                                             and masts because the digital radio             Silver Spring Networks                          Employees: 50                       
                                             frequency unit is integrated into the           Redwood City, California, US. Founded 2002      Product description: Sustainable metal
                                             antenna housing, making the mobile              Employees: 600                                  refinement processes
                                             communications network much cheaper             Product description: Smart grid metering                                 Swedish firm Xylophane has developed
                                             to set up and run. Both Nokia and                                                                           unique wrapping for food products
                                             Vodafone are testing the system.                                                                                                              made of natural raw materials, which
                                                                                                                                             As one of the most vital metals               is both renewable and biodegradable,
                                             Verdiem                                         The human meter-reader could soon               used in a wide range of high-end              unlike most “barrier packaging” which
                                             Seattle, Washington, US. Founded 2001           be following the dodo, thanks to                technologies, titanium has been refined       is made from aluminium- and oil-based
                                             Employees: 50                                   Silver Spring: a smart grid connected           in the same, highly inefficient, slow         plastics. Developed in co-operation
                                             Product description: Energy management for      through the internet that can tell utility      and chemically hazardous way for              with customers in the packaging
                                             IT networks                                     companies, and consumers at home and            more than 70 years. It’s against this         industry, the carbohydrate-based
                                                                        in businesses, exactly what electricity is      background that Metalysis has been            material, which can be obtained from
                                                                                             being used when, where and by whom.             formed to exploit a new electrochemical       agricultural by-products such as hulls
                                                                                             That means homeowners will be able              reduction technique invented at the           and husks from cereals, is an effective
                                             Two-thirds of a firm’s IT network energy        to discover when electricity is most            University of Cambridge. At commercial        barrier against oxygen, grease and
                                             usage occurs when a computer isn’t              expensive and at its highest usage, and         production levels, this presents the          aroma and so extends the shelf life of
                                             being used, in particular during after-         tailor their power demand accordingly,          realistic prospect of dramatically            sensitive food products such as juice,
Nujira’s Coolteq power modulator             office hours. Verdiem’s Surveyor energy         in real time, or choose alternative             reduced costs and improved                    crisps and spices.
                                                                                                                                                                                         The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Water and wastewater/Transportation

Water and                                                                                                                                                                                Water conservation
wastewater                                                                                                                                                                               HydroPoint Data Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                         California, US. Founded 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                         Employees: 100
                                                                                                                                                                                         Product description: Smart irrigation
Water treatment                                                                                                                                                                          technology
Danfoss AquaZ
Nordborg, Denmark. Founded 2006
Employees: 15                                                                                                                                                                            Traditional irrigation systems can often
Product description: Water treatment                                                                                                                                                     result in over-watering and damage                                                                                                                                                                        to the land, according to HydroPoint.
                                                                                                                                                                                         Its flagship product, WeatherTrak, is
                                                                                                                                                                                         unusual in taking expected weather
Filtering seawater to make it fit for                                                                                                                                                     conditions into account by being
drinking could become economically                                                                                                                                                       connected to local weather stations.
viable through the use of a special                                                                                                                                                      It works in both residential and
membrane, designed by nanontech                                                                                                                                                          commercial markets, counting Google
company Danfoss AquaZ. This early-stage                                                                                                                                                  and Wal-Mart among its business
start-up, launched by leading Danish                                                                                                                                                     customers. In the US, it says, more than
components maker Danfoss, says its                                                                                                                                                       60% of urban water is used for landscape
membrane could be five to 10 times                                                                                                                                                        irrigation, and much of that is wasted.
as effective as traditional desalination                                                                                                                                                  Special services are also available
treatments. The company is harnessing                                                                                                                                                    for architects, builders and water
the power of aquaporins, a type of                                                                                                                                                       supply operators.
membrane protein that regulates the
influx and efflux of water molecules from
live cells and has been “programmed” by                                                                                                                                                   Transportation
nature only to let water that is 100% clean
in and out of its cells.

Greifenberg, Germany. Founded 2000                                                                                                                                                       Achates Power
Employees: 80                                                                                                                                                                            California, US. Founded 2004
Product description: Membrane water filtration                                                                                                                                            Employees: N/A                                                                                                                                                                                  Product description: Clean diesel engines
Inge’s lower-cost ultrafiltration system
is proving increasingly popular with                                                                                                                                                     Achates Power is developing engine
major treatment facilities that need to                                                                                                                                                  technology that offers what it calls
purify water to drinkable standards.                                                                                                                                                     “an unparalleled combination of fuel
Using an advanced, very fine nanoscale                                                                                                                                                    efficiency and power density at lower
membrane, Inge’s technology can                                                                                                                                                          cost”. The company is testing its 4.2L
reliably intercept not only particles                                                                                                                                                    engine which, it says, rivals engines
but also micro-organisms such as                                                                                                                                                         nearly twice its size. It aims to build an
bacteria and viruses. It can thus provide                                                                                                                                                engine that is lightweight, more fuel-
a dependable source of clean water                                                                                                                                                       efficient and with lower costs. The project
without using the vast quantities of                                                                                                                                                     is inspired by Hugo Junkers’ Jumo, the
sand or chemicals usually required                                                                                                                                                       most famous engine in diesel aviation
in ultrafiltration.                                                                                                                                                                       history. Achates has been granted six US
                                                                                                                                                                                         patents with over 200 claims that define
Microvi Biotech                                                                                                                                                                          the patents.
Union City, California, US. Founded 2004
Employees: 11
Product description: Research and
development of sustainable water treatment      The Epuramat team is working on individual sewage processing solutions for small companies
technologies                              Neosens                                      efficiency and maximises the surface          Epuramat
                                                Toulouse, France. Founded 2001               area through which treatment takes          Luxembourg. Founded 2005
                                                Employees: 17                                place. Its systems have been installed      Employees: 15
For any organisation or business needing        Product description: Water contaminant       around the world within the municipal       Product description: Wastewater treatment
a more energy-efficient, sustainable              monitoring                                   sector and industry, especially in the
way to process water, biotechnology                                    food and drinks, pulp and paper and
company Microvi Biotech pioneers                                                             aquaculture areas. Its designers and
innovative technologies for unmet                                                            consultants work on improving the           Epuramat offers individual solutions for
needs in water, energy and other                In all water treatment systems, no           efficiency of existing water plants and       sewage processing, working with small
industries across a number of markets.          matter the final use of the water,            designing compact schemes through           and medium-sized enterprises, industrial
The company, which focuses on new               monitoring the level of contaminants         offices and representation in Latin and       companies and biogas plant operators.
technology and how to turn it into              is a crucial element. Where traditional      north America, Europe, the Middle East      It has developed a range of products to
reality, is among some of the most              water-testing systems have been              and Asia Pacific.                            filter waste, including a semi-permeable         Achates Power engine technology
promising private technology ventures           expensive and interrupted the industrial                                                 membrane that can filter out small
in the US for 2009.                             process, Neosens’ systems, which                                                         particles. It has also worked on ways of        Adura Systems
                                                                                             Aqwise wastewater treatment uses
                                                include an innovative single wafer                                                       circulating and re-using water to cut down      California, US. Founded 2005
                                                                                             biological processing methods
Miox                                            of silicon, ensure that at all times the                                                 on the need for fresh water. One of the         Employees: 22
Albuquerque, New Mexico, US. Founded 1994       quality of the water is monitored for                                                    many spin-off benefits is space saving – for      Product description: Powerplant technology
Employees: 30                                   oxygen, biofilm, chlorine or even                                                         example, large pre-sedimentation tanks
Product description: Portable, low-chemical     legionella in drinking water. Sales of the                                               are no longer necessary in the company’s
disinfectant production                         company’s solutions reached about £1m                                                    new designs for sewage plants.                                        in 2008 and are expected to triple again                                                                                                 Adura is the pioneer of powerplant
                                                in 2009.                                                                                 Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies           technology that can enable heavy transit
                                                                                                                                         Vancouver, Canada. Founded 2005                 vehicles to achieve up to 100 miles of
Using just salt, water and power to             Oasys Water                                                                              Employees: 20                                   initial travel in pure electric mode with
create a chlorine-based disinfectant,           Cambridge, Massachusetts, US                                                             Product description: Environmentally-friendly   subsequent travel in hybrid mode.
Miox’s innovative technology allows             Employees: N/A                                                                           fertiliser                                      The company’s patent-pending Mesa
on-site generation, cutting back on             Product description: Energy-efficient water                                                                            (modular electric scalable architecture)
transportation requirements by up to            purification system                                                                                                                       powerplant can be applied to certain
80%, reducing carbon emissions and                                                                                                                               types of hybrid vehicles, all electric
fuel consumption, and eliminating                                                                                                        According to the UN Millennium                  and fuel-cell vehicles, including mass
the storage of chlorine gas and bulk                                                                                                     Ecosystem Assessment, the                       transit buses, and large utility and
bleach and the disposal of chemical             Reducing the need for large amounts                                                      accumulation of polluting nutrients,            delivery vehicles. At the heart of the
containers. Originally developed as             of electricity to produce clean drinking                                                 such as phosphorus and ammonia,                 Mesa powerplant are highly modular
a solution for the US army’s portable           water from seawater and other non-                                                       discharged into the environment                 electronic systems and an innovative,
water purification needs, more than              potable water and wastewater sources is                                                  from wastewater, is one of the most             intelligent software control platform.
1,500 Miox installations are now                a problem Oasys is trying to solve with                                                  significant environmental challenges             The firm is in discussions with various
in operation in over 30 countries,              its Engineered Osmosis technology.                                                       facing the planet. Ostara’s technology,         top companies which, like itself, believe
treating more than 6.5bn gallons of             It’s a novel treatment that uses water’s                                                 developed at the University of British          conventional electric hybrid solutions
water per day. They are also used in            natural osmosis between two solutions        Arvia Technology                            Columbia, recovers those nutrients and          are too expensive and would provide
disaster areas.                                 of differing concentrations, rather than      Liverpool, UK. Founded 2007                 recycles them into environmentally-             marginal benefits.
                                                a power-based solution as in traditional     Employees: 8                                safe, slow-release fertilisers. Not only
NanoH20                                         systems. Developed at Yale, it uses          Product description: Wastewater treatment   does this help wastewater treatment             Better Place
Los Angeles, California, US. Founded 2005       a tenth of the power of these usual                         plants reduce operating costs but it also       California, US. Founded 2007
Employees: N/A                                  industrial methods. Because of the                                                       provides municipalities and companies           Employees: 200
Product description: Advanced water             technology’s low-energy usage, the firm                                                   with revenue from the sale of the               Product description: Electric vehicles
membrane treatment technology                   is committed to introducing the system       Arvia delivers an on-site treatment         recovered pollutants.                           infrastructure                                     into the developing world.                   solution for organic pollutants that are                                          
                                                                                             dissolved in water. The Arvia process
                                                                                             removes and destroys the contaminants
Despite recent advances, desalination           Wastewater treatment                         in-situ in a way that is chemical-free                                                      Better Place is working with several
is energy-intensive and remains                 Aqwise                                       and does not produce secondary waste                                                        governments around the world to launch
an expensive source of freshwater.              Herzliya, Israel. Founded 2000               requiring further disposal. This is                                                         the necessary infrastructures that
NanoH2O is doing its bit to address             Employees: 30                                carried out by the coupling of Nyex, a                                                      would enable electric cars to take off en
that, using nanotechnology to create            Product Description: Biological wastewater   new adsorption medium that isolates                                                         masse. Israel became the first pioneer
advanced membrane materials. By                 treatment                                    the pollutants with electrochemical                                                         last year, potentially paving the way for
inserting, with few modifications,                                        regeneration. This process works well                                                       widespread adoption of electric vehicles.
its nanocomposite membranes into                                                             for non-biodegradable and other toxic                                                       Drivers have access to a network of charge
a typical water treatment facility’s                                                         wastes that are difficult to treat, and it                                                    spots and battery-switching stations,
system, it aims to make the purification         Aqwise increases the efficiency of             has a range of other applications, from                                                     and over half of Israelis would now
process considerably more efficient               wastewater treatment by using what is        industrial process streams to dealing                                                       consider buying an electric car, according
and cheaper to run – thanks to the              considered to be the next generation         with noxious odours. The company                                                            to the company’s research. Denmark,
membrane’s enhanced productivity –              of biological processing methods. Its        is a spin-out from the University of                                                        Australia, California, Hawaii and Ontario
                                                                                                                                         Ostara’s technology recovers and
while still maintaining acceptable salt         Agar (attached growth airlift reactor)       Manchester’s School of Chemical                                                             are following suit. The company is also in
                                                                                                                                         recycles nutrients found in wastewater
rejection levels.                               technology optimises oxygen transfer         Engineering.                                                                                discussions with car makers.
The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy storage/Comment

                                                                                            replacement and new installations. Key                                                    green technology. Imara’s products are
Fallbrook Technologies
California, US. Founded 1998                   Energy storage                               benefits are zero emissions and cost                                                       based on patented materials that deliver
Employees: N/A                                                                              savings over more traditional systems.                                                    the best combination of power and
Product description: Transmission technology                                                It is also just about to start operations                                                 energy with long life and are designed
                                                                                            in Asia.                                                                                  to be safer for the environment than                              Fuel cells                                                                                                                             available alternatives.
                                               Bloom Energy                                 EnStorage
From its bases in Texas and California,        California, US. Founded 2002                 Zichron Yaacov, Israel. Founded 2007                                                      Pentadyne Power
Fallbrook is a major name in bicycle           Employees: 170                               Employees: 5                                                                              Chatsworth, California, US. Founded 1998
technology, particularly on issues of          Product description: Fuel cells              Product description:Fuel cell storage                                                     Employees: 48
transmission (relating to gear changes).                                                                                              Product description: Flywheel batteries
It serves bicycles, light electric vehicles,                                                                                            The Boston Power Sonata battery
automobiles, all-terrain vehicles,
low-speed vehicles, agricultural               Famously secretive about its research,       EnStorage is developing energy storage      Deeya Energy
equipment and wind-energy industries.          Bloom Energy always attracts interest        systems through which, for instance,        California, US. Founded 2006                  For businesses reliant on major IT
It is particularly well-known for its          for what its co-founder, KR Sridhar, did     solar energy companies can produce          Employees: 120                                networks and servers, a split-second drop
NuVinci CVP (continuously variable             in the past – as an aerospace engineering    uninterrupted supply even when              Product description: Advanced batteries       in power can cost millions of pounds. To
planetary) transmission technology             professor he developed a device for          the sun is not shining. It believes its                               avoid computing catastrophes, many
which is being used in a range of              Nasa to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen      proprietary fuel cell technology is                                                       firms adopt expensive, uninterruptable
applications from lawn mowers                  on Mars. Bloom Energy is now engaged         “smaller, more efficient and lower-cost                                                     power supplies using back-up generators
and robotics to wind power and                 in designing solid-oxide fuel cells,         than state-of-the-art energy storage        With bases in India and California’s          and banks of lead acid batteries.
snowmobiles. Overall, Fallbrook                which could allow electricity generation     systems in the market”. The technology      Silicon Valley, Deeya Energy is a             Pentadyne’s clean-energy, high-speed
has a portfolio of more than 300               in the home. Since it launched seven         also works with wind-power plants and       developer and manufacturer of electrical      carbon fibre flywheel system works
patents and patent applications. It also       years ago, Bloom Energy has said             for dealing with demand management          energy storage systems. Its core              like a dynamic battery, storing energy
provides engineering services.                 little about its technology and when         in conventional power grids. EnStorage      innovation, the L-Cell, is based on a novel   kinetically by spinning a mass about
                                               it will be commercially available,           products are based on technology            battery technology originally developed       an axis. With near-zero maintenance,
Fisker Automotive                              thereby probably guaranteeing any            developed at Tel-Aviv University.           by Nasa as a potential energy storage         this “mechanical battery” has no
California, US. Founded 2007                   announcement will be scrutinised                                                         method for long-term space flights. Its        health and safety hazards, is insensitive
                                               throughout the scientific world.                                                          ESP 24K product is designed to provide        to temperature fluctuations and is
Employees: N/A
Product description: Green car manufacture
                                                                                            Advanced batteries                          critical infrastructure support for low-      environmentally responsible.                            Electro Power Systems                        Boston-Power                                availability service areas, and at a lower
                                               Turin, Italy. Founded 2005                   Massachusetts US. Founded 2005              cost than other options. This alternative     ReVolt
                                               Employees: 40                                Employees: 100                              to lead-acid batteries is in use among        Zurich, Switzerland. Founded 2004
Former Aston Martin lead designer              Product description: Hydrogen fuel cell      Product description: Advanced batteries     telecommunications customers.                 Employees: 34
Henrik Fisker is behind this new               systems                                                        It has a design life of 20 years, with        Product description: Zinc-air battery systems
company which designs and makes                                                                                   services every five years, and requires
“premium green automobiles”. His                                                                                                        minimal maintenance.
Fisker Karma will be one of the first                                                        Dependable, long-life, safe,
production plug-in hybrid electric             Fuel cell technology has come into           environmentally-sustainable, portable       Imara                                         Lithium-ion, found in mobile phones and
vehicles (PHEVs) when it goes on sale in       its own as a power source in remote          batteries – these are what Boston-          California, US. Founded 1999                  watches, is the leader in mobile battery
the US and Europe in summer 2010. A            locations such as space and large nature     Power plans to mass-produce. So far         Employees: 35                                 technologies, but ReVolt believes its non-
fully-charged Karma burns no fuel for          reserves. Hydrogen-powered systems           it has begun making rechargeable            Product description: Advanced batteries       toxic Zinc-Air battery systems have an
the first 50 miles. Once past the 50-mile       are particularly portable because they       lithium-ion cells for laptops, electric                                 energy density two to three times higher
electric range, the gasoline engine turns      are compact and lightweight. For             cars and industrial equipment. Its next-                                                  than that of lithium-ion, as well as being
on a generator to charge the lithium-          this reason, Electro Power Systems           generation batteries will also be able to                                                 low-cost, safe and green. Previously,
ion battery and the car operates as a          expects the self-rechargeable system         recharge to 80% capacity in 30 minutes.     Cordless power drills and lawn mowers         most metal-air batteries have not been
normal hybrid vehicle. A two-door              it is about to launch to become widely       HP, which uses Boston-Power’s Sonata        are among the items being powered             rechargeable and only delivered low
hardtop convertible is expected in 2011.       and rapidly used in emerging markets.        battery, led the way in the industry in     by Imara’s battery technology. The            power, but ReVolt claims it has solved
The Irvine-based company is planning           The company has developed a family           offering three-year battery warranties       company is developing compact,                these issues, ensuring a sustainable
a wide variety of environmentally-             of hydrogen fuel cell systems for            on its notebooks because of the long-life   lightweight, cost-effective lithium-ion        power source for the next generation of
friendly vehicles.                             back-up power. These are used in both        these cells offer.                           batteries to accelerate the adoption of       electric cars, laptops and phones.

Is the UK government up for the challenge?

Tony Juniper

                  n 15 July, the same day
                  the government set
                  out its ambitious plans
                  for climate-changing
                  emissions reductions,
                  TV broadcasts featured
                  the imminent closure
                  of one of the UK’s
few wind-turbine manufacturing
facilities. Owned by Denmark-based
Vestas, the closure of the Isle of Wight
turbine blade plant was a tragic blow
to the firm’s 625 employees. It was also
symbolic of the setbacks that have
for years dogged the development of
cleantech firms in the UK.
   Even oil majors with vast research
and development budgets have scaled
back their modest commitments to
clean energy. BP has gone from “beyond
petroleum” back to oil, and Shell has
gone in the same direction. Its decision
to withdraw from the £2bn Thames
Array offshore wind farm (the world’s
largest) marked a massive downscaling
in that company’s green ambitions.
Meanwhile, both BP and Shell have
invested billions in the environmentally
disastrous tar sands developments in
Canada. So what is going wrong?
   The inconvenient truth is that
aspirational targets and the market
on their own cannot deliver. Serious
official intervention is also needed             Pushing policy: the Cresent Moon Lake, in    by British ministers on how we can          energy systems. Even the social scandal          In a world of diminishing natural
in the form of clear, significant and           the Gobi desert, has become a central part   create jobs in a greener economy. Yet       of fuel poverty has continued, due            resources, rapid environmental change
sustained financial incentives alongside        of the Chinese government’s drive to lead    when the real choices are made, this        to lack of public finances to improve          and social challenges borne of economic
regulatory action across all countries.        the world in wind and solar energy           obvious joining-up of policy at best        the energy efficiency of our wasteful           crisis, this is – to put it mildly – quite an
Market mechanisms can certainly play                                                        remains weak. A survey for HSBC bank        housing stock – and yet solving this          oversight. This top 100 list shows plenty
their part but need to be backed up.                                                        on the strength of green policies in the    problem could generate tens of                of innovation and ideas exist in Britain
Look at Denmark and Germany, where                                                          various stimulus packages that followed     thousands of construction-sector jobs.        that need support and finance. As time
renewable power has rapidly expanded.                                                       the recent financial crisis showed              In recent months, and following the        runs out to correct climate change, it is
   From encouragement for landowners                                                        how the UK was again far down in the        passage of the 2008 Climate Change            vital that this opportunity is taken to
to favourable planning laws, from tax                                                       international league table. Only 7% of      Act, there has been a detectable              correct these past mistakes.
breaks to feed-in tariffs that transform                                                     the UK’s economic stimulus package          change in the tone of government
the economics of renewable energy              Aspirational targets                         was judged to be “green”, compared          ministers. There is apparently more           Tony Juniper is an independent
systems, governments have intervened                                                        with 69% (Korea) and 34% (China).           determination. It is, however, too late       sustainability adviser (including his work
to elevate the level playing field in           and the market on                               While the speeches have at               and of little comfort for the workers         as special adviser to Prince Charles’
favour of clean technologies. As a
result, these and other countries have
                                               their own cannot                             times been inspirational, cleantech
                                                                                            companies in the UK have been backed
                                                                                                                                        at Vestas. We’ve been big on speeches
                                                                                                                                        but still failed to come forward
                                                                                                                                                                                      Rainforests Project) and a senior associate
                                                                                                                                                                                      with the Cambridge University Programme
seen a dramatic expansion in more
sustainable technologies.
                                               deliver. Serious official                      with derisory financial incentives
                                                                                            and householders have had to make
                                                                                                                                        with the joined-up policies that will
                                                                                                                                        simultaneously cut emissions, create
                                                                                                                                                                                      for Sustainability Leadership. He is also the
                                                                                                                                                                                      Green party’s parliamentary candidate for
   The point has been made repeatedly          intervention is needed                       financial sacrifices to install green         jobs and drive innovation.                    Cambridge.
                                                                                                                                   The Guardian | Wednesday 9 September 2009

Global Cleantech 100 Energy storage/Agriculture/Recycling and waste

Agriculture                                                                                                                         Recycling and
Natural pesticides
Winchester, UK. Founded 2001
Employees: 20                                                                                                                      MBA Polymers
Product description: Natural pesticides                                                                                            California, US. Founded 1994                                                                                                                        Employees: 160
                                                                                                                                   Product description: High value plastic
Spun out of the University of                                                                                            
Southampton eight years ago,
Exosect sells a range of natural
pesticide products to the                                                                                                          This is where the millions of unwanted
agriculture, horticulture, stored                                                                                                  mobile phones are born again: after
products, beekeeping, amenity                                                                                                      more than six years of research and
and public health sectors. It aims                                                                                                 development, Richmond-based
to assist growers in achieving “zero                                                                                               company MBA is now considered a
residues” of insecticides in their crops                                                                                           world leader in developing technology
and to produce high quality food. Its                                                                                              for the recovery of high-value
Exosex SPTab solution, for example,                                                                                                engineering plastics, from complex
disrupts the mating habits of certain                                                                                              durable goods such as computers,
types of moths that pose a particular                                                                                              electronics through to appliances,
problem with stored food. The                                                                                                      automobiles and even sporting
Exoroach trap can withstand the hot                                                                                                equipment. Now processing several
temperatures of kitchens, and it can                                                                                               million pounds’ worth of plastics
catch up to 1,000 cockroaches before                                                                                               a month, the company plans to
being recharged.                                                                                                                   expand internationally.

Land management                                                                                                                    Recupyl
                                                                                                                                   Grenoble, France. Founded 1993
Jain Irrigation Systems                                                                                                            Employees: N/A
Jalgaon, India. Founded 1989                                                                                                       Product description: Processes for extraction
Employees: 5,000                                                                                                                   and recycling from industrial waste
Product description: Land management                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                   Recycling the detritus of modern
Jain Irrigation Systems is one of the                                                                                              technology – batteries and TV screens
largest irrigation companies in the                                                                                                – as well as treating industrial waste
world, employing over 5,000 workers                                                                                                are Recupyl’s areas of expertise. It uses
in the Maharashtra state of west India.                                                                                            a patented hydrometallurgy process
A worldwide pioneer in irrigation                                                                                                  that involves dissolving material to
systems, it has come a long way from                                                                                               extract metal, then purifying it, thus
the one-man band formed by law                                                                                                     allowing elements of batteries to be
graduate Bhavarlal Jain when he began                                                                                              reused. At its industrial pilot plant
selling kerosene from a pushcart. Now                                                                                              facility and applied research centre, the
it is a specialist in micro-irrigation                                                                                             company has pioneered processes to
and solar water-heating systems                                                                                                    extract reusable materials in cathode
as well as in bio-pesticides and the                                                                                               ray tubes and TV screens, including
agricultural use of plastics. Following                                                                                            glass and copper, as well as turning
US acquisitions, it plans to become the                                                                                            asbestos into an inert glass, usable as a
largest company in the sector.             Exosect: the company is dedicated to developing intelligent pest management solutions   building composite.

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