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					Antonyms
 GRE Verbal Section
     Four or Five non-optional test sections
          Two analytical writing
          One verbal
          One quantitative
          Optional one pre-test
     Approximately 30 minutes
     Approximately 30 Questions
          Analogies (7)
          Antonyms (9)
          Sentence Completions (6)
          Reading Comprehension (8)
                2 short passages with 2-3 questions each
                1 long passage with 3-4 questions each
Antonyms - Directions
Each questions below consists of a word printed
  in capital letters, followed by five lettered
  words or phrases. Choose the lettered word
  or phrase that is most nearly opposite in
  meaning to the word in capital letters.

Since some of the questions require you to
  distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to
  consider all the choices before deciding which
  one is best.
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Begins with medium difficulty
  Difficulty level is determined by
  question stem, not answer choices
  Seed question correctly, move up the
  ladder
  Seed question incorrectly, move down
  the ladder
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Start At the TOP
  It is important for students to start the test
    off on the right foot—
  Establish a spot near the top of the ladder of
    difficulty
  At a certain point the adaptive test will ―level
    off‖
  Early Questions are VERY Important
Antonyms – CAT Impact
     Build an Advantageous Position

Answer the first several questions right!
Then, if you accidentally fall off the ladder
 of difficulty, you’ll fall from an
 advantageous position.
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Example 1
     Test scaled 1-100
     Student answers first 10 of 30 correctly
     Probably established fairly high score
     Even if half of the remaining questions are
      answered incorrectly
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Why?
     Established a high proficiency early in the test
     Answering difficult questions incorrectly is not as
      damaging as answering easy questions incorrectly
     More difficulty questions are worth more when
      answered correctly
     Demonstrated consistent ability in answering the
      questions of moderate difficulty
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Take the extra time to answer the first
  several questions right
  30 minutes to answer 30 questions
  Additional 10 – 20 seconds for each of
  the first five to 10 questions should help
  you to answer correctly
  Establishing a high position on the
  ladder of difficulty
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Don’t Obsess about the difficulty level
     Once on a rung, forget about the ladder of
      difficulty
        After establishing your position on the ladder of
        difficulty, forget about it. If you do fall off, the
        computer will adapt, and you can work your
        way back up the ladder for another try.
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Don’t be scared of heights
     Faced with a difficult questions that can’t
      be answered , you must guess
     Miss a a question because it is too hard,
      you won’t be penalized as much as you
      would if it were an easier questions
     Guess correctly, you’ll earn more points
      than you would for an easier question
Antonyms – CAT Impact
  Don’t’ be scared of heights
     ―seed‖ questions answered correctly,
      establish a ―buffer zone‖, so that questions
      answered incorrectly are less damaging
     Some difficulty questions you can answer
      correctly
Antonyms – CAT Impact
         Value of Difficulty Questions
                       vs.
                 Easy Questions
When answered correctly, you earn more points
 for a harder question than for an easier
 question. Alternatively, when answered
 incorrectly, your score is penalized less for a
 hard question than for an easier questions.
Antonyms – What is Tested
  Antonyms test knowledge of vocabulary
  Not designed to test the strength of one’s
  vocabulary
  Test Ability to
     reason
     determine a word’s opposite meaning
  Novice is opposite of EXPERT
  To FORBID means ―to prohibit‖ and a good
  opposite is allow.
Antonyms – What is tested
  You ability to do well has a great deal
  to do with whether or not you know the
  meaning of the capitalized word.
  Capitalized word is part of your
  vocabulary, GOOD chance of answering
  correctly
  You may be forced to guess
Antonyms - Difficulty
  Difficulty is determined mostly by
  vocabulary.
     Easy questions – constructed using
      vocabulary that is familiar
     Moderate questions – some words you
      don’t know and others that are vaguely
      familiar or not familiar
     Difficult questions – vocabulary gets very
      difficult – words you probably don’t know
Antonyms – Difficulty            (Examples)

  The word NEBULOUS means ―misty‖ or
  ―hazy‖, so a good opposite is very clear.

  INCIPIENCE is a difficulty word referring to
  the beginning stages of something. The
  answer choices, too, are difficult words.
  Culmination means ―the conclusion.‖ A good
  choice for opposite of INCIPIENCE.
Antonyms – Shades of Meaning
  Opposites may depend upon shades of
  meaning
  You must choose the shade of meaning that
  is most nearly the opposite of the given word.
  Different shades of meaning are tested
     Relationships of opposites may depend upon
      shades of meaning; select the phrase ―most
      nearly‖ opposite.
Antonyms –         Shades of Meaning (Examples)


 ORNAMENTAL
  Something that adorns or embellishes; it is a
    decoration and is extra or optional
  So something that is ORNAMENTAL is not essential.
 PRECIPITOUS
  Abrupt or hasty
  Well-planned may not be the exact opposite of
    PRECIPITOUS, but it is the best answer choice
Antonyms –       Shades of Meaning (Examples)


 ENIGMATIC
  Adjective form of enigma
  Common meaning is puzzle or riddle
  Also used to describe something that is not
    clear
  ENIGMATIC means mysterious or obscure
  Best opposite is easily understood.
Antonyms – Parts of Speech
  Antonyms are written as
     Nouns
     Verbs
     Adjectives
  Sometimes the capitalized word is
  ambiguous with respect to part of
  speech.
Antonyms – Parts of Speech
  Look at the answer choices
  The answer choices will be the same
  part of speech intended for the
  capitalized word
Antonyms – Parts of Speech
    ANSWER CHOICES SAME PART OF
          SPEECH AS STEM WORD
Since the exam may test different parts of
  speech of the same word, look at the
  answer choices to determine what part
  of speech is intended.
Antonyms – Secondary Meanings
            Secondary Meanings
Be alert for tested secondary meanings–
 if an easy stem word appears in a
 problem that should be difficult, ask
 yourself: ―Does this word have a
 secondary meaning?‖
Antonyms –    Roots, Prefixes, & Suffixes


 Study the GRE Word Parts List and
 Vocabulary List in the Cambridge GRE
 Textbook
 Appendix A, pp. A-49 and A-57
Antonyms – Common Word Roots
cide = kill    mort = death       cycle = wheel or
pend = hang    dent = tooth       circle
dict = speak   psy = mind         phon = sound
scope = see    micro = small      fract = break
manu = hand    sect = cut         scrip = write
rupt = break   graph = written,   meter = measure
               instrument
Antonyms – Prefixes No or Not
                  il
               un
                im
               anti
                 in
               dis
                 ir
               mis
Antonyms –   Prefixes that stand for numbers


       mono, uni = 1
       di, du, bi = 2
       tri = 3
       quad = 4
       penta, quint = 5
       poly, multi = many
       deca = 10
       cent = 100
Antonyms –       Prefixes - Relationships

ante = before   inter = between
post = after    pre = before
sub = under     con, com = together
peri = around   sur, super = above
                cirum = around
                sym, syn = together, same
Antonyms - Endings
NOUN Endings : -ion, -ment, -ence, -tion, -ness,
-ance, -sion, -ity

ADJECTIVE Endings: -ic, -ive, -ous, -ish, -y, -al

SUFFIX Endings: -er, -ier, -or, -ist, -cian,
 -or (for people)
Antonyms - Strategies

        ANTICIPATE and MATCH

1. Read the capitalized stem word.
2. Anticipate one or two words that
   might be used as opposites.
3. Match your anticipated opposite to an
   actual choice.
Antonyms - Strategies
  Change Parts of Speech to Determine
                Meaning

Sometimes, using a word in a different
  part of speech will aid in determining
  the original meaning.
Antonyms - Strategies
            Dissect the Word

You can try to dissect the word. Take it
 apart; isolate the root word and suffixes
 and prefixes.
Antonyms - Strategies
        Place the word in Context

If you have seen a word before, but are
  not entirely sure of its meaning, try to
  place the word into context.

				
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