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Contents
Contents.................................................................................................................2

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................3

RECRUITMENT........................................................................................................3

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT......................................................................4

THEORIES AND POLICIES OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION.................................4

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT...................................................................................7

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT...............................................................................10

SELECTION............................................................................................................13

STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS.............................................................................14

STRATEGIES FOR SUCESSFUL RECRUITMENT.......................................................20

ILLUSTRATIONS:...................................................................................................20

1. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS IN BHEL:..........................................20

2. RECRUITMENT & SELECTION PROCEDURE AT INDIAN RAILWAYS.....................26

3. UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA..............................................................27

4. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION AT TEAMLEASE..............................................31

5. RECRUITMENT PROCESS AT HOTEL ORCHID:....................................................39

CONCLUSION........................................................................................................46




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INTRODUCTION
Human resource is an important corporate asset and the overall
performance of company depends on the way it is put to use. In order to
realize company objectives, it is essential to recruit people with requisite
skills, qualification and experience. While doing so we need to keep
present and future requirements of company in mind.

Successful recruitment methods include a thorough analysis of the job and
the labour market conditions. Recruitment is almost central to any
management process and failure in recruitment can create difficulties for
any company including an adverse effect on its profitability and
inappropriate levels of staffing or skills. Inadequate recruitment can lead
to labour shortages, or problems in management decision making.

Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process but also
requires management decision making and extensive planning to employ
the most suitable manpower. Competition among business organisations
for recruiting the best potential has increased focus on innovation, and
management decision making and the selectors aim to recruit only the
best candidates who would suit the corporate culture, ethics and climate
specific to the organisation.

The process of recruitment does not however end with application and
selection of the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the
employees chosen.      Despite a well drawn plan on recruitment and
selection and involvement of qualified management team, recruitment
processes followed by companies can face significant obstacles in
implementation. Theories of HRM may provide insights on the best
approaches to recruitment although companies will have to use their in
house management skills to apply generic theories within specific
organizational contexts.

RECRUITMENT
Recruitment is defined as, “a process to discover the sources of manpower
to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective
measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate
effective selection of an efficient workforce.” Edwin B. Flippo defined
recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.” In simple words
recruitment can be defined as a ‘linking function’-joining together those
with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.

PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE

The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially
qualified job candidates. Specifically, the purposes and needs are:

                                      3
      • Determine the present and future requirements of the organization
      in conjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities.
      • Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
      • Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing
      the number of visibly, under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
      • Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and
      selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
      • Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
      appropriate candidates.
      • Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company.
      • Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization.
      • Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to
      the company.
      • Search for talent globally and not just within the company.


FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT

The following are the 2 important factors affecting Recruitment: -

     1) INTERNAL FACTORS
           • Recruiting policy
           • Temporary and part-time employees
           • Recruitment of local citizens
           • Engagement of the company in HRP
           • Company’s size
           • Cost of recruitment
           • Company’s growth and expansion


2)      EXTERNAL FACTORS

          •   Supply and Demand factors
          •   Unemployment Rate
          •   Labour-market conditions
          •   Political and legal considerations
          •   Social factors
          •   Economic factors
          •   Technological factors


THEORIES AND POLICIES OF RECRUITMENT AND
  SELECTION
Theories:


                                        4
1. Objective theory

1) Assumes applicants use a very rational method for making decisions
2) Thus, the more information you can give them (e.g. salaries, benefits,
   working condition, etc), the better applicants weight these factors to
   arrive at a relative “desirability” index

2. Subjective theory

1) Assumes applicants are not rational, but respond to social or
   psychological needs (e.g. security, achievement, affiliation)
2) Thus, play to these needs by highlighting job security or opportunities
   for promotion or collegiality of work group, etc.

3. Critical Contact theory

1) Assumes key attractor is quality of contact with the recruiter or
   recruiter behavior, e.g. (promptness, warmth, follow-up calls, sincerity,
   etc.)
2) Research indicates that more recruiter contact enhances acceptance of
   offer, also experienced recruiter (e.g. middle-aged) more successful
   than young or inexperienced recruiter - may be especially important
   when recruiting ethnic minorities, women, etc.


Policies: Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the
personnel policy of the same organization. However, recruitment policy by
itself should take into consideration the government’s reservation policy,
policy regarding sons of soil, etc., personnel policies of other organizations
regarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing
minority sections, women, etc.

Specific issues which may be addressed in Recruitment Policy:

1) Statement : Nondiscrimination (EEO employer) or particular protected
     class members that may be sought for different positions (see also
     Affirmative Action guidelines)
2)   Position description: Adherence to job description (& qualifications)
     in recruitment & selection -BFOQ’s -bonafide occupational qualifications
3)   How to handle special personnel in recruitment/selection: e.g.
     relatives (nepotism) veterans (any special advancement toward
     retirement for military experience?), rehires (special consideration?
     vacation days or other prior benefits?), part-time or temporary
     personnel (special consideration? benefits?)
4)   Recruitment      budget/expenses:          what    is  covered?    Travel,
     Lodging/meals, Staff travel to recruit, relocation, expenses, etc.
5)   Others:

     a. Residency requirement in district?


                                       5
  b. Favors, special considerations related to recruitment? - e.g. get
     spouse a job?


INDUCEMENTS TO RECRUITMENT

   Organisational inducements are all the positive features and benefits
offered by an organization that serves to attract job applicants to the
organisation. Three inducements need specific mention here, they are:-


  •   Compensation: Starting salaries, frequency of pay increases,
      incentives and fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to
      potential employees.


  •   Career Opportunities: These help the present employees to grow
      personally and professionally and also attract good people to the
      organization. The feeling that the company takes care of employee
      career aspirations serves as a powerful inducements to potential
      employees.


  •   Image or Reputation: Factors that affect an organisation’s
      reputation include its general treatment of employees, the nature
      and quality of its products and services and its participation in
      worthwhile social endeavors.


CONSTRAINTS


  •   Poor image: If the image of the firm is perceived to be low( due to
      factors like operation in the declining industry, poor quality products,
      nepotism etc), the likelihood of attracting large number of qualified
      applicants is reduced.
  •   Unattractive jobs: if the job to be filled is not very attractive, most
      prospective candidates may turn indifferent and may not even
      apply.this is specialy true of job that is boring, anxiety producing,
      devoid of career growth opportunities and generally not reward
      performance in a proper way( eg jobs in post office and railways).
  •   Government policy: Government policies often come in the way of
      recruitment as per the rules of company or on the basis of merit and
      seniority. Policies like reservations (scheduled castes, scheduled
      tribe etc) have to be observed.
  •   Conservative internal policies: Firms which go for internal
      recruitments or where labour unions are very active, face hindrances
      in recruitment and selection planning.




                                      6
          RECRUITMENT- Relationship with other activities



CENTRALISED V/s DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT

      Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some
organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment
while some organizations like the Indian Railway resort to decentralized
recruitment practices. Personnel department at the central office performs
all the functions of recruitment in case of centralised recruitment and
personnel departments at unit level/zonal level perform all the functions of
recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone.


SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories:
internal sources and external sources. Both have their own merits and
demerits.

Internal Sources:-

Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the ‘internal
sources’.    Retrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of
deceased employees may also constitute the internal sources. Whenever
any vacancy arises, someone from within the organization is upgraded,
transferred, promoted or even demoted.


                                     7
External Sources

External sources lie outside an organization. Here the organization can
have the services of: (a) Employees working in other organizations; (b)
Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges; (c) Students from
reputed educational institutions; (d) Candidates referred by unions,
friends, relatives and existing employees; (e) Candidates forwarded by
search firms and contractors; (f) Candidates responding to the
advertisements, issued by the organization; and (g) Unsolicited
applications/ walk-ins.

      Merits and Demerits of ‘Recruiting people from ‘within’

              Merits                                Demerits



1) Economical: The cost of            1)     Limited Choice: The
  recruiting internal candidates is        organization is forced to select
  minimal. No expenses are                 candidates from a limited pool.
  incurred on advertising.                 It may have to sacrifice quality
                                           and settle down for less
2) Suitable: The organization
                                           qualified candidates.
   can pick the right candidates
   having the requisite skills. The   2)    Inbreeding: It discourages
   candidate can choose a right            entry for talented people,
   vacancy where their talents             available outside an
   can be fully utilized.                  organization. Existing
                                           employees may fail to behave
3) Reliable: The organization
                                           in innovative ways and inject
  has the knowledge about
                                           necessary dynamism to
  suitability of a candidate for a
                                           enterprise activities.
  position. ‘Known devils are
  better than unknown angels!’        3)    Inefficiency: Promotions
                                           based on length of service
4) Satisfying: A policy of
                                           rather than merit, may prove
  preferring people from within
                                           to be a blessing for inefficient
  offers regular promotional
                                           candidate. They do not work
  avenues for employees. It
                                           hard and prove their worth.
  motivates them to work hard
  and earn promotions. They will
  work with loyalty commitment        4)    Bone of contention:
  and enthusiasm.                          Recruitment from within may
                                           lead to infighting among
                                           employees aspiring for limited,

                                      8
                                         higher level positions in an
                                         organization. As years roll by,
                                         the race for premium positions
                                         may end up in a bitter race.




     The merits and demerits of recruiting candidates from outside an
organization may be stated thus:



Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment



              Merits                             Demerits



Wide Choice: The organization        Expenses: Hiring costs could go
has the freedom to select            up substantially. Tapping
candidates from a large pool.        multifarious sources of
Persons with requisite               recruitment is not an easy task
qualifications could be picked up.   either.



Infection of fresh blood: People     Time consuming: It takes time to
with special skills and knowledge    advertise, screen, to test and test
could be hired to stir up the        and to select suitable employees.
existing employees and pave the      Where suitable ones are not
way for innovative ways of           available, the process has to be
working.                             repeated.



Motivational force: It helps in      De-motivating: Existing
motivating internal employees to     employees who have put in
work hard and compete with           considerable service may resist
external candidates while seeking    the process of filling up vacancies
career growth. Such a competitive    from outside. The feeling that their
atmosphere would help an             services have not been recognized
employee to work to the best of      by the organization, forces then to
his abilities.                       work with less enthusiasm and


                                     9
                                    motivation.

Long term benefits: Talented
people could join the ranks, new
                                    Uncertainty: There is no
ideas could find meaningful
                                    guarantee that the organization,
expression, a competitive
                                    ultimately will be able to hire the
atmosphere would compel people
                                    services of suitable candidates. It
to give out their best and earn
                                    may end up hiring someone who
rewards, etc.
                                    does not fit and who may not be
                                    able to adjust in the new setup.



METHODS OF RECRUITMENT
Internal Methods:

Promotions and Transfers
  This is a method of filling vacancies from internal resources of the
  company to achieve optimum utilization of a staff member's skills and
  talents. Transfer is the permanent lateral movement of an employee
  from one position to another position in the same or another job class
  assigned to usually same salary range. Promotion, on the other hand is
  the permanent movement of a staff member from a position in one job
  class to a position in another job class of increased responsibility or
  complexity of duties and in a higher salary range.

Job Posting
   Job Posting is an arrangement in which a firm internally posts a list of
   open positions (with their descriptions and requirements) so that the
   existing employees who wish to move to different functional areas may
   apply. It is also known as Job bidding. It helps the qualified employees
   working in the organization to scale new heights, instead of looking for
   better perspectives outside. It also helps organization to retain its
   experienced and promising employees.

Employee Referrals
  It is a recruitment method in which the current employees are
  encouraged and rewarded for introducing suitable recruits from among
  the people they know. The logic behind employee referral is that “it
  takes one to know one”. Benefits of this method are as follows:

        •   Quality Candidates
        •   Cost savings
        •   Faster recruitment cycles

                                    10
       • Incentives to current employees
  On the other hand it is important for an organization to ensure that
  nepotism or favoritism does not happen, and that such aspects do not
  make inroads into the recruitment process.



External Methods:
External methods of recruitment are again divided into two categories-
Direct External Recruitment and Indirect External Recruitment methods.


Direct External Recruitment Methods

Campus Recruitment
  In Campus Recruitment, Companies / Corporate visit some of the most
  important Technical and Professional Institutes in an attempt to hire
  young intelligent and smart students at source. It is common practice
  for Institutes today to hire a Placement Officer who coordinates with
  small, medium and large sized Companies and helps in streamlining the
  entire Campus Recruitment procedure.

  Benefits of Campus Recruitment

     •  Companies get the opportunity to choose from and select the
        best talent in a short span of time.
     • Companies end up saving a lot of time and efforts that go in
        advertising vacancies, screening and eventually selecting
        applicants for employment.
     • College students who are just passing out get the opportunity to
        present themselves to some of the best companies within their
        industry of interest. Landing a job offer while still in college and
        joining just after graduating is definitely what all students dream
        of.
  On the negative front, campus recruiting means hiring people with little
  or no work experience.

Indirect External Recruitment Methods

Advertisements
  Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment.
  They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers,
  notice boards, recruitment fairs) and should include some important
  information relating to the job (job title, pay package, location, job
  description, how to apply-either by CV or application form, etc). Where
  a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising


                                    11
  and the coverage needed i.e. how far away people will consider
  applying for the job.

Third Party Methods


        •  Walk-ins: Walk-ins is relatively inexpensive, and applicants
        may be filed and processed whenever vacancies occur. Walk-ins
        provide an excellent public relations opportunity because well-
        treated applicants are likely to inform others. On the other hand,
        walk-ins show up randomly, and there may be no match with
        available openings. This is particularly true for jobs requiring
        specialized skills.


        •  Public and private employment agencies: Public and
        private employment agencies are established to match job
        openings with listings of job applicants. These agencies also
        classify and screen applicants. Most agencies administer work-
        sample tests, such as typing exams, to applicants.


        •  E-Recruiting: There are many methods used for                  e-
        recruitment, some of the important methods are as follows:


        a. Job boards: These are the places where the employers post
           jobs and search for candidates. One of the disadvantages is, it
           is generic in nature.
        b. Employer web sites: These sites can be of the company owned
           sites, or a site developed by various employers.
        c. Professional websites: These are for specific professions, skills
           and not general in nature.


  •   Gate Hiring and Contractors: The concept of gate hiring is to
      select people who approach on their own for employment in the
      organization. This happens mostly in the case of unskilled and semi-
      skilled workers. Gate hiring is quite useful and convenient method at
      the initial stage of the organization when large number of such
      people may be required by the organization

STEP 2: DEVELOP AN EFFECTIVE RECRUITMENT
STRATEGY EVALUATION OF SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Time-lapse data: They show the time lag between the dates of
requisition for manpower supply from a department to the actual date of
filling the vacancies in that department. For example, a company's past
experience may indicate that the average number of days from application

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to interview is 10, from interview to offer is 7, from offer to acceptance is
10 and from acceptance to report for work is 15. Therefore, if the company
starts the recruitment and selection process now, it would require 42 days
before the new employee joins its ranks. Armed with this information, the
length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment can be
ascertained - before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the
recruitment objectives of the company.

Yield ratios: These ratios indicate the number of leads/ contacts needed
to generate a given number of hires at a point at time. For example, if a
company needs 10 management trainees in the next six months, it has to
monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to
be contacted for this purpose. On the basis of past experience, to continue
the same example, the company finds that to hire 10 trainees, it has to
extend 20 offers. If the interview-to-offer ratio is 3:2, then 30 interviews
must be conducted. If the invitees to interview ratio is 4:3 then, as many
as 40 candidates must be invited. Lastly, if contacts or leads needed to
identify suitable trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio, then 200 contacts are
made.

Surveys and studies: Surveys may also be conducted to find out the
suitability of a particular source for certain positions. For example', as
pointed out previously, employee referral has emerged as a popular way
of hiring people in the Information Technology industry in recent times in
India. Correlation studies could also be carried out to find out the
relationship between different sources of recruitment and factors of
success on the job. In addition to these, data on employee turnover,
grievances, and disciplinary action would also throw light on the relative
strengths of a particular source of recruitment for different organizational
positions. Before finally identifying the sources of recruitment, the human
resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate. The
cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the
number of candidates hired.

SELECTION

Introduction

      The size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place
of posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of
other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the
recruiting efforts of the company. Through the process of recruitment the
company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to
apply for vacancies at various levels. Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of
applicants for selection.

Definition


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       To select means to choose. Selection is the process of picking
individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation.
The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully
perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates.

Purpose

       The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate
who would meet the requirements of the job in an organisation best, to
find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal,
the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in
terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job
are matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is
then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through
successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched
to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and
quality of employee’s work. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an
organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms
of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find
the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate negative
information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the
company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant
monitoring of the ‘fit’ between people the job.




The Process

      Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be
successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next one. The
time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary from one
organisation to another and indeed, from job to job within the same
organisation. The sequence of steps may also vary from job to job and
organisation to organisation. For example some organisations may give
more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews
and reference checks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be
enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for
managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people.

STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS




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                                                           1. Reception

                                                           A    company       is
                                                           known     by     the
                                                           people it employs.
                                                           In order to attract
                                                           people          with
                                                           talents, skills and
                                                           experience          a
                                                           company has to
                                                           create              a
                                                           favourable
                                                           impression on the
applicants’ right from the stage of reception. Whoever meets the applicant
initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and
courteous way. Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and
clearly. If no jobs are available at that point of time, the applicant may be
asked to call back the personnel department after some time.

2. Screening Interview

      A preliminary interview is generally planned by large organisations
to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go
through the further stages in selection. A junior executive from the
Personnel Department may elicit responses from the applicants on
important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a job such
as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude, location, choice
etc. this ‘courtesy interview’ as it is often called helps the department
screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds the candidate suitable,
a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit.

3.Application Blank

                                      15
       Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used
to collect information on the various aspects of the applicants’ academic,
social, demographic, work related background and references. It is a brief
history sheet of employee’s background.

Usefulness of Application Blank or Form

      Application blank is highly useful selection tool, in that way it serves
three important purposes:

   1. It introduces the candidate to the company in a formal way.
   2. It helps the company to have a cross-comparison of the applicants;
      the company can screen and reject candidates if they fail to meet
      the eligibility criteria at this stage itself.
   3. It can serve as a basis to initiate a dialogue in the interview.


4.Selection Testing

Selection tests or the employment tests are conducted to assess
intelligence, abilities, and personality trait.

A test is a standardized, objective measure of a person’s behaviour,
performance or attitude. It is standardised because the way the tests is
carried out, the environment in which the test is administered and the way
the individual scores are calculated- are uniformly applied. It is objective in
that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way giving
very little room for individual bias and interpretation. Some of them are

1. Intelligence Tests: These are mental ability tests. They measure the
   incumbent’s learning ability and the ability to understand instructions
   and make judgements. The basic objective of such test is to pick up
   employees who are alert and quick at learning things so that they can
   be offered adequate training to improve their skills for the benefit of
   the organization.
2. Aptitude Test: Aptitude test measure an individual’s potential to learn
   certain skills- clerical, mechanical, mathematical, etc. These tests
   indicate whether or not an individual has the capabilities to learn a
   given job quickly and efficiently. In order to recruit efficient office staff,
   aptitude tests are necessary
3. Personality Test: The definition of personality, methods of measuring
   personality factors and the relationship between personality factors and
   actual job criteria has been the subject of much discussion.
   Researchers have also questioned whether applicants answer all the
   items truthfully or whether they try to respond in a socially desirable
   manner. Regardless of these objections, many people still consider
   personality as an important component of job success.
4. Simulation Tests: Simulation exercise is a tests which duplicate many
   of the activities and problems an employee faces while at work.

                                       16
5. Graphology Test:       Graphology involves using a trained evaluator to
   examine the lines, loops, hooks, stokes, curves and flourishes in a
   person’s handwriting to assess the person’s personality and emotional
   make-up.
6. Polygraph (Lie-Detector) tests: the polygraph records physical
   changes in the body as the tests subject answers a series of questions.
   It records fluctuations in respiration, blood pressure and perspiration on
   a moving roll of graph paper. The polygraph operator forms a
   judgement as to whether the subject’s response was truthful or
   deceptive by examining the biological movements recorded on the
   paper.

TEST AS SELECTION TOOL:

       Tests are useful selection devices in that they uncover qualifications
and talents that can’t be detected otherwise. They can be used to predict
how well one would perform if one is hired, why one behaves the way one
does, what situational factors influence employee productivity, etc. Tests
also provide unbiased information that can be put to scientific and
statistical analysis.

       However, tests suffer from sizeable errors of estimate. Most
psychological tests also have one common weakness, that is, we can’t use
scales which have a known zero point and equal intervals. An intelligence
test, for example starts at an arbitrary point, where a person may not be
able to answer question properly. This does not mean that the person is
totally lacking in intelligence. Likewise, a person who is able to answer all
the 10 questions correctly cannot be called twice as intelligent as the one
who was able to answer only 5.



SELECTION INTERVIEW: Interview is the oral examination of candidates
for employment. This is the most essential step in the selection process. In
this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the
candidates through various means to the job requirements and to the
information obtained through his own observations during the interview.
Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity

   → To size up the candidate personally;
   → To ask question that are not covered in the tests;
   → To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence;
   → To assess subjective aspects of the candidate – facial expressions,
     appearance, nervousness and so forth;
   → To give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies,
     etc. and promote goodwill towards the company.


                                     17
Types of interviews:

Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature
and importance of the position to be filled within an organization.

In a non directive interview the recruiter asks questions as they come
to mind. There is no specific format to be followed.

In a patterned interview, the employer follows a pre-determined
sequence of questions. Here the interviewee is given a special form
containing questions regarding his technical competence, personality
traits, attitudes, motivation, etc.

In a structured or situational interview, there are fixed job related
questions that are presented to each applicant.

In a panel interview several interviewers question and seek answers
from one applicant. The panel members can ask new and incisive
questions based on their expertise and experience and elicit deeper and
more meaningful expertise from candidates.

Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where
the applicant’s confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult
situations are put to test. These are referred to as the stress interview.
This is basically an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable
by a series of, often, rude, annoying or embarrassing questions.



Steps in interview process:

Interview is an art. It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the
interviewers. Interviewers must be treated properly so as to leave a good
impression about the company in their minds. HR experts have identified
certain steps to be followed while conducting interviews:

PREPARATION:

   •   Establishing the objective of the interview

   •   Receiving the candidates application and resume

   •   Keeping tests score ready, along with interview assessment forms

   •   Selecting the interview method to be followed

   •   Choosing the panel of experts who would interview the candidates

   •   Identifying proper room for environment

                                      18
1.RECEPTION: The candidate should be properly received and led into
the interview room. Start the interview on time.

2.INFORMATION EXCHANGE:

   •   State the purpose of the interview, how the qualifications are going
       to be matched with skills needed to handle the job.

   •   Begin with open-ended questions where the candidate gets enough
       freedom to express himself.

   •   Focus on the applicant’s education, training, work experience, etc.
       Find unexplained gaps in applicants past work or college record and
       elicit facts that are not mentioned in the resume.

3.EVALUATION: Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification
given by the applicant in the interview.

4. PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATION: After the selection
decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to
undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the
candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.

5.REFERENCE CHECKS: Once the interview and medical examination of
the candidate is over, the personnel department will engage in checking
references. Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3 references
in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals
who are familiar with the candidate’s academic achievements or from the
applicant’s previous employer, who is well versed with the applicant’s job
performance and sometimes from the co-workers.

HIRING DECISION:

The line manager has to make the final decision now – whether to select or
reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through
different techniques discussed earlier. The line manager has to take
adequate care in taking the final decision because of economic, behavioral
and social implications of the selection decisions. A careless decision of
rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of the people and they
suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection in a
particular organization.

      A true understanding between line managers and personnel
managers should be established so as to facilitate good selection
decisions. After taking the final decision, the organization has to intimate

                                     19
this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. The
organization sends the appointment order to the successful candidates
either immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule.


 Interviewing Mistakes: May have been influenced by ‘cultural noise,
snap judgments, halo effect, stereotyping, first impression etc.

STRATEGIES FOR SUCESSFUL RECRUITMENT
STEP 1: ENSURE AN UP-TO-DATE JOB DESCRIPTION

A clear, accurate and up-to-date job description is crucial to ensuring a good
person-job fit. It is worthwhile spending some time making sure that the job
description matches the everyday reality of the job.

STEP 2: EVALUATE THE RECRUITMENT STRATEGY

Periodically evaluating the effectiveness of your recruitment strategy,
such as the type of sources used for recruiting, can be a useful activity.
For instance, a cost-benefit analysis can be done in terms of the number of
applicants referred, interviewed, selected, and hired. Comparing the
effectiveness of applicants hired from various sources in terms of job
performance and absenteeism is also helpful. One could also examine the
retention rates of workers who were hired from different sources.




ILLUSTRATIONS:
1. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS IN
   BHEL:



                                        20
                         Job Analysis Form


                       Job Specification Form



                       Interview Schedule


                       Application Form for
                       Employment


                       Interview Assesment Form




1.MAN POWER RECRUITMENT

•   As and when the need arises, the Manpower Requirement Form is dually filled
    by the HOD/Group Manager of the concerned department and forwarded to
    the HRD Department.


•   The HRD Department initiates activity on the recruitment once the "Manpower
    Requirement" form is approved by MD.


•   All "Manpower Requirement "Forms are maintained by the HRD Department.


2.IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

On the basis of Manpower Requirement Form a recruitment source is identified.
The source of recruitment could be external or internal.

INTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT:

•   Internal Transfer/Promotion with necessary screening, training and selection
    to meet the specified requirement. It would be desirable to utilize the internal
    sources before going outside to attract the candidates. The two categories of
    internal sources including a review of the present employees and nomination
    of the candidates by employees.




                                         21
   The COMPANY suggests that the effective utilization of internal sources
necessitates   an    understanding   of   their   skills   and   information   regarding
relationships of jobs. This will provide possibilities for horizontal and vertical
transfers within the enterprise eliminating simultaneous attempts to lay off
employees in one department and recruitment of employees with similar
qualification for another department in the company. Promotions and Transfers
within the plant where an employee is best suitable improves the morale along
with solving recruitment problems.

   These measures can be taken effectively if we established job families
through job analysis programmes combining together similar jobs demanding
similar employee characteristics. Again, employee can be requested to suggest
promising candidates. Sometimes in a company the employees are given prizes
for recommending a candidate who has been recruited. The usefulness of this
system in the form of loyalty and its wide practice, it has been pointed that it
gives rise to cliques posing difficulty to management.




EXTERNA L SOURCE S OF RECRUITMENT:

An external source of Recruitment is considered from the combination of the
following options:

      Educational and technical institutes also form an effective source of
manpower supply. There is an increasing emphasis on recruiting students from
different management institutes and universities' commerce and management
departments by recruiters for positions in sales, accounting, finance, personnel
and production. These students are recruited as management trainees and then
placed in special company training programmes. They are not recruited for
particular positions but for development as future supervisors and executive.

      Indeed , this source provides a constant flow of new personnel with
leadership personalities. Vocational schools and industrial training institutes
provides specialized employees, apprentices, and trainees for semiskilled and
skilled jobs. Persons trained in these schools and institutes can be placed on
operative and similar jobs with a minimum of in plant training. However,
recruitment of these candidates must be based on realistic and differential



                                          22
standards established through research reducing turnover and enhancing
productivity.

       The enterprise depends to some extent upon casual labour or "applicant
at the gate" and mail applicants. The candidates may appear personally at the
company's employment office or send their applications for possible vacancies.
According to company the quality and quantity of such candidates depend on the
image of the company in community.

       Trade unions are playing an increasingly important role in labour supply.
In several trades, they supply skilled labour in sufficient numbers. They also
determine the order in which employees are to be recruited in the organization.
In industries where they do not take active part in recruitment, they make it a
point the employees laid off are given preference in recruitment.




ADVERTISEMENT

•   All recruitment advertisements are placed centrally by the HRD Department.
•   The advertisement is drafted by HRD Department in consultation with the
    concerned Department.
•   All related documents of Advertisements released are maintained in the
    "Advertisement" file.


In addition to the above sources, several organizations develop sources through
voluntary organizations such as clubs, attracts employees of competitors looking
for a change or good prospectus for employment, utilize women, older workers
and physically handicapped for specific positions where they are best suitable,
and use the "situation wanted" advertisement in newspapers.

3.SELECTION

A .SCREENING/SHORTLISING

Resumes received from consultants and/or from the advertisements released in
Newspaper/Magazine are screened by HRD Department in consultation with the
concerned department.

B.INTERVIEW CALL


                                        23
The shortlisted candidates are contacted for interview through an interview call
letter/telephone call/e-mai l or through the consultants.

C.INTERVIEW SCHEDULE

    Interview schedule is prepared and sent to the concerned Department's HOD,
Interview panel and a copy is kept for HRD Department records.

D.PERSONAL DATA FORM
Any candidate appearing for an interview in the company is required to fill in
his/her particulars in the prescribed "Personal Data Form"


E.CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS

Interviews are conducted by a panel, which includes a staff member from the
concerned department and may include a representative.

F.INTERVIEW ASSESSMENT

Interview assessment Format is filled up by the interview panel immediately after
the interview and all the relevant papers are forwarded to the HRD Department
at the earliest.

G.SALARY FIXATION

"Staff comparison statement" and " salary proposal" formats are used for this
purpose.

H.OFFER AND APPOINTMENT LETTER

A candidate selected for appointment is issued an offer letter mentioning the
expected date of joining.

•     Extension of time to join duties is granted to the candidate purely at
      Management discretion.
•     A Detailed Appointment letter is issued after the individuals joins and fills the
      joining report.
•     The offer and appointment letters are signed to all new joiners.




                                           24
25
2. RECRUITMENT & SELECTION PROCEDURE AT INDIAN
   RAILWAYS

The selection and recruitment process of railways is done by Railway Recruitment Board
(RRB).

In all, there are 19 (nineteen) RRBs, which cater to the respective zonal staffing
requirements. Based on the Indents received, Employment Notifications are released in
Employment News ( A publication of the Government of India) and Indicative
advertisements in other News Papers.

System:

In order to ensure uniformity throughout the RRBs, there is a standard format for
application.

The applications received are scrutinized for different eligibility criteria and a list of
eligible candidates is drawn. Thereafter, examination date and centre is fixed and call
letters are dispatched to eligible candidates one month in advance of the date of
examination. Simultaneously the rejected applications data is published in the website
for information of in-eligible candidates.

The examinations may be single stage, two stages, single stage written exam followed
by skill test/aptitude test/interview depending on the nature of the posts advertised.

Candidates qualified in all stages of the examination are finally called for document
verification, wherein, all the records are verified and checked with original documents.


The employment notification is also published on the Internet web site. The
applications are scrutinized for eligibility. Eligible candidates are called for a
written examination with call letters being sent a month in advance of the date of
the examination.
If number of candidates is large, the candidates who qualify in the preliminary
exam are called for the main written exam, and the merit list is prepared based
entirely upon the result of the main exam. In most categories of jobs, there is no
interview after the written examination. For a very few specific categories there is
a viva after the written exam, while for certain other categories there is a skill
test. For categories related to operational safety, there will be a psychological
test.

Following is intended to serve as guidelines for recruitment process for RRB
(Indian railway recruitment board):

1. The selection is made strictly as per merit on the basis of written/online
examination. In addition, Aptitude/Skill Test/Interview etc. may also be conducted
wherever applicable. Short listed candidates will be called for verification of the
original documents according to merit, availability of vacancies and reservation
rules.

2. There shall be negative marking in written/online examinations and marks shall
be deducted for each wrong answer AT 1/3 of the allotted marks for each
question.

3. The syllabus for the written/online examination will be generally in conformity
with the educational standards and /or technical qualifications prescribed for the
                                         26
posts. The Questions will be of objective type with multiple answers and likely to
include questions pertaining to General Knowledge, General English/General
Hindi, General Arithmetic, Analytical and Quantitative Skills and those subjects
3. UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA
The University aims to recruit and attract high quality staff. Several challenges
impact on the University’s capacity to recruit and select staff with the required
capabilities. These challenges include a diminishing labour market, increasing
competition among employers for staff and the changing demographics of the
working population. In response to these challenges, the University needs a
comprehensive and rigorous yet simplified approach to recruiting and selecting
talented staff.

This policy provides an open and transparent framework for managers and
supervisors to select staff employed under the terms of the General Staff
Agreement. This Agreement includes general, technical, professional and some
research staff. The policy is supported by a selection and appointment guide
which maps the selection processes and techniques to be used by the selection
committee.

The strategic staffing objective of the University’s Operational Priorities Plan
is to recruit, develop and retain high quality staff, supporting development
of their full potential, within “a one staff-one University” philosophy. The
Selection policy supports this goal.

The recruitment and selection of staff to fill vacant positions is the
responsibility of individual work areas and applies a framework common to
the whole University.

The University uses a merit based system to optimise the search and
selection for the most suitable applicant who best meets the requirements of
a position.

Managers and supervisors first define the position requirements and its
selection criteria. They then develop attraction and search strategies to
target potential applicants and advertise the vacancy.

The University’s Selection policy no longer requires applicants to specifically
address the selection criteria in a written statement.


Confidentiality

Applications for vacancies are strictly confidential and access is restricted to
those directly involved in the selection process including Human Resources
staff.

Committee members are required to sign the Statement of Confidentiality.




                                          27
Need to Search and Advertise

To ensure that the most suitable person for a vacant position can be
selected, the Preparing to Recruit and Attract Staff policy provides managers
and supervisors with a framework to apply competitive and wide-ranging
search processes. The Advertising policy clarifies how targetted advertising is
to be implemented.


Please consult the following flow chart on Staff Selection Procedures:




Selection and Appointment Guide for Chairs of Selection Committees
for an Academic Staff Vacancy



                                        28
It is a requirement for the Chair to have attended recruitment and selection
training and it is expected all members will have attended.

The selection and recruitment process is a critical factor in ensuring the
University has the right staff. How well we manage this process also enhances
the University's credibility and underlines our commitment to integrity,
accountability and transparency in our decision making processes. Based on
the assessment and recommendations made by selection committee, the
University will make an offer of employment. This is a significant commitment
of the University's financial, management, training, and other resources to an
individual. Sound business practice requires the selection process to provide a
clear basis for entering into such a commitment and is documented such that
recruitment decisions are capable of review.

Key Principles

   •   The recruitment, development and retention of high quality staff is the
       University's prime objective. It has chosen a merit based selection
       system to optimise the potential for selecting the best person. This
       method uses a combination of written application, behaviourally based
       interview questions, testing/presentations and referee reports to
       determine relative merit against defined selection criteria. This process
       has been established to ensure the best possible choice and that there is
       no discrimination on grounds unrelated to the requirements of the
       position.
   •   The prerequisites and selection criteria for each position supply the
       means by which a selection committee can assess the relative merit of
       applicants to ensure their assessment is made on the same basis for all
       applicants.

THE SELECTION PROCESS

Setting up a Selection Committee

The Selection Committee should comprise:

   •   Dean of the Faculty as chair for Levels C & D (may be delegated to Head
       of School or nominee for Levels A & B and Research Academic positions)
   •   two other members of the School
   •   the Head of School or nominee
   •   one member from outside the School (a member of academic staff at
       equivalent or higher level from another School)

At least one female and one male must be on the committee to provide gender
balance.

The issue of diversity should also be considered in establishing the committee.

If the appointment is to a clinical or para-clinical department in a teaching
hospital it is usual to co-opt the chairperson of the Hospital’s appointments
committee or nominee.


                                         29
The selection committee should not include any person who has a close
personal relationship with an applicant. If that member of the committee is the
most appropriate, they are required at the outset to declare their relationship
to the applicant.

The Interview and Other Job-Related Exercises

The purpose of the interview is to complete the picture about the applicant
that has been formed from the short listing process. The interview should seek
to explore more fully claims made in the written application and to assess
verbal communication and interpersonal skills (remembering that some
applicants will handle the interview better than others). Helpful suggestions for
conducting the interview are at Appendix 3.

For some positions it is important to test a specific skill or knowledge.

In reaching an assessment the committee should consider all the data
available about the application — the written application, interview,
seminar/research presentation and referee reports. The more sources of
information used, the greater the chances of forming an accurate and well
rounded assessment of the applicant's suitability for the position.

Arrange for each short listed applicant to be contacted, with as much notice as
possible, and advise:

   •   interview time, date and venue
   •   that a seminar or research presentation (if applicable) is part of the
       assessment process including where it will be held and the time
   •   the approximate time the process will take

Make the final decision

Sound business practice requires that the selection criteria provide a clear
basis for entering into an employment arrangement with an applicant and
enables the decision making process to be transparent and capable of review.

The report must contain sufficient information to provide feedback to individual
applicants and must demonstrate with some rigour how the selection
committee arrived at its conclusions and should include:

   •   the name of the recommended applicant
   •   a clear statement why this applicant was considered more appropriate
       than other short listed applicants
   •   direct evidence that the recommended applicant meets the selection
       criteria, including results of interview, seminar/presentation and referees
       report
   •   verification of essential academic qualifications
   •   a comment on the selected applicant’s research record (where
       applicable)
   •   brief statement on all short listed applicants referring explicitly to their
       competitiveness in relation to the selection criteria and the selected


                                          30
       applicant

Finalizing the Outcome

The selection report should be endorsed by the Dean or equivalent.A
Recommendation to Offer New Employment Contract is not a formal offer of
employment. An offer of employment can be made only through Human
Resources after the appropriate level of approval has been
obtained.Appointments will generally be to the minimum of the salary range. If
the selection committee believes that circumstances warrant consideration of a
higher salary this must be approved by the Dean or equivalent.



4. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION AT TEAMLEASE
TeamLease Services is India’s leading staffing company and provides a range of
Temporary and Permanent manpower solutions to over 1000 clients. Temps’ or
‘associates’, are temporary workers who are deputed to various companies who
prefer to outsource their HR operations. The ‘associates’ work for the company
they are assigned to but are on the payroll of the staffing or the temp leasing
company. The duration of a temporary job is three to nine months. Some of the
important characteristics of temping recruitment are as follows-

   •   Recruit as per Client requirement and assign them to Client or Transfer
       candidate identified by client on to TeamLease.

   •   Co-employment relationship between the Client, Associate and
       TeamLease.

   •   Manage HR Administration, Payroll and Regulatory activities.

   •   Temp staffing options- short term, long term and part time assignment.

   •   Temp-to-permanent staffing option- trial period to permanent staffing.

1 Benefits for Client

As business these days grow on a confounding rate, outsourcing the basic
functions like recruiting becomes a common thing. The need for flexi staffing is
on demand and in such a scenario Teamlease renders these services to its
Clients.

A much defined process spans into four distinct stages,

   •   Initialization

   •   Transition

   •   Operations

   •   Relationship Management.

                                        31
Equal importance is given to all four stages with activities defined for each stage.

There is a unique methodology that TeamLease adopts to render the service. This
is shown below




2 Recruitment:

The base of all HR function is recruitment. It builds the workforce that leads a
company into progression. Hiring the right person for the right job is very
important task. There are three distinct phrases that TeamLease follows which is
shown in the diagram




                                         32
3 Methods or Techniques of Recruitment

3.1 Direct Method

These include sending recruiters to educational and professional institutions,
employees’ contacts with public and manned exhibits. Most college recruiting is
done in co-operation with the placement office of the college. The placement
office usually provides help in attracting students, arranging interviews,
furnishing space and providing student résumés. For managerial, professional
and sales personnel, campus recruiting is an extensive exercise. For this purpose,
carefully prepared brochures describing the organizing and the job it offers are
distributed among the students, before the interviewer arrives.

3.2 Indirect Method

These methods involve mostly advertising in newspapers, websites, radio, in
trade and professional journals, technical magazines and brochures. Companies
advertise when qualified or experienced personnel are not available from other
sources.

                                       33
3.3 Third Party Method

These include the use of commercial or private employment agencies, state
agencies and placement offices of colleges, recruiting firms, management
consulting firms, friends and relatives.

3.4 Professional Organizations:

These organizations maintain a pool of human resource for possible employment.
These firms are also called ‘head hunters’, ‘raiders’ and pirates by organizations
who lose personnel thought their efforts. Fundamentally there are two distinct
steps of recruitment and each is a comprehensive process in itself. They are
discussed below:

4 Preparation

4.1 Know your client

Learning about companies is valuable because knowing what a company values
will help an agent to assess the candidates better. Pertinent information about
the processes of the company would also help you analyze CVs and find the right
candidate. This can be done by reading the corporate website or calling the
company for further information or using your own network and find out the
‘work culture’.

This will help one to know about the history of the company, their core values,
their clients and processes, the benefits employees can enjoy and the career
growth chart. When one has knowledge about these vital parameters, it becomes
easier to assess a resume based on these parameters. Moreover, when one is
equipped with such vital information about the company and the job profile, it
helps to motivate and mould the suitable but reluctant candidates to attend the
interview.



4.2 Analyze the Job Description (JD)

A job description is a written record of the duties, responsibilities and
requirements of a particular job. It is concerned with the job itself and not the
work. It is a statement describing the job in such terms as “Title, location, duties,
working condition and hazards”. An updated job description is essential for a
good selection interview. It helps one to explain the nature of work to the
prospective candidate properly without any over or under commitment. This also
helps to put the candidate, the client company and the agent on the same
platform.

4.3 Prepare a Job Specification (JS)

It is a written record of the requirements sought in an individual worker for a
given job. In other words, it refers to a summary of the personal characteristics
required for a job. Once the agent knows what the job is, then he can decide

                                         34
what kind of person he/she would need to do it. Sometimes the job specification
is already prepared and given by the client along with the job description. In such
a case, the job of the agent becomes easier. The job specification is for the
benefit of the employees working in TeamLease. It is ready reference to check on
the requirements that one needs to keep in mind while sourcing for the different
clients. It makes the whole task easier and more convenient.

5 Implementation

5.1 Sourcing

Sourcing is the most of all recruitment activities. It is also difficult being
monotonous in nature. A recruiter needs to be self-motivated to do the job. The
sourcing takes place in different levels and in all the verticals of the industry. The
procedures involved are discussed below. Even before sourcing is started, it is
very important to have a clear understanding of the requirement of the client
company. The recruiter must have all knowledge about the company he/she is
about to source for. It makes sure that all the questions that a candidate has
regarding the profile or the credibility of the company are satisfactorily
answered. Sourcing is defined as the process wherein the recruiter creates a
pool of potential candidates to fill up a position. It is the first step of recruitment.
Sourcing involves logging on to a job-portal and doing a search for the potential
candidates. After the search is generated, the most critical part of sourcing
starts. Mainly four steps are involved in Sourcing. They are discussed below:

5.2 Analyze the Curriculum Vitae (CV) :

Now is the time to scrutinize the candidate’s resume. It is human nature to
generally omit the negative points while creating a resume or to exaggerate the
achievements. Though most of the time people are truthful while forming their
resumes, others can hide or not mention things that can portrait a negative
picture of them. A good CV is one which is precise and presentable. It should
contain all details of education and work experience should be arranged in
reversed chronological method so as to emphasize on the most recent one.
Analyzing a CV helps in short- listing a candidate.

5.3 Match the JD and JS:

When a CV has been analyzed and is considered as a good one, the next step is
to match it with the job description. It is necessary to match it with the profile
given by the company. Matching it with the JD gives an idea if the person will be
able to serve well in the position or not. Next it is important to match it with the
job specification. The JS gives the details of the desired skills and the mandatory
skills. These are the criteria for selection.

5.4 Shortlist the candidate:

Once the CV has been matched with the job description and matched with the job
specification, CV can shortlisted. Such a candidate is then called in for a face-to-
face interview. There is an individual interview of the recruiter and the candidate.

                                          35
In this interview the candidate answers the questions the recruiter asks to be
sure that the candidate would suit the profile of the job.

5.5 Handling the rejected candidates:

 It is very important how a recruiter manages the rejected candidates. It is
important to make the candidate where his lacunas are and what can he do
about it. In this way not only the recruiter helps the candidate to correct itself but
also helps in creating an association with them which is so very vital in the
service industry.

6 Interview

Interviews determine if a potential candidate will be a finalist and if he shall suit
the job. A lot of things get clear during an interview. A face to face talk with the
candidate ensures that the recruiter evaluates the candidate on terms of
attitude, confidence and communication. The gaps that seem in the resume are
also questioned. The candidate may have an explanation for it. On the other
hand if he is lying, then he can be cross-questioned about this. Some of the
objectives of interview are:

   •   To get an opportunity to judge an applicant’s qualifications               and
       characteristics as a basic for sound selection and placement.

   •   To give an applicant essential facts about the job and the company you are
       recruiting for.

   •   To establish a rapport.

   •   To promote goodwill about the company whether interview culminates in
       employment or not.

   •   To get a real feel of the candidate.

The nature of the job determines which of these interviews would suit best. All
the interviews are not conducted for all the job profiles. The complexity of the
interview depends on the complexity of the job. We shall now discuss the
telephonic interview which is very instrumental in selecting a potential candidate
in TeamLease.

6.1 The telephonic Interview

It is said that listening intently gives a good idea of what a person want to say
and what a person does not say. The sound, intonations, the varying pressures
that a prospective candidate uses while he/she speaks tells a lot about his/her
attitude. This in turn helps the recruiter to judge that if the candidate would be
suitable for the job or not. Unlike the face-to-face interview where the recruiter
can read the non-verbal languages, in a telephonic interview he has to even
sharper. Listening to the words used and their tone used gives immense
messages about the candidate.


                                         36
As a recruiter, one has to be completely prepared before taking a telephonic
interview. The following steps can be kept in mind while taking a telephonic
interview:
1. You must keep the CV next to you and make notes while taking the interview.
2. Must prepare a set of questions that would match the JD.
3. To use a call script. This helps in being professional and saves time to in
approaching the right candidate.
4. Do not display any negative emotion during the interview. Not to over or under
commit anyone.
6.2 Questioning

It is very important to ask for permission to ask questions; otherwise it will feel
like interrogation to the candidates. To start off with, it is advisable to ask easy
questions first (the best things about their current situations), then ask about
their problems and get them to expand on their answers.

6.3 Devise interview questions: Preparation in advance of an interview is
essential if one is to make a successful hire. Critical in the preparation process is
the development of interview questions that elicit tangible facts from all
applicants. Basically, two rules are kept in mind when framing the questions that
will indicate whether or not an applicant meets the requirements you established
for the position:

RULE 1: Ask questions that concentrate on the applicant’s past performance – to
permit reliable assumptions about future success.

RULE 2: Ask questions that relate directly to at least one of your listed
requirements to maximize the information you will gain in the time allotted.

General Questions:

   •   Tell me about yourself

   •   What do you about the company?

   •   What are your goals?

   •   What are your strengths and weakness?

   •   What has been your most significant contribution in your college/previous
       organization?

   •   Why should we hire you?

   •   How would your friends describe you?

Specific Questions:

   •   How would you resolve a conflict in a project team?

                                         37
  •   What was the most difficult decision you had to make?

  •   Can you work under pressure, deadlines, etc…?

Trick Questions:

  •   You may be over-qualified for this position

  •   What would you look for if you had to hire people?

  •   If you had to change your educational stream again, what would you do
      differently?

  •   What career options do you have at the moment?

  •   According to your definition of success, how successful have you been so
      far?




                                       38
5. RECRUITMENT PROCESS AT HOTEL ORCHID:
Recruitment in Orchid involves two processes they are:

   1. External Recruitment process

   2. Internal Recruitment process

External Recruitment Process:

   •   Recruitment is done by advertising through newspapers.

   •   They also recruit personnel’s by working with Consultancies and Recruiting
       Agencies.

   •   They use Online job portals like Naukri.com, Monster etc to advertise about
       the opportunities available in their organisation.

Internal Recruitment Process:

   •   Recruitment is done through employee referral system.

   •   Promotions to the employees are done depending upon the employee’s
       performances and experience.

   •   Transferring of personnel’s from one location to another is another way of
       filling vacancies.

   •   Job postings are done within the organisation to notify interested
       employees regarding the available opportunities.

General Selection Process:

Selection Process for Managerial Department

The selection process for managerial department in Orchid involves the following
stages:

Preplacement presentation:

      A brief presentation about the organisation and it’s features is given to the
candidates by the panel. It also involves a briefing with regard to the job profile
and the opportunities available.

Group Discussion:

      A topic is given to a group of candidates and their opinions and
statements are observed and evaluated by the panel or moderator.

Extempore:




                                        39
      Candidates are given a topic or situation and are expected to take a stand
or give their opinion about it, they are expected to speak about the topic for a
small duration of time as decided by the panel.



Written Aptitude Test:

       Candidates’ analytical and logical reasoning skills shall be tested with the
help of an aptitude test, it involves basic mathematical and analytical questions.



Preliminary Interview:

       A preliminary screening interview is conducted to test the candidate’s skill
level in his field or domain of specialisation along with his communication skills.



Psychometric Test:

       This test involves psychometric analysis of the candidate’s personality and
attitude.

Final Interview :

       The final phase of the interview involves a round up with the senior
management; this includes negotiations regarding the compensation and any
further enquiries regarding the job.

Offer letter:

       The candidate is formally given the JOB offer letter which completes the
selection process.



Selection Process for House Keeping Department

Preplacement presentation:

      A brief presentation about the organisation and it’s features is given to the
candidates by the panel. It also involves a briefing with regard to the job profile
and the opportunities available.

Group Discussion:

      A topic is given to a group of candidates and their opinions and
statements are observed and evaluated by the panel or moderator.

Eye for detail Test:



                                        40
     A brief interview with HR manager that involves test for candidate’s
compatibility for the particular job profile.

Preliminary Interview:

       A preliminary screening interview is conducted to test the candidate’s skill
level in his field or domain of specialisation along with his communication skills.

Final Interview :

       The final phase of the interview involves a round up with the senior
management; this includes negotiations regarding the compensation and any
further enquiries regarding the job.

Offer letter:

       The candidate is formally given the JOB offer letter which completes the
selection process.




                                        41
                            Pre-
                         placement
                        Presentation



                           Group
                         Discussion

                       Extemporizat
                           ion

                         Written
                       Aptitude Test

                        Preliminary
                         Interview

                        Psychometri
                          c Test for
                        short listed
                         candidates

                            Final
                         Interview
                        with senior
                       management

                             Letter of
                               Offer




Selection Process for House Keeping Department

Preplacement presentation:

                                   42
      A brief presentation about the organisation and it’s features is given to the
candidates by the panel. It also involves a briefing with regard to the job profile
and the opportunities available.

Group Discussion:

      A topic is given to a group of candidates and their opinions and
statements are observed and evaluated by the panel or moderator.

Eye for detail Test:

     A brief interview with HR manager that involves test for candidate’s
compatibility for the particular job profile.

Preliminary Interview:

       A preliminary screening interview is conducted to test the candidate’s skill
level in his field or domain of specialisation along with his communication skills.

Final Interview :

       The final phase of the interview involves a round up with the senior
management; this includes negotiations regarding the compensation and any
further enquiries regarding the job.

Offer letter:

       The candidate is formally given the JOB offer letter which completes the
selection process.




                                        43
                             Pre-placement
                              Presentation

                                  Group
                                Discussion

                              Eye for detail
                                   test

                               Preliminary
                                Interview

                                  Final
                             Interview with
                                 senior
                              management

                             Letter of Offer




Selection Process for Chef

Preplacement presentation:

      A brief presentation about the organisation and it’s features is given to the
candidates by the panel. It also involves a briefing with regard to the job profile
and the opportunities available.

Written Technical Test:

      A basic testing of the technical aspects like Kitchen technical terms,
Knowledge of food preparation, ingredients etc is conducted with the help of
questionnaire.

Personal Interview:

      The candidate’s attributes, strengths, weaknesses etc are tested in this
round which involves a formal round with HR manager.

Food Trial:



                                        44
      The candidate’s dishes are tasted and based on various parameters the
dishes are evaluated and qualified by competent jury.

Offer letter:

       The candidate is formally given the JOB offer letter which completes the
selection process.



                           Pre-placement
                            Presentation


                               Written
                            Technical Test

                                Group
                              Discussion

                                Personal
                               Interview


                              Food Trial


                            Letter of Offer




                                      45
CONCLUSION


The employees of any organization are its life blood, without doubt. With
the dawn of this realization upon the present day business organizations,
there appears to be a major shift towards human resource management.
In fact, the employees of today are encouraged to participate in the major
decisions and thus play a vital role in the management of the firm. The
performance of the organization depends on the efficiency that its
employees exhibit. Hence it is of crucial importance that employees with
the most suitable qualifications be selected. This is where the processes of
recruitment and selection come in. It is difficult to separate one from the
other.

The various company illustrations given in this report indicate that these
processes require a great deal of thought and advanced planning. In fact,
it is not only the HR department that is involved. The finance department
provides the budget for the processes and the manpower gap is
determined by inputs from all the departments.           Also the grueling
procedure through which the candidate goes through is, in itself, an
indicator of the significance of these processes in the efficient functioning
of the organization.




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