Title: The Relationship of Gender and Maternal Socialization to Delay of Gratification Among Selected Filipino Public School First Graders Name of Author: Annalyn L. De Guzman, M.A. Affiliation of Author: Department of Psychology University of the Philippines, Diliman Address of Author: Palma Hall Annex, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com Abstract: please refer to the next page ABSTRACT The study investigated the relationship of gender and maternal socialization to delay of gratification among children and explored the self-generated strategies used by children while waiting. Thirty-three public school first graders ages 7 to 8 years old participated in the study. A maternal survey questionnaire was developed to measure the mothers' socialization of their children's delay behavior. Two measures of delay of gratification were used: delay to criterion (whether or not children were able to wait the criterion time of 15 minutes) and delay time (actual time that the children were able to wait). The study employed a delay-of-gratification procedure wherein the children were asked to rank their preferences for nonfood items and were given the delay contingency to either obtain their least preferred reward immediately or continue waiting for their most preferred but delayed reward. The entire delay period was video recorded for analysis of the children's directly observable and spontaneous strategies while waiting. Results showed that 24 children were able to wait (delayers) while 9 children were not able to do so (nondelayers). Delay to criterion was not significantly related to gender and maternal socialization of delay behavior. Delay time was significantly related to gender (but among nondelayers only) and maternal socialization of delay behavior. Delayers successfully waited by frequently and actively attending to their hands, other body parts and objects inside the room while children with shorter delay time/farther from the criterion time more frequently attended to the rewards and bell rather than elsewhere. The implications of the study's findings in relation to delay of gratification, gender, and maternal socialization were discussed. The study pointed out that delay ability seems to be influenced, in part, by the way mothers socialize delay behavior in their children. It also highlighted the importance of learning how to use distraction techniques to increase children's delay of gratification and self-control in general.
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