The Relationship of Gender and Maternal Socialization to Delay by rur27363


									Title:                   The Relationship of Gender and Maternal Socialization
                         to    Delay of Gratification Among Selected Filipino
                         Public School First Graders

Name of Author:          Annalyn L. De Guzman, M.A.

Affiliation of Author:   Department of Psychology
                         University of the Philippines, Diliman

Address of Author:             Palma Hall Annex, University of the Philippines
                         Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Email Address: ;

Abstract:                please refer to the next page

The study investigated the relationship of gender and maternal socialization to
delay of gratification among children and explored the self-generated
strategies used by children while waiting. Thirty-three public school first
graders ages 7 to 8 years old participated in the study.        A maternal survey
questionnaire was developed to measure the mothers' socialization of their
children's delay behavior. Two measures of delay of gratification were used:
delay to criterion (whether or not children were able to wait the criterion time of
15 minutes) and delay time (actual time that the children were able to wait). The
study employed a delay-of-gratification procedure wherein the children were
asked to rank their preferences for nonfood items and were given the delay
contingency to either obtain their least preferred reward immediately or
continue waiting for their most preferred but delayed reward. The entire delay
period was video recorded for analysis of the children's directly observable and
spontaneous strategies while waiting. Results showed that 24 children were
able to wait (delayers) while 9 children were not able to do so (nondelayers).
Delay to criterion was not significantly related to gender and maternal
socialization of delay behavior. Delay time was significantly related to gender
(but among nondelayers only) and maternal socialization of delay behavior.
Delayers successfully waited by frequently and actively attending to their hands,
other body parts and objects inside the room while children with shorter delay
time/farther from the criterion time more frequently attended to the rewards
and bell rather than elsewhere. The implications of the study's findings in
relation to delay of gratification, gender, and maternal socialization were
discussed. The study pointed out that delay ability seems to be influenced, in
part, by the way mothers socialize delay behavior in their children.        It also
highlighted the importance of learning how to use distraction techniques to
increase children's delay of gratification and self-control in general.

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