Advanced M otion Control Techniques for Nanopositioning Applications

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					Advanced Motion Control Techniques for
     Nanopositioning Applications

             October 2009

    • Company and Product Overview

    • System Elements

    • Galil Control Filter

    • Advanced Control Features

    • Tuning – GalilTools and WSDK

    • Adding IO to Motion Control Systems

    • GalilTools API and LabView

    • Medical/Biotech Sample Applications

        About the Company

    Established Reputation and Long History of Success
    •   Founded in 1983 by Jacob Tal and Wayne Baron
    •   Introduced 1st microprocessor-based servo controller
    •   Profitable for over 90 consecutive quarters
    •   Delivered over 500,000 controllers world-wide

    Excellent Technical Support and Service
    • World-wide network of factory-trained reps & distributors
    • Technical support team with over 100 man-years of motion
      control experience
    • On-line support tools at

      The Galil Support Team

     • Live, prompt technical

     • Over 100 years of combined
       motion control experience

     • Degreed MEs and EEs

 “The mission of Galil’s experienced Applications Department is to provide
prompt and accurate technical assistance to help OEMs successfully deliver
                        their products to market ”

         We Are Here to Help!

• Tech Support Provided at Galil headquarters:

Address:      270 Technology Way, Rocklin, CA 95765
Toll Free:    800-377-6329
Phone:        916-626-0101
Fax:          916-626-0102
Hours:        8am to 5pm PST, Monday through Friday

• Please provide:
     –   Name
     –   Company
     –   Address
     –   Phone/Email
     –   Galil Products and revisions
     –   Problem
     –   Error messages
     On Line Tools at

    Galil’s free online support tools include:
    • White Papers & application notes
    • On-Line tutorials on motion control
    • MotionCodetm Toolkit with downloadable programs and code
    • MotorSizertm Software for easy sizing of motion systems
    • HelloGaliltm Quick start for PC programming languages
    • Bulletin Board with subject search
    • ServoTrends Newsletter Archives
    • Product catalog with specs and pricing
    • Customer applications and videos
    Galil Motion Controllers

     Features- Handles any Mode of Motion

    • Point-to-Point Positioning
    • Position Tracking
    • Jogging
    • Linear and Circular Interpolation
    • Tangential Following
    • Helical
    • Electronic Gearing
    • Electronic Cam
    • Contouring
    • Teach and Playback
    • Position, Velocity, Time (PVT)
      Features – High Speed

    • Encoder frequencies up to 22 MHz for servos

    • Outputs pulses for steppers up to 6 MHz

    • Servo loop updates as low as 31 µsec/axis

    • 40 µsec command processing for application programs

    • Ethernet available for 10Base-T and 100Base-T

      Features – Intelligent Programming

     • On-board, non-volatile memory for storing application
       programs, variables and arrays  frees host

     • Programmable event triggers including At time,
       At position, At input, At speed

     • Multitasking for simultaneous execution of up to eight
       application programs

     • Conditional JUMPS and IF/THEN/ELSE/Constructs

     • Arithmetic and trigonometric functions
      Galil Product Line

     • ACCELERA Controllers & Drives
        – DMC-40x0 Ethernet/RS232
        – DMC-18x6 PCI
     • ECONO Controllers & Drives
        – DMC-21x3 Ethernet/RS232
        – DMC-18x2 PCI
     • Single-Axis Controllers & Drives
        – DMC-14x5 Ethernet/RS232
        – CDS-3310 Ethernet/RS232
     • Pocket PLC I/O Controllers
        – RIO-47xxx Ethernet/RS232
     • Software Tools
        – GalilTools Servo Tuning and Analysis software
        – Ladder Interface Converts ladder program into RIO code

      ACCELERA – Sizzling Speed. Fully Loaded.

     • Galil’s latest generation motion controller family
     • RISC processor for high-speed performance and
       processing power
     • Accepts encoder inputs up to 22 MHz for servos
     • Servo updates as fast as 31 µsec/axis
     • Command processing time as low as 40 µsec
     • 2000 lines x 80 chr program memory
     • 16,000 array elements; 510 user defined variables
     • Enhanced instruction set
     • Available in 1- through 8-axis formats
     • PCI: DMC-18x6
     • Ethernet/RS232: DMC-40x0
     DMC-40x0 Accelera Ethernet Controller

• Accelera, Ethernet/RS232 controller
• Full-featured, packaged controller
• Ultra-high speed and precision
• Ethernet 10/100Base-T, RS232
• 1 through 8 axes
• Optically isolated I/O, high-powered
  outputs, analog inputs, expanded
  3.3V I/O, metal enclosure, d-type
• Available packaged with multi-axis
  servo and stepper drives               DMC-4040 4-axis
• Compact-Box Dimensions:                controller

   1-4 axes: 8.1” x 7.25” x 1.72”
   5-8 axes: 11.5” x 7.25” x 1.72”

      DMC-40x0 Drive Options from Galil

     Model        Description

     SDM-44040    Four 1.4 A drives for step motors (Full, Half, ¼, 1/16)

     SDM-44140    Four 3.0 A drives for microstepping

     AMP-43140    Four 20W Linear amps for brush servos

                  Four 500W PWM amps for brush/brushless servos
                  Two 500W PWM amps for brush/brushless servos

         The DMC-40x0 can also connect to external drives
                  of any size or power range.

     RIO Pocket PLC

          Smart. Compact. Low-Cost. Packed with I/O

     RIO-47xxx Pocket PLC

       Analog and Digital I/O with intelligence
          in a cost-effective, compact unit

     Smart. Compact. Low Cost. Lots of I/O.

     • Smart – RISC processor, memory, counters, timers,
       PID process loops, web interface, data logging, email
       alerts, Ethernet, Power-over-Ethernet, Modbus
       Master/Slave, Ladder Interface Software
     • Compact – just 3.88” x 4.26” x 1.30”
     • Low Cost – only $295 in single quantity $195 in 100
     • Lots of I/O – 32 digital I/O & 16 analog I/O

          RIO-471xx Provides Numerous I/O

•        16 isolated inputs, 5-24 VDC
•        8 isolated, sourcing outputs, 12-24 VDC, 500mA
•        8 isolated, sinking outputs, 5-24 VDC, 25mA
•        8 analog inputs, 0-5V
            –     47120: Selectable +/-10V, +/-5V, 0-5V, 0-10V 12-
                  bit std, 16-bit opt. Differential or Single-ended.
• 8 analog outputs, 0-5V
      – 47120: Selectable +/-10V, +/-5V, 0-5V, 0-10V 12-
          bit std, 16-bit opt.

                 All I/O are self-contained in each RIO unit.
    18          Network multiple RIO units to add more I/O.
     Use ICS boards for Prototyping

                                Converts D-type to screw terminals

                                  ICS-48026 for analog I/O
                                  ICS-48044 for digital I/O

     RIO-47200 PLC with Screw terminals

            Pocket PLC with Screw Terminals and DIN Tray

     RIO Options

     •   RIO-47100 PLC with 0-5V analog; 12-bit
     •   RIO-47120 PLC with +/10V analog; 12-bit
     •   RIO-47120-16 16-bit ADC/DAC
     •   RIO-47102 -47100 with expanded memory
     •   RIO-47122 -47120 with expanded memory
     •   RIO-47200 PLC with screw terminals, DIN,
         0-5V analog inputs, 16 high power outputs

     System Elements

     Position Control Systems

          L C DA R M
          BOK I GA

        HS           OI N
                    M TO                    OO
                                          MT R
                                 RV R
                                DI E
       O P TR
      C MU E       O TOLR
                  C NR L E                 N L A
                                          AD OD

                                 OI I N
                                P STO
                                 E S R
                                S NO

       Motion Controller Functions

      O M N
     C M A D              R             X           V
                P OI E
                 R FL
                E E AO
               GNR T R     +
                                            IL E
                                            F TR

                               OI I N
                              P S TO
                              DC DR

      U C I N
     F N TO S
       e o e o itio e d a k
     D c d P s nF e b c
       e e te e ire o itio  (
     G n ra D s d P s n R t )
       lo e e o itio
     C s th P s n L o   o p
      ta ility C m e s tio
     S b        o p na n

       System Elements

                            FIL E

      D SIR D
       E E      R       X           Y
      PO IO
        SIT N
                            G          DC
                                         A    M
                                             A P
      E EAO
     GNRT R         -


                  SIT N
                PO IO
                DC DR

                    P                              M

        Filter Operation

           Proportional    P(k) = KP · X(k)
           Derivative      D(k) = KD · [X(k) - X(k-1)]
           Integral        I(k) = KI · X(k) + I(k-1)

           Proportional    For speed of response
           Derivative      For stability and damping
           Integral        For accuracy - slow response

     Galil Control Filter

     Galil Control Filter

     Advanced Filter Features

     •Proportional, Integral and Derivate gains
     •DAC Offset
     •Torque limiting (continuous and peak)
     •Integral limiting (including integrator “freeze”)
     •Feedforward terms (acceleration and velocity)
     •Notch filter
     •Pole filter
     •Servo sample period

     Dual Loop block diagram

     Piezo Ceramic firmware

     •Available as option for increasing performance of
     piezo ceramic motors
     •Helps deal with static and dynamic characteristics of
     piezo ceramic motors
        • Positive and negative anti-friction bias
        • Deadband with hysteresis and shutoff
        • Dual PID gainsets for static/dynamic operation
        • Distance selectable feedforward velocity term
     Custom Firmware Options

     Galil offers many custom firmware modifications to
     achieve ultimate system performance:

     •Feedback options: BiSS, SSI, Sine/Cosine
     •Linear and 2D error mapping
     •Kinematic transformations
     •Advanced control algorithms
     •Other customizations – FD, input notch, etc.

     System Tuning

       System Connection and Compensation

     Connecting the system elements is done in three steps:
     1. Test each function separately.
     2. Close the position loop with low gain.
     3. Tune the controller for fast and accurate response.

     Potential problems and their effects:
     1. Ground loops - instability and noise sensitivity.
     2. Connection with wrong polarity (positive feedback) --
     causes motor to run away.
     3. Too high gain -- causes instability and oscillations.

       System Compensation

     Set PID filter to
             KI = 0
             KP, KD low values
     Step I -- KD
     Increase the derivative constant, KD, until system vibrates,
     then back off.
     Step II - KP
     Increase the proportional constant, KP, until system vibrates,
     then back off.
     Step III -- KI
     Increase the integral constant, KI, until system vibrates, then
     back off.

       WSDK Auto Tuning

• The autotuning feature
  allows quick and easy

• Adjusts PID parameters
  for optimum performance

• Several autotuning
  methods available

• Step response is
  displayed showing
  risetime, overshoot and

        WSDK System Analysis

•    Provides impulse test to
     check for absolute

•    Actual response to
     impulse is displayed

         WSDK System Analysis

•   Provides open and closed-
    loop frequency response

•   Useful for determining
    system bandwidth and

•   Frequency range for test is

       GalilTools- The Next Generation

     A new software package that enables easy set-up, tuning and
                analysis of Galil’s latest control systems

     • Designed for use on Galil’s current generation of products
       Ethernet/RS232: DMC-40x0, DMC-21x3 and RIO-47xxx
       PCI: DMC-18x6 and DMC-18x2

     • Cross-platform compatible
     • Communication drivers new from the ground-up, designed for
       quick and efficient controller communication
     • GalilTools Lite (no charge) also available
     • Details, demos at

     GalilTools- Scope

     GalilTools- Watch All

     GalilTools- Watch Some

     GalilTools- Tuning

     Adding IO To A System

     RIO-47xxx Networking

     Seamlessly interface to Galil motion controllers

     RIO-47xxx Networking

     Can be networked so all devices can access it

     Advantages to Remote IO

     •Place controller closer to IO points
         • Noise immunity

     •Cat 5 cabling is cheaper and more readily available
     then shielded cables

     •Open protocols
        • ASCII strings via TCP or UDP
        • Modbus TCP/IP

     •Interface to many other Ethernet enabled devices
         • PC’s, HMI’s, PLC’s…

     Advantages to Remote IO - continued

     •Offload processes to RIO
        • Free up controller processing time

     •Theoretically infinite IO points



     In addition to the GalilTools GUI, an api and COM
     interface have been developed for Galil integration in
     the following programming languages:

     •Visual Basic
     •Visual C++
     •G++ (Linux)

     LabVIEW HTML help

     LabView Example

     LabView Example

     Application Examples

     Application Examples

     Galil has been involved in a number of
     medical/biotechnology applications including:

     XYZ Labs – Ceramic fast step settle:
        1 mm @ 60msec, 1µm @ 20msec

     XYZ Bio – Linear motor fast short move:
        80 µm move @ 1msec

     XYZ Micro - FDA and ceramic motors
        Documentation

        Static configuration

        Verification procedure

     Application Examples/Links

     Links for high speed/high accuracy systems:

Galil Product Training Seminar is protected by copyright
     and must not be reproduced or disseminated in any
     form without prior written consent of Galil Motion
     Control, Inc.