IT’S ALL ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY by fjt11572

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									             IT’S ALL ABOUT
             SUSTAINABILITY


    BIODIESEL: A SUSTAINABLE
FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINES


NPS Climate Friendly Parks
Biofuels in Parks                Kent Bullard
                             Channel Islands National Park
NPS Webcast                         805-658-5745
July 10, 2009                  kent_bullard@nps.gov
Biodiesel in the National
Parks     Learning Objectives
 The Basics of Biodiesel

 How to use Biodiesel in your park’s fleet

 How to buy biodiesel

 The advantages and disadvantages of using biodiesel

 Physical and chemical properties of Biodiesel fuel/B20

 The handling and storage requirements for biodiesel

 Bringing biodiesel to the community
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Sustainability is living within the
 limits of the earth….
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 … as we limit our use of
 finite resources.
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Think of the earth as an island
 with limited resources.
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Sustainability is adapting our
 needs to fit the environment with
 the minimum impact...
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 …this is not sustainable.
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Sustainability
 is about not
 using it all
 for ourselves.
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Sustainability is about leaving the next
 generation with the ability to live a
 quality life.
SUSTAINABILITY IS FOREVER




 Sustainability is about making educated
 choices regarding our use of energy
 resources.
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL



Post Peak Oil???
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL



Biodiesel provides sustainability
for the local economy.
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL



Department of Energy studies have
shown that Biodiesel made from
soy has a life cycle that returns
3.2 units of energy versus .84 for
petroleum.
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL



Industry operations have produced
3,000 gallons of biodiesel from
used cooking oil while only using
100 gallons of biodiesel to power
the facility.
 BIODIESEL AS A
SUSTAINABLE FUEL


However some have questioned
the sustainability of biodiesel.
IT’S ALL ABOUT
SUSTAINABILITY


Waves beat upon the shore,
there are no islands anymore…
                      Edna St. Vincent Millay
BIODIESEL: A SUSTAINABLE FUEL
     FOR DIESEL ENGINES




        Sea Ranger II, uses B20
      Channel Islands National Park
  Or- Greening Your Operation
         with Biodiesel

Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are important tools
in your green toolbox. Use them to reduce your
environmental footprint.

You must take a broad view of your operation and
apply the full range of available tools to implement
sustainable practices throughout your operation.

It is your responsibility to adopt the use of this fuel
in a responsible manner to ensure program success.
What is Biodiesel

Biodiesel (Methyl Esters) is a diesel replacement fuel
 made from virgin vegetable oils. It can also be made
 from recycled restaurant grease or animal fats.
Biodiesel lowers toxic emissions and particulate matter.
100% biodegradable.
Biodiesel is safe to store
 and has a high flash point.




   This was not a bio tanker
Biodiesel Nomenclature

Biodiesel is methyl-ester, also called B100, in its 100%
 pure, full-strength, neat or straight form.
Biodiesel blends are just that. Blends of biodiesel and
 petroleum fuel. Designated by its blend ratio, B5 is
 5% biodiesel/95% D2, B20 is 20% bio/80% D2
Biodiesel is not, SVO, WVO, vegetable oils, fry grease
 or “McDonalds Oil”, no matter what the press tells
 you.
Biodiesel is a manufactured fuel.



                         “Just say No”
Why Use Biodiesel ?
   New ASTM Fuel Specifications

      ASTM 975-08a, Specification for Diesel Fuels.

 ASTM D975-08a, Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils —
   used for on- and off-road diesel applications; revised
   to include requirements for up to 5 percent biodiesel.
 ASTM D396-08b, Specification for Fuel Oils — used for
   home heating and boiler applications; revised to
   include requirements for up to 5 percent biodiesel.
 ASTM D7467-08, Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil,
   Biodiesel Blend (B6 to 20) —
   a completely new specification that covers finished
   fuel blends of between 6 (B6) and 20 (B20) percent
   biodiesel for on- and off-road diesel engine use.
 Biodiesel in the
 National Parks

ASTM D975-08a allows for up to 5% biodiesel without change.

                                             100
                                             90
                                             80
                      Blend Percentage (%)

                                             70
                                             60
                                             50                           Biodiesel
                                                                          Diesel
                                             40
                                             30
                                             20
                                             10
                                              0
                                                   B2   B5   B20   B100
Biodiesel in the
National Parks
          Property            Units    Test Method            Value
                                         (ASTM)        B100                  B20
Flash Point                  Deg C        D 93       130 min                38 min
Water and Sediment          % Volume     D 2709      .050 max              .05 max
Kinematic Viscosity, 40 C   mm^2/s       D 446        1.9-6.0               1.3-4.1
Sulfated Ash                % mass       D 874       .020 max
Sulfur                      % mass       D 5453       .05 max              .05 max
Copper Strip Corrosion                   D 130       No. 3 max            No. 3 max
Cetane Number                            D 613        47 min                40 min
Cloud Point                  Deg C       D 2500       Report*         Per Table 1, D975
Carbon Residue              % mass       D 4530      .050 max         Set after add. data
Acid Number                 mg KOH/g     D 664        .50 max              0.2 max
Free Glycerin               % mass       D 6584        0.02                  N/A
Total Glycerin              % mass       D 6584        0.24                  N/A
Phosphorus Content          % mass       D 4951      .001 max                N/A
Distillation Temperature     Deg C       D 1160      360 max               338 max
Atmosphere Equiv. Temp
90% Recovered
 Why Biodiesel

RENEWABLE!                            It has a closed carbon cycle
It works in existing diesel engines
 with no modification.
                                       Buys time until cleaner
                                        technology is available
Reduces emissions
It is an immediate solution.
It requires no new refueling
 infrastructure.
Biodiesel provides direct aid to US
 farmers and workers.
Less toxic in the marine
 environment.
     Looking for the attributes
       in all the right places.

             Technical Attributes
 Reduced Emissions
 Improved Lubricity
 Safer Handling
 Reduced Liability
 Reduced Toxicity in the environment.
 Renewable Fuel Resource.
 Locally produced fuels benefit the local
  economy.
 Better Lifecycle
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                Reduced Emissions

 Biodiesel’s main emission attributes are the
 reduction of all criteria emissions with the
 exception of NOx.
 The reduction in particulate matter can be
 up to 55%, which is of particular importance
 to school bus fleets.
 The NOx increase is often used to block
 biodiesel implementation, but recent studies
 have shown biodiesel blends to be NOx
 neutral.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
           Reduced Emissions
Why Use Biodiesel ?
           Reduced Emissions
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                             Lubricity

 As we moved to using ultra low sulfur diesel,
 biodiesel blends gained in importance as an
 environment friendly lubricity additive.

 In addition its attribute of being a local
 product, biodiesel can grease the skids of the
 local economy which is also gaining
 importance among users.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                           Lubricity

 In blends as low as 1 percent,
 biodiesel can be used as a lubricity
 additive to bring low or ultra low sulfur
 diesel fuels into compliance with EMA
 recommendations.

 As more biodiesel is manufactured to
 meet lubricity requirements, more
 B100 will become available in regional
 markets.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                  Economic Benefits

             Few Direct User Benefits
   Per gallon costs for B20 remain 5-10%
   higher that D-2, 10-15% ^ for B100.
   Price fluctuations in fuel is hard to budget
   for.
   Consumers remain responsible for fuel
   system repairs.
   Tax and production credits do not always
   trickle down to the consumer.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                  Economic Benefits

Last Year Key West sent thousands of gallons of
 waste cooking oils north and had to pay for the
                    disposal.

 If that oil was made into biodiesel locally for
 offroad use it could reduce costs for local boat
              tour and fishing charters.

These lower costs could attract more visitors to
  a greener Key West, higher occupancy taxes,
             more meals (more oil?)
   Pushing lower costs to a segment of your
      community can trickle benefits for all.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
              Economic Benefits

           Reduced liability

  Allows for compliance with EPACT
  guidelines through a fill and go
  program.

  Some agencies reduce permit fees for
  alternative fuel applications.
Why Use Biodiesel ?
                 Economic Benefits

   Possible reduction in infrastructure costs

  Existing fuel storage or distribution systems
  can be utilized.

  Existing equipment and engines can be
  “converted” to biodiesel at minimal cost.

  New fueling systems should or are required
  to be constructed to petroleum standards.
Problems With Biodiesel...

 Costs comparisons often with B20 (a blend of 20%
  biodiesel and 80% petroleum).
 B100 is currently over $.50 higher than D2
 A good estimate is approximately .15/gallon over diesel
  for B-20 blends.
 Price tied to a mono feedstock production, primarily
  soy which can be effected by world economic and
  environmental issues.
 Biodiesel can degrade natural rubber.
 Biodiesel raises cloud points by 3-5° F virgin; and 12-
  15° F recycled in its blended form.
Problems With Biodiesel

Engine Manufactures and Warranty
NBB Warranty Statements
Fuel Hose and Systems
Material Compatibility
Availability
Resistance from GSA
Purchasing Biodiesel


 Specify that only biodiesel meeting ASTM 6751
 will be contracted for.
 Require that every delivery include a certificate
 of origin and compliance.
 Determine your blend requirement and also
 require that D975 standards be met.
 If possible, require that the production and
 distributor be BQ-9000 certified.
Shipping Biodiesel


 Specify that biodiesel only be carried in tankers
 following other biodiesel or petroleum diesel.

 Require a visual inspection of the tanker.

 Never follow gasoline with biodiesel.
Receiving Your Biodiesel

 If bulk delivery, draw a bottom sample, mid
 tank and top sample. Retain these samples for
 60 days, or the life of the fuel.

 Interview the driver about how he handled the
 fuel.

 As with any fuel delivery, perform ASTM D4176,
 Standard Test Method for Free Water and
 Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels
 (Visual Inspection Procedures)
Managing Your Biodiesel

 Obtain, read and keep a copy of the 2009
 Biodiesel Handling and use Guidelines @
 http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/4367
 2.pdf
    (Or just Google Biodiesel Guidelines 2009)
 Incorporate the relevant guideline into your
 operational manual.

 The National Biodiesel Board has many other
 resources. http://www.biodiesel.org
Storing Your Biodiesel

    Manage water in your storage tank.
    When first switching to biodiesel or biodiesel
    blends, inspect your tank and clean if necessary.
•       DETERMINE AMOUNT OF WATER IN THE TANK WITH WATER FINDING
    PASTE.
•       LOOK AT WATER FINDING PASTE FOR ANY CLUMPS OF SLUDGE OR
    SEDIMENT AND FROM THIS, ESTIMATE LEVEL OF SLUDGE OR SEDIMENT IN
    THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK.
•       IF TANK DOES NOT CONTAIN MORE THAN 1/4 INCH OF WATER AND LESS
    THAN 1/2 INCH OF TOTAL WATER, SLUDGE AND SEDIMENT, THEN DRAW THE
    TANK DOWN AS LOW AS POSSIBLE AND REFILL WITH BIODIESEL.
•       IF WATER/SLUDGE/SEDIMENT LAYER IS GREATER THAN 1/2 INCH,
    ATTEMPT TO DRAIN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. IF IT CAN BE DRAINED TOTHE
    REQUIREMENTS IN 3 ABOVE, THEN DO SO. THEN DRAW THE TANK DOWN AS
    LOW AS POSSIBLE AND REFILL WITH BIODIESEL.
•       IF DRAINING CANNOT BE ACCOMPLISHED, THEN THE TANK SHOULD BE
    CLEANED BEFORE PUTTING BIODIESEL IN THE TANK.
Making Sure Biodiesel Works
for Your Fleet.

 Successful Biodiesel and biodiesel utilization requires
 that you treat your fuel with care.

 This requirement extends from your purchasing
 contracts through to the end user of the fuel.

 Having a chapter in your operational manual covering
 biodiesel handling and use is a recommended quality
 assurance practice.
Using Your Biodiesel …

 Make sure your drivers and operators have
 bought into the program. Make them aware that
 the fuel will reduce toxins in their workplace.

 Educate the public and your customers about
 your biodiesel program.
…. as all the staff works together
as a team to make programs function.


                                   Contracting Officers get your
                                    materials.




 Operational Staff utilize and
  benefit from Environmental
  Leadership.
Who is using it...

  Across the country fleets are using biodiesel to
  meet EPACT requirements.
      Fleet vehicles
      Agricultural equipment
      Marine vehicles
      Home heating
      Generators
      Automobiles
 Biodiesel in the
 National Parks

Yellowstone National Park, The University of Idaho and the Montana
Department of Environmental Quality first pioneered biodiesel with
the “Truck in the Park Program”. The project placed an unaltered
diesel pickup truck into service in Yellowstone National Park, fueled
the truck with 100 percent rapeseed ethyl ester, and monitored
performance and emissions.


The program started in 1995 and
has since demonstrated biodiesel
use in all weather conditions while
covering over 200,000 miles of
operation.
Biodiesel in the
National Parks

  In 1988 a partnership between the US
  Department of Energy and the National Park
  Service was created.

  This “Green Energy Program” promoted the
  application of a variety of sustainable energy
  programs in National Park Areas.

  Fourteen National Park areas piloted biodiesel
  utilization through this program starting in 2000 and
  several other parks began biodiesel utilization on their
  own.
Biodiesel in the
National Parks

Assateague Island NS          Channel Islands National Park
Everglades National Park      George Washington Memorial Parkway
Glacier National Park         Grand Teton National Park
Harpers Ferry NHP             Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park    Manassas National Battlefield Park
Mount Rainier National Park    National Capitol Parks East
Pictured Rocks NS             Redwoods National Park
Rock Creek Park               Scotts Bluff National Monument
Sleeping Bear Dunes NS        Voyageurs National Park
Yellowstone National Park     Yosemite National Park
Whitman Missions NHS           Whiskeytown NRA
Point Reyes NS                … and more
Don’t Let The Negative
Folks Get You Down.
               Questions ?

Kent Bullard
kent_bullard@nps.gov   805-658-5745

								
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