NGOs and Global Sustainability Issues MIM 511/BA 548 Winter 2010 Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Cross-Sector Collaboration – Why It Matters “Traditional roles (of governments, civil society and the private sector) are shifting inviting imaginative response to societal and environmental challenges and offering the possibility of new alliances that have the potential of bringing greater stability to whole nations and more opportunities to millions of disenfranchised people”. R. Tennyson Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Representative Organizational Types Public Sector – The Rule of Law • Educational/academic institutions • International agencies • National and local government • Public sector services • QUANGOS (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations) R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Representative Organizational Types Business – Investment and Trade • Business associations • Enterprise development agencies • Financial institutions • MNEs (multi-national enterprises) • SMEs (small/medium enterprises) R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Representative Organizational Types Civil Society – Social Development •Campaign groups • Community based organizations • Donor agencies • Labor organizations • NGOs (non-governmental organizations) • Private voluntary organizations • Religious institutions R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Strengths/Competencies Public Sector – The Rule of Law Rights driven – provides information, stability and legitimacy. Civil Society – Social Development Values driven – is responsive, inclusive and imaginative. Business – Investment and Trade Efficiency driven – is inventive, single-minded and fast. R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World Limitations/Challenges Public Sector – The Rule of Law Bureaucratic and intransigent. Civil Society – Social Development Combative and territorial Business – Investment and Trade Single-minded and highly competitive. R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum NGO Typology World Bank Definition: “The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives. They are private agencies in industrial countries that support international development; indigenous groups organized regionally or nationally; and member-groups in villages. NGOs include charitable and religious associations that mobilize private funds for development, distribute food and family planning services and promote community organization. They also include independent cooperatives, community associations, water-user societies, women’s groups and pastoral associations. Citizen groups that raise awareness and influence policy are also NGOs” NGO Typology General Characteristics: 1. Engage in suffering relief activities 2. Promote interest of the poor 3. Protect the environment 4. Provide basic social services 5. Advocate community development NGO Typology Orientation: 1. Development: Needs of the poor/disaster relief • Mercy Corps, Red Cross 2. Service: Provision of health, family planning or education • Medical Teams International, Doctors Without Borders 3. Participatory: Self-help project with local people involvement • Habitat for Humanity, Green Empowerment 4. Empowering: Help poor people develop a clearer understanding of social, political, and economic factors • Amnesty International) NGO Typology Operational Scope: 1. Community-based organizations 2. Citywide organizations 3. National NGOs 4. International NGOs NGO Typology Key Issues: 1. Environment 2. Labor Standards 3. Health 4. Literacy/Education 5. Poverty INGOs and Global Social and Environmental Issues The 21st Century NGO: In the Market for Change (2009) Becoming part of the system – Opportunities: Increasing Influence Challenges: Maintaining Legitimacy INGOs and Global Social and Environmental Issues The 21st Century NGO: In the Market for Change (2009) Must respond to paradigm shift Strategies: Collaborative, Focused, Differentiated Business Models: Efficient, Collaborative Management: Professional, Transparent, Accountable INGOs and Global Social and Environmental Issues MNEs and the Promotion of Civil Society (2009) Civil society plays crucial role in stability of socio- economic conditions and long-term viability of business environment. Success of MNEs depends to important extent on effectiveness of civil society Pure Market Militaristic Framework of Capitalism Economic vs. Societal Socially Responsible Capitalism Coordination of Industrial St at Nations is tC ap ita (Lehrer & Delaunay, lis m 2009) Grass Roots Pure Communism Socialism State Pure Pure State Civil Society Public Goods Categories & Defining Anti- Standards Corruption Encouraging Implications of Overall Ways Civil Transparency Seal of Society Approval Engagement Enforcing Standards Promotes MNE Reducing Interests BOP Clientelism (Lehrer & Delaunay, 2009) Private Goods Aligned Ambivalent Conflictual INGOs and Global Social and Environmental Issues Benefits of Cross-Sector Collaboration Public Sector – The Rule of Law Will be viewed as more responsive and accessible. Civil Society – Social Development Wider reach and greater impact. Business – Investment and Trade Can become more stable and successful, better at scenario planning; ultimately more profitable. R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Understanding the role of Civil Society and NGOS around the World By definition cross-sector collaboration means: A formal agreement between individuals or organizations where RISK and PROFIT are SHARED. And profit means: VALUE CREATION. R. Tennyson and L. Wilde The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum INGOs and Global Social and Environmental Issues World Wildlife Fund and Climate Savers Program Green Electronics Council and EPEAT Rainforest Alliance and Agriculture Certification Conservation International and its Center for Environmental Leadership in Business Organic Exchange and OE Standards Electronic Industry Focus: “Good Electronics” Official Name: GoodElectronics International Network on Human Rights and Sustainability in Electronics (http://goodelectronics.org/) Falls in the category of “Enforcing Standards” and “Encouraging Transparency” (from Lehrer & Delaunay, 2009). Focuses on labor and environmental conditions. Uses White Papers, Networked Cooperation, Education, Public Relations, Targeted Appeals. ZUMER Project: Nokia and NGO Partnerships Nokia and WWF: • In June 2006, signed a three-year agreement to build employee environmental awareness and responsibility and to help Nokia managers include environmental sustainability in their normal business practices. WWF will also start to support Nokia in its current environmental focus areas, which are energy efficiency, substance management, and take back and recycling. Nokia and International Youth Foundation • Since 2000, Nokia and IYF have collaborated in implementing a global youth development initiative that has reached nearly 400,000 young people in 26 countries, as well as BridgeIT, an innovative, e-learning program serving disadvantaged rural youth in developing countries. Micro-Finance and Case Study: In-Class Exercise Team Tasks 1. Create your own conceptual definition of Micro- Finance. 2. Identify the commonalities and differences between KIVA and MYC4 3. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. 4. Develop a supported opinion that one approach is better than the other approach.
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