NGOs and Global Sustainability Issues by fjt11572

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									NGOs and Global
Sustainability Issues

    MIM 511/BA 548
    Winter 2010
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World

    Cross-Sector Collaboration – Why It Matters


“Traditional roles (of governments, civil society and the private
  sector) are shifting inviting imaginative response to societal
  and environmental challenges and offering the possibility of
    new alliances that have the potential of bringing greater
stability to whole nations and more opportunities to millions of
                     disenfranchised people”.
              R. Tennyson
              Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum



                                            R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                            The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World

       Representative Organizational Types

Public Sector – The Rule of Law
• Educational/academic institutions
• International agencies
• National and local government
• Public sector services
• QUANGOS (quasi-autonomous non-governmental
organizations)


                                   R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                   The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World

         Representative Organizational Types



Business – Investment and Trade
  •   Business associations
  •   Enterprise development agencies
  •   Financial institutions
  •   MNEs (multi-national enterprises)
  •   SMEs (small/medium enterprises)


                                          R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                          The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World

       Representative Organizational Types

Civil Society – Social Development
   •Campaign groups
   • Community based organizations
   • Donor agencies
   • Labor organizations
   • NGOs (non-governmental organizations)
   • Private voluntary organizations
   • Religious institutions

                                    R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                    The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World
             Strengths/Competencies

Public Sector – The Rule of Law
                   Rights driven
  – provides information, stability and legitimacy.

Civil Society – Social Development
                    Values driven
     – is responsive, inclusive and imaginative.

Business – Investment and Trade
                   Efficiency driven
       – is inventive, single-minded and fast.
                                      R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                      The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World
             Limitations/Challenges


     Public Sector – The Rule of Law
         Bureaucratic and intransigent.

   Civil Society – Social Development
            Combative and territorial

    Business – Investment and Trade
     Single-minded and highly competitive.
                                   R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                   The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
NGO Typology
World Bank Definition:

“The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They
include many groups and institutions that are entirely or
largely independent of government and that have primarily
humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial
objectives. They are private agencies in industrial countries
that support international development; indigenous groups
organized regionally or nationally; and member-groups in
villages. NGOs include charitable and religious associations
that mobilize private funds for development, distribute food
and family planning services and promote community
organization. They also include independent cooperatives,
community associations, water-user societies, women’s
groups and pastoral associations. Citizen groups that raise
awareness and influence policy are also NGOs”
NGO Typology

General Characteristics:
1. Engage in suffering relief activities
2. Promote interest of the poor
3. Protect the environment
4. Provide basic social services
5. Advocate community development
NGO Typology
Orientation:
1.  Development: Needs of the poor/disaster relief
     •     Mercy Corps, Red Cross
2.       Service: Provision of health, family planning or
         education
     •     Medical Teams International, Doctors Without Borders
3.       Participatory: Self-help project with local people
         involvement
     •     Habitat for Humanity, Green Empowerment
4.       Empowering: Help poor people develop a clearer
         understanding of social, political, and economic
         factors
     •     Amnesty International)
NGO Typology

Operational Scope:
1.   Community-based organizations
2.   Citywide organizations
3.   National NGOs
4.   International NGOs
NGO Typology

Key Issues:
1.   Environment
2.   Labor Standards
3.   Health
4.   Literacy/Education
5.   Poverty
INGOs and Global Social and
Environmental Issues

   The 21st Century NGO: In the Market for
    Change (2009)

       Becoming part of the system –
         Opportunities:

               Increasing Influence
           Challenges:
               Maintaining Legitimacy
INGOs and Global Social and
Environmental Issues
   The 21st Century NGO: In the Market for Change
    (2009)
       Must respond to paradigm shift
         Strategies:
               Collaborative,
               Focused,
               Differentiated
           Business Models:
               Efficient,
               Collaborative
           Management:
               Professional,
               Transparent,
               Accountable
INGOs and Global Social and
Environmental Issues

   MNEs and the Promotion of Civil Society
    (2009)
       Civil society plays crucial role in stability of socio-
        economic conditions and long-term viability of
        business environment.
       Success of MNEs depends to important extent on
        effectiveness of civil society
                       Pure
                      Market

                                   Militaristic
Framework of                       Capitalism
Economic vs.
Societal                                                  Socially Responsible
                                                               Capitalism
Coordination of
Industrial




                                             St
                                                at
Nations




                                                  is
                                                  tC
                                                       ap
                                                         ita
(Lehrer & Delaunay,




                                                          lis
                                                               m
2009)
                                                                    Grass Roots
                       Pure       Communism
                                                                     Socialism
                       State

                               Pure                                         Pure
                               State                                        Civil
                                                                           Society
                      Public
                      Goods


Categories &                       Defining     Anti-
                                  Standards   Corruption   Encouraging
Implications of                                               Overall
Ways Civil                                                 Transparency
                                    Seal of
Society                            Approval
Engagement                                    Enforcing
                                              Standards
Promotes MNE
                                                           Reducing
Interests                            BOP
                                                           Clientelism

(Lehrer & Delaunay,
2009)
                      Private
                      Goods

                                Aligned       Ambivalent        Conflictual
INGOs and Global Social and
Environmental Issues
     Benefits of Cross-Sector Collaboration

     Public Sector – The Rule of Law
Will be viewed as more responsive and accessible.

   Civil Society – Social Development
        Wider reach and greater impact.

   Business – Investment and Trade
Can become more stable and successful, better at
 scenario planning; ultimately more profitable.
                                  R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                  The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
Understanding the role of Civil Society and
NGOS around the World


By definition cross-sector collaboration means:

A formal agreement between individuals or
organizations where RISK and PROFIT are SHARED.




       And profit means:   VALUE CREATION.


                                     R. Tennyson and L. Wilde
                                     The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum
INGOs and Global Social and
Environmental Issues
   World Wildlife Fund and Climate Savers Program

                             Green Electronics Council and
                                        EPEAT

Rainforest Alliance and Agriculture
           Certification
                                   Conservation International
                                       and its Center for
                                  Environmental Leadership in
                                           Business
        Organic Exchange and
              OE Standards
Electronic Industry Focus:
“Good Electronics”
   Official Name: GoodElectronics International
    Network on Human Rights and Sustainability in
    Electronics (http://goodelectronics.org/)
   Falls in the category of “Enforcing Standards” and
    “Encouraging Transparency” (from Lehrer &
    Delaunay, 2009).
   Focuses on labor and environmental conditions.
   Uses White Papers, Networked Cooperation,
    Education, Public Relations, Targeted Appeals.
ZUMER Project: Nokia and NGO
Partnerships
Nokia and WWF:
• In June 2006, signed a three-year agreement to build employee
  environmental awareness and responsibility and to help Nokia
  managers include environmental sustainability in their normal
  business practices. WWF will also start to support Nokia in its
  current environmental focus areas, which are energy efficiency,
  substance management, and take back and recycling.

Nokia and International Youth Foundation
• Since 2000, Nokia and IYF have collaborated in implementing a
  global youth development initiative that has reached nearly
  400,000 young people in 26 countries, as well as BridgeIT, an
  innovative, e-learning program serving disadvantaged rural
  youth in developing countries.
Micro-Finance and Case Study:
In-Class Exercise
        Team Tasks
    1.    Create your own conceptual definition of Micro-
          Finance.
    2.    Identify the commonalities and differences
          between KIVA and MYC4
    3.    Describe the strengths and weaknesses of each
          approach.
    4.    Develop a supported opinion that one approach
          is better than the other approach.

								
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