POTENTIALS, APPLICATIONS CHALLENGES OF GEOTHERMAL IN INDONESIA by gzn12524

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									                POTENTIALS, APPLICATIONS &
                       CHALLENGES
                OF GEOTHERMAL IN INDONESIA




                                   y
                                  by:
                                  eko agung bramantyo
                                  agungbram@pgeindonesia.com

                                        Presented:
                                               h.
                                        timbul h silitonga
                                        thsilitonga@pgeindonesia.com


PT PERTAMINA GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL ?
                                                      Geoscience & Reservoir


                                                           HOT WATER SYSTEM
                                                                                Surface A
                                                                          CAP
                                                      Geothermal reservoir model
                                                                         A
                                                                                                      BPoint
                                                                                                      Curve




                                                                                   Depth (Km)
                                                                       hot WATER                  100 200   300
                                                                                                  T (oC)
                                                               STEAM      Liquid
                                                                                DIENG
                                                         STEAM
                                                         C
                                                         A
                                                         P                       Surface A
                                                        HOT               CAP                     A
                                                        WAT               BA                          BPoint
                                                        ER                                            Curve




                                                                                            Km)
                                                        HEAT SOURCE
                                                                          C




                                                                                     Depth (K
                                                                          STEAM                         B
                                                                          Steam
                                                                                                  100 200   300
                                                                          D                       T (oC)

                                                          PAVOUR SYSTEM        KAMOJANG



Reservoir dominasi airpanas ( T 260 – 280 C )
Reservoir 2-phasa ( ap
Reser oir 2 phasa (uap + airpanas) ( T 220 – 260 C)
Reservoir dominasi uap ( T 200 – 240 C )
 SUBSURFACE - GEOTHERMAL ENERGY



ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY




                                       WELLS


                          RESERVOIR


Source : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE           HEAT SOURCE
GEOTHERMAL POTENTIALS
Sumber gambar : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE - US
          GEOTHERMAL AREA IN INDONESIA




                 27 000
TOTAL POTENTIAL 27.000 MW
UTILIZED 1194 MW (4,4%)
APPLICATION OF GEOTHERMAL
       IN INDONESIA
           GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Eksploration   Development   Commenrcial

 2 tahun         2-3 tahun       25-30 tahun
                 Wilayah Kerja Pengusahaan Geothermal of
                                   PGE
                        (Concession A
                        (C                f
                                 i Area of PGE)


         1
                                         7.    Cibereum-Parabakti
             2                           8.    Pengalengan
                                                   g    g             14
                                         9.    Kamojang-Darajat     15
                                         10.   Karaha
                                         11.   Dieng
                   3
                                         12.   Iyang-Argopuro
                       4
                                         13.   Tabanan
                           5
                                         14
                                         14.   Lahendong
1.   Sibayak-Sinabung          6
                                         15.   Kotamobagu
2.   Sibualbuali
                                   7      10 11
3.   Sungaipenuh
         g p
                                       8                12
4.   Hululais                            9                   13
5.   Lumut Balai
6.   Way Panas Ulubelu
                DIAGRAM “COST STRUCTURE”
       OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY 110 MW
                                                 Field Development = 0.8 M – 1 million US
                                                 $/MW
                                                 POWER PLANT = 1 – 1.2 million US $/MW
              ( Prod. & reinject. Wells = 18 )

                       Development                   Production
                         Drilling                     Facilities
                           30%                           9%




       Feasibility Study
             0%                                                    Power Plant
                                                                      54%



          Exploration
            Drilling
              6%
(4 sumur eksplorsi))
                         Infrastructure
                             of Field   Exloration (Survey)
                         Development,           1%
                              2,38%
     Direct use of Geothermal Energy
Mushroom Plantation at Kamojang   Cengkeh and Coconut Sugar Drying
                                  at Lahendong
                Plant Capacity
•   OWN OPERATION
     – Kamojang
         • Unit-1 (30 MW), steam sales to IP
           Unit 2
         • Unit-2 (55 MW), steam sales to IP
         • Unit-3 (55 MW), steam sales to IP
         • Unit-4 (60 MW), steam sales to PLN
     – Sibayak
                           ex Dieng,
         • Monoblok 2MW ex-Dieng, electrical sales to PLN
         • Unit-1&2 (2x5 MW), electrical sales to Dizamatra
     – Lahendong
         • Unit-1,2,3 (3x20 MW), steam sales to PLN

•   KOB
     – Chevron Darajat
         • Unit-1 (55 MW), steam sales to PLN
            Unit 2
         • Unit-2 (70 MW), electrical sales to PLN
         • Unit-3 (110 MW), electrical sales to PLN
     – Chevron Gunung Salak
         • Unit-1,2,3 (3x50 MW), steam sales to IP
            Unit 4,5,6
         • Unit-4,5,6 (3x50 MW), electrical sales to PLN
     – Star Energi Wayang Windu
         • Uniit 1,2 (2 x 110 MW), electrical sales to PLN

•   PT GEODIPA ENERGI, JV (PT PERTAMINA dan PT PLN)
                       ,    (                      )
     – Dieng
         • Unit-1 (50 MW), electrical sales to PLN
            UTILIZATION of GEOTHERMAL FOR ELECTRICITY

     2500
                                                  FUTURE



     2000



     1500
                                                           PGE
MW




                                        1194 MW            TOTAL
     1000


                                         22.78%
      500
                                         272 MW


        0



                            YEAR
REGULATION
      PERATURAN & PERUNDANGAN
         (Government Regulation)
•   KEPPRES 22/1981 Pengusahaan Panasbumi di Indonesia oleh Pertamina

•   KEPPRES 45/1991 Pertamina dapat menjual listrik ke PLN/Bdan Usaha/koperasi

•                                           (Pajak-pajak)
    KEPPRES 49/91 Setoran bagian Pemerintah (Pajak pajak) sebesar 34%

•   KEPPRES 76/2000 Pengusahaan Sumber Daya panasbumi untuk Pembangkitan Tenaga
    LIstrik

•   KEPMEN ESDM 667/2002 Penugasan DitJen GSDM dan LPE dalam Pengusahaan
    Panasbumi untuk Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik

•   UU27/2003,Undang-undang Panasbumi

•   Permen ESDM 14/2008 Harga Patokan Listrik Panasbumi

•   Permen ESDM 02/2006 Harga Listrik Energi Terbarukan Skala Menengah

•   PP 59/2007

•   Permen ESDM 05/2009 Pedoman harga Pembelian Tenaga listrik oleh PT PLN oleh
    Koperasi atau Badan Usaha lain
BUSINESS
  OPERATIONAL BUSINESS SCHEME

Develop and Operate
Steam Field           S      PLN          CONSUMERS
PERTAMINA OWN         T
OR                    E
WITH ITS CONTRACTOR   A
                      M
                          OTHER COMPANY   CONSUMERS




Develop and Operate
St    Fi ld d
Steam Field and
                      E       PLN         CONSUMERS
Power Plant
                      L
PERTAMINA OWN         E
OR                    C
WITH ITS CONTRACTOR   T
                      R
                      I
                          OTHER COMPANY    CONSUMERS
                      C
   TRANSACTION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
TYPE 1
                          SELLING POINT

    STEAM FIELD                       POWER PLANT                                  ELECTRICAL
                                                                                  TRANSMISSION
 Developed and Operated                              Developed and Operated by
 by PGE (others)                                     PLN (others)


TYPE 2
                                                               SELLING POINT

     STEAM FIELD                          POWER PLANT                           ELECTRICAL
                                                                               TRANSMISSION
                 Developed and Operated by                               Developed and Operated by
                 PGE (or and others)                                     PLN (others)
                                                                             (      )


TYPE 3
                             SELLING POINT                        SELLING POINT
    STEAM FIELD                              POWER PLANT                           ELECTRICAL
                                                                                  TRANSMISSION
 Developed and Operated by                Developed and
 PGE                                                                     Developed and Operated by
                                          Operated by other
                                           p        y
                                                                         PLN
                                          company
Sumber Presentasi Dirut PLN, Bappenas Desember 2008
GEOTHERMAL AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY AND
DIVERSIFICATION ENERGY FOR FOSIL ENERGY
              SUBSTITUTION
OIL CONSUMPTION ENERGY TO                                      COAL CONSUMPTION TO
 GEOTHERMAL UTILIZATION                                        GEOTHERMAL UTILIZATION




  100 MW                          4.250                          100 MW                       864
INSTALLED                                                       INSTALLED
 CAPACITY                        BOEPD                                                   TONNE / DAY
                                 OF OIL                         CAPACITY                   OF COAL

ECONOMIC
SUBSITITUTION PRICE

TECHNOLOGY
TREND OF PRICING DEPENDENCY RELATED TO INCREASING OIL AND GAS INTERNATIONAL MARKET (UNCERTAINTY)
THE INCREMENTAL OIL AND GAS INTERNATIONAL MARKET WHICH IS TRIGERRED TECHNOLOGY IN COAL/BIOFUEL
PROCESSING

ENVIRONMENTAL
INTERNALIZED ENVIROMENTAL COST RELATED TO GAS EMMISION
Current State and Challenges
                               Is geothermal an expensive energy?
                           p                                     ,g               gy
 If we consider the fuel export effect and the environmental cost, geothermal energy is not
 expensive energy for the society
                                                                                                  Natural               Oil
                     Item                          Geothermal          Hydro         Coal                                                   Remarks
                                                                                                   Gas                (Diesel)
 Selling Price                    (¢/kWh)                8.7
                                                         87             11.5
                                                                        11 5          55
                                                                                      5.5            7.7
                                                                                                     77                 17 1
                                                                                                                        17.1          In case of
                                                                                                                                      IRR=18%
 Loss of fuel export              (¢/kWh)                 -                -          1.8             6.0                 8.0         Oil 50$/BBL,
 opportunity cost                                                                                                                     Coal :
 Environmental cost               (¢/kWh)                0.0             0.0          1.8             0.9                1.6          35 US $ /ton,
                                                                                                                                              /t
                                                                                                                                      LNG
                                                                                                                                      8.6U$/MMBTU
        (Sulfur dioxide)          (¢/kWh)              (0.01)          (0.00)       (0.33)          (0.01)              (0.38)          from table below
        (Nitrongen                (¢/kWh)              (0.00)          (0.00)       (0.49)          (0.34)              (0.45)                ditto
        oxide)                    (¢/kWh)              (0.02)          (0.01)       (0.98)          (0.52)              (0.74)                ditto
        (Carbon dioxide)

            Total                 (¢/kWh)                8.7            11.5          9.1           14.6                26.7

                                                                                                  Natural               Oil                Price of
        Emission of Pollutants                     Geothermal          Hydro         Coal
                                                                                                   Gas                (Diesel)            Emission
 Sulfur dioxide           (lb/MWh) (*1)                 0.35            0.00        10.39            0.22               12.00         ‘@ 700$/ton (*4)
 Nitrogen oxide           (lb/MWh) (*2)                 0.00            0.00         4.31            2.96                4.00         ‘@ 2,500$/ton
                                                                                                                                      (*4)
 Carbon dioxide           (kg/MWh) (*3)                  15              11           975            519                 742          ‘@ 10$/ton
(Source)
(        )
*1 A Guide to Geothermal and the Environmental: Geothermal Energy Association USA (2005) See Fig.1.6)          (Source : JICA Geoth.Dev. Masterplan Team, Feb 2007
*2 A Guide to Geothermal and the Environmental: Geothermal Energy Association USA (2005) See Fig.1.7)
*3 Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan CRIEPI Review No. 45,2001 Nov) (See Fig 1.8)
*4 US Emission Market 2006, April
                       ENERGY REFORMATION

  Decreasing of Oil and gas Resources
  Dependency of      crude      oil    for   energy   Broker Action
                                                            Export
  consumption
                                                            Import
  Coordination     Controling         of     Energy         Transportation   ENERGY CRISIS
  Consumption                                               /Tanker
                                                                              (Oil and Gas)
                                                            Insurance
       i i    for using of non crude oil
  Apreciation f     i    f        d   il
                                                      Price Diparsity
  consumption
                                                            Sensitive
        Fiscal                                              Smuggling
        Business



                                                      Surrounding
Non oil and gas Energy Resources                      Market
                                                      (consumer)
        Coal                                          Added Value
        Nuclear                                             Economical          Utilizing
                                                                p
                                                            Accupation
        GEOTHERMAL                                          opportunity
                                                            Partisipation
                                                            Togetherness/
                                                            Justice

KEN (PP No. 3/2005; PP No. 5/2006) : UTILIZING OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
                                     ~ 5 % ENERGY MIX ON 2025
                                   Geothermal Energy Vs Fuels + Coal




                                              Geothermal, water, solar & wind
                                                 Clean Energy – Environment
                                                          (renewable energy)




Crude oil, gas &
Batubara (un-renewablet energy)                          geothermal




Perbandingan penggunaan energi :
  RENEWABLE Vs UNRENEWABLE                      source : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE
             GEOTHERMAL ENERGY’S
                CONTRIBUTION
DIVERSIFICATION      FUEL (CRUDE OIL) THRIFTY
                     ≈ 2 JUTA SBM PERTAHUN

                     DEMAND OF ELECTRICITY
ELECTRICITY          BY INDUSTRY AND
                     SOCIETY

                     WATER HEATER(OFFICE &
DIRECT USE
                     COMMUNITY)
                     AGRI CULTURE
                     MUSHROOM CULTIVATION, ETC


                     ROAD, BRIDGE
INFRA-STRUCTURE      TOURIST DESTINATION
                     EDUCATION
THANK YOU

								
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