ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN BUILDINGS

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					                       EnerBuild RTD Strategy Report (Rev. 3.2)
                                 Executive Summary
                                   31 March 2003




Co-ordinator:
Professor J Owen Lewis
National University of Ireland, Dublin
Energy Research Group
University College Dublin
School of Architecture
Richview, Clonskeagh
IRL-Dublin 14
http://www.enerbuild.net

Report prepared by Cian O‟Riordan
RTD Strategy Report - Summary


This summary focuses on the conclusions drawn from a detailed analysis contained in the main
report, which is available at www.enerbuild.net.

Introduction
The EnerBuild RTD Thematic Network aims to enhance cooperation and the exchange of
knowledge between coordinators of building sector energy research and development projects
supported in the European Commission‟s Fourth and Fifth Framework programmes. This RTD
Strategy Report has been prepared for submission to the European Commission DG Research as
one of the project‟s final deliverables. It draws on information gathered over the course of the 36-
month EnerBuild project, at a series of meetings with project participants, and workshops with
industrial and research representatives not directly involved in EnerBuild; and on the specialist
expertise of the EnerBuild Steering Committee members.

The report seeks to answer a simple question: how can future RTD actions in the Building Sector
contribute to the construction of more energy efficient and sustainable buildings? This strategy is
intended to be pragmatic in nature: it seeks to identify pathways of technical enquiry (being a
strategic document, pathways of technical enquiry rather than specific research projects are
identified) that are likely to have an actual market impact.

Structure of the Construction Industry and Implications for Research
Security of supply and climate change are the forces driving the European Union‟s energy policy.
Buildings account for approximately 40% of the EU‟s primary energy consumption, have a lifetime of
50-100 years and replacement rate of 1-2% per annum. Therefore, energy efficiency in new and
refurbished buildings has an important role in the EU‟s energy policy.

However, the construction industry is particularly fragmented and, despite the emergence of energy-
saving technologies, their application in buildings remains an ongoing challenge. There are many
reasons for (what economists term) market failure and government failure. European responses to
address this failure include:
     Research-based strategies to address knowledge deficiencies that inhibit energy-efficient
        building (e.g. Joule).
     Information-based strategies to address information asymmetries, such as information
        networks (e.g. EnerBuild) and the Energy Performance Directive.
     Incentive-based instruments to address cost-benefit (e.g. Thermie programme)

These are complemented with legislative-based instruments, such as an ongoing improvement in
national construction standards, which mandate minimum levels of performance.

Technology Areas

Solar Technologies
“Solar Technologies” includes solar heating (passive and active), passive cooling, and natural
ventilation.

While a number of areas exist where ongoing research into solar heating is required (and these are
discussed in the full report), both passive solar heating techniques and active solar heating
technologies/ materials have reached technical maturity. As the market for solar heating
technologies/ materials and techniques has grown, the cost per unit has declined and products are
characterised by incremental improvements by manufacturers seeking to gain competitive
advantage. Further deployment of these technologies is largely dependent on measures to address
local market issues.

Research into natural ventilation is primarily concerned with mathematically describing the subtle
mechanisms of natural ventilation and the development of models capable of predicting the
performance of naturally ventilated buildings in terms of air quality and thermal comfort. The
application of natural ventilation is generally driven by client demand, rather than architectural
preference – an issue which can be addressed through deployment measures.



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The rapid proliferation of electrically-driven air-conditioners in all categories of buildings makes
passive cooling a particularly important area. Research is required into the heat island effect, and
indoor environmental quality and standards, to help strengthen the case for passive cooling. In order
to assist the deployment of passive cooling, the design team must be reassured that passive cooling
will meet air quality and thermal comfort standards. As such, design guidelines coupled with
demonstration buildings and post-occupancy evaluation are essential.

In terms of the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing energy consumption, new designs
have decreased heating demand to 15-30 kWh/m2 per year and cooling demand to 5-10kWh/m2
per year. While the research areas described above will yield further improvements in new buildings,
it is also essential to achieve similar levels of performance during refurbishment.

Lighting and Daylighting
Nowadays, comfortable illuminance levels (above 500 lx) can be achieved on an entire desk area
with a T5 fluorescent lamp of less than 15W/m 2 and an efficient luminaire. The main technical
development on the horizon is the emergence of Light Emitting Diodes with efficacy greater than 50
lm/W over the next 3 years: by 2010 they have the potential to replace all compact fluorescent and
halogen lamps. This development will happen regardless, but the process could be significantly
accelerated with EU support.

Although in Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland the practice of energy-efficient lighting is
well established, elsewhere the use of high quality and efficient lighting solutions tends to be driven
by client demand rather than a proactive approach on the part of the design team. This could be
addressed by bringing innovative manufacturers together with large clients to develop standard
solutions that have high replication potential (e.g. banks, supermarkets). This should include
examples of offices with lighting power levels below 70W per person, well-daylit buildings with
effective control strategies, and solutions for retrofit/refurbishment projects.

The deployment of energy-efficient lighting solutions, particularly daylighting solutions that displace
electric lighting, would also benefit from the development of “reasonable standards” that optimise
lighting power densities and consumption.

The development of high efficiency solutions in the near future will be strongly influenced by the
ability of the lighting industry and the window component industry to demonstrate the benefits of
their solutions not only with respect to energy conservation, but regarding other financial benefits,
such as increased market value of the buildings or enhanced well-being and productivity of building
occupants. This is particularly relevant in the case of daylighting solutions.

Mechanical Heating & Cooling
“Mechanical Heating and Cooling” covers a multitude. Whilst there are ongoing improvements in the
efficiency of traditional technologies, this section focuses on heat pumps; small- and micro-scale
polygeneration, including Stirling engines, micro-turbines and fuel cells; and sustainable cooling
systems.

The primary challenge for heat pumps is to develop the market, rather than the technology. Issues
associated with the wider uptake of heat pumps in the market place are typical of any new
technology breaking into a well-established industry (i.e. the central heating industry) where
entrenched technologies (such as high temperature radiators) define industry practices. Overcoming
these issues can be achieved by a number of demonstration and dissemination projects, combined
with activities to assist in deployment, such as training and certification of installers.

In terms of the technical maturity of micro-scale CHP technologies, micro-turbines are at
demonstration/deployment stage, with Stirling engines at development/demonstration stage and fuel
cells at research/development stage. As the research consortia developing these products are well
financed and in competition, EC support activities should focus on measures to facilitate the
development of the market: demonstration, dissemination and deployment. It is essential that the
market achieve sufficient size to allow production economies of scale to reduce costs.




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Given the future emergence of cost-effective micro-scale CHP, and the vital need to adopt more
sustainable cooling technologies than electrically driven air conditioners, micro-scale absorption
cooling technologies (<20kW) that are compatible with micro-scale CHP systems (and solar thermal
systems) should be the focus of ongoing development and EC support. Work should focus on
reducing size, weight, and cost, while increasing efficiency.

As these technologies are emerging, it is important to construct today buildings that are suitable for
their future use. Turning to building integration issues, both heat pumps and micro-CHP would
benefit from the wider application of low temperature heating systems, which might be driven by
changes to construction regulations. In addition, all small scale embedded generation technologies,
including photovoltaics, would benefit from resolving the technical, economic and regulatory issues
associated with grid connection. While it is noted that the regulatory conditions differ between
Member States, there is a case for a cross-technology network in this area, as the issues are largely
the same. In addition, the potential to develop EU-wide codes for grid connection should be
examined.

Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics
As most of the PhotoVoltaic (PV) capacity to be installed in Europe will be in the built environment,
this part of the report report focuses on building integration issues. A wide range of PV roof and
facade elements are now available on the market. The chief concerns with regard to this rapidly
growing market are: production capacity constraints; the need to improve the cost-benefit of the
technology; and market development issues. Regarding production capacity and unit cost, the
reader is referred to PV-NET for a strategy for European R&D into PV (www.pv-net.net).

It is on the benefit side that building integration issues become more relevant here. Improving the
benefit involves substitution of conventional roof or facade materials with PV panels, i.e. making the
PV panel itself both a viable and desirable building product; and obtaining optimum value for the
electricity produced, e.g. through the use of net metering. It is essential, and a major challenge for
industry, that PV systems develop to become building components that can more readily be
specified and architecturally integrated in roofs and facades so that they satisfactorily perform
additional functions such as cladding, shading or rain screen elements. The issues associated with
embedded generation, discussed above, also apply.

On the market development side, EC support should focus on:
    Market stimulation - The coordination of market stimulation measures and study of best
       practice across EU nations.
    Standards and Guidelines – the adaptation of existing standards and guidelines to allow PV
       modules and systems become more readily certifiable as building elements. While the
       development of material may be coordinated at an EU level, existing national professional
       organisations will provide the means for implementation.
    Education and Training – greater emphasis is needed on PV and BIPV in engineering,
       architecture and building trade courses, in continuing professional development courses and
       related educational material for architects, engineers, and in training for installers and
       operators. As with Standards and Guidelines, while the development of material may be
       coordinated at an EU level, existing national professional organisations represent a
       preferred communication channel (from the perspective of the target audience).

Building Components
“Building Components” deal with the development and integration of building elements, such as
windows and facades, into the building envelope so that they contribute to providing a comfortable,
healthy and energy-efficient indoor environment. While historically the challenge of optimising
building energy performance involved simply balancing thermal comfort in winter with minimising
heat energy requirements, now acoustical comfort, indoor air quality, and visual comfort must also
be taken into account. In addition, comfort levels during all four seasons must be considered when
designing and assessing building envelopes. Furthermore, life cycle assessments are now
becoming increasingly important, involving consideration of embodied energy, disassembly,
recycling, emissions etc. In short, the challenge has become more complex.



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RTD Strategy Report - Summary


While research continues into glazing technologies, windows and active façades, a range of
technologies are available at competitive prices. In several cases (glazings, windiow frames,
insulation systems, etc.) their market penetration has been high. In some other cases, it has been
poor and creating appropriate market conditions for the deployment of technologies is of greater
importance than developing new technologies. Possible deployment measures:

        Design support – The performance of windows and facades is greatly influenced by overall
         building design and occupancy characteristics, especially in non-domestic buildings. Thus,
         component optimisation can no longer be analysed in isolation on the basis of, for example,
         the loss of heat in winter: integrated evaluation and solutions are required. In the case of
         windows, in particular, energy performances in winter and summer, along with visual and
         acoustical performances, are essential aspects of an integrated evaluation. Design support
         for „climatic facades‟ that have great potential to improve indoor climates and energy
         performance is especially important. However, despite their vital nature, significant
         improvements in evaluation and design support tools are needed to accommodate such
         issues as the interaction between façade performance and HVAC performance.

        Standards and regulations – As the importance of energy-efficiency and indoor
         environmental quality increase, so does the need for integrated performance assessment
         methods. The recently adopted Energy Performance Directive will oblige all Member States
         (including the Newly Associated States) to adopt such methods. Indeed, several Member
         States operate, or are preparing, energy performance standards and regulations, mostly
         based on EU standards but with fundamental differences in interpretation. The appropriate
         assessment of many advanced developments in windows and facades is not possible within
         the framework of these standards and regulations, and a consistent approach should be
         adopted.

Building and Urban Design
“Building and Urban Design” focuses on design and building integration in the context of the
construction industry and the associated professions. The emphasis is on the process of getting a
building built and occupying it; on the synthesis of the various components of the building (such as
the context, building form, special components, physical components of walls, technologies,
controls); and on the various stakeholders (the client, architect and engineers) involved; rather than
a particular product or technology. The knowledge generated as a result of research in this area
may ultimately result in the development of design guidelines, design software, the advancement of
building regulations, or simply a better understanding of the considerations involved in the design
and construction or refurbishment of an energy-efficient building. To be more specific, particular
areas that are considered include: building design; the integration of renewable energy technologies
into buildings; building refurbishment; urban design; indoor environmental quality.

The key issues that have been identified are: the design of buildings for the urban context; the
importance of refurbishment that improves energy performance; the effect of occupant interaction on
the energy performance of buildings; and, in the long term, the implications of climate change for
building design (e.g. the specification of air conditioning to mitigate the effects of global warming);

In the environment described, the measure that is most likely to have a short and medium term
beneficial impact is clear: there is a need for a programme to collect, process and disseminate post-
occupancy evaluation data. This must be complemented by the development of decision-making
tools to support refurbishment, and guidelines on indoor environmental quality requirements. In
addition, the data gathered in the post-occupancy evaluations will be used to enhance existing
design tools.

Medium to long term research should address designing for climate change and the study of
occupant interaction with buildings.

Cross-Technology Considerations

Information Technology


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The foregoing illustrates the complexity of the challenge facing the construction industry value chain,
from researchers to occupants. This complexity may be distilled into three fundamental engineering
challenges: how to consider energy systems in a holistic manner in order to address the inherent
complexity; how to include socio-environmental aspects in the assessment of cost-performance in
order to improve overall performance; and how to embrace inter-disciplinary working in order to
derive benefit from the innovative approaches to be found at the interface between the disciplines.
To address this, four complementary actions for energy and environment modelling are proposed:

        Digital Cities - entailing the monitoring of fuel use and availability in order to identify areas of
         concern and assist with the identification of options for change;
        Rational Planning -                                                                  order to assist
         with the deployment of new and renewable energy systems at all scales;
        Virtual Design -
         specific designs prior to construction; other applications of simulation tools include virtual
         reality which may allow the end-user to be "plunged" for instance into a building and to feel
         with his/her various senses - sight, hearing, etc. - what s/he would feel if s/he was really in
         the building; and
        Energy Services -                       Internet delivery of 'up-to-the-minute' information to
         professionals and citizens, and the enactment of dynamic demand side management at the
         aggregate scale.

The development of these modelling and simulation tools would provide significant support to the
rational use of energy within the built environment. It would also act to up-skill the European
construction industry by giving the means to evaluate the integrated performance of possible
solutions prior to deployment. Importantly, decision-makers at all levels (including citizens) are
given access to relevant and timely information on the basis of which informed decisions may be
taken.

Health and Comfort
To address the societal needs of improving health, comfort and safety of the European population,
while simultaneously reducing energy demands, as laid down basically in WHO targets and the
Kyoto protocol, respectively, the integration of different sectors, disciplines, stakeholders and
organisations is essential. Supportive knowledge and tools must be developed:
     Advanced and consensus models for human perception and air quality, as well as for human
        perception and light.
     A coherent model describing an integrated relationship between the physical quantities and
        human assessment.
     A generally accepted cost-benefit model linking human working environment and
        performance assessment, primarily based on productivity.
     Communication tool(s) to structure and guide cross-interaction between stakeholders,
        sectors, technologies, stages (design to production) and activities in order to optimise
        implementation and realisation of healthy, comfortable and safe space
     Demonstration of sustainable “spaces” in the living, working and transport area.

Dissemination and Technology Transfer
As discussed above, a fundamental barrier to the adoption of low-energy and energy-efficient
techniques and technologies in the built environment is the fragmented nature of the construction
process and the building industry as a whole. While researchers tend to have a deep interest in
particular subject areas, there is a need to ensure that research information is disseminated and,
ultimately, transferred so that more energy-efficient buildings are constructed. EnerBuild RTD has
contributed to bridging the gap between the research community and the appropriate target
audience through a series of Project Information Leaflets, Network Newsletters, a comprehensive
website with specific project information, and facilitating links with industry.

Sociological Commentary
A sociological perspective of the foregoing can be arranged under four headings:
Energy as a resource or service – it is possible to argue that energy and energy efficiency are
distinct, and that people do not consume energy, but the services that energy makes possible. As


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RTD Strategy Report - Summary


such, it is the efficiency with which services are delivered and provided that must be considered.
This results in two key points: policy instruments and research must be considered from the
perspective of efficiency of delivery; and the changing expectations of the services delivered by
energy must also be considered. By implication, the role of technology transfer and dissemination
activities should include influencing and shaping the multiple markets for energy-related services.
Contexts of production and consumption – it is important for policy to balance attention to the social
and organisational contexts of production with those of consumption. It is also worth noticing that
while some energy saving strategies have obvious industry-based sponsors, others, such as
passive design, do not. Support actions could seek to address this imbalance by supporting the
development of appropriate “driver” organisations for these strategies.
Constructing demand – The business of stimulating demand for a specific product involves creating
a context in which the product is likely to succeed, rather than just persuading people to buy one
rather than another product. Thus, it is important to consider how social conventions can modify
demand for a product or technology, or co-evolve along with an emerging technology.
The uses and users of research – rather than investing effort in overcoming barriers, it may make
more sense to involve future users in the co-production of technologies that suit the needs of users
and are appropriate to the market context in which they will exist. The simultaneous processes of
innovation and diffusion should be examined.

Future Research Priorities and Activities

An analysis of the above revealed a number of core issues surrounding energy efficiency and
sustainability in the built environment:

Cooling – the rapid proliferation of electrically powered air conditioning to provide comfortable
indoor temperature and humidity levels. This problem is amplified by the urban heat island effect,
itself partially attributable to the use of air conditioning. Furthermore, passive cooling techniques
(including natural ventilation) are often dismissed as not being suitable to the polluted urban
environment. There is concern amongst building designers that passive cooling systems may not
reliably meet occupant requirements. Finally, a worrying emerging trend is the specification of air
conditioning in order to mitigate against possible future effects of global warming.

Refurbishment - the dominance of the existing stock, its predominantly low energy efficiency, its low
replacement rate and the slow growth in new stock means that this is where much of the potential to
introduce energy efficient measures lies. However, energy efficiency and sustainability are rarely
considered as design criteria during refurbishment.

Conservative and fragmented nature of the construction industry – while many technologies and
systems have been developed, their application is hindered by a number of factors: the technology
is evaluated in isolation, rather than as part of an overall integrated building design solution; the total
cost of ownership is rarely assessed during building design; and there is a tendency to favour low
risk, established technologies.

Incumbency advantages – starting from a practice of favouring low-risk, established technologies,
construction industry practices have evolved to meet the needs of established technologies. These
practices are not necessarily well suited to emerging sustainable technologies.

Energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality - while the importance of IEQ is increasingly
recognised by that branch of the research community that is concerned with energy efficiency and
sustainability in buildings, and also by building designers, the two (i.e. energy and IEQ) have not
been effectively reconciled: researchers and designers request guidelines as to IEQ requirements
and raise concerns about the effect of these on energy efficiency.

The EnerBuild steering committee undertook a review of these issues and possible future research
actions, and identified a range of research priorities over the short-medium and medium-long term:

Refurbishment of Existing Stock




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Short to medium term
Actions demonstrating the refurbishment of existing stock with high potential for replication using a
combination of state-of-the-art technologies. Potential for replication could be based upon:
     standard building types (such as office buildings typical of particular “vintage”), or
     building uses (such as banks, supermarkets, etc.), or
     combinations of technologies that could be widely applied and are complementary.
This action may require the development of a better knowledge of stock, the rate of refurbishment of
various building categories and the identification of technologies that are suitable or can be adapted
to meet retrofit requirements.

Demonstration actions should be fully evaluated in terms of cost-benefit in advance, and the actual
performance monitored. Over the medium term this would result in the development of standard
approaches, or a “pattern book”, of various refurbishment scenarios with predictable performance
(cost-benefit) models that could be used as a tool to facilitate further refurbishment activities. These,
in turn, must be widely disseminated so that a “snow-balling” effect occurs. Projects should consist
of a research partner to provide options, monitor results (using internet-based technologies) and
develop model solutions, industry partners to provide technologies, and building owners that have
multiple sites suited for replication.

Medium to long term
The medium to long term emphasis should be on developing sophisticated performance models that
encompass a wider range of considerations. These considerations include:

Embodied energy and how it relates to refurbishment cycle decision-making:
Simple methods for evaluating the life-cycle energy implications of interventions; whether they are
reversible or not; how one might plan for change over time; how to respond to changing work
patterns and the effects of climate change. An emphasis should be placed on incorporating the
results of the above short to medium term monitoring actions.

The development of tools to optimise refurbishment decisions:
While new buildings can be optimised for energy, refurbishment carries a considerable amount of
complexity associated with the option of retaining existing services and structures. For instance, to
achieve a particular level of efficiency, one could use more energy-efficient boilers or improved
insulation systems. In addition, the motives for refurbishment tend to be associated with comfort,
aesthetics and changes in use, rather than energy performance; these motives will gain higher
priority in the refurbishment decision-making process. Consequently, there is a need for design tools
to assist in identifying and assessing the range of opportunities in this decision-making process.
These tools must be general refurbishment tools, rather than simply energy-efficiency tools.

Naturally, short, medium and long term actions should build upon past European research in this
area.

Low temperature heating/cooling systems to interface with polygeneration & solar
technologies
A number of important energy-efficient technologies are maturing both technically and economically
(i.e. in terms of cost-benefit). These include heat pumps, solar thermal systems, a number of
emerging small- and micro-scale CHP systems, and photovoltaics. In recognition of this, an
emphasis should be placed on constructing buildings now that will need minimal refurbishment to
incorporate these technologies in the future. In particular, efforts should focus on the interface
between polygeneration or solar technologies, and low temperature heating/cooling systems. This
will help prevent the current incumbency advantages of existing technologies being barriers to the
deployment of polygeneration technologies in the future.

There are three aspects to this interface:
    Building heating delivery systems
    Building cooling delivery systems
    Grid connection and distributed generation.



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Short to Medium Term
Low temperature heating and cooling delivery systems:
In the short to medium term, activities should focus on simple changes in construction practices
rather than development of new technology. Facilitating a change to low temperature systems
would involve the development of robust construction details and catalogue of products that conform
to these, and incorporating these into national building codes. Participants in this action would
include national construction industry bodies, who develop these codes, as well as industry and the
research community.

Grid connection and distributed generation:
While this issue is generally being dealt with through the liberalisation of national electricity markets,
there is a need to ensure that national regulatory regimes take account of the benefits and the
strategic importance of distributed generation. This includes the provision of simple, low cost grid
access procedures and the use of net metering at a fair price. In addition, there is a need to develop
simple electrical codes that make the physical interface between distributed power generators and
the grid for various technologies easily understood. The development of standard European-wide
codes should be considered.

Integrated Evaluation of Performances: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) and Energy
Efficiency
To address the societal needs of improving health, comfort and safety of the European population,
while simultaneously reducing energy demands, the integration of different sectors, disciplines,
stakeholders and organisations on a European scale is essential.

A wide range of products and technical solutions are now available to support good indoor climate
and energy performance. The market penetration of these solutions varies widely across the EU, but
overall, acceptance has been poor. Products and technical solutions – from improved glazing
systems to low energy lighting solutions – tend to be offered as isolated components. The
challenge is for the architect and design engineer to choose an optimum combination of these so as
to achieve an energy efficient solution while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor climate.
While a component might work in one building, it is difficult to ascertain in advance how it will
perform in another building with a different combination of components, different use, and different
climate.

Short to Medium Term
Design (and Procurement) Support Tools
Activities should focus on the further development of existing design tools that facilitate integrated,
performance-based design and the evaluation of a building‟s IEQ and energy performance. The
objectives would be to enhance functionality, improve performance and simplify user interface so
that the design tools application becomes widespread, rather than a specialist activity.

In addition, a more dynamic technology transfer mechanism is needed, such as that being employed
by the Scottish Energy Systems Group: software, hardware and personnel implanted within a live
design to demonstrate that the computational approach to design is cheaper, better and quicker.

Demonstration
Activities should also focus on buildings demonstrating a combination of             solutions that are
complementary, with construction followed by post-occupancy evaluation               and monitoring of
performance, followed by the publishing of results in comparable format.             These sustainable
buildings should demonstrate balance between IEQ, energy efficiency                   and sustainability
requirements.

Dissemination
The results of most recent research into IEQ has not reached building designers in a format that can
be taken account of during the design phase. While the integrated performance evaluation tools
discussed above are important, practical guidelines, diffused through national organisations, would
complement these and facilitate the application of results into building design.




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Medium to Long Term
The results of demonstration projects and associated post-occupancy evaluation and monitoring
research should be harnessed to improve the performance of design tools. As discussed in Section
3.6, while energy simulation tools exist, they are useful for examining the variables and predicting
the parameters; they are not good at predicting actual energy consumption. Their functionality
should also be developed so that the robustness of design can be assessed, including likely
occupant interaction and satisfaction with the building.

Sustainable Cooling
Overall, an action programme supporting the development of sustainable cooling technologies,
addressing both passive techniques and active technologies is necessary.

Short to Medium Term
Actions are necessary to demonstrate that passive design techniques (minimising heat gains and
maximising passive cooling techniques) can be effectively combined with active cooling
technologies to meet the cooling needs of a building. Standard solutions with high replication
potential in particular climates and urban environments should be given priority.

Demonstration should be complemented by deployment measures such as post-occupancy
evaluation, including an assessment of indoor environmental quality, performance monitoring and
dissemination of information. This includes the monitoring and dissemination of results from existing
demonstration sites.

Finally, the support of a sponsoring organisation, with a role similar to that of an industry trade body,
could counterbalance industry support for electrically powered air conditioning. This could be in the
form of a Specific Support Action.

Medium to Long Term
Research should continue into the development of cost-effective micro-scale            (<20kW) cooling
technologies complementary to micro-CHP.

The development of a tool to identify which combination of sustainable cooling technique/technology
is most appropriate in a particular building type and climate should be supported. This tool would be
based upon the results of the monitored demonstration projects.

Creating Attractive Market Conditions
If energy efficient technologies and techniques are to be deployed, it is essential that attractive
market conditions are created. The effective implementation of the Energy Performance Directive is
one important aspect of this. A number of supporting projects, such as EuroProsper and ENPER,
are already underway and their continuance is essential.

Research into Building Design in the Urban Context
Once a building is put into an urban microclimate, a number of issues arise: noise, pollution,
overshadowing, the heat island effect. Concerns about these frequently provide an excuse to
abandon the energy-efficiency agenda. With the exception of overshadowing, little research has
been undertaken into urban building energy performance. Were a greater understanding of this area
developed, it might be possible to broaden the scope of existing building design tools to become
urban building design tools.

Issues related to urban design are particularly pertinent to municipalities and planners. While
sustainable urban design is likely to consider transport issues, little research has been undertaken
into the connections between aspects of urban design and transport; how urban planning
regulations and strategies impact on energy consumption; effects of live/work patterns; the
movement of people; the implications of the quality of the urban environment; indoor air quality
related to the outdoor environment, etc. Those are seen as broad topics for mid to long-term
research that will impact on energy demand in buildings.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) and Online Monitoring


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The gap between predicted (during design) and actual performance must be addressed: POE and
monitoring provide the necessary feedback to the development of prediction tools. They also assist
in understanding which techniques/ technologies work in different situations. They provide feedback
on specific building performance to designers. They allow case studies to be developed. Finally,
there is little point in constructing buildings to demonstrate the performance of a number of
technologies or techniques if their actual performance is not objectively appraised through a process
of data collection and comparative evaluation.

Short to Medium Term
A programme for POE combined with online monitoring of a selection of demonstration buildings is
required. The assessment must take account of perceived and actual comfort conditions. Whilst this
is a short term action, it will be ongoing and the data gathered will be a source of medium and long
term research analysis and actions. This is essentially a data gathering and analysis exercise
supporting the demonstration process. Many of the technologies and techniques necessary for
energy-efficient building have been developed, but gathering this actual performance data will give
them credibility and provide the opportunity to refine/further develop them. Also, we need to develop
a better understanding of the combinations of technologies and techniques that work, i.e. develop a
more holistic approach to building design. Internet technologies are becoming available that will
allow us to monitor ALL buildings routinely and at low cost: this short term action would facilitate
such development.

Conclusion
In the short-medium term it is essential that actions focus on the demonstration of new and
refurbishment standard solutions featuring a number of complementary technologies and with high
replication potential. This will demonstrate the products and technologies that work.

Making the most of this experience is essential: gathering of detailed cost and energy information
during construction and post-occupancy is essential. Online monitoring is an important support tool.
This should be followed by the analysis and targeted dissemination of this information so that the
potential for replication is realised. An independent network to undertake data collection, analysis
and dissemination is recommended.

The medium-long term focus should be on cooling technologies and developing robust design
support tools for the integrated evaluation of energy performance, but also take account of the urban
context and indoor environmental quality. The development of the underpinning knowledge on urban
issues and indoor environmental quality is an important precursor.




31-Mar-03                                                                                  11