The theory behind the sustainability audit by ift26461

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									                                           Sustainability Personality                                             errol@xe4.org
This document explains how 40 actions give organisations a “Personality” of their own which is independent
of their staff, how those actions combines into 20 characteristics that help or hinder sustainability. The
intention is to offer a humanised model of sustainability that appeals intuitively to non-profit managers. It
contains enough information for organisations to bypass further management training and go directly to
diagnosing their organisational weaknesses and building their organisational strengths.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1)    What is a Sustainability Audit? ......................................................................................................................... 2
2)    Who needs Audits of their Sustainability? ....................................................................................................... 2
3)    What comes out of a Sustainability Audit? ...................................................................................................... 2
4)    Is it Expensive? ................................................................................................................................................... 2
5)    What is understood as Organisational Sustainability? .................................................................................. 2
a)    Sustainability for organisations is the same as life for organisms ........................................................................ 2
b)    Every organisation is the same at heart ............................................................................................................... 3
c)    Organisations have at heart the same management structure ............................................................................. 3
d)    The workload constants consist of some quantity and quality .............................................................................. 3
e)    The management workload for an organisation is a constant .............................................................................. 3
f)    Those workload constants become management targets .................................................................................... 4
g)    Governance consists of setting sustainability targets and ensuring they are met ................................................ 4
h)    Growing organisations all divide into management structures with the same tasks ............................................ 4
i)    Growing organisations all divide into management structures that need balancing ............................................. 5
j)    The quality of managers shows in their performance ........................................................................................... 5
6)    What is measurable about Organisational Sustainability? ............................................................................ 5
a)    NPO sustainability means getting money from donors ......................................................................................... 5
b)    Donor sustainability comes from giving to NPOs .................................................................................................. 6
c)    Donors decide sustainability emotionally and express themselves financially. .................................................... 6
d)    NPO’s can influence but not compel donors to fund them. .................................................................................. 6
e)    NPO’s allocate responsibility for winning sustainability to its managers. ............................................................. 6
f)    The managers need all to do their jobs for the NPO to be sustainable. ............................................................... 6
7)    Constructing the Organisation .......................................................................................................................... 7
a)    People ................................................................................................................................................................... 7
b)    Money ................................................................................................................................................................... 7
c)    Promises ............................................................................................................................................................... 7
8)    Getting the size right .......................................................................................................................................... 8
a)    On asset size ........................................................................................................................................................ 8
b)    On activity size ...................................................................................................................................................... 8
9)    Getting the balance right .................................................................................................................................... 8
10)   Allocating Responsibility (and Accountability) ............................................................................................... 9
a)    On People ............................................................................................................................................................. 9
b)    On Money .............................................................................................................................................................. 9
c)    On Promises ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
d)    On Performance .................................................................................................................................................. 10
11)   The questions to ask ........................................................................................................................................ 10
a)    Marketing Officers ............................................................................................................................................... 10
b)    Operations Officers ............................................................................................................................................. 10
c)    HR Officers .......................................................................................................................................................... 10


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                               Sustainability Personality                       errol@xe4.org

1)    What is a Sustainability Personality?
Organisations have a legal but not a natural existence, as they are not alive or human, yet they can have a
personality in the minds of onlookers. Onlookers create a Personality based on their direct or indirect
impressions of the organisation’s activities (many or few, good and bad). When staff open early or start late,
respond quickly or slowly to queries, pay on time or under duress, onlookers mentally organise their
impressions according to the model closest to us: our own personality. Early starters look energetic, quick
responders look alert, on time payers look honest. Certain behaviours (relating to income, donor retention,
reporting, project delivery, staff management etc.) matter more for sustainability than others. The XE4
Sustainability Audit identifies 40 behaviours that combine into 20 attributes that culminate in 3 emotions that
determine sustainability. The behaviours are mapped to an organogram showing which management function
has the power and responsibility for that KPA. The results are a set of numbers, straightforward and
undeniable, for the next round of planning and target setting.

2)    Can organisations avoid creating a Personality?
No. No organisation is an island; directors and shareholders give it starts, suppliers give inputs, staff supply
skill and work, customers or donors give income. Organisations exist because of their interactions with
people. Those interactions involve people’s expectations, needs and wants. The organisation will either
satisfy expectations, needs and wants or not, and create positive or negative impressions. At some point
people will explain this in terms of the quantity and the quality of the work the organisation does. In other
words, at some point, people will take things personally: and credit or blame the organisation’s staff, or its
management, or its leadership, or it as a whole. Unavoidably, organisations radiate impressions. The
essential impressions relate to promises, performances and trustworthiness, since these decide if donors will
respect, feel loyal to and trust the organisations.

3)    Is Personality fixed?
No. The organisation’s managers decide what that personality is and choose if it changes when they define
and enforce policy (recruitment policy, credit policy, payment policy, reporting policy, ethics policy, discipline
policy etc.). Changing policies changes personality. Some managers avoid decisions or make mistakes (and
hire badly, lend badly, overpay, under-report, suffer corruption and absenteeism), and generate a personality
in the eyes of donors that they do not want and cannot afford. Smart managers anticipate how their decisions
influence their standing in the eyes of funders, and therefore command their personality.

4)    Is Personality Relevant?
             4
Yes. The XE Sustainability Audit has a document that managers read and questionnaire that managers
answer. The questionnaire is in a spreadsheet that makes capturing and processing the information easy, so
that the organisation can repeat the exercise for future planning purposes with no further outside assistance.

5)    What is understood as Organisational Sustainability?
a)    Sustainability for organisations is the same as life for organisms
      Living things eat, drink and breathe. Once alive, organisms try to stay alive, which takes ongoing
      resources and effort. Once alive, we want to have and achieve things, which need more ongoing



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                                Sustainability Personality                     errol@xe4.org
     resources and work. Organisations also need resources to exist (people, goods and money), and they
     also work to have enough people, goods and money for the day, every day, for their needs and aims.

b)   Every organisation is the same at heart
     Every living creature is some version of a cell. We differ in the number of cells, the proportions between
     cells, and the development of those cells, but we cannot escape being cellular. Every organisation is
     some version of assets and activities. Any and every organisation has two (and only two) assets -
     people and money - and two (and only two) activities – making and keeping promises. Those people
     may be managers or staff, or vendors or customers, or owners or pensioners, but they are always
     people. Money may be in the form of property or machinery, or cash or negotiable instruments, or credit
     or, but it is always monetary. Every organisation is identical, but for differences in their type, level and
     mix (e.g. professionals or technicians, labour or capital intensive, or rich or poor) of people and money
     and their type, level and mix (e.g. research or training, local or national, narrow-focused or full
     spectrum) of activities.

c)   Organisations have at heart the same management structure
     The earliest unicellular organisms had the same cell performing all its tasks. With evolution (in fact,
     defining evolution), the cell divided into separate systems managing different functions - breathing,
     sensing, digesting etc. Organisations do the same. The smallest organisation has one person doing
     everything. As it grows, it separates out functions and divides into systems. Organisations evolve to
     manage their assets and their activities: Human Resource department for people assets, Finance
     department for money assets, the Marketing department for making promises and Operations
     department for keeping promises.

d)   The workload constants consist of some quantity and quality
     Organisms need to eat and drink regularly and breathe continuously. These tasks are vital to renew the
     organism’s assets of nutrition, oxygen, liquids etc. These tasks and these assets are tangible,
     measurable and quantifiable. Organisms need to take a minimum number of breaths each day, and that
     air has to have some minimum amount of oxygen and some maximum amount of toxins. Organisations
     have to manage their assets equally regularly and their activities equally continuously. Every
     organisation has a minimum amount of tasks to do and a minimum level of quality to achieve.

e)   The management workload for an organisation is a constant
     Because every organisation has the same core - assets and activities - every organisation therefore has
     the same management workload – no matter what titles are given or how many people carry the load.
     Also, the management workload is a constant, so when managers are missing or manage their jobs
     badly, the organisation goes into a management deficit. Organisms die if their breathing, eating,
     digestion etc. systems fail. So too, organisations collapse when one of more management functions fail.
     Organisations have the jobs of acquiring and retaining assets and managing and renewing activities,
     and survival means doing all this work and doing it all well. Just as an organism cannot wish its need for
     air away, and must continuously work to find air and breathe, managers cannot consciously vary (by
     decision) or unconsciously avoid (by neglect) their workload. This need persists whether managers are




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                             Sustainability Personality                       errol@xe4.org
     given the jobs or not, or given targets or not, or monitored and evaluated, or not. The organisation has a
     constant, unavoidable management workload.

f)   Those workload constants become management targets
     Organisms have minimum needs and maximum tolerances that become their targets – so much food,
     water and air each day. The level of the targets differ for types and size of organisms, but every
     organism has a breathing target, digestion target, excretion target, etc. This is captured as RDA
     (required daily allowances). Organisations also have lifelong needs – some continuous, others are daily
     or monthly or quarterly or annual, or 2-year, 3-year etc. These needs become management targets
     because they are undeniable and unavoidable.

g)   Governance consists of setting sustainability targets and ensuring they are met
     Every organisation has the same measures of success – Sustainability, Governance, Accountability,
     Management and Transparency.
    “Sustainability” consists of continuously meeting the needs of the organisation.
    “Governance” consists of understanding what these needs are, quantifying them perfectly, and
     following through with accountability and transparency. Sustainability is the over-riding need of the
     organisation; so the primary focus of every stakeholder is its sustainability. Whosoever has power over
     the organisation has first of all to ensure its sustainability. Governance is therefore the exercise of
     power and governance is good when it ensures sustainability.
    “Accountability” consists of expressing these needs as targets of quantity and quality and allocating
     them to responsible people.
    “Management” consists of giving the people who have the responsibility of achieving targets the
     resources and authority to do so. If the former are all done properly, every need has a target, every
     target is correct and has an owner, and no need has been forgotten and no target falls in-between or
     overlaps between managers.
    “Transparency” consists of monitoring management performance, evaluating if it satisfies the targets,
     and responding effectively and promptly to the risk of under-performance. If done properly, the
     surveillance / monitoring and evaluation system watches that managers are doing all (and only) the
     work that is important, are doing the urgent work first, and are doing all their work well.

h)   Growing organisations all divide into management structures with the same tasks
     Faced with the same range of challenges, all associations organise (hence organisations) themselves
     into departments that reflect assets and activities. If done well, they break the work along natural lines
     and into manageable chunks and select people with the qualities appropriate to those chunks. The
     natural boundaries relate to the two types of assets and the two types of activity that sustain them:
      Task                                           ASSETS        Operations dept.            Marketing
                                                                                               dept.
      to make decisions                 HR dept.     People        Applying existing           Fetching new
      by hiring people who can                                     assets                      assets
      make and keep meaningful                                     by delivering on            by packaging
      promises                                                     promises in a way that      promises to
      to implement decisions            Finance      Money         wins more of the assets     deliver a



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                             Sustainability Personality                      errol@xe4.org
      by sourcing goods and             dept.                     the organisation needs      benefit of the
      services and processing them                                                            size needed to
      into products and services                                                              win support
      that deliver meaningful results
     The table shows the focus and work of the four core departments, Finance, HR, Marketing and
     Operations. People with people skills go into Marketing, or project skills into Operations. If done badly,
     the organisation creates confusing boundaries, people get more or less work than they can handle, and
     jobs that are too hard or too easy.

i)   Growing organisations all divide into management structures that need balancing
     The two departments that manage assets want to grow them to the right size and keep them that way.
     The two departments that manage activities want to grow them to the right size and to keep them that
     way. Since four sets of managers are independently striving to grow their respective responsibilities, the
     danger exists they fall out of balance. The next job is therefore to keep the balance between them, so
     that there are not too many or too few activities for the assets available or too many people for the
     money on hand or too much money for the people to manage. The job of balancing falls to the Board of
     Directors in the person of the CEO or Executive Director. This means that authority OF an area falls to
     its Managers and authority IN-BETWEEN the areas falls to its Directors.

j)   The quality of managers shows in their performance
     Managers across organisations face the same challenges. They need to respond equally well.
    Marketing managers need to package the organisation’s promises. Done right, this wins the Respect
     that means generous funding.
    Operations managers need to run the projects that keep the promises. Done right, this wins the Loyalty
     so donors repeat their funding.
    HR managers need to get the right people who can make promises and keep them. Done right, this
     wins Trust so donors give new funding gets to the back office as well as projects.
    Finance managers keep the balance between the costs and the benefits of the assets and the size of
     the promises and the performances. Done right, this monitors the sustainability of the organisation.
    Directors need to manage the balance between the managers and their portfolios. Done right, this
     keeps the promises in line with performance, the assets in line with each other and with the promises
     and performance. This balancing act in the direction of sustainability is (good) corporate governance.
     The difference between how managers perform these tasks determines which organisations do better
     than others and which organisations fall or fly. In other words, all things being equal, the quantity of
     managers and their quality decides the performance of the organisations.

6)   What is measurable about Organisational Sustainability?
a)   NPO sustainability means getting money from donors
     NPO’s experience sustainability financially. Sustainable organisations have enough money coming in,
     now and in the future, with no strings attached. When organisations have too little money coming in or
     too much going out, and nothing to replace it, or its money cannot be used for its needs, and then it is




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                              Sustainability Personality                        errol@xe4.org
      no longer sustainable. Sustainability has therefore three sides for the NPO: enough money, enough
      time, and enough freedom. All three need to be in place before NPO’s can live.

b)    Donor sustainability comes from giving to NPOs
      The bulk of NPO funding comes from intermediaries who collect money from donors through the
      promises they make. The intermediaries typically have no implementation or delivery capacity. They
      need to fund NPO’s so they can point to results on the ground. For them to survive, they need to
      demonstrate to donors that they have collected the right amount of money, spent it well and spent it all.
      In turn, intermediaries pass this burden of proof onto NPO’s.

c)    Donors decide sustainability emotionally and express themselves financially.
      Donors give NPO’s money because they feel respect. They give money repeatedly because they feel
      loyalty. Donors give money freely because they feel trust. Sustainability has therefore three sides for
      the donor: respect, loyalty and trust. Donors need to feel respect and trust before donating once and
      loyalty before donating again.

d)    NPO’s can influence but not compel donors to fund them.
      NPO’s cannot instruct donors to fund them. They can try appealing for funding or attracting it. Attracting
      funding depends on the NPO doing all the things they need to and doing them all well. Earning funding
      means building respect, loyalty and trust with the donor community. NPO’s win respect when they
      promise to achieve something significant (especially when more or better than others). NPO’s win
      loyalty when they perform some achievement (especially the more or better the achievement compares
      to others). NPO’s win trust when they keep their promises in line with their performance (especially
      when more or better than others). Work that does not build respect, loyalty and trust contributes nothing
      to sustainability and is probably wasteful.

e)    NPO’s allocate responsibility for winning sustainability to its managers.
      No one has the job of “sustainability”, but its elements are given to managers.
     Fundraisers / Marketing managers are responsible for winning respect by making attractive promises
     Programmes / Operations / Project managers win loyalty by delivering relevant performance
     Directors on the board / HR managers win trust by hiring successful people who keep their promises
     Finance managers have the role of monitoring sustainability by counting money inflows, outflows,
      projecting liquidity and solvency and ensuring that the NPO has reserves for its own uses.

f)    The managers need all to do their jobs for the NPO to be sustainable.
      Respect, Loyalty and Trust are measurable and quantifiable. They come together so that R x L x T = S.
      The table below shows strength and weakness in any and all the areas producing high or low S scores.
     Figure 1: Calculating Sustainability

     Respect          x         Loyalty       x           Trust        =       Sustainability
        So 100%           x         100%            x          100%        =      100%
        e.g. 100%         x         100%            x          0%          =      0%
        e.g. 100%         x         0%              x          100%        =      0%




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                             Sustainability Personality                       errol@xe4.org
       e.g. 0%           x         100%          x          100%        =       0%
       e.g. 50%          x         50%           x          50%         =       12.5%


Figure 2: Summarising Sustainability
                                         SUSTAINABILITY


         winning RESPECT                  winning TRUST                 winning LOYALTY

        Org's Core Task 1                                                Org's Core Task 2
                                               People
        Make Promises (to                                                   Perform (on the
               perform)                                                         promise)
                                               Money
        - what will achieve                                              - deliver on programme plan
        - what will cost                  ORG'S ASSETS                   - deliver on budget plan
        - how long will take                                             - deliver on project plan
        = if org's promises are worthy, donors will fund = if org performs, donors will repeat funding




 7)   Constructing the Organisation
                               The reason the organisation involves people is to make (and give effect
 a)   People
                               to) decisions. People are the only resources in the universe able to
                               reach and apply a decision.




                               The reason the organisation involves money is to empower people to
 b)   Money
                               make decisions of the right quantity and quality. It takes money to attract
                               and keep people, provide tools and supporting environments, and to buy
                               and process the inputs that supply the goods and services the
                               organisation exists to deliver.

                               The reason the organisation makes promises is to win new resources so
 c)   Promises
                               its people can carry on making or implementing decisions and carry on
                               delivering goods and services. Successfully making promises builds
                               RESPECT in the eyes of donors and communities.



 Performance                   The reason the organisation keeps its promises is to invite donors who
                               gave funds and people who gave time already to do so repeatedly.
                               Successfully keeping promises builds LOYALTY in the eyes of donors
                               and communities.




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                               Sustainability Personality                     errol@xe4.org
8)    Getting the size right
The greater the organisation’s assets, the bigger its promises to donors and communities can be (and
the more it can win respect) and the easier it can keep its promises (and the more it can win loyalty).
The first challenge of the organisation is therefore to grow the size of its assets. Growing the size of the
assets increases the ability to promise, and builds the respect that donors can have for the
organisation. Equally, applying its assets well and delivering on its promises repeatedly grows the
loyalty donors have for the organisation.
                                The organisation that has its people right has enough time, skills and
a)    On asset size
                                competencies to make enough good decisions and to carry them all out
                                well. If organisations have too few people, the organisation cannot
                                honestly make credible promises or reliably deliver on them. The
                                organisation with too many people consumes money that should go into
                                projects and benefit communities.
                                The organisation that has its money right equips its people to make good
                                decisions and builds an environment to implement them, without being
                                wasteful or mean. Getting it wrong means the organisation is expensive
                                or ill equipped.

                                The organisation that gets its promises right makes enough promises to
b)    On activity size
                                enough people that are compelling enough to win enough money and
                                enough people to see it through to the next day, next month, next year
                                etc. If it under-promises, it loses funding to organisations that promised
                                more. If it over-promises, then donors lose trust in the fundraisers that
                                initially won respect.
                                The organisation that gets         its   performance right satisfies     the
                                expectations of donors and the needs of communities. If it over- or under
                                over-delivers, then donors lose trust in the project staff that initially won
                                their loyalty.

9)    Getting the balance right
As the organisation makes more and bigger promises, the more it needs to keep them, so the second
challenge of the organisation is balancing its promises with its performance. Consistently matching its
performance to its promises grows the trust donors have in the organisation.
                                The more people the organisation has, the more money it needs. The
                                more money the organisation has, the more people it can employ, but
                                then the more it needs to achieve. The more money or people the
                                organisation needs, the bigger the promises it needs to make. The
                                bigger the promises the organisation makes, the more support it gets,
                                but then the bigger the performance it must deliver. An organisation that
                                makes big promises and keeps them is one that safeguards the financial




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                        Sustainability Personality                        errol@xe4.org
                          assets of donors and employs honest people. This builds TRUST in the
                          eyes of donors and communities. The bigger the promise, the more is
                          expected, the harder it is to deliver, and the more precarious the
                          organisation becomes. An organisation that consistently over-promises
                          or under-delivers wastes donor resources and tells lies, and so loses
                          trust.
                          The organisation needs to balance
                          how many people and money the organisation has on hand vs. how
                          much it needs (and keeps this balance going into the future)


                          The organisation needs to balance
                          how many promises the organisation makes vs. what it needs to make to
                          attract new staff and funding


                          The organisation needs to balance
                          how many resources the organisation employs to deliver on its promises
                          vs. what it should take to deliver


                          The HR department / function manage people as assets, and the
                          Finance department / function manages money as an asset. The
                          Marketing    /   Fundraising      function   produces   the   promises.   The
                          Programme / Operations            department or function produces the
                          performance.

10)   Allocating Responsibility (and Accountability)
                          The responsibility for managing people size (i.e. the quantity and quality
a)    On People
                          of the people who take and implement decisions) rests on the Human
                          Resources department / function. Its measure of success is the
                          economy of the organisation.



                          The responsibility for managing money size (i.e. the quantity and quality
b)    On Money
                          of the resources expended in empowering people to make decisions of
                          the right quantity and quality) is the Finance department / function. Its
                          measure of success is the organisation’s economy in respect of the cost
                          of attracting and keeping people, providing tools and a supporting
                          environment, buying the inputs and supplying the goods and services
                          the organisations exists to deliver.




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                              Sustainability Personality                      errol@xe4.org
                                The responsibility for managing promise size (i.e. the quantity and
 c)    On Promises
                                quality of the promises the organisations make to its staff, donors and
                                the community in order to generate the goodwill or procure the
                                resources and opportunities it needs to exist) is the Marketing (or
                                Fundraising) department / function. The measure of success of the
                                Marketing function is the organisation’s effectiveness in winning new
                                resources so its people can carry on making or implementing decisions
                                and carry on delivering goods and services. Successfully making
                                promises builds RESPECT in the eyes of donors and communities.
                                The responsibility for managing performance size (i.e. the extent and
 d)    On Performance
                                quality of the results the organisation delivers to its staff, donors and the
                                community in satisfying the promises it made and applying the assets it
                                has) is the Operations (or Programmes or Projects) department /
                                function. The reason the organisation keeps its promises is to invite
                                donors who gave funds and people who gave time already to do so
                                repeatedly. Successfully keeping promises builds LOYALTY in the eyes
                                of donors and communities. Successfully matching the performance
                                achieved to the promises made builds TRUST.

11)   The questions to ask
The questionnaires that follow look to the

 a)    Marketing Officers         b)    Operations Officers            c)     HR Officers
 for building respect through     for building loyalty through         for building trust through
 Scale of Promises                Reach of Operations                  Unity of Staff
 Relevance of Cause               Force of Programmes                  Vision of Staff
 Diversity of Income Sources      Solvency of NPO                      Reliability of Staff
 Independence from Donors         Productivity of Money                Compliance of NPO
 Value of Work                    Productivity of People               Participation of Community
                                  Transparency of NPO                  Alliances with Peers
                                  Accountability of Staff              Delivery on Promises
                                  Expertise of Staff                   Governance by Leaders
                                  Motivation of Staff
                                  Predictability of Budget
                                  Predictability of Project




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                                     Sustainability Personality                                       errol@xe4.org
Assertiveness                        Credibility                           Quality                               Accountability                      Management
How many applications were made      How many reports are produced         How much money went into new          How many people are tied into the   How economical (costing less for
to how many donors in these 3        that are complete before and          managers and improving the            strategic targets and for what      the same) and effective (more from
categories?                          accurate after?                       current ones?                         period?                             the same) are we getting?



                   Assertiveness                             Credibility                         Investment                         Accountability                      Management
Ambition                             Coverage                               Training                                Unity                            Operation
                                                                                                                                                        s


             Confidence                            Predictability                       Acquisition                             Vision                             Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                    Vision
Attractiveness                       Independence                          Health                                Legitimacy                          Power
How much money was offered           How many donors in and how            How much money was in surplus         How many standards does the         How many people are tied into the
spontaneously by how many            much money comes in from own          each year and for how long can the    organisation produce and meet?      strategic targets and for what
donors in these 3 categories?        sales to these 3 categories?          organisation last on its reserves?                                        period?


                   Attractiveness                        Independence                            Investment                              Prestige                             Power
Generosity                            Diversity                            Liquidity                              Authority                           Strength



             Popularity                              Sales
                                                                                         Solvency                             Compliance                            Productivity
                                                                                                                                Vision
Involvement                          Importance                            Goodwill                              Governance                          Impact
How many beneficiaries and peers     How many demographic and              How many donors renew their           How many promises do staff and      How many people do we benefit
are involved in improving our work   political variables do we recognise   donations voluntarily and for what    the organisation keep?              and how much difference do we
and org?                             and address?                          period is their funding?                                                  make to them?


                    Relevance                              Importance                             Goodwill                           Governance                               Impact
Community                            Relevance                             Renewals                               Integrity                            Force



               Peers                              Significance                           Duration                              Honesty                              Reach
                                                                                                                                Vision
Transparency                         Growth                                Responsibility                        Value
How many reports are produced        How much money is available to        How many under-performances           How many promises are made that
that are complete, readable and on   the organisation to spend outside     were personally punished and how      stand out compared to others and
time?                                of projects and how much went into    many over-performances were           are connected to donor needs?
                                     building capacity?                    personally rewarded?
                    Transparency                              Growth                           Responsibility                             Value
 Volume                              Extension                             Discipline                            Advantage


               Speed                               Expansion                             Motivation                           Competitiveness


                                                                                                 Page 11 of 11

								
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