Maori and New Zealand Tourism by yiq68006


									                                                                                  Hui Taumata 2005
Maori and New Zealand Tourism

  Tourism plays an important role in the New Zealand
  economy. It contributes significantly to the national and
  local economies, employment, export earnings and tax
  revenue. As tourism is a composite industry, it contributes
  directly to a number of tourism-characteristic industries such
  as accommodation, transport, cafes and restaurants, cultural
  and recreational services. In addition, it contributes indirectly
  to other industries such as retail trade, construction and
  manufacturing. Tourism creates employment throughout
  the country, including in many rural areas where a relatively
  high proportion of Mäori reside.

  Mäori culture offers an important point of difference for New Zealand tourism on the world stage. International
  visitors have a relatively strong interest in indigenous culture. Mäori and Mäori culture play a significant role in
  New Zealand’s tourism industry.

  The Ministry of Tourism has prepared this paper in response to a request from the Hui Taumata 2005 Steering
  Committee. The paper provides an overview of the New Zealand tourism industry with respect to its contribution
  to the national economy, trends in international visitors, Mäori participation in tourism and employment
  characteristics, international visitor demand for Mäori cultural tourism and opportunities for development to
  meet international visitor demand and expectations.

  Importance of Tourism in National Economy
  An official measure of tourism's contribution to the New Zealand economy is provided by the Tourism Satellite
  Account (TSA) prepared by Statistics New Zealand. The latest TSA highlights the following key measures:

  •   Total tourism expenditure amounted to $16.5 billion in the 2003 March year.
  •   Tourism contributes directly and indirectly 9.6% of the total GDP (Gross Domestic Product).
  •   International visitors contributed $7.4 billion to the New Zealand economy. This represents 17.8% of New
      Zealand’s total export earnings and makes tourism the largest export earner (ahead of other major export
      sectors such as dairy $5.9b and meat $4.3b).

                       Figure 1
                                             Tourism Contribution to NZ Economy
                                                   Year Ended March 2003

•   Domestic travellers spent $9.1 billion on travel within New Zealand accounting for 55% of total tourism
    expenditure (with the remaining 45% from international tourism).
•   During the period 1999-2003, expenditure by international tourists increased by 50%, compared with a
    23% increase by domestic tourists. International tourism has been the key driver of New Zealand’s tourism
•   Tourists also contributed $1.2 billion in GST to the government’s tax revenue.

                           Figure 2
                                              Tourism Expenditure by Tourists


Tourism Employment
In 2003, the tourism industry supported an estimated 172,000 full-time equivalent jobs, comprising 104,000
direct tourism and 68,000 indirect tourism related jobs (e.g. construction of hotels, manufacture of beds, etc).
This represents 10.3% of the total workforce, or 1 job in 10.

Among those directly employed in tourism approximately 60% worked full-time and 40% worked part-time
(under 30 hours per week). When converted to full-time equivalent employment, part-time jobs represent
one-quarter (25%) of total FTE tourism employment. Employers comprised 19% of the FTE employment and
employees the remaining 81%.

A large proportion of the tourism related employment was in the accommodation and cafe / restaurant sectors
(33%), followed by transport (20%), cultural and recreational services (4%). The remaining 42% were in non-
tourism characteristic industries including retail (22%) and other general industries (19%) that also contributed
indirectly to tourism.

International Visitors
The number of international visitor arrivals to New Zealand has been increasing significantly over the years.
Growth in the last two decades has virtually doubled every ten years from 0.5 million in 1983 to 1.2 million in
1993 and 2.1 million in 2003. This represents an average annual growth rate of 7.4% per annum.

During the last three decades, there were only two occasions when visitor numbers decreased: once in 1991
during the Gulf War and again during the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis. Despite further shocks that disrupted
global travel in the last three years (the 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, the war in Iraq and the SARS outbreak
in Asia in 2003) New Zealand’s inbound tourism maintained a healthy growth rate while many other national
destinations experienced a decline.

However, these sporadic disruptions did cause a sharp downturn in visitors from affected markets in the short
term for months which had an adverse impact on demand for Mäori tourism products by international visitors,
as shown in a later section. Maori cultural tourism has a high international consumer base, and is therefore
more vulnerable to global shocks than tourism businesses more dependent on domestic markets.

                  Figure 3

                                                     International Visitor Arrivals


Visitor Markets
Visitors to New Zealand come from over 150 countries, but about three-quarters (74%) of our visitors come
from our top seven key markets (refer Figure 4). Our top four markets (Australia, UK, US and Japan) and
Germany are more established markets that have been important sources of visitors for New Zealand for many
years. In recent years New Zealand has seen the emergence of new markets that have generated considerable
growth. In particular, South Korea and China have emerged as New Zealand’s fifth and sixth largest markets

                 Figure 4
                                            International Visitor Markets

International visitors spent on average $3,344 per visit. However, average expenditure varies greatly depending
on the market, for example, Japan ($4,200), UK ($3,808), US ($3,257), Australia ($1,838).

Tourism Forecasts
The outlook for tourism is positive based on the Tourism Research Council New Zealand’s tourism forecasts

International visitor arrivals are forecast to increase by one million or 48% from 2.1 million arrivals in 2003 to
3.1 million in 2010, averaging 5.8% growth per annum. In contrast, domestic overnight travel is forecast to
grow at 1.4% per annum from 19.6 million trips in 2002 to 21.6 million in 2010. Of the forecast one million
growth in international visitors, Asia will contribute 35%, followed by Australia 27%, Europe 23%, Americas
8% and rest of the world 7%.

      Figure 5
                                               Forecast of International Visitor Arrivals


Total visitor nights (in both commercial and private accommodation) are forecast to increase by 25.5 million or
24% from 105 to 130 million nights between 2003 and 2010. International visitor nights (at 5.8% per annum)
are forecast to grow faster than domestic visitor nights (at 0.9% per annum). The majority of the increase - 85%
or 21.6 million - will be generated by international demand, compared with 4 million by domestic demand. This
is positive for Maori tourism businesses driven by international tourists.

Regions (Regional Council areas) relying more on international visitors are expected to achieve greater
growth in visitor nights. The Auckland region, being the major gateway for international visitors, will receive
an additional 8.3 million visitor nights (up 36%), comprising one-third of the total increase. Other regions
forecast to achieve significant growth include Canterbury (up 3.4 million or 26%), Otago (up 2.5 million or
26%), Waikato (up 2.1 million or 16%), Wellington (up 2.0 million or 23%), Bay of Plenty (up 1.7 million or
19%), Northland (up 1.1 million or 18%) and Nelson-Tasman (up 0.85 million or 22%). (Note that forecasts
have also been produced for Regional Tourism Organisation areas).

Total tourism expenditure is forecast to increase from $14.8 billion in 2003 to $23.2 billion in 2010, up 57% or
$8.4 billion. Of this increase, $4.9 billion is expected from international visitors and $3.5 billion from domestic

New Information on Maori Participation in Tourism
A recent report, Measurement of Mäori in Tourism (Te Ahu Mai – He Tatau Täpoi Mäori), undertaken by the
Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with Statistics New Zealand, has presented for the first time a statistical
snapshot of Mäori involvement in the tourism industry, including demographic and employment characteristics.
The research used data from the Population Census and applied tourism ratios from the Tourism Satellite
Account (TSA). Highlights from this research are given below. More detailed analysis and data are available in
the full report, which can be downloaded from the website:

Maori Employment in Tourism
Total Mäori employment supported by tourism demand in 2001 is estimated to have been 18,400 full-time
equivalent jobs (FTEs). This figure was made up of 11,100 direct and 7,300 indirect tourism-related FTEs.1

Mäori tourism employment represents 11% of total tourism-related employment. This is in line with the
proportion of working age Mäori: 11.4% of New Zealand’s total population comprised Mäori aged 15 years
and over at the 2001 Census.

1Based on the 2001 census population with TSA tourism ratios applied.

Growing Maori Employment in Tourism-Characteristic
The Population Census data provide some interesting insights about the characteristics of Mäori employment
in the tourism-characteristic industries.2 Tourism-characteristic industries include four industry groups:
accommodation; cafes and restaurants; transport and storage; and cultural and recreational services.

Mäori have a rapidly increasing engagement in tourism. Mäori employment in tourism-characteristic industries
increased by 72% between 1991 and 2001. This is twice as fast as the 36% growth for total employment in
these industries.

Mäori employment in tourism-characteristic industries showed a number of distinct characteristics in 2001:

•    A large proportion of Mäori employed in tourism worked in the cafe and restaurant sectors (35%), followed
     by transport and storage (31%), cultural and recreational services (18%) and accommodation (16%).

•    There was a predominance of younger Mäori workers. 44% were aged less than 30 years, compared with
     36% for total workers within the tourism-characteristic industries.

•    A higher proportion of Mäori than non-Mäori workers were employed part-time – 37%, compared with
     33% for total tourism industries and 23% for all industries.

•    Mäori employed in tourism-characteristic industries tended to have lower qualifications than non-Mäori
     employed in these industries. 77% had no qualifications or school-only qualifications, compared with 69%
     for the total employed in these industries.

•    The Mäori tourism workforce comprised 9% employers and 91% employees, compared with 17% total
     employers and 83% total employees across the tourism industries. Of the Mäori employers, 65% were self-
     employed without employees.

•    The characteristics identified above were reflected in lower income levels for Mäori, who had a median
     income of $18,200. This was 14% less than the $21,200 for all workers within the tourism industries.

•    The majority of Maori tourism employment was in the North Island (84%), mostly in Auckland (29%), Bay
     of Plenty (12.3%), Waikato (12%), Wellington (11%) and Northland (6%). The South Island accounted for
     16%, with 8% of this in Canterbury.

International Visitors’ Participation in Maori Cultural
Demand for Mäori cultural tourism products relies predominantly on international tourists who comprise 80-
90% of customers for many Mäori tourism businesses. The International Visitor Survey provides an indication
of demand levels in recent years.

•    The number of international visitors who experienced Mäori cultural activities increased by 11% over the
     five-year period 1998-2003, compared with a 42% increase in visitor arrivals.

•    This difference in growth rates resulted in the proportion of visitors who participated in Mäori cultural
     activities declining from 22.9% in 1998 to 17.8% in 2003. On average about 20% of international visitors to
     New Zealand experienced Mäori cultural activities.

•    Among the Mäori cultural activities experienced by international visitors during 1998-2003, participation
     in Mäori performance activities increased by 10%, while Mäori-organised activities decreased by 7% and
     marae visits declined by 62%. (The apparent large decline in marae visits may be partly due to similar
     activities increasingly being provided as part of Mäori cultural activity packages, and therefore may not be
     reported separately by tourists in the survey, resulting in under-reporting.)

2Findings in this section are drawn solely from the Population Census data (without tourism ratios applied).

       Figure 6
                                           International Visitors Who Experienced Mäori Cultural Activities,

           International Visitors

       Figure 7
                                    Proportion of International Visitors Who Experienced Mäori Cultural Activities,

•   While the number of international visitors who undertake Maori cultural activities has been increasing,
    their participation rates have decreased in recent years. This may be partly due to increasing new tourism
    products competing for market share and the tourism dollar.

•   Of the international visitors who experienced Mäori cultural activities in 2002, 83% were on holiday, with
    7% visiting friends or relatives, 4% on business, and 6% here for other purposes.

•   Holiday visitors had the greatest propensity to experience Mäori cultural activities (29%), compared with
    13% for the rest of the traveller groups.

•   Fully independent travellers (FIT) made up the largest proportion (35%) of tourists to have experienced
    Mäori cultural activities, followed by package travellers (27%), semi-independent travellers (SIT, 21%) and
    tour groups (17%).

•   Although a relatively small market segment, tour groups had the greatest propensity to experience Mäori
    cultural activities (46%), followed by package travellers (40%), SIT (18%) and FIT (13%).

•   Of the visitors who experienced Mäori cultural activities, over 60% came from the five key markets –
    Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Japan and South Korea.

•   Visitors from Taiwan and South Korea had the greatest propensity to experience Mäori cultural activities
    (42% and 41%, respectively), followed by China (37%), Canada (29%), Germany (28%), Japan (27%), United
    Kingdom (25%) and the United States (23%).

•   Australia was New Zealand’s largest inbound market, but visitors from that country had the lowest
    propensity to experience Mäori cultural activities (8.4% in 2002 and 10.6% in 2003).

Domestic Visitors’ Participation in Maori Cultural Tourism
Only a small proportion (0.5%) of New Zealand domestic travellers on overnight trips undertook Mäori cultural
activities during their travels in 2001. In comparison, 19.6% of international visitors experienced a Mäori
cultural activity in the same year.

Maori Tourism Products – Opportunities for Development
A research study on Demand for Cultural Tourism was undertaken by Colmar Brunton in 2003 (commissioned
by Tourism New Zealand and the Ministry of Tourism). The research surveyed international and domestic
visitors’ interest, participation, perception and satisfaction level with various cultural products in New Zealand,
including Mäori cultural products. A separate report, Demand for Mäori Cultural Tourism, (Te Ahu Mai – He
Whao Täpoi Mäori), was also produced to focus on Mäori cultural products. The full report is available on the

The research found that travellers who have experienced Maori cultural products tend to rate them much
more favourably than their experiences of other indigenous cultures elsewhere in the world. The level of
satisfaction varies between different Mäori cultural products, as outlined below.

Marae Visit
• Overall, 27% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very good.
• Other visitors were disappointed by their inability to move around freely, difficulty in taking photos and
  sometimes being unable to see properly.
• They expressed a desire for more involvement and assistance / explanation and understanding of the

Mäori Cultural Performance
• Overall, 59% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very satisfactory.
• Visitors expressed an inability to understand its significance, problems with the language barrier,
  some frustration in not being able to see or move, and an inability to get autographs.

Mäori Music Concert
• Overall, 69% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very satisfactory.
• Visitors commented that concerts were sometimes seen as too short, which impacted on their perception
  of value. They had a desire to stay longer at the location.

Mäori Art Exhibition
• Overall, 71% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very satisfactory.
• Visitors expressed a desire for a greater understanding / appreciation of Mäori art, which is seen as unique
  and an embodiment of history and culture.

Exhibition of Mäori History
• Overall, 68% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very satisfactory.
• Visitors commented that a lack of understanding makes it difficult to ignite emotions. They expressed
   a desire to connect with the Mäori experience, and noted a low level of basic facilities (comfort and

Sites Important to Mäori History
• Overall, 56% of visitors rate the experience as superb / very satisfactory.
• Visitors expressed a difficulty in connecting the site with the past or understanding its significance, a desire
    for more information to gauge a sense of proportion (including life exhibits).

This research identified a number of products where further improvement will enhance visitors’ overall holiday

The greatest opportunity for positive change relates to marae visits. Visiting marae is among the strongest
drivers of overall holiday satisfaction among international travellers, yet participation levels are low.
Younger travellers are currently more likely than average to experience marae visits. Changes most likely to
increase visitor satisfaction on marae are reduced overcrowding, increased service quality, provision of an
authentic, moving experience and having these experiences available at a convenient time. Many travellers
are currently unaware that they can stay overnight on a marae.

Based on the findings, there would be benefit in increasing participant involvement in visits to marae and
Mäori cultural performances. Involving elements such as teaching waiata and better explaining protocol
and history may enhance the overall experience.

A further opportunity pertains to the Mäori cultural performance. In addition to showcasing the Mäori
way of life (in terms of powhiri, haka, hongi, etc), there is interest in meeting and talking to Mäori people
and having performances explained to increase understanding. Translating these explanations into various
languages is an important part of engaging and involving visitors. It would appear that explanation and
translation will provide further opportunity. Again, ensuring that performances are not overcrowded
appears to be an important area for change.

Intention to experience Mäori cultural products is high amongst international travellers, but pre-booking is
low (particularly in the case of interactive travellers®)3. This means travellers must have access to information
about products once they are in New Zealand.

The US market particularly wants to take home pieces of Mäori artwork, yet potential travellers from the US
are more likely than average to be unaware that New Zealand has Mäori artists’ studios. There is therefore
an opportunity to increase communications in this area.

Because of domestic travellers’ awareness, perceptions and relatively short length of stay, there is not
the same scope to increase domestic travellers’ participation in Mäori cultural products as there is with
international travellers.

Lack of time to participate in Mäori cultural products seemed to be a recurrent barrier amongst both
international and domestic travellers. Related to this is an underlying lack of awareness which links to this
sense of insufficient time for Mäori cultural activities. People are simply not planning well enough because
they do not know what it is possible to see and do in enough detail or breadth. Creating greater awareness
of Mäori cultural products is therefore likely to create positive change.

 Tourism New Zealand has identified New Zealand’s ideal international visitors as “interactive travellers®”. These are regular international travellers who consume
a wide range of tourism products and services, and who seek out new experiences that involve engagement and interaction, and demonstrate respect for natural,
social and cultural environments.


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