MODULE ON MASS MEDIA AND CITIZENSHIP IN EUROPE
1) Become aware of the competences expected from a teacher in the treatment of
information in the perspective of education to European citizenship.
2) Identify the relationship between the media and democracy and be able to transform
them into didactic material.
3) Learning on-line new methodologies: use the Internet, the elcae website and use it as a
means of information and communication.
- competences expected from the teachers: they must know how the media
function and what is at stake in the power of the media in a democratic world.
- develop the knowledge and the awareness of how the media work in the
making of “public opinion”.
- analyse how such functioning builds an idea of Europe in the different
- get used to building press files from the European media.
- get used to constructing material for case study, starting from what has been
- develop the construction of a shared media instrument, built by and for the
teachers of the European network.
Products and results
- press review on a European political event.
- compilation of television programmes that enlighten the debate on Europe.
- activities leading to the ability to acquire the European competences expected
from the teacher.
- didactic material for the training of teachers that are transferable to the pupils,
surveys, study grids of the media: TV programmes, press (quality analysis).
- Pierre Musso, Berlusconi, l’entreprise – spectacle en politique, in Médias nb 1,
- Pierre Lemoine, Plaidoyer pour un media européen, in Médias nb 1, summer
- the Herbillon report handed to the Prime Minister on June 29th 2005 on
European information, that deals markedly with the relays and decentralized
networks in the diffusion of information.
- TARDE (G.) L’opinion et la foule, (1901) Paris, PUF, 1989, new edition.
- Daniel Dayan, Elihu Katz, La télévision cérémonielle : Anthropologie et
histoire en direct, Presses Universitaires de France, September 1996,
collection : « la politique éclatée ».
- Cayrol R., Medias et démocracie, : la dérive, Paris, Presses de Sciences
- Démocratie democracy, a series of programmes written and presented by
Robert Darnton and Olivier Duhamel, from an idea of Annabelle Cayrol‟s,
produced by Yvon Gérault. Each programme lasts 26 minutes; the programme
“les medias” has been used below.
- Un jour en Europe, a CDrom, the front pages of 75 daily papers in 15 countries
in the European community, published on Tuesday, October 23rd 2001, a
Types of methodology
- an “around a word” activity
- building press reviews and files
- use of tools of analysis of front pages, articles and pictures
- the technical panel
- audiovisual documents
Activities shared within the network
- comparison of the ways television works in the different countries and reading
of the press.
- sharing the “around the key words” activities.
- research, within the national contexts, on the history of the relationship
between the media and democracy; study of the main press groups
- each partner studies the titles of a corpus of newspapers in their mother
tongues dealing with the same European event.
Those activities were elaborated with the idea of a permanent network functioning with
references to books, television, medias of all sorts from all the partnering countries. It has not
been possible to gather enough common documents; therefore, you will find a lot of
documents dealing with the French study. Please do not take it as a deliberate ethnocentric
attitude but only as the result of facts.
Common activities in the network
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITIES/
Theme Opening of the session
Duration 1.5 hours
Specific - introduction of each trainee and creation of a group dynamics
objectives - presentation of each one‟s understanding of the basic concepts of the
- presentation of each one‟s habits as a citizen-consumer of the media
- presentation of the professional practices of the media with the pupils
activities and 1) Framing of the training practice:
methodologies we will manage to bring information but also to show that the news is
always something elaborate and constructed. We thus started from an
attempt at presenting the question that rests on the implication of the
trainees, because any training must imply – an active share from the
trainee (learning is nothing else but put oneself into action and become
aware of what one already knows in order to learn the rest), - sharing
the activity, our practice and our understanding of it.
2) Around the key-words “media and citizenship”:
Rule: each in turn, in silence, the trainees give a word or an expression
they associate to “media and citizenship”.
Development: each trainee makes a proposition; the teacher writes it
on an acetate; the group eventually studies the lot to point out the
different themes (c.f. below) and begins to analyse how the group
makes decisions at that moment.
3) Presentation of the trainees, after the “conceptogramme”:
Rule: each one gives an example that illustrates one aspect of what has
just been said, choosing it within their own subject, in the media, the
news, ... Then, they each present their schools and subjects.
Development: the teacher writes the propositions on an acetate, which
thus offers a corpus of ideas and working leads.
4) Each one’s practice of the media (television and press)
In order to know how far they have developed their own understanding
of the media, they will be asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire.
It will be read at the next break so that everybody will know
immediately the position of the group. Many studies have shown that
television may go along with reading and other cultural activities but
the difference lies in how TV is watched and in the diversity of the
information sources and their understanding.
educational “Around Key-words”: we have chosen a simple use of the “Around key-
documents words” technique to reduce the activity in time and also because the
purpose is not to build a conceptual map but only to start work in the
session and begin to think it over.
Themes or problematics that come out in the association of words and
- Democratic citizenship goes against “la pensée unique” (=
new orthodoxy in politics driven by the principles of the
free market) and works at unbalancing the making of
agreement; it denounces manipulation through the means of
information; now, information is always subjective and
depends on an axiology (a hierarchy of values) that we
must bring to light.
- Citizenship means engagement, a critical mind, which
makes training necessary for the citizen-to-be.
- Freedom of press is an imprescriptible right that defines
democratic power; it is indissociable from the use of the
citizen‟s critical mind;
- Pluralism imposes that political debates be organized,
openly, and raises the problem of the use of surveys to
build public opinion.
- What reciprocal links of influence do civil society and
mass media share?
- Our consumer society aims to create consumers;
democracy needs enlightened citizens; we must now
consider the consumer-citizen.
- Democratic citizenship comprehends attitudes of active but
also passive citizenship.
Media and citizenship: survey on the practice of television and the
Your practice of television:
1) Do you watch television?
- how often?
- which channels, in order of frequency?
2) Do you like watching television?
- yes, a lot
- it depends (say on what):
4) What do you watch?
5) Give three programmes you like watching
6) Give three programmes you watch regularly
7) How long do you think you spend in front of television these days
(give an average)
Your practice of the press:
1) Do you read the press?
2) What do you read?
3) How often?
Analysis, - This training-frame appears to us necessary when the group
explanation, consists in a lot of newly qualified teachers. The
interpretation expectations of a lecture when only the teacher speaks and
gives a set knowledge are frequent and detrimental to the
effort to put into coherence the underlying values of
education to active citizenship, the practice of the course
and the knowledge at stake. Such a framing suggests
putting into practice socio-constructive principles.
- - The survey on the consumption practice of the media puts
forward the reality of the practice apart from value
judgements. So it appears that all the teachers watch
television, (they say they do it often, if not daily, between
one and two and a half hours a day on average), they watch
documentaries, society programmes and the news, but they
are also interested in sports and games. They watch state
channels rather than private and more than average watch
the educative and Franco-German cultural Arte channel.
So far as the reading of the press is concerned, practices are
less uniform: 20% read the daily press, rather national,
regularly, 20% twice-weekly and 20% weekly; also, some say
they don‟t read at all. They say they rather read periodicals
(daily, weekly, monthly) and specialized cultural magazines.
Very regular readers say they read several papers.
It is necessary to question the pupils on their practice of
television and the press to use it in class. We mustn‟t forget
that, in France, statistics show that, within a year, pupils spend
as much time in front of the television as they are in class;. The
teenager press is a typically French phenomenon; it is half
distractive and half educational; it offers themes (pop-stars,
nature, books). There is also an informative press for the
young, weekly or even daily (from 2 to 18 –adult age).
Theme The links between the media and democracy
Duration 1 hour and 30 minutes
Specific Stand back from one‟s own opinions.
objectives Know the story of the media in the formation of democracy, and of the
technological development of the media.
Identify the links between the media and the legislative/executive/political
Build means of analysis of the links between the media and democracy.
Activities and DRAFT STUDY OF AUDIOVISUAL DOCUMENTS
methods Critical viewing process of a TV programme:
1) Start the project within the group:
Question: “Do the media still promote the contribution of the citizens in the
decisions made for them?”
A few answers: they are written on an acetate (c.f. below).
2) Split the group in two; half will watch Katz‟s film and half Cayrol‟s,
without letting them know they are listening to two different speakers. Make
the choice of a spokesperson for the group and of a secretary for the final
debate: the minutes will be presented in two parts: 1- the approach
presented, 2- the discussion in the group.
3) preview and note-taking
4) Group discussion; some parts of the film may be viewed again to feed the
discussion; the minutes are written carefully for the debate.
5)Reunion of the two groups: presentation of the minutes ( the theme
presented by the speaker) and discussion on the spotted facts (the reaction of
a critical viewer).
5) Synthesis and construction of an analysis grid of the links between
the media and democracy.
participants and Les médias, iIn the TV series “ Démocratie democracy”: presentation of
documents different French and Anglo-Saxon experts‟ points of views by Roland
Cayrol, who refers to the Declaration of rights and Elihu Katz, who refers to
Gabriel de Tardé (theoretician, 1898).
The book: “ Démocratie democracy” in “la cinquième”
Educational THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION
material “Do the media still promote the contribution of the citizens in the decisions
made for them?”
- In 2000, F. Brune published “les médias pensent comme moi”, a book that
shows that the media send a message which the individual eventually makes
theirs (cf Habernas on communication).
- Some trainees think that, in 2002, in the French presidential election, the
media had a determining influence on the result by diverting the voters‟
attention on a minor incident, the mugging of an elderly person and the
arson of his house; in their point of view, the media turned public lack of
safety at the centre of the campaign.
- Television would be mainly entertaining; public political debate would not
- The discussion turned around a rather negative consideration of the media.
Although they pose a problem, they produce information and give rise to
awareness. Does the problem come from the media or politicians?
- The importance of selection and presentation of information was
- The rules of television are that those who have something to say do not
have the time to say it. The question is not to denounce all the channels and
all the journalists but to consider which medium is which.
Has there been an evolution or a change in the role of the media in society?
We are concerned in the press, television or radio, but also the Internet.
The media use technological innovations such as the introduction of SMS in
the programmes; what is the impact?
What sort of participation does each medium offer?
The French medium would react more than take part.
What is the link between information and entertainment?
What is the status of the watcher, the listener? What is their attitude?
The media could repeat the common values stimulated by collective
How can the citizen speak?
Information and its layout.
A clear answer to the question: yes, the media make taking part possible at
one moment or another. But have they been created to promote it?
Some think it too bad we are made to wait for the media to do it.
The content of the film:
- who speaks?
- what are the perspectives adopted?
- List the words, the arguments.
- What are the positions defended? What are the answers given
to the starting question:
“Do the media still promote the contribution of the citizens in the
decisions made for them?”
Your reaction as a critical viewer:
- what are the questions raised by the speaker?
- What reactions has the film set you thinking of?
- On a didactic point of view,
what can be the use of such a document?
what development can we give it?
what implication can it have in our class work?
how can we make the most of it?
CHART FILLED IN WHILE WATCHING E. KATZ’S FILM
The notes taken answered no questions from the chart. In order to make
them understandable, we have tried to match the ones and the others.
The content of the film:
- who speaks? a specialist
- What are the perspectives adopted? a historic and critical
point of view; a vision that tries to be objective in a global
and international dimension. He tells a story about the press
and the media. He raises the question of propaganda and
shows that the evolution of technology leads, as a
consequence, to the evolution of the impact of the media.
- List the words, the arguments.
Media = anti-establishment force?
1) the information monopole by the king is questioned by the
development of the media and the public concern.
2) the media are a means to disregard the “structures”: parliament,
political parties, the nation.
So the media do their jobs as triggers of public debates; through the
radio and television, they enter the family cell.
- - What are the positions defended? The use of the media
would favour the style of regime; there would be a sliding to
a presidential government.
- What are the answers given to the starting question:
“Do the media still promote the contribution of the citizens in the decisions
made for them?”
Your reaction as a critical viewer:
- what are the questions raised by the speaker? So far as the
links between the media and the political power is concerned,
on the one hand, the media help developing democracy but,
on the other hand, they would be an obstacle to it. According
to Aristotle, when the state grows over a certain limit, the
- What reactions has the film set you thinking of? A major
question, which is that of the control over the media, the
journalists’ code of ethics and the role of an institution like
the CSA in France (Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel).
Are there different conceptions of democracy?
- On a didactic point of view,
what can be the use of such a document?
what development can we give it?
what implication can it have in our class work?
how can we make the most of it?
Initiate a debate with a grammar school class; give the pupils help in the
form of supporting documents(c.f. in philosophy, the theme:
support/convince); organize a debate; tackle, as a development, the
questions on propaganda and censorship. Try to tackle the Internet in E.
CHART OF ANALYSIS OF THE LINKS BETWEEN THE MEDIA
The document studied is a database but the analysis needs be completed by
means of other documents, audiovisual, from the written press or else. The
initial comparison rests on the French and the USA systems that often tally;
that opens onto European perspectives, like the problem risen everywhere
by the concentration of capital to finance the media. We are considering the
analyses of two political scientists. However, this chart can be used in class
without the film.
the points of view E. Katz R. Cayrol
taken into account
the historical facts Tarde explains how the Reference : article 11 of
development of the written the Declaration of Rights
press as a means of of Man and the citizen,
communication contributed August 26th 1789. The
to annihilate monarchy and press has always been
install the rule of majority. present in democratic
- the press beheaded conquests, c.f. the
monarchy, the radio has newspapers in the 1789,
lowered the intermediary 1830 or 1848 French
role of Parliament, the revolutions, as indicators
television may have of scandals.
undermined the political
- the new media, satellite
communication and data
channels, put the stress on
individualization versus the
The links between - the constructive role of the - the media constitute the
the media and the media as a support to most efficient means of
different democracy but also its information and
authorities annihilating power. formation of public
- according to the liberal, opinion
the media serve democracy. - democracy is alive if
- according to the the information is free
technological theory, the and plural and if there is
media attack democracy. communication between
governing and governed
- there is no democracy
without free media.
how do the media - the media are active in a Television leads to
exercise the shared democracy, in the electronic « agora », the
fourth power? way they act as global village, where the
intermediary between the people face the political
governing and the governed power that addresses
bodies them directly.. It shunts
- the technological the intermediaries, the
evolution of the traditional parties, the unions, ...
means of communication –
the press, radio, television –
has reinforced the feeling of
national belonging. But, as
well as representing and
stimulating the public
opinion, the media may
destabilize the shared
democracy institutions they
have been serving.
Media and there is a need for
freedom democratic ethics. What
is at stake in society
must be debated before it
turns into a show.
the evolution of - the informative media personalization of power
the media alters organize the agenda for the and politics.
the rules of the public opinion - the media make sure
democratic game. - in which conditions do the problems appear on
opinions and behaviours the agenda.
turn into action? - they influence the
- the fall in the reading of content and the
newspapers has been presentation of the
noticed in most occidental political speech.
countries; it would reveal a
fall in the interest for
politics and an increase of
where the media the information is no longer shifting of political
inform presented in the newspapers places
or the cafés but directly at
home through the radio,
television or the Internet.
the media, television tries to appeal
information or rather than demonstrate.
communication? It turns politics into a
- the media requirements
turn the exercise of
power into demagogy.
Analysis, - The overall process aims to implement freedom of expression and political
explanations choices; the module reveals the necessity of the exercise of the right to
and information in a democracy.
interpretations - The answers to the initial question show the gap between the trainees and
give prominence to the fact that, even with teachers, one‟s opinion develops
first from one‟s fields of knowledge and second from one‟s capacity to
create and organize one‟s questioning. Some are imprisoned in their practice
of television and have more to do than others with acquired critical attitudes.
We have chosen to use the conditional and modalisation to return the
assertions; such assertions as these: “television is entertaining”; “a public
political debate is not to be found on television” derive from a restricted
practice of television and rest on preconceived ideas which need be
questioned. Our note-taking tried in an explicit and clarified way to
introduce nuances or even interrogations, while always trying to respect
- The study chart, in the way it has been filled in, is concise. The absence of
explicit contextual elements makes the study of this document difficult and
of little use. We should have thought more of mastering variations of
conceptual construction. The notes are often allusive, vague, which prevents
from understanding the key-steps in the historical development of the media,
though well presented in the audiovisual document.
Besides, the thus completed chart is of little help to build a class sequence.
Moreover, the trainees did not indulge in a personal critical study of the
document and their notes do not reveal whether the words refer to E. Katz or
to their own understanding. It appears to us they were being careful but also
they showed the reminiscence of a vivid model, objectivity. One may
wonder how these teachers manage in class to train their pupils into having
their own opinions of documents. Finally, the theoretical references to G.
Tarde are not mentioned; only that on Aristotle is, as is usual with the
philosophy teacher who was taking the notes.
- We were confronted with the fact that the trainees‟ opinions and prior
knowledge interfered with their note-taking; their individual preoccupations
reveal clearly or subtly some questions and conceal others. The risk lies in
turning a critical debate into an opinionated one. Such method requires that
the teacher keep a strict attitude towards the expected result in terms of
- One basic dimension of the analysis was blocked out because of the
material that was used: the economic aspect. The concentration of the
groups of media goes against the plurality of opinions, an essential fact in a
democracy. Some tycoons find themselves at the head of groups which
decisions weigh hard on the policy of their countries (for example
Berlusconi, Murdoch, Dassault…). The information is regarded as a piece of
merchandise. Advertising lays down its business logic. The income it brings
to the media has made it indispensable for the survival of the firm.
- such work needs be updated according to the national contexts : we must
take into consideration how the freedom of the press has been established
and examine the links between the national media and democracy. However,
we mustn‟t forget to take into account the national concern of the main
groups, who ignore frontiers in their multinational interests.
Subject Various points of view in the European press about the French
referendum on May 29th 2005 on the European constitution
Duration 3 hours
Question How does the press in each country handle an event of European
Specific aims Develop technical and semiotic knowledge
- understand how a front page is built and what its purpose is
- understand the main function of headlines and subheadings ;
identify their main subjects
- understand the meaning of the pictures or their layouts
- understand what the editorial staff say about the news and how
they put it
Enrich the political thinking
- ponder over the local, regional, national and European identities
- make the different perceptions and points of view about an event
Activities and The whole work depends on how each partner shares his work with the
- the front pages : comparison of the front pages of European
newspapers and construction of their basic outline : what never
changes in their building, and what varies according to the
national contexts in the presentation of the event of European
understanding, considering how the national background
interferes with and about this event.
Compare the different news.
Identify the newspaper reader from the way the news is
- the headings : list (the) headlines and leads according to the
different types of languages (romanic or anglo-saxon) then to
countries (standard and regional languages) and to political
How do the newspapers deal with being the Fourth estate?
Interconnected activities : each partner studies how the heads are
built in their own tongues and tells the others
- illustrations :
Analyze them and decipher the stereotypes
Find out how the setting of a picture makes sense. Each partner
tells the others about the significance of the stereotypes in their
own culture (for instance, the English use a frog to represent
the French who eat frog legs)
- a questionnaire to give the partners information about the review
of the European press.
1 or 2 newspapers will be selected in each country.
- list the European cultural heritage by way of references in arts
Documents On the website of the CIT (Connecting the Information with the Teacher
= presenting the daily European press, an event with a European
importance treated by different papers in different countries,
pedagogical help on the headlines, the pictures, the headings of daily
In the French weekly paper : Courrier International
n° 759, May 24th-30th 2005: : « Ils disent NON à la constitution, le tour
d‟Europe des opposants à la Constitution » = « they say NO to the
Constitution, a list of the opponents to the Constitution in Europe»
material 1 : stereotypes in history, with a recurring reference to the French
In the headlines :
- « la francia ghiliottina l’Europa » in Il Giornale, Italy (France guillotines
- the editorials in O kosmos Tou Ependyti Greece : «Even though the
French are known for their revolutionary turn of mind, … »
on the covers of magazines :
On two consecutive covers, on May 28th and June 4th 2005, The Economist
uses a collection of illustrations of the 1789 Revolution in France (Marat’s
assassination and the partition of the “Marseillaise”) to draw a parallel
between the latter and the kill of the European Constitution by the French.
in the press ilustrations
- Jacques Chirac is led to the guillotine with the Eiffel Tower in the
background and Tony Blair , dressed as a knitter, is waiting to see his head
fall (The Independent on Sunday, London
- A Liberty leading the people and accompanied by a Parisian street urchin (a
reference to the Delacroix painting)bursts in at a meeting of the European
Commission in le Temps, Geneva.
2. Stereotypes on France :
- Jacques Chirac kicks a Citroën 2CV and shouts « NON de Dieu » in
Le Soir, Brussels.
- a frog disguised as a motorist puffs out « N-N-NO !, on her way to the
motorway to Nowhere, The Observer, London
- A French man in his vest and beret pushes down one of the twelve
dominos that each bear a stars fom the European flag. “NON” is written
on the domino. As it falls it pushes down another one with a “NEE‟
which, in turn, will push another one with a „NO”, La Libre Belgique,
QUESTIONNAIRE TO COMMUNICATE THE REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN
1. Which are the 5 to 10 newspapers chosen to build the review of
European press? On what criteria do your choices rest?
2. How have you conducted your press review? posters, audio, video,
3. Which are the elements you kept first?
4. Which are the strong elements of comparison between the European
- To realize this activity which is an essential preliminary, we have to
Analyses, collect European newspapers. All the partners must take part in the
explanations and collection: they choose an event in which the whole European Union is
interpretations involved. Each one must buy the same number of papers with a well-
spread range of opinions. One partner will receive all the papers and
constitute a paper book of press cuttings and a Cdrom with the
headlines of all the newspapers. The activities conducted in partnership
between several countries may be compiled in the Cdrom.
- Visiting the website is part of the module, as the exchanges between
partners are constant, in order to understand each other’s points of view.
The activities are interesting only because of the exchanges they convey
and the understanding of everyone’s different points of view.
- The analysis of the press illustrations may rest on the different levels of
interpretation: from sheer jest to references to geopolitical theories (the
theory of the dominoes, in La Libre Belgique)
Theme The debate on the European constitutional treaty in the French
Duration 1) 2.5 hours (5‟ to get the viewing, ready, 52‟ to watch, 65 „ on the
panel –30‟ to work on the programme, 25‟ to debate and 5 to 10 „ to
resume considering the panel -, visit of the web-site and debate on
2) 1.5 to 2 hours on the written press file.
3) 30 minutes
Specific Learn the terms of the debate on the constitutional treaty and the balance of
- spot the arguments of each party.
- introduce the trainees to the democratic exercise of the debate
(observing, practising and taking part).
- go deeper into the different parts of the constitutional treaty
put to debate.
- get a better understanding on how a contradictory debate
functions in the press and television.
Activities and 1) Work on television programmes:
methods - Two different presentations of the series “Ripostes” on the European
constitutional treaty ck below): critical viewing processes of a programme
(c.f. the processes presented in the links between the media and
democracy). Part of the study turned on a formal analysis of the debate and
on the organization of the arguments (the setting of the argumentative layout
of the programme).
Going back to the Constitution, reading and analysis of the articles linked to
Technique of the panel: two debaters defend two opposite opinions on the
treaty, using only the arguments from the programme (a battle of words).
Presentation of the website of the programme : the trainees are expected to
browse the site and become acquainted with the debate opened on the
2) The press files (c.f. bibliography below):
a. share the different files and make a list of all the questions asked within
the whole group: determine the themes (two lists: the questions that refer to
national contexts and those of European importance), for example:
- what liberal model for the constitutional project? public
services , relocations, economic governance, ...
- the sovereignty of the states and the constitutional treaty
- the constitutional treaty and the rights of the citizens
- the place of religion in the constitutional treaty: the question
b. in small groups: each group works on a theme in only one paper:
inventory of the positions presented, of the ways the papers inform their
readers (c.f. chart of analysis below); then, they synthesize their work on a
poster to be presented to the other groups; general synthesis around the
question: “Is there a well balanced presentation of the political options on
the different themes in the constitutional treaty?”
3) Comparison between television and newspapers:
The whole group builds a comparative chart (c.f. below) as a starting point
for discussing the question: “In what ways do the information conveyors
contribute towards the democratic debate and to the pluralism of opinions on
the constitutional treaty?”
Material: The weekly programme “Ripostes”, by Serge Moati on France 5 (the
participants and educational channel on the French television), is broadcast terrestrially on
documents Sundays between 6 and 7 pm. It is a free channel, which means it can be
used at school with the pupils. It presents debates between people with
different points of view on topical questions. “Ripostes” spent ten
programmes to discuss European matters between September 2004 and June
The programme website, France 5: http://www.france5.fr, one will find
various additions to the televised programme:
- the starting text of the debate (recalling the facts),
- an additional column with a commented bibliography of the
works presented in the programme,
- a sitography,
- the links with other programmes on the “la Cinquième”
channel (C dans l’air and Arrêt sur images).
The column “Ripostes de choc” gives a choice of moments in the debate that
can be viewed again. The viewers can debate in turn on a sharing forum run
by the newspaper “Le Monde” with a guest from the programme (c.f. the
questions asked on the forum below).
The two programmes:
Fabius: un “non” tonitruant ( a thundering “No “), November 1st 2004:
« Je ne trouve pas dans ce traité ce qui permettrait de changer une politique
en matière d‟emploi et de lutter contre les délocalisations » (I do not find in
this treaty what would allow to change a policy of employment and to fight
Bernard Guetta, journalist ; Laurent Fabius, a French politician at the head
of the socialist party, Jean-Maurice Dehousse, belgian politician, Laurent
Joffrin, journalist, Dominique Rousseau, a professor in political science and
Pierre-Brossolette, a political scientist.
Forum: Are you, like Laurent Fabius, hostile to the European constitutional
treaty? Why? What is, to your mind, the position of Turkey in today‟s
France, Europe, the world, November 14th 2004
Dominique Strauss-Kahn, a French politician at the head of the socialist
party, Bronislaw Geremek, former Polish minister of foreign affairs, a
historian, Edouard Balladur, a French politician, former prime minister,
Christophe Barbier, Bernard Maris and Jean-François Kahn, journaliste
rédacteur en chef de Marianne, hebdomadaire journalist, and the latter the
editorial director of the weekly magazine Marianne.
Forum: How would you describe to-morrow‟s Europe? Economic, social,
hyperpowerful? What will the place of France be within the twenty-five?
Will the constitutional referendum be useful?
Bibliography of the press books:
Le Monde : special edition May 2005 Oui / non : les arguments pour
choisir, la Constitution européenne en 25 questions, (Yes, No ; the
arguments to make a choice ; the European constitution in 25 questions)
Libération : May 21st-22nd 2005 Référendum : 25 questions pour se forger
une opinion (décryptage des grands thèmes de la Constitution, regards
croisés de spécialistes français et européens) (Referendum, 25 questions to
make your own opinion ; decyphering the main themes in the Constitution ;
cross looks from French and European specialists); May 31st, a file, Les
ressorts du non ( the springs of « No »).
Le Nouvel Observateur : May 12th to 18th 2005 Oui non : pourquoi
l’Europe enflamme la France (Yes, no ; why does Europe set France on
L‟Express : May 23rd to 29th 2005 50 réponses clés pour le référendum, ce
qu’il faut vraiment savoir avant de vote (50 key-answers to the referendum ;
what you must know before you vote).
La Croix du May 21st – 22nd: 50 ans d’Europe de Robert Schuman au
référendu (50 years of Europe, from Shuman to the referendum).
Le Courrier international (a selection of articles from the foreign press
translated into French) : March 24th to 30th 2005 Ils disent non à la
Constitution, le tour d’Europe des opposants (they say no to the
constitution, a European tour of the opponents to the constitution) ;May 19th
to 25th 2005 : Avant le référendum français, l’avenir de l’Europe vu
d’Allemagne (before the french referendum, Europe‟s future in the eyes of
Germany); May 26th to June 1st : Le référendum vu par la presse
étrangère : la France en plein déchirium (the referendum in the foreign
press : Frenchied France).
Politis : May 12th to 18th 2005 Le débat européen : les 23 bobards du
président ; Politis confronte le discours de Jacques Chirac à la réalité du
traité constitutionnel ( the European debate : the 23 tall stories of the
president ; Politis compares Jacques Chirac‟s speech with the reality of the
Marianne : June 1st to 10th 2005 Sens et conséquences d’une rébellion
(meaning and consequences of a rebellion).
material TECHNIQUE OF THE PANEL
- Compare the different points of view on joining in the
European constitutional treaty.
- Guide everyone to precise their individual points of view in
comparison with others more or less alike in the panel.
- Give a maximum number of participants the occasion to
speak in as little time as possible.
Duration: 1 to 1.5 hours
Material: small sheets of paper, pencils
- The group splits in two, according to the point of view to
- For half an hour each half-group gathers the arguments that
will support their point of view, possibly with the help of
documents or of an expert.
- Each group names two debaters who will join the leader.
They sit around a table in the middle of the room. The group
sits behind them.
- Throughout the discussion, the groups help their debaters to
argue by passing notes to the leader, who will classify them
before handing them to the debaters who must make use of
them, as far as possible, in the debate.
CHART OF ANALYSIS OF THE PRESS BOOKS
- Identify the way of presenting the information
- Distinguish information from commentary
- Develop a spotting competence of pluralism of opinions
Public: one newspaper for two persons
Duration: 1 hour
Material: sheets of flipchart, felt-pens, to make posters:
ITEMS TO DEVELOP:
- Reference to the source (name, date of the paper, ...)
- Theme developed
- Questions and answers: asked or implicit questions; place of
the debate; level of commitment of the paper; plurality of
- Who answers the questions, the political side, the thesis
presented: journalists / experts (political science, economists,
sociologists, ...) / politicians : union leaders, ...?
- The theses: arguments offered / social, political, economic,
cultural, legal, ... aspects / reference to the constitutional
- Commentaries of the journalists: texts / cartoons / photos.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SUPPORTS OF INFORMATION
Information medium Audiovisual Written press
Reference of the “Ripostes”, a Various press books (c.f.
documents television programme bibliography supra;
(c.f. supra). Live references noted on the
broadcast, no cuttings. posters).
Availability of the Continuous flow; Physical presence of the
information flashbacks mean a newspaper, always
shooting script of the available, with a
programmes; TV sets possibility to go through it
and video or DVD- and write on it; various
players needed. developments.
Presentation of the Crawl, editing, Headlines, introductory
information soundtrack, shots, paragraphs, pictures
camera devices, stage (cartoons, photos,
directions, speechtime captions), grids, place of
sound quality, plan of the articles, number of
the programme, ... columns, surface, ...).
verbal see 1. and 2. Id.
non verbal body language, tone, See presentation above,
language register, apart from textual.
clothes and make-up.
Presentation of the
- journalist presenter How does the
themselves, as a
journalist, ... and
- debaters How the invited What is said about the
personalities are personalities who will take
Interaction within the rather important, Types of articles : talks
debate conducted by the that place opinions side by
presenter who repeats side, minutes of the debate
the questions the between personalities.
debaters have not
expectation of the
Level of interactivity Study of the To be detailed with the
argumentative help of the posters
sequences; analysis of presenting the press books.
the way the debate
was handled by the
Reference to the To be considered in Quotations and even
constitutional treaty the particulars of the explicit parts of the theses
programme: allusions developed.
are more frequent than
Links between the journalists invited The newspapers allow
audiovisual and the are often newspaper flashbacks on TV
press: two editorial writers or programmes, and time for
complementary or directors, accountable reflection (ex.: Politis
competing media? for their editorial analyses the President of
lines. The guests are the Republic‟s television
often heckled on their performance).
stances in the
Activity of the reader, Two possible The reader‟s activity will
of the viewer positions imply a differ according to the
different attitude: types of articles and the
either the viewer seeks presentation of the
information or they questions at stake. An
adopt a critical effort is made to assemble
attitude. The and compare.
programmes ask for
The discussion may
continue on the site
(see above in
Analysis, - The timing of the activities is very tight. We have often exceeded the
explanation, planned limits. This module asks for an intense participation. It implies
interpretation building competences for press readers and active viewers. It is therefore
necessary to provide for working time prior to the analysis of the media,
depending on the level of the groups of trainees. We were most tempted to
use more than one paper or change from one article to another and work
superficially. We always had to remain vigilant for the activities to develop
- These activities can be conducted in class but need be adapted. The level is
that of a secondary school: 15 to 18 years of age. The module finds its place
in civics (ECJS in France) but also of economics and social science. The
teacher must choose parts of the TV programmes and of the books; the
material used in the module is too rich for the class. The selection rests on
their educational purpose. The viewing time cannot exceed 10 to 15
- The competences expected in a debate or in understanding the information
are those that characterize the citizen. But the technique of the panel is
demanding and there is high risk of having only the better-at-ease and more
used to discussing pupils speak. It poses the problem of the reference
knowledge and of the procedural knowledge that are necessary for the
debate. It may be useful, with the pupils, to make the time to assert their
knowledge of the constitutional treaty. In the beginning, the debates are
short and simple; but, little by little, the pupils learn how to defend
contradictions and buttress their points of view, taking into account the
arguments offered by their groups.
- The debate on the European constitutional treaty does not disappear after
the French and the Dutch “no”. It tackles fundamental aspects of the
construction of Europe: it presents the different political options and
enlightens them; it goes over the national frame and is an occasion to gather
non-French European people in the political, cultural and intellectual fields
on the French scene: for example, Zapatero, Semprun, Negri,DE Haene,
Cohn Bendit, Schroeder, Geremek, ...
- The press has offered documentary files with syntheses and presentations
of analyses that will be useful in the future. The historical dimension
appears clearly, just like the stakes in the construction of Europe.