Lanzones Production Technology Orlando C. Pascua RG Maghirang (ed.) Edited August 2006 Lanzones • Grown in Southern Tagalog and •Mindanao • 10,330 ha. area planted • Grows well in clay loam soils and in places where the ground water is shallow. • Thrives best in warm humid climate with an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. Varieties: DUKU • The tree is usually shorter than the other varieties but has a wider crown. • Leaves are hairless. • Fruits are round and are borne from 4 to 12 fruits per raceme. • Pericarp is thick (up to 6 mm) with no latex. • It is sweet with a delectable flavor. PAETE • Grown mostly in Luzon, Misamis Oriental and Camiguin Island. • Fruit is elongated and smallest among the varieties. • Leaves are lanceolate. • The tree is erect. • Trees are relatively susceptible to bark borer infestation. LONGKONG • A variety introduced from Thailand and Indonesia. • The fruit is sweet and tasty. • Almost seedless. • The skin or peel has no latex. Site Selection • Flat to hilly within 600 m above sea level. • The land should have a loamy or sandy soil. • 2,500 – 3,000 mm annual rainfall • 75-80% relative humidity Preparation of Planting Materials • Select only plump and well-developed seeds. • Carefully remove the flesh adhering the seed. • Germinate the seeds in light loamy soils or in germination beds with sawdust. • Germinated seedling are ready for potting in 8” x 11” x 0.003 plastic bag when the first pair leaves have appear. Preparation of Planting Materials • At 12-18 months from pricking the rootstocks are ready for asexual propagation. • At 6-12 months after grafting, the asexually propagated plants are ready for field planting. • Rebagging should be done when polyethylene bag becomes brittle • Rear seedlings under a nursery shade allowing full recovery of the plants prior to field planting. Land Preparation • Clear/underbrush the whole area. • Plow and harrow to loosen the soil. • Plant temporary shade (ipil-ipil, madre de cacao or banana) before field planting. • Stake a distance of 5 m between hills and 5 m between rows. • Prepare holes 25 cm in diameter at a depth of 25 cm or big enough to accommodate the ball of soil supporting the bagged plants. Planting • Apply basally, 50-100 gm of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) or ammophos (16-20-0). • Remove the plastic bag and plant the seedling into the prepared hole. • Cover the hole with top soil and press gently. • Water immediately after planting. Care and Management 1. Ring weeding should be done when necessary. 2. Shallow cultivation of the plant to a radius of at least 1 m should be done twice a year or as the need arises. 3. Mulch the tree with coconut husks or grasses to conserve soil moisture. Care and Management Mulching in lanzones Care and Management 4. Pruning • Judicious pruning should be done during the dry season. • Cut surfaces should be applied with copper fungicides. • Start pruning when the plants is 1.5 m tall. • Decapitate the apical shoot to a height of 1 m to induce formation of secondary stems and bend the stems outward to promote good branching. • When the plants are matured, prune every after harvest to remove diseased and weak branches, and shoots which grow parallel to secondary stem. Care and Management 5. Flower thinning • Remove excess cluster of flowers that emerge in tertiary and small branches, short clusters (less than 3 inches) and overcrowded clusters to prevent deformities in fruits. Care and Management 6. Fertilization Fertilization Schedule Plant Age/Stage Kind of Fertilizer Rate/Plant a) Vegetative Stage Ammonium Sulfate 100-200 (21-0-0) or g/tree/year Urea (46-0-0) b) Bearing Stage Complete Fertilizer 5-8 (14-14-14) kgs/tree/year (after harvest) • Drill or broadcast the fertilizer 1 m away from the base of the plant depending upon the topography of the land. Pest Management In Lanzones Pests and Diseases • threat to the industry • retard the growth of trees • reduced both quality and quantity • reduce yield INSECT PESTS OF LANZONES 1. Bark Borer • Serious pest of lanzones • Bark infestation suppresses flower emergence and reduces yield. a. Proxinonena sp. • Injurious among species Larva • Feeds on bark and cambium layer • Produce a scaly bark b. Cossus sp. • Mines under the bark by feeding on it and secretes a web that form a tunnel. • Infestation occurs at the crevices between branches. • Infestation in old trees c. Gold-banded Moth • Larvae predominant on the terminal twigs. • Dark blister-like appearance indicative of its infestation. • It penetrates the cambium layer of the twigs. • Scraping-off of infested bark is harder than Proxinonena sp. 2. Twig Borer (Cerambycid Beetle) • The larva bore into the stem or twig of the lanzones trees resulting in the death of plant tissue. Control: • Damage plant parts must be pruned and burned. Control: 1. Mechanical Method • Scraping and pruning infested portions 2. Chemical Method • Application of insecticide after mechanical operations in knocking out the borer. DISEASES 1. Root Rot •This fungus disease attacks trees in areas with waterlogged condtion. •Infection starts at lateral roots and moves towards the main root up to the base of the trunk. •Externally the leaves turn yellow and gradually fall-off. Control: •Provide good drainage •Digging and burning of dead trees •Treat infected roots and trunk with fungicides 2. Scab • Serious disease affecting the Longkong variety of lanzones. • Exhibited by bulging of the bark. Control: • Spray Copper Hydroxide(Kocide) or Copper Oxychloride) HARVESTING • Harvest the fruits 140-150 days from flower formation to fruit ripening. • Do the harvesting early in the morning or late in the afternoon. • Harvest the fruits by climbing the tree and cut the ripe bunches with sharp cutters or pruning shears. Post Harvest Handling • sort, clean, air dry and grade the harvested fruits. • pack the fruits in cartons or crates with liners or cushion to reduce damage during handling. • store the fruits in cold storage at 10 o C with relative humidity of o 85-90 % to extend the shelf-life of the harvested fruits.