What is the Problem with the Existing Spectrum Allocation

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					 What is the Problem with the Existing
    Spectrum Allocation System?




Less than 2% of the spectrum is used from 700-800MHz in an urban (Dupont
Circle) environment. (Data from NAF study 2003)
Worst Case Occupancy Summary




 Roughly 80% of the spectrum between 30 Mhz and 1000 MHz represents
 “white space” – unused spectrum.
    Different Models of Spectrum Allocation Have
          Differing Economic and Technical
                    Consequences
• Example: Traditional Licensed Spectrum – Based on
  Radio Act of 1912:
     – “First. Every station shall be required to designate a certain definite
       wave length as the normal sending and receiving wave length of the
       station. This wave length shall not exceed six hundred meters…”
•    Economic/Social Consequences:
     –   Low-Cost Consumer Nodes Enable Widespread Access.
     –   Assured Quality of Service for Public Safety.
     –   Inefficient Use of Spectrum
     –   Little Incentive for Delivery of New Services and Technology
•    Technical Consequences
     – Mobile Terminals can be “dumb” – little network awareness required.
     – Frequency, modulation, and receiver standard is set at time of
       manufacture.
    Different Models of Spectrum Allocation Have
          Differing Economic and Technical
                    Consequences
• Example: Unlicensed “Opportunistic” Overlays onto
  Licensed Spectral Bands
     – Fill in the underutilized “white spaces” in the licensed spectrum with
       unlicensed nodes.
•    Economic/Social Consequences:
     –   Great Incentive for Delivery of New Services and Technology
     –   Efficient Use of Spectrum.
     –   Quality of Service for Public Safety must be Assured
     –   Interference with Existing Services must be Minimized.

•    Technical Consequences:
     – Mobile Terminals must be “smart”” – network awareness required.
       Cooperation, negotiation, and reconfigurability are necessary
     – Frequency, modulation, and receiver standards are context dependent.