A vocabulary of Biliau an Austronesian language of New by pnq12387

VIEWS: 77 PAGES: 55

									                 .

          WORKING PAPERS FOR THE LANGUAGE VARIATION

             AND LIMITS TO COMMURICATION PROJECT

                               “umber 2




A VOCABULARY OF B I L I A U , AN AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE O F NEW GUINEA,

       WITH NOTES ON I T S DEVELOPMENT FROM PROTO OCEANIC




                        Gary and Linda Siplons
                          Cornelk       Univerai t y
                                     and
                 Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s
A VOCABULARY OF BILIAU, AN AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGE O KEW GUINEA,
                                                  F
           WITH NOTES ON ITS DEVELOPMENT FROM PROTO OCEANIC



                                 Gary and Linda Simons

                                  Cornell       University
                                               and
                       ’ Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s




0.    INTRODUCTION
                                                                                                     I

1 NOTES ON THE PHONOLOGY
 .                                                                      f

1 1 Phonemes
 .
1.2 Phoneme d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s
13 S y l l a b l e shapes
 .
2
.     INTRODUCTION TO THE VOCABULARY

3.    BILIAU TO ENGLISH VOCABULARY                                                       1




4.    ENGLISH TO BILIAU VOCABULARY

5.    THX DEVELOPMENT OF BILIAU VOCABULARY F O PROTO OCEANIC
                                                           RM
5.1    A list of a i l i a u words w i t h , t h e i r p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l sources
5.2    Blliau r e f l e x e s of P r o t o Oceanic phonemes
5.3    S y l l a b l e structure adjustments
5.4    B i l i a u evidence f o r POC *ns and *nj
5.5    Comparison of Bikiau and Gedaged reflexes o f POC                           I




             consonant phonemes
5.6    The Igiliau words l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f i r r e g u l a r
            r e f l e x e s t h e y contain
5.7    Evidence f o r new Proto Austronesian and Proto Oceanic forms
REFERENCES
0, INTRODUGZTIOM
            The present vocabulary is O f t h e language spoken i n B l i a u
v i l l a g e on t h e R a i Coast of t h e gadang Provinced Papua New Ganea.
It i s l o c a t e d a t approximately 5 35’ S and 146 20’ E.                            Z’graggen
(1975) g i v e s the name B i l i a u t o the whole language group which
c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t v i l l a g e s : B i l i a u , Teterei, Y a a n a i , GaLek, Suit,
MaZangai, W i w a i , and U o r i , Very l i t t l e has been p u b l i s h e d on t h e
R i l i a u Language, 0d.y two w o r k s g i v e any language d a t a , The
Gedaged-English D i c t i o n a r y by J Mager ( 1 9 5 2 ) c i t e s some forms
                                                  .
from t h e BiLiau language for t h e purpose o f comparison, mainly
f r m t h e S u i t v i l l a g e . P e t e r L i n c o l n (1976) h a s r e c e n t l y
conduc$ed a survey o f t h e R a i C o a s t A u s t r o n e s i a n languages, His
comparative w o r d l i s t and g r a m a t = i c a l ruaterial i n c l u d e d a t a from
Gahk v i l l a g e .

       The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f this paper c o n t a i n s b r i e f n o t e s on t h e
phonology. S e c t i o n s two t h r o u g h four are t h e vocabulary,
cansistimzg of an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the vocabulary, a Hlialm-
English vocabulary and an English-EilLau vocabulary, The
final sectLon t r e a t s t h e p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l sources for 15C
of the vocabulary i t e m and p o s i t s t h e sound changes by wUch
t h e p r e s e n t day EEiliau vocabulary developed from i t s P r o t o
Oceanic a n c e s t o r language.

         I n t h e remainder of t h e paper, any r e f e r e n c e t o a L l i a u
r e f e r s t o t h e Language spoken i n B i l i a u village, not t o the
language group as a whole. The language group i s by no means
homogeneous; e a c h v i l l a g e has i t s own cornurunalect, L e x i c o s t a -
tis’.Lci,liji t h e r e i s an e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t d i f f e r e n c e on the
Swadesh 100-word L i s t between t h e two extreme ebds o f t h e
language group, BUiau and S u i t . Thus i t is d i f f i c u l t t o speak
of t h e Riliau language as a whole, The data p r e s e n t e d h e r e
r e p r e s e n t o n l y the language as spoken i n t h e v i l l a g e o f a i a u ,
See Simons (1917a) f o r a d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t of sorne of the
d i a l e c t c i i f f e r e n c e s between the v i l l a g e s .
          The d a t a p r e s e n t e d here are a r e s u l t of s i x weeks f i e l d
work in FlUiau v i l l a g e d u r i n g September arid October of 1976,
The s t u d y was c a r r i e d a u t i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Suuuner
I n s t i t u t e O f L i n g u i s t i c s and the C o r n e l l University research
project, IlLanguage V a r i a t i a n and L i m i t s t o Communication11 which
is being p a r t i a l l y supported by the Nat5ormal Scibnce Foundation
grant BNS76-06031.
                                                           I    .
                                   3        '              ~-

                                                                    7




       A portable microcoxputer, t h e ETP 8L, was used i n the 'held
t o maintain the vocabdary list, The! cmpu'eer wa6 used t o keep
a sorted master l i s t Of BiUau t o EngliSs1 vocabulary, and then
reverse the f i l e t o EngUsh-BiU,au onder and re-eort. The '
programs used to Enat& tb vocabulary file are explakned $a           ,
SimonsL977b. ??he computer was also used ;i the analysis of the
                                                    in
s o w d changes frw P r o t o Oceanic t o present day BLliau.     Progras
were written t o compile a fist O f aL1 the sound carrespondences
that o c 6 u in a list of p g r e d parent an& daughter forms, count
the number of occurrences- of each correspondence, extract aU the
examples of the correspondences, and mark the word pairs as t o
the number of e s t a b l i s h e d correspondences khey contain,



1
.    NOTES ON THE PHONOLOGY

 .
11     Phonemes
       The following 22 phonemes occur in t b m i a u language,
Consonants
                          labial   dveolar           velar
stops
   voiceless                P               t         k
     voiced                 b               d          g
fricatives
   voicele 68               f               S

     voiced                                 Z

lateral                            i    i




   voiced l i q u i d                       1
re t r o f Lexed
     voiced f l a p                         r
nasals                      m               n    f




semivowels                  w               Y
Vowels
                          front        central        back
                   high     i                          U
                   mid      e                          0
                   low                      a
                                            aa
                                           4

          O f the above phonemes o n l y /y/> /w/* and /aa/ d e s e r v e
comment. The s y l l a b l e f i n a l /y/ and /w/ are a r e s u l t o f inter-
p r e t i n g [&] and {uj a6 consonants when they occur in t h e
following g l i d e s :            [L
                                   $,      ei, o r , u i j au, eu, ou, id. T ;s     hi
decisjLon w a s made for s e v e r a l reasons. First of all, a C W C
s y l l a b l e never o c c u r s ; t h a t i s , a g l i d e always ends a s y l l a b l e
and a s y l l a b l e f i n a l consonant never f o l l o w s a g l i d e , Secondly,
b e f o r e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s y l l a b l e f i n d [] and [u3 as /y/
                                                                           i
                    in a C VC2 s y l l a b l e was any consonant phone except
                        T h i r b y , i n a CV V s I l a b l e , V2 could only be
                      Thus. .we i n t e r p r e t ’ ‘ti. an6b-j as the consonants
                    when they Occur a s t h e second element of a g l i d e .
This reduces the number of s y l l a b l e & a p e s t h a t occur and removes
tbe occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n on C2.
          The / a d phoneme is p h o n e t i c a l l y [a7a}--two   2 vocoids
separated by a l e d 6 g l o t t d atop. T js g l o t t a l o c c u r s nowhere
                                                      hi
e l s e i n t h e language. The double a h a s been i n t e r p r e t e d as a
s i n g l e phonerae because it f’’unct%onEi n e v e r y way j u s t l i k e t h e
f i v e s i n g l e vowels, and has no unique occurrence o r
co-occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n s , The f a c t t h a t i t i s a d i f f e r e n t
phoneme from /a/ is a t t e s t e d by t h e following m i n i m a l p a h s :
             /wag/          I canoe 1
             /waag/         ‘drum1
             /Em/            canoe o u t r i g g e r 1
             /saam/         ‘skyf
             /mad           1father1
             /maam/         ‘a s p e c i e s of f i s h ’

1.2   Phoneme distribution r e s t r i c t i o n s
        A l l consonants occur in any C s l o t anywhere i n t h e word.                  me
o n l y consonant r e s t r i c t i o n i s Bn t h e followlng word shape


where both C abd C2 cannot be stops. There are two e x c e p t i o n s
t o this. Thk f i r s t is in the case of: a word which i s a
r e d u p l i c a t e d stem.
             /gubgub/       ‘ditch’.
              /pidpid/      I   bottler
                                            5

The other c a s e is when a verb h a s undergone the p r o c e s s of vowel
syncope, T h a t iss when a prefix is added t o a two s y l l a b l e verb
stem, t h e first vowel of t h e stern drops.
             /baa/             'he g e t s up'
             /dibdi/            they get up!
     The sequence /n/ followed by /g/ never O C C U ~ G .               Thus the
digraph &I unambiguotrsly r e p r e s e n t s the velar nasal         (3).
     A l l vowels occur in initial and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n iin the word.
Only /i/ and /u/ occur word f i n a l l y .

1.3   s y l l a b l e shapes

      The f o l l o w j a g s y l l a b l e shapes occur:

                           V
                           vc
                          cv
                          cvc
V s y l l a b l e s occur only as the f i ~ s t y l l a b l e of a word.
                                              s
             /uodud/           * dolphin'
             /a.kung/          'c~am'

VC s y l l a b l e s o c c u r only following /i/ o r /u/, or as a single word.
             /ki.el/           'sail'
             /mu. at/          t snake'
             /ad               ' sun'
CV s y l l a b l e s occur as a single word a n d as any s y l l a b l e i n a word.'
             /w                'he coughst
             /ta.mol/          (man1
             /lab.ni/          'Leaf
CVC s y l l a b l e s occur as a s i n g l e word and as any s y l l a b l e in a word.
             /bind             'talk!
             /labed/           'leaf'
             /u.dud;/           dolphin'

     Any B u a u word can be s y l l a b i f i e d by a p p l y i n g the t h r e e
unordered rules:
             w 4 V,V
             cc -+ cc
                    .
             vcv + VOCV
                                                   6

2.    I"I!RODUC'RON        TO TLfE VOCABULARY
          Conventions used in presenting the vocabulary a r e d i s -
cus6ed in sectkons one through fivs.       Section s i x d i s c u s s e s the
r e l i a b i l i t y of: t h e data.

          (1) Noun and verb g l o s s e s              -
                                             Verbs are glossed with the
i n f i n i t i v e foran o f the English word and nouns a r e g l o s s e d ~ t h
theb simplie noun form. Th@ m b i g u i t y i n h e r e n t 3.n many English
worda which can be e i t h e r -noun o r verb i s taken care of i n tbLs
way.        !I!hus, guab 'flyt i s a noun and rqy ' t o fly1 i s a Verb.

     (2) I n a l i e n a b l y possessed nouns                  -
                                                 Nouns which are inalienably
possessed have a hyphen f o l l o w i n g the stem. The possessive
suffixes are :
                                        cingular       plural
               1st p e r s o n                             -W           -Dam (exclus&ve)
                                                                        -d   (inclusive)
               2nd person                              -m               -mil
               3 r d person                            -Y               -2

     ( 3 ) Abbrek6atkOns             - The f O l l O v & n g abbreviations a r e used:
lit. t P i t e r a l L y ' ; pl. ' p l u r a l ' ; TP. 'Tok FisLn, Eew Guinea P i d g i n ' ;
sp.   ' a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s of';   Sppm 'a number of s p e c i e s o f t .

          (4) P l a n t s and a n i m a l s   -   A simple English gloss is given if
the E i l i a u word i s a generic term.                If i t i s t h e name for a
                                                                    9
p a r t i c u l a r u n i d e n t i f i e d species, the abbreviation lsp.' enclosed
i n parentheses f o l l o w s the g l o s s . Thus,
generic term for fish, and aziw 'fish ( s p .
                                                                   'fish' is t h e
                                                                    fi s a particular
u n i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i e s of fish.     For d h t h e p l a n t names t h e
            -
LiLnnaean genus and s p e c i e s d c s i p a 4 5 o n s a r e given as w e l l as
the Tok P i s i n term when i k w a s considered helpful, M i l d i c (1971)
was ehe standard r e f e r e n c e f o r both Linnaean and Tok Pisin terms.
A t the end of the English to B i l i a u vocabulary, a l i s t d o f all the
plant names i n t h e order o f t h e i r Linnaean designations is
given. This i s done since many of the p l a n t s have no cOmmon
ELEglish name.

  *   (5) Alphabetization                -
                                     The normal English a l p h a b e t i c a l order
i s used f o r the B i l i a u t o English vocabulary with only one
exception. The            digraph which represents t h e v e t a r nasal
                                                                                  -
phoneme i s t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r which follows n i n the
alphabet, Thus, 3 follows nji, no, n t , E etc.               ,
                                              a
                                -
         (6) R e l i a b i l i t y A l l of the Biliau words were double
checked with native s p e a k e r s t o v e r i f y the spa31irrgs. Meanings,
howevor, were not checked thorougbly f o r all words. There w e
three areas where more c o n s i s t e n c y checklmg would be h e l p h l .
(a) In non-careful speech, t h e /aa/ i s very often pronounced like
/ d . Thus some o f t h e / a / ' e i n the vocabulary list may be / a d 1 8
a d v i c e versa.          ( b ) W often had d i f f i c u l t y h e a r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e
                                   e
between word final /i/ and /ey/.                ( c ) . W a r e n o t s u r e t h a t all
                                                         e
of the i n a l i e n a b l y possessed nouns have been c o r r e c t l y identified,
m d c m v e r s e k y , some nouns which were i d e n t i f i e d as such may not
a c t u a l l y be.
         Reduplication is a very wideGpread phenomenon i n t h e & l i a u
language, apparently a f f e c t i n g all word classes, Kearly any verb
stem can be r e d u p l i c a t e d t o i n d i c a t e p r o c e s s o r contiauatzbn,
Noun stems are r e d u p l i c a t e d to show diminution o r abundance,
el3 muat #snake1 and mutmuat 'worm'.                       Many noun stems are
r e d u p l i c a t e d with no apparent semantic s i g n i f i c a n c e , eg, p i d p l d
            ,
tbo%.t.lel fumfom 'wooden f l o o r ' , p b m b ' d i t c h ' .             Adjoctives
ax8 a p p a r e n t l y r e d u p l i c a t e d t o show that they are d e s c r i b h g
a number of things, ego n a l u lsaaalll and n a l a l u (small ( p l . ) ' ,
kamtex t u x r i p e l and k a r t a t e y ' u n r i p e ( p L ) n h e r e are a t least
two morphophonedc processes a s s o c i a t e d with r e d u p l i c a t i o n , a
weakenhg of t k vowel kn the penulthate s y l l a b l e ( e g , nutmuat
* w o m ~ ,fuafom 'wooden floorr, and mitmet ' s h e l l (sp.)') and
a creep&=                   (eg, nalu and n d d u lsmaXL1). m e d i d n o t
permit a thorough i n v e s t i g a t k o n of the nsanings and p r o c e s s of
r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h i s incomplete understanding of r e d u p l i c a t i o n
has no doubt l e d t o some l n a c c u r a c i s s 3.n the vocabulary list,
Only t h e unroduplicated form of v e r b stems is given,
. 3 * BILIAU, TO ENGLISH VOCABULARY

a-g                t o eat food t h a t i s not meat (see anginq)
 aw                tree, firewood
 aay   dimi        s t i c k , lit. tarn o f t r e e '
 aay   labni       green, lit. ' l e a f of t r e e %
 aay   suru        sap, lit. ' b l o o d o f t r e e *
 aay   warey   .   r o o t of t r e e , P i t . 'rope/vine of t r e e !
 ab                house

 abang             everything
 abatut            t o plant
 adangdangey       cold
 agaru-            neck
 ager              enemy
 awm               middle
                   Clam

 alal'             so0 t
 am                who       .
 aae:              f i s h net
 an .              you p l .
 -ageY             m e a t o f something, food of something
 anangey           peak o f roof
 ananas            pineapple
 manu-             shadow, p i c t u r e , s p i r i t
 anar              t o decorate
 aning             banana
 aniaw             rain
 antam             you two
 azmgaar           t r e e with edible nut, the Tahitian chestnut,
                         Canarium polyphylluq, TP. 6ali.p
                   food (not i n c l u d i n g meat)

 angru             h a 1f
 aror              net bag
 arwaw             afternoon
 aearur            t o bleed
 asur              blood
 ate- bibi         palm o f hand, p a h
 aw                l i m e chewed w i t h b e t e l n u t

 awa-              mouth, opening
 awul              hook
 awang             manioc, c a s s a v a , K i n i h o t u t i l i s s i m a
 az                sun
 aziw              fish (sp.1
                                9



bad                dove, l a r g e and black
babley             a l i g h t ; t o light, t o s h i n e , t o i g n i t e
bad                one ( i n d e f i n i t e )
badey              t o s t a y , t o remain, t o be
badi               t o s t a n d up, t o a r i s e
ba-g               t o throw away
balag              nothing
balbad             half
bale-              tongue
barnam             sand
basadangf          straight
basul              t o turn
ba t u             egg, f r u i t
bayariar           millipede
baz baze y         eyelash
bazez              shell
bazi               f e a t h e r , wing
bey                first
bibi               green coconut t o o youlag t o d r i n k
b i daag           bedbug
h,idbidi           wet
b i l i l ierngi   round
bimi               ripe
bininaar           h i b i s c u s shkub, Hibiacus rosa-s2.nensi.e
bipg               talk, speech
bingat
biraaw
hisey
                   crazy
                   cord-
                           .     -

                                                                              -
                   v a r i e t y of yamo DioEcoroa e s c u l e n t a , 'Ibp. lnami


b i SO-            navel
bog                s e a hawk
b.om               sago palm, Metroxylon sp,
Mngsag             morning, tomorrow .
buaad              sauc epan
buaay              star
bUW                bmAbOO

buhab              to c r y (of animals)
bubu3.u            body h a i r
buor               P i l-3
buot               t o bury
burburar           reef
hut                white dove
bUZ                urine) t o urinate
                                        10


daang                   t o look, t o see                                      . .
dabi                    p i t of fruit
dag                     t o avoid
dag                     to finish
dagdago-                shoulder
dagebi                  t r e e kangaroo
daging                  knot

daglaa-                 thigh
dago?                   t o wash s o m e t h h g
ddeb
dame
dmo-
      -                 y c a r j o l d garden
                        shin
                        forehead
dangdang                t o search f o r
darey                   red
daseg                   one
daivdaw                 wind from t h e w e s t
der                     wind from n a i n l a n d
dieb                    f i s h (sp,)
dima-                   a r m , hand
dima- g u n g g u n g   elbow
diraa- t i h i          thumb, l i t , 'mother of hand'
di&d bad               f i v e , l i t . tone hand'
dimad ru               t e n , P i t , 'two h a n d s t
dimad z i z i l i   bad six, l i t , 'a hand and oile f i n g e r '
dimad z i z i l i   ru     seven, lit, f a hand and two f i n g e r s '
dimad z i z i l i   t o 1 e i g h t , l i t . ' a hand and t h r e e f i n g e r s '
dimad z i z i l i   waalbad          n i n e , 1st. r a hand and f o u r fingers'
diwdiw                   b e e t l e (sp.9
dog                     t o remove coconrnt from shell,
dom                     s p i k e s which h o l d o u t r i g g e r boom
dos                     t o s i t down
d0Y                     t r e e , leaves u s e d as n a t i v e paper, H i b i s c u s
                              tileaceus
duaan                   bow; war
dugdug                  bU6h
duguaay                 t o jump
dupuroy                 to fight
eb                      striae; made from reg grass
ebisi                   af f i n e
esey                    expression of d e l i g h t
ew                      native beer
eY                      hey !
                                         11


faat                   t o float
f ageY                 eyebrow
fag                    t r a d i t i o n a l c a r p e n t e r 1 s plane
fangay a n             on t a p o f
far                    frog
fari-                  lip
fay                    t o c a r r y i n a net bag
fof.                   t o hreak a g a i n s t t h o g r a b
fon                    sea t u r t l e
f ow                   new
fw                     t o break
f OY                   a paddle; t o paddle
foy t i n i            r u d d e r , lit. 'mother of p a d d h s t
fU                     base; o r i g i n
fu                     a cough; t o cough
fuf                    o l d ( o f : persons)
f u f t amol           g r a n d f a t h e r , grandson, lit, t o l d m a n '
fufen                  grandmother, granddaughter, lit. s f u f
                            t o l d wonan'
                                                                           -+ E n
fum f om               f l o o r made f r o a wood'
funfin                 husk o f a c o c c n i t
f ung                  to h i t , t o k i l l
fuagung                roof
fungul                 b e t e l pepper, Piper b e t l e
furfor                 short grass
f u r u n gf u r u r   t o come up a g a i n
rut                    t o make, t o b u i l d '
gaag                   taboo
gab                    t o gather
gabar o-               gums ( o f mou€h)
e;abeY                 bald
gabeyan                above
gabor                  fog, mist
gagow                  strong
galmi                  unripe
gamey                  now
                       down
                       intestines
                       where
                       t o eat neat, t o b i t e
                       tsochus s h e l l
                                   12



gaw               crayfish
gawgaw            lung
ge-               saliva
ge                to spit
gelelawey         gill
ESer              wall
gikaaz            g r a s s used f o r making brooms
gilbaan           f i s h (sp.)
giley             p o s t o f house
gim               t o buy
gimgim            dirt
gingging          l a n d hawk
girm              b e l l ; s l i t gong
giren             o i l , grease




                  finger, t o e
                  t o be s t a n d i n g up
                  Grasshopper
                  bamboo ( s p , )
                  windpipe
                  tooth
                  i n s i d e of
                  belly; m a t of emotions
in                he, she, i t ; they
iatarr            they two
iP                tree w i t h e d i b l e f r u i t , I n o c a r p u s f a g i f e r u s ,
                     TP. a i l a
irir              liver
kaang             gourd used for s t o r i n g water
kaaw              t o cover up
kabaal            bush; i n l a n d

kafurbad          full
kak               e l d e r sibling
kakarek           chicken
k a l bang bang   b u t t e rf l y
kallvang          shrub used far decoration, Taetsia fructicosa,
                       TP. t a n g e t
kalwi t           t o catch
kam               t o peel
kamdud              bee (sp.)
kani s ar s ir      grass
kamtatey            white ( p l . ) ; u n r i p e ( p l . )
kamtey              white; u n r i p e ; white man
k anay              seagull
It
 s-                 to t h i n k
k a r a n g r ong   a n t (sp.1

karag               wind f r o n t h e e a s t
karfoy              f i n g e r n a i l , t o e n a i l , claw
kas                 t o speak, to t e l l a s t o r y
ka taa-             h a i r o f t h e head
kawang              fence
kidingdengi         crooked
k ie l              sail

kilow               t r e e used f o r f l o o r i n g , mts, bow; AreCa sp9
                                                                          P.
                          TP. limbum
kiming              t r a d i t i o n a l bread
kimpaak             pandanus ( s p . )
lrimpi-             skin; bark
kin                 li Gh t d n g
kit                 brain
kiwaar              cassowary

kongkong            s m a l l banboo gong
kOP                 t o cut
kot                 stomach
kubol               handcrafts
kud                 to c a r r y on head
kukow               dust
1aaw                rafter
laaz                braaching C o r d
labnl.              leaf
lal                 t o swell up
1-g                 shore
las                 s k u l l ; shell of coconut
leng                riiany
l e n g mat         very many

ley                 ginger
lib                 hole
lingen              g l a s s ; r e f l e c tion
1 on                fat
lu                  to vonfit
lun€um              citrus
lung                to d r i n k
luong               t o Bear, t o know
                                       14

      nam              f i s h (sp.)
      maan             bird
      maas             s e a , sal tvrater
      maat             t o die
      magager          bee (sp.)
      magagwaaw        pain
      magarew          h o t enbers

      Bagarngen c;     t o f i n i s h , t o conplete
      magi             b e e t l e grup
      naka;y           boy
      rn a1            loiaclo th
      malaa-           eY @
      malbong          f l y i n g fox
      n a l e y bad    soue, few
      nialey b a z i   bamboo ( s p . )
      naluy            duck
? -   malwey           1 ong
      man              f a t h e r (tern of a d d r e s s )
      marn             we (exclusive)
      mallisas         dry
      mamtam           we two ( e x c l u s i v e )

      nard             heavy
      rnasalaggam      python
      raataley         flat
      mat ey           o l d ( o f things)
      natiaw           stone
      mats             coral
      maw              t a r o , C o l o c a s i a sp.

      ltzayaay         sick
      mayal            pronged s p e a r
      m id i l i       short             *   .           ..
      miningi          crackle of f i r e ’
      mirian           i n back o f , behind
      nitmet           shell (sp. )
      n i Z i          meat
      njzirin          bamboo ( s p . )
      mol              t o f a l l down
      mom              land crab
      aom              t o fish w i t h a hook
      mot              islmd
      muat             snake
      mug              be % o r e
                   before
                   arm; t r u r k o f t r e e
                   t o shout
                   a sore
                   later
                   sago r o o f t h a t c h
                                                                   -
                   c u d 1 w o r m i n rottQa f r u i t ( s e e ' r n u t )

t utnut
 1                 rubbish
mum- t u y         back o f neck
L1UZ.U-            wrist
mi2                directional narker           away from speaker
nal
nalalu
nalnaal
                   d v
                   slAlaU p l
                   always
                         (      .    )


nalu               siiiall   (og.)
n m                1
nan                there, near t h e hearer
nang               t h a t , near t h e hearer
narenii;           s h r u b used. f o r d e c o r a t f o n , Godiaeum varieaatum,
                         TP. purpur
n a r n a r on;;   color
naw                t o scrape coconuts

nay                t o cook i n a pan
neysong            another
dngi               good
dad                o u t r i g g e r boom
nieg               d i r e c t i o n a l marker, toward t h e s p e a k e r
n iek              child
nimanay            when
                   hOW r!luch
                   here, near t h e speaker
                   mother ( t e r n of a d d r e s s ) '
                   this, n e a r t h e ,speaker
                                                      -
                   coconut; paln and fruit, Cocos n u c i f e r a
                   face
                   over t h e r e , away from: t h e s p e a k e r and the h e a r e r
non                t o cook i n f i r e , t o r o a s t
noran              yesterday
V Y        !       t b rub
nung               that over .I;h0re,'awayfrom both s p e a k e r and
                       hearer
ngaad              stone axe ,           ,.

ngew               bandicoot
ngnngili           black
                              16


                awry
                mosquito
                bee
                t a i l (not. of a b i r d )
                s h e l l of a n u t used f o r d e c o r a t i o n
                t o swallow
                a cough
olu             p ~ , p k i n ,Squash
0s              snoke, c i g a r r e t t e , tobacco
ot              d e c o r a t i o n s f o r dances
ow              v i n e ( sp. )
ozizi           d o r s a l f i n crf f i s h
padaw           p e a d a m s (sp. )
Pagar           female ( o f a n i a a h )

paida-          first f i n g e r
palaf           bush r a t
palangis        axe
pala            t o 'run
Pan             t o s h o o t w i t h a bow
paparuman       underneath
Par             t o walk
pariw           lizard
Paypay          papaya
pedipedi        c7   fan
Pen             WOM;LI1
pidpid          bottle
PiP             t o c a r r y on t h e back
pir             t o weavep t o p l a i t
pisaw fang      adze
POW&            toy top
PUS             t o come up, t o grow
raag            ribs   '


raan            water, r i v e r
ram k u l o t   lake
ranraan         tide

ranwayway       dragonfly
rar             clay
raw     ,       t o get ( p l u r a l object)
raw             t r e e with e d i b l e f r u i t , N e w Guinea walnut,
                    Dracantonelon m a n g i f e r m , TP.
ray             t o pull, t o tighten
reY             t a l l grass, I n p e r a t a arundinacea, W . k u n a i
ror             large red a n t
                                    17


rosi                bat ( s p , )
roY                 t o fly
ru                  two
rub                 to go away, t o r u n away, t o Leave
rur                 brown
saab
Sam
                                         -
                    r u b b e r t r e e , EXkus e l a s t i c a
                    sky
sab .               t o carve
sabal baYey         thin
sag                 arrow f o r shooting pigs
sag                 O a Y
sag                 to tie
G a g a r a-        back
Sak                 t o scratch

salu                a hoc
Sam                 t o miss t h e u a r k
s aLL               outrigger
sanang              what
Sand                t o smell
saner               rattan, Calanus s p
smer                a scratch
sang n i n i        why
sar                 t o conb
sar                 t o dig
sar                 white
sareng              b a s k e t made o f coconut f r o n d s
sarey          ..   a conb
saring              place m ~ i e , a l o c a l section

sarir               t o descend
sarurn              clam
sasalli-            a r n p it
saweng              hornbill
sawlaley            l i g h t i n weight
sebananing          earthquake
si                  t o come
€xi                 fork
sib                 t o sew
sibi                very, really
sigang              knuckle
silaay              bamboo (sPo)
silaay              knife
si1sil.i            happy
                                 .' 18


sinunuy               vein, a r t e r y
&ge-   an             close t o , n e a r
singi                 skin, s h e l l o f something
singpal               t o divide
singri                s n o u t o f pig, beak of b i r d
sipi                  thorn
s i si                to tear

                     prawn
                     angular, buxom
                     t o chew b e t e l n u t
                     f a r away
                     t o s p l i t w i t h t h e grain
                     t o s h o o t w i t h a spear
                     t o bathe
SUk                  t o push
sul                  torch
sur                  soup
susiw                cockroach
susulil              t o back up
SUY                  breast
SUY                  t o make a n e t bag
taaf                 t o throw
t aang               t o cry
t aaw                to tie
tab                  mat
tabanaa-             head
tabud                moon
kali                 t r e e w i t h e d i b l e n u t , Termindia catappa,
                                -
                           TP. talis
talngaa-             ear
tm                   and ( c o n j o i n s t w 9 nouns); two (pronoun)
tanl-                f a t h e r (term of r e f e r e n c e )
t an01               n anl
tan                  t o bury
tan                  e a r t h , ground
t a n tuy            bush s p i r i t , l i t . 'bones of t h e ground'
tangaw      SUEUCI   deaf
tar                  t o boil
tawaa-               titling      '


tw                   excrerien t
te-                  younger s i b l i n g
ter                  f i s h basket
tes                  t o Leave behind
tst               villme
tey s i p i       tail o f a b i r d ( p o s s i b l y           texcrementr +
                      sipi 1 t h o r n ' )
teY               t o put
teyan             on t h e o t h e r s i d e o€
ti-               buttocks
tiaarn            no; n e g a t i v e Marker, ,.a&
tiet              stairs
ti e y            t o buil d
t i firi          t o turn
timtineng         d t
tin-              mother ( t e r m o f reference)
tini-             body, skin
t01               three

ton               s p i r i t s of t h e a n c e s t o r s
tor               conch s h e l l
tO1.3             s u g a r cane
                  arrow, s p e a r
tung              t o burn
tUP               ashes
tursi    .        r e l a t i v e , on m o t h e r ' s s i d e
turu-             knee
tutu-             bone
tUY               bone
tUY               t o h o l d one thing i n t h e band
tVtUY             s p e a r with wire prongs; nail
ubu               Sunday
udi               all
udon              night
udud              backbone
udud              dolphin
ul                leech
UlzL              garden
un                b r e a d f r u i t t r e e and frutt, Artocarpus i n c i s a
un                you 8 Q b
uot           '   t o do, t o nake
ur                steari
urat              work
urit              octopus
ururor            gravel
ut                louse
uye-              leg
                            20



w-            nose
Uyu           El0untaim
UYUY          mouse
UZ            to    SWiD
UZ&r          dawn
waag          t o call, to shout
waag          hand drum
waal          b e t e l nut, Large red v a r i e t y , Rreca SPO
w a d bad     €OW
warn
waas          p l a n t w i t h i e d i b l e leaves, Abelnoschus manihot,
                        aibika
wab           t o get
waday         pandanus ( sp. )
wed5.w        eel

Waf           te r n it e
wag           canoe
wagananu      Large b l a c k s e a g u l l , lit. fpicture/shadow
                   o f a canoe'
              g i a n t clan
              go
              r i g h t hand s i d e
              hot
wangey        big
waggaw        crocodile
WaP           callopfryllun t r e e , Cd.1ophyU.m i n o p h y l i m
war           vine
waray         shark
warinan       day before yesterday; day a f t e r tonorrow
warmaan       vine used t o poison f i s h
wawar         t o carry
wawwaw
wayway
wayway dabi
              rime
                                                        -
              m g o t r e e and f r u i t , Mangifera i n d i c a
              s a d f i s h , lit. @ p i tof mangot because the fish
                  e a t s the mango p i t s t h a t have been thrown
              ,    i n t o t h e sea
               friend
               instrument narker
               y m , Dioscorea spp,

witan         outside o f
WiW           t o dream
wod           plate
wol           bow s t r i n g
worn          t o hide
wun           h e a t e d s t o n e s f o r cooking
Yamg          wind
                          21


maw tey     cloud
yaaw        fire
Ym          door
yamer       cloth, clothing
Yanyanang   y e l 1ow
yasug       t r e e with e d i b


            wind frm t h e s e a
            c h i n , jaw
            we i n c l u s i v e
            we two i n c l u s i v e
            t o sleep, t o l i e dom
            t o fill up
            spoon
            blue
            fish
            t o dance
            t o pour o u t
            shade
            yes
            t 0 bl ow
YU-         husband
zaay        l o f t hand side
zag         t o help
zagarib     br o om
Zd          road, p a t h
zamom       r o tten
zmung       bad

zawwaw
zer
ZiagzetnG
                                               -
            b e t e l n u t and palm, Areca c a t e c h u
            grass s k i r t
            c r a b ( sp. )
zir         albino
ziri        s c d e s of a f i s h
ziw                                                         .,
            to laugh
z iz l
    ii      l i t t l e finger
zorn        t o c a r r y maay things i n the hands
zong         o r s tusk.
            ba'
                                    22


".*    ENGLISH TO EILIAU VOCABULARY

above                gabeyan             banboo (sp.)           nakey b a d
adze                 pisaw fang          bamboo ( SP, )         Cli-U
affine               ebisi               bamboo (spc)           silaay
nf t e r n o o n     arwaw               banana                 aning
albino               zir                 bandicoot        3     ncew
all                  udi                 bark                   kimpi-
always               nalnaal             base                   fu
ancestral                                b a s k e t Bade of
    spirits          ton                    coconut f r o n d s s a r e n g
and                  tam                 b a t ( sp. )         rosi
angry                ngilang             to bathe              sug
angular              si wsiw             to be                 badey
anixml               garung              beak o f b i r d      singrf
an0 ther             neysong             beard                 z i zi-
ant                  karangrong          bee                   ngiagi
ant, large r o d     ror                 bee (sp.)              kamdud
arise                badi                bee ( s p . )          magager
arm                  dima-               beer, n a t i v e      ew
a m                  dima- mugu          b e e t l e (sp.)      diwdiw
armpit               sasali-             b e e t l e grub       magi
arrow                tung                be fore                rmg
arrow f o r                              be fore                Dugangay
  shooting p i g s   sag
                                         behind                 nirian
                                         bell                   girm
artery               sinumy              belly                  iloz
ashes                tUP                 betel n u t            zawwaw
axe                  pd a n ggi s        betel n u t ,
axe, s t m e         ngaad                  large, r e d        waal
t o avoid            dag                 t o chew b e t e l     song
hack                 sagara-             b e t e l pepper       fungul
back o f , i n .     mirian
                                         bi g                   wangey
to back up           susm                bird                   maan
backbone             udud                t o bite               gar
bad                  zaoiung             black                  IkgilngfiP
bag, n e t           aror                t o bleed              asarur
bald                 gabey               blood                  asur
bamboo               buaw                t o blow               P
bamboo ( s p . )     gus
                                    23


blue                 yezyezang           child                    ni ek
body                 tini-               Chill                    yaw-
to boil              tar                 cigarette                0s
bone                 tutu-               c i trw                  ltunun
bone                 tUY                 clam                      -
                                                                  *g
bottle               p idpid             clam                     sarm
bow                  duaan               clam, g i a n t          wagwag
bow string              WOl              claw                     karfey
boy                     n h Y            clay                     rar
brain                  kit               close t o                singe- an
bread                  hirag             cloth                    yamer
breadfruit             Un                clothing                 Ymer
t o break               fOY              cloud                    Yam& y
t o break a g a i n s t                  c Ockroach               susiw
   the grain            f of
                                         coconut               n i W
breast               SUY                 coconut, t o o
b r o om             zagarib                young t o d r i n k b i b i
brown                 u
                     Fr                  cold                  adangdangey
t o build            fut                 color                 narnarong
t o build            tiey                a comb                sarey
t o burn             tung                t o comb              sar
t o bury             buo t               t a cone              Si

t o bury             tan
bush                 dugdug
                                         t o come up
                                         t o come up a g a i nPUS
                                                               furungfurur
bush                 kabaal              couple t ed          magarngeng
bu t t e r f l y     kalbarrgbang        conch shell          tor
bu t t 0 cks         ti-                 t o cook i n f i r e non
buxon                siwsiw              t o cook i n pan nay
t o buy              d m                 c o r a l , branching 3,wz

to call                waag              coral                    rnatul
c an0 e                wag               cord                     bisey
to c a r r y           wawar             a cough                  ngu r n g or
t o carry i n a                          t o cough                fu
   n e t bag           fay               t o cover up             kaaw
t o c a r r y many                       crab                     garuY
   t h i n g s i n hand zom              c r a b (sP.)            zingzeng
t o c a r r y on head kud
t o c a r r y on back p i p              c r a b , ground         mom
                                         c r a c k l e o f fire   wining&.
to c a r v e         sab                 crayfish                 e;aw
cassava              aYW-%               crazy                    biraaw
cassowary            kiwaar              crocodile                w=maay
to catch             k a l wi 1          crooked                  kidingdengi
chest                ate- b i b i        t o cry                  taang
t o chew b e t e l   song
chicken              ka ar ek
                        k
                                         24


t o c r y (Rnimal)           bubuab           eel                        wadiw
t o cut                     k0P               €2   w                     batu
t o dance                   YiFEe;            eight                      dimad z i z i l i to1
dawn                        UZar              elbow                      dimst- gungguang
day                         nal               embers, hot                tzagarew
day a f t e r                                 emotions, s e a t o f            iloz
   tomorrow                 warinan           enemy                      ager
d a y he f ore
   ye s t e r d ay          warinan           everything                 abang
                                              excrement                  taY
deaf                        tangaw smm        eye                        malaa-
t,o d e c o r a t e         mar               eyebrow                    fW P Y
decorations for                               eyelash                    baz baz ey
   dances                   ot                face                       RO-
delight,                                      t o fall down              mol
   e x p r e s s i o n of   esey
t o descend                 sarir             fan                        pedipedi
t o die                     rimat             f a r away                 =wxay
t o dig                     sar               fat                        1on
                                              f a t h e r ( t e r m of
d i r e c t i o n a l markero                     address)               maa
    away from s p e a k e r nag               f a t h e r (term of
directional narker,                               reference)             tm-
    toward s p e a k e r n i e g              fl a t h e r               bazi
dirt                      gimgim              f ernale ( a n i n a l l   pagar
ditch                     gubgub
divide                    singpal             fence                      kawang
t o do                    uot                 few                        m a l ey bad
dog                       gon                 t o fight                  dupuroy
                                              t o fill up                Yes
dolphin                 udud                  fin, dorsal                ozizi
door                    Y W                   finger                     guwr
dove, l a r g e b l a c k b a a l             finger, f i r s t          paida-
dove, w h i t e         but
down                   ‘gmey                  finger, l i t t l e        &zizi
dragonfly               ranwayway             fingernail                 k a r f ey
t o dream               WiW                   t o finish                 dag
                                              finished                   rnagarngeng
t o drink                   lung              fire                       yaaw
drum, hand                  waag              firewood                   aaY
dry                         mmsas             first                      h Y
dry                         warn
duck                        mduy     ~
                                              fish                       Yi
dust                        kukovr            f i s h (sp.)              axiw
ear                         t alngaa-         fish (sp.)                 dieb
                                              fish (~p.1                 gixbaan
earth                  tab                    fish (sp. )                maam
earthquake             s e baaraning          f i s h (sp.)              PaYPaY
t o e a t food t h a t                        f i s h basket             ter
   i s not meat        amg
t o e a t cleat        gar
 fish n e t             amag            Grass, s h o r t             furfor
 t o f i s h with                       grasss t a l l
    ho olr             nE
                        0 l
                                                                     reY
 f i s h , sand        mayway d a b i   grasshopper                  mong
five                   d ina d bad
                                        gravel                      ururor
flat                   n a t a ley
                                        grease                      giren
to f l o a t           faat             green                       aay l a b n i
                                        ground                       tan
f l o a r , wooden     furifon
                                        t o grow                    PUS
to fly            roY                   grub, b e e t l e           magi
a fly             euab                  gums o f mouth              gabaro-
f l y i n g fox   nalbonG               hair of head                kataa-
fog               gabor                 h a i r , body              bubufu
food (not meat) aizginG
food of soliiething ariangey            ha1 f                       angru
                                        h a 1f                      balbad
f orchead         dano-
                                        hand                        dina-
f orlr                 si               handcrafts                  kubol
€our                   v a a l bad      1wQY                        silsili
friend                 wey
frog                                    hawk 1and                   gingang
                       far              hawk, sea                   bog
fruit                  batu             he, she, i t                in
full                   ka f u r b a d
garden                 Ulil
                                        head                        t a banaa-
                                        t o hear                    luoag
garden, o l d          daleb            heavy                  marwi
t o gather             gab              t o help               zag
t o get                wab              h e r e , n e a r speaker n i n
t o g e t (pl.
   object)             raw              hey !                  eY
                                        h i b i s c u s shrub b i ~ n a a r
gill                   geleawey         t o hide               worn
ginger                 ley
glass                  lingen
                                        to h i t               fung
                                        hoe                    salu
t o go                 Vial             t o hold one t h i n g
t o go away             rub                in hand             tUY
gang, s d l                             hole                  Lib
   bamboo              kongkong         hook                   am1
good                    ningi
gourd f o r s t o r i n g
                                        hornbill               sawerg
                                        ho tt                 wanwaney
   water               kaang
granddaughter           f u f en
grandfather             f u f taiiol    house                       ab
                                        how niuch               ~   aimern
                                        husband                     3nz-
grandmother        fufen                husk of c o c o n u t       funfun
grandson           f u f tau01          I                           nam
grass             k a sar sir
                     m                  to ignite                   babley
g r a s s skirt   zer                   inland                      kabaal
grass ior r!iaking
   b r ooris      gil aaz
                                       26



inside of                ilian              rLi oc
                                              ani           aYYanE;
i n s t r u m e n t marker - w i            nany            leng
intestines               gmni-              nany, v e r y   leng mat
island                   mot                nat             tab
jaw                      Y aye-             r~eat           garune
t a j unip               duguaay            meat            mizi
kangaroo, t r e e dagebi           .        meat of something anangey
to kill                f ung                middle            at=
knee                   turu-                millipede         bayariar
knife                  silaay               t o d s s the mark s a ~
knot                   daging               mist              gabor
t o know               luong                mo on             tabud
knuckle                sigang               morning           bong sag
lake                   raan kulot           mosquito          nging
later                  nurgan               no t h e r ( t e r n
t o laugh              ziw                     of a d d r e s s )   fin
leaf                   1abni                mother (term
t o leave              rub                     of reference)        tin-
t o l e a v e behind   tes                  noun t a i n            U P
leech                  ul                   mouse                   UYUY
l e f t hand           zaay                 nou th                  awa-
                                            nail                    tuytuy
1%                     U p -                nane                    wawwaw
t o l i e down         Yen
a light                babley               navel                   biso-
t o light              babley               near                    singe- an
l i g h t i~ weight.   sawlaley             neck                    agaru-
lightning              kin                  neck, back of           m u m - tuy
Ui~e     for betel,    aw                   negative mr k e r       tiaam
                                            new                     f0VJ
lip                    f ari-               aright                  udon
liver                  irir
lizard                 pariw                nine                    dinad    zizili
hocati onaf                                                            waalbad
   suffix              -an                  no, n o t               tiaan
1O iA C l 0 th         rilal                nose                    Uyu-
long                   rmlwey               nothing                 bdag
t o look               daang                iPOW                    gmeY
                                            nut, e d i b l e        artgaar
louse           ut                          ocean                   riaas
lung            gawgaw                      octopus                 u r it
t o make        rut
t o make         1t
                ‘0                          odor                    gireY
Lo make a net bag suy                       Oil                     @ren
nan             tam01                       o l d ( o f persons) f u f
mango           wayway                      old (of thing6) natey
                                      27



on t o p of                fangayan        rafter               laaw
one                        daseg           rain                 aniaw
one ( i n d e f i n i t e ) bad            r a t , bush         palaf
OAhy                   SaG                 rattan               saner
opening                awa-                really                sib%
origin                 €U                  red                   darey
other side of,                             reef                  bur b u r a r
  on t h e             teyan
                                           reflection             lingen
outrigger              Sac1                r e l a t i v e on
outrigger ~ O O E I niad                       rxothergs s i d e t u r d
outrigger, s p i k e s                     t o rerlain            bade y
   t o hold boon dari                      t o reIl.ove coconut
o u t s i d e 0%       w i tan                 fron shell         dog
over t h e r e , a:/ay                     ribs                   raag
   fron speaker                            r i g h t hand s i d e wan
   and h e a r e r     n o ~               ripe                   bid
a paddle               f OY
to p a d d l e         f OY
                                           river                    raan
                                           road                     z&l
pain                 nagagwaaw             t o roast                non
p a l n OT hand      ate- b i b i          roof
pandanus ( sp. ) kimpaak                   r o o f , sago t h a t c h mrurot
pandanus ( s p ,     padaw                 r o o f , peak of        anangey
p a n d a m s (sp. 1 waday                 r o o t of tree          warey
papaya               PaYPaX
path                 zal                   rotten                ZBmOD
                                           round                bililierne
t o peel                kan                t o rub              noY
picture                 ananu-             r u b b e r tree     saab
P i3
   !
   .                    buor               rubbish              nuimut
pineapple               ananas             rudder               foy tjLrl%
p i t of f r u i t      dabi               t o run              P a d        I


lm p l a i t            pir
plane, c a r p e n t e r fang              t o r u n away  rub
                                           sago palrs      born
to p l a n t           abatut              sago roof thatch aurot
p l a n t w i t h edible                   Sail            kiel
    Leaves             waas                saliva          LeS-
plate                  vro d               Salt            tjLElrtineng
p o s t o f house      &hey                saltwater       maas
t o pour o u t         Y ok
prawn                  siw                 sand                   barnam
to p u l l             ray                 sap                    a a y suru
                                           sardine                PaYPaY
purrpkin               olu                 saucepa                buaad
to push                suk                 s c a l e s of f i s h z i r i
to put                                     t o s c r a p e COCOEIU~S naw
py t h a n             masanggan           6cra t ch              saarer
                                           28


t o scratch           Sak
sea                   mas
seagull,              kanay
s e a g i l l , big
   black              wagananu
t o search f o r      dangdang
t o see               daang
seven                 d i u d e i z i l i ru
                                                smoke                08
to sew                sib                       snake                mat
shade                 Yo w                      snout of p i g       dngri
shadow                amnu-                     some                 w e y bad
shark                 waray                     soot                 alal
shell                 bazez                     a sore               nlanmm
s h e l l (sp.1        u
                      gw                        soup                 sur
a h e l l (Sp.1       mitrilet
                                                t o speak
t o shell a coconut dog                         spear
s h e l l of coconut las                        spear with
shell of nut used                                  wire prongs       tuytuy
   for decoratSon 1Rgizngi.z                    s p e a r , pronged
s h e l l ol:                                   speech               bing
   something          s;ingi                    s p i k e s t o hold
shell, trochus        gargar                       outrigger boon don
shin                  dmey                      spirit               aAanu-
t o shine             babl ey
                                                         ,
                                                s p i r i t bush     tan t u y
t o Bhoot with bow pan                          spi~ts       of
t o shoot with                                     ancestors         ton
   spear              SOY                       t o spit             Ge
shore                 lw?l                      t o s p l i t with
short                 midxu                       the grain
shoulder              dagdago-                  spoon
to s h o u t          waag                      squash
t o shout             mugur                     stairs
shrub used for                                  t o s t a n d up     badi
   decoration    kabnang                        to s t a n d up      w
shrub used f o r                                star                  -
                                                                     bw
   decoration    naretmg                        t o stay             badey
sibling          tawaa-                         steam                ur
siblikng, elder kak                             stick                aay dim2    ,.   1


sibking, younger te-                            stonach              kot
sick             waay
t o sit down     dos                            stone                matAaw
                                                stone 6 heated
Six                   diraad z i z i l i bad      f o r cooking
akin                  kimpi-                    straight
skin                  -gi                       string
sh5n                  tM-                       string
                                           29



strong                 gagow                    tooth                    ingo-
s u g a r cane         tow                      top, t o y               pang@.
S U                    az                       torch                    Sup
Sunday                 abu . ,   ~     t
                                                tree                     aay
t o &wallow            ngo t                    tree used for
t o swell. up          14                           fboorinf;, bows, '
t o swim           suz                              uats                 ki l ow
                                                t r e e with e d i b l e
tJiLb00                gaae                         fruit                iP
tail not of b i r d n g h g r i                 t r e e with edible
tail o f b i r d   sipi                             fruit                raw
talk               bing
taro               IlgW                         t r e e with e d i b l e
t o tear                 Gis                        leaves               yasung
t o t e l l a s t o r y . kas                   t r e e w i t h edible
                                                    nut                  angaar
ten:                     dimad ru               t r e e w i t h edible
h e r dt e               vraf                       nut                  tali
that o v e r t h e r e ,                        t r e e , c d l o p b l G i wap
    wway fron speaker                           t r e e , l e a v e s used
    and h e a r e r      Dung                       as n a t i v e paper doy
Ghat, near hearer nang                          tree, r u b b e r        saab
t h e r e , near                                t r u n k 03 t r e e     mu@
    hearer               nan
t h e r e z over there,                         t o turn               basul
    a w a y from speaker                        t o turn               tifiri
    and h e a r e r      npg                    t u r t l e , sea      fon
they                     in.                    tusk, boar's           zong
                                                two                    rU
they two               intm                     two (pronoun)          tarn
thigh              daglaa                       underneath             papa-
thin               sabal baley
t o think          k&n                          unripe                galrili
this, n e a r speaker nin                       unripe ( sg.)         katey
thorn              sipi                         unripe (pl,)          kantatey
three              t 01                         t o urinate            buz
                                                urinie                 buz
ts throw               taaf                     vein                   sfnunuy     ,
t o throw away         badinc                   very                   sibl
t hunb                 dina- t i n i
tide                   ranraan                  village                tet
t o tie                sag                      vine                   W a r
to tie                 t aaw                    v i n e (sp.)          ow
t o tighten            rS
                       ar                       vine use6 t o
                                                    poison f i s h     wamaan
tobacco                                         t o woclit             lu
toe                                             to w a l k             Par
toenail                                         wall                   ger
tomorrow
tongue
cv&r                duaan      AbeLmoschus manihot                 waae
t o wash            dagor      kreca cathecu                       zawwaw
water               raw        Areca sp.                           waal
we e x c l ,        Elan       Areca sPP+                          kilow
we h c 1 .          Y ed       Artocarpus i n c i s a              un
    two excl.       nantan     C a h l U U S Sp,                   saner
we two i n c l ,    yedtat.1   Callophylum inophylhum               a
                                                                   WP
t o weave           pir        G a n a r i w l o polyphyllwn       angaar
wet                 hidbidi    Carica papaya                       PWPW
what                S’W#lg     COCOS n u c i f e r a               niw
where               gan        C o d i a e w variegatum            nareng
when                nimanay    C o l o c a s i a sp.               maw
white (sg.)         kmtey      Dioscorea e’.suken                  bingat
w h i t e (pl,)     btatey     Dioscorea ~ S Q Q ,                 WiP
white               Sar        Dracant0meI.m rnangi ferum          raw
who                 am         -s
                                u       elastica                   saab
w i Td              gQY        Gnetum gnemom                       Yamng
wind                Yamg       Ribi s c u s r osa- s i n e m i s   bininaar
wind from e a s t   karag      Hibiscus tikeaceus                  dOY
v i n d from sea    yawarti    llnperata arundinacea               reY
wind from west      dawdaw     Inocarpus fag5 f e m s              iP
Wind, Cold                     Hangifera i n d i c a               wayway
  from mainland d e r          Wanihot u t i l i s s i m a         WY-g
windpipe        gustsus        Metroxylon sp.                      born
               bazi            Padanus S P ~                       kinpaah
woman          Pea             PmdWus spa                          padaw
work            urat           Pandanus Spa                        waday
worm           mubuat          Piper bet.Pe                        hsul
wrist          muzu-
                               Taetsia fructicosa                  kalmang
Y=                  Wil                      ‘
                               T e r m i n a b a catappa           tali
Y= (spa)            bingat
year                daleb
yellow              yanya-ls
Yes                 YOW
yesterday           noran
YOU pla             an
YOU    Sga          un
you two              tm
                    ma
5.    TK3 3EiCLOPM2TJT OF BILIAU VOCABULARY FROM PROTO OCEANIC                                  .
          I n s e c t i o n 5 a l i s t o f B i l i a u words w i t h t h e i r p o s s i b l e
                              1
                              .
h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s j.ic given.     T h i s list w a s used as t h e o r i g i n a l
d a t a f o r t h e st.udy of sound changes, SO t h a t i t e m s were included' i n
t h e l i s t simply on t h e basis of p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y w i t h a rocon-
s t r u c t e d form.        Therefore, we a r e n o t clainiing t h a t e v e r y Biliau
word i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m g i v e n f o r -it. In s e c t i o n s
5.2 and 5.3 t h e sound changes are p r e s e n t e d . I n s e c t i o n 5.4 t h e
B i l i a u evidence which s u p p o r t s a d i s t i n c t i o n between POC *ne and *nj
is presented.              Some a l t b m a t e POC r e c o n s t r u c t l i o n s a r e suggested in
the discussion,                S e c t i o n 5.5 compare8 t h e B i l i a u r e f l e x c s of POC
consonant phonemes w i t h r e f l e x e s i n Gedaged as given by L i n c o l n
(1973). Gedaged is t h e , l a n g u a g e most c l o s e l y r e l ? , t e d t o B i l i a u for
which comparative work h a s been done (Dernpwolff 1920; MiUe 1961,
196.5, 1968; L i n c o l n 1973). Both l a n g u a g e s belong t o t h e S i a s k Family
(Z'graggen 1975) and share a b o u t 50% c o g n a t e s on t h e Swadesb
100-word list ( r o u g h check by t h e a u t h o r s ) . I n s e c t i o n 5.6 t h e
B i l i a u words and t h e i r p o s s i b l e POC s o u r c e s are a g a i n l i s t e d , t h i s
time i n terms 0% t h e number of i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x e s t h e y c o n t a i n .
This g i v e s a rough measure of t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a E t l i a u word is
i n d e e d descended d i r e c t l y from t h e g i v e n POC form. I n s e c t k o n 5.7
t h e evidence f o r sonie new PAN and POC f o r m s i s presented.



          I n the f o l l o w i n g list, 150 B i l i a u words a r e g i v e n with t h e i r
p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l sources. The p r o t o l a n g u a g e s which are d i r e c t
a n c e s t o r s o f BiLiau a;-e P r o t o Oceanic and P r o t o Austronesian.                In       '


c a s e s where no P r o t o Occankc o r P r o t o Austronesian s o u r c e form has
been r e c o n s t r u c t e d , a f o r m from a n o t h e r p r o t o language i s c i t e d .
Such a form i s p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s o u r c e form f o r t h e Biliau
word. A l l r e c o n s t r u c t 5 o n s are, taken from W U m and Vlilsonqs
F i n d e r List of reconstructions i n A u s t r o n e s i a n Languages
G r a c e f s m % TP r o t o Oceanic f i x e r l i s t was also consul€ed.
         The first column i n t h e l i s t g i v e s a gloss f o r t h e l 3 i l b u word
given i n t h e second column. The r e c o n s t r u c t e d form i s l i s t e d i n the
as n    .
t h i r d column.          The v e l a r n a s a l ( 9 )i n a p r o t o form is always written
               When t h e prot.o form has a d i f f e r e n t g l o s s t h a n the Bilf-au
w o r d t h i s g l o s s i s given i n s i n g l e q u o t e s f o l l o w i n g t h e proto form.
Otherwise, t h e glosses are assumed t o be t h e same. The f o l l o w i n g
a b b r e v i a t i o n s are used t o i d e n t i f y t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d forms:

                               PAP      Proto    Austronesian
                               PEO      Proto    E a s t e r n Oceanic
                               Prn      Proto    M a l a i t a n (.from Solomon I s l a n d s )
                              POC      'Proto    Oceanic
                              PPH       Proto    Pkilippine
                              PM
                               P        Proto    P o l yn e sian
                                            32

arm, SEE hand
bad                             ZaBUIlg
base                             fu
bathe, wash                      s w
beak, SZE snout
be fore                          mug              POC    muqa ' t o precede'
behknd                           miri-an          POC mudl
  -an  is t h e l o c a t i o n a l s u f f k
b e l l , slit gong             @arm              PAD?   g%r&ng
bird                            maan              POC    manu(k)
bite, eat meat                                    POG    kaRat.5
black                           ngLlngkli         POC    ngkele
blood                           amr               Pm     zumq
body, &in                        tini-            POC t i n i
bone                            tutu, tuy         POC    tu(dr)(i)

brain                           kit               PO(:   quto (k)
breadfruit                      Un                POC    kau( n)
breast                           SUY              POC    t3U S U
brother ( e l d e r )           kak               POC kaka 'sibling, elder'
burn                             tung             POC tunu
                                                  PPH tutung
                                 tan              POC tanom ' p l a n t , bury*
butterfly                       kalbangbang       PAN kaliban gbang
canarium n u t             angaar              POC kangari
canoe '                    wag                 POC wangka
c a r r y (in the hands) ZOM                   POC sambat
chin, jaw                  Yay+                POC anae
coconut                    ELW                 POC n&u(R)
cold                       adaagdangey         POC ma( n) di( n) ding
   cf, adidiag from G d e k and Sdt, lThis i s an exanmle of
   the creeping      i n Biliau, with underlying ding. %bus we
   compare    "
              ,"   and *ndina;.
comb (verb                 Bar                 POC 8 m U
comb (noun)                sarey
Conch 6heXl                      tor              POC    tapus
cook ( i n z ~ u c c p a n )    nay               POC    nansu
      (in f i r e )             non
coral, branckbg                 laaz              POC lanje
cough                            9u:              PAN batuk
                                 fufu             PPH buhaq
                                                  PML fu'u
cry                              taang            POC t a n g i
cut                             kop               POC koeo( p>
day a f t e r tomorrow,         warin-an          POC wax( ns) a
   == the I o c a t i o n a l (temporal) suffix
day before yesterday
     is
                                             33

descend                                                   POG s u r u ( p )
die                                                       POG mate
diLg                                                      POC Sara
dog                                                       POC     ngkaun
dove                                                       POC mpulae
dry                                                        POC ma-masa
dust                                                       POC kopu ( t)
egg                                                        POC ng atu 'head,            source^
ear
e a r t h , ground
                                                      '            af
                                                           POC t inga
                                                           POC kana( q)
e a t ( n o t meat)
    food
elbow
                                                          t;::    kad
                                                           POC sigun
everythjing                                                PAN aPa
                                                           PPN afa
excrement                           tay                    POC t a q i
eye                                 malaa-                 POC mata
face                                30
                                     3-                    POC aako

fat, grease                            lon                 POC mona(k)
feather, wing                          bazi                POC p d i )
f i l l up                             Yes                 POC oso
fire                                   yaaw                POC    apiL
firewood, SEE tree
f a t h e r (form o f address) marn                        PAll   mama
f a t h e r ( f o r m o f . r e f e r e n c e ) tam        POC    tama

finger little
          I                                                POC    adi( n) si   t   finger'
finger, t o e                                              POC    kuku
fish                                                       POC    ika(n)
five, SEE hand
f i y (n0.w)                                               PEO fava
fly ( v e r b )                                            POC Ropo
fog                                                        POC kampu( t) 8mi.stt
food, SEE e a t
forehead                            darno-                 POC    ndangma
four                                waal bad               POC    pat
garden                              UL1                    POC    quma
gather                              gab                    POC kampi ( t)
ginger                              ley                    POC    lia
ground, SEE earth
hair (=body h a i r )               bubulu                 POC pulu
hand, am1                           ma-                    POC lima
   five                             dimad bad
he, she, it, t h e y                in                     POC i a I3rd person s5.ng.r
hear, know                          luong                  POC    dongo
hit, kill                           m e                    POC panu(q)
hoe*                                sau                    POC s a l u
hook                                awul                   POC kawil
                                                                                     &


                              34

hole                    lib        PAN lubang
hot                     wanwaney   POC    pana(s)
husk o f coconut        funfun     PPE    bunut
i61and                  mot        POC    motu
j a w , SEE c h i n
W1, SEE hit
knee                    turu-      POC    turu
knife                   silaay     POC    sele
know, SEE hear
later                    murgan    POC    ~ u d i tafber'
Lie down, SEE: s l e e p
lime chewed w%thb e t e l a w      PoC    apu 'ashes'
                                   POC apuR ' l i m e !
1 i n c l ot h
 o                      ma1        POC malo
louse                   ut         POC    kutu
man                     tam01      POC    b o l e
meat                  mizi         POC p b s i k o , b f n s i g o
mother (form of address) nin       POC t i n a
mother (form of reference) t i n
mouth                 awa-         POC awang
navel                   biso-      POC mpuso(s)
neck                    agaru      POC Ruqa
new                     fow        POC paqoffu
                                   PPN fou
night                   udom       POC    (dr)odo
nose                    w-         POC    usu           U   G   h   ,   yI*-   y't
octopus                 urit       POC kuEtita,, uRita
one                     daseg      PEO    ta(n)sa
                                   PPN    tasi
outrigger               8am        POC    nsama
paddle                  fog        POC    ponse
pandanus ( sp.          padaw      POC    pada
path, road              Zal        POG ngala(n)
Pig                  buor          POC mpoRo
pigeon (large black) baal          PAIT balug' 'pigeon, dovet
pbeapple             ananas        PPA ananas
prawn                siw           PAR si(ng)pu(nN 'shrimp'
                                   PPH h i p m sahrimpt
rat.                    pdaf       P B labav
red                     darey      POC    daRa(q) 'blood'

r i g h t (hand)        Wan        A
                                   PM     wanan
road, SEE path
roof                    finguag    PAR    bung
                                   PAN    bubung t r i d g e p o l e l
                                      35

r o o t , SEE v i n e
rope, SEE vine
round                        bilj.13- w engi    POC    1Ui 'circle1
                                                PAN    b u l a t 'roundc
run                          PdUl               POC    puru
sap ( o f t r e e )          aay suru           PAN    ZuRuq 'blood, sap'
s e a , saltwater            maas               P N    ma=ask(n)
seagull                      kanay              POC    (ng)kzula(k)e
s h e l l o f coconut,     las                  POcI las(ae)
    skull
shore                      lang
sick                       mayaay
skin, SEE body
s k u l l p SEE shell of coconut
s l e e p , l i e dovm     Yen                  POC    eno ' l i e down1
slit, gong, SEE bell.
me11                        Sami                POC s a n g i t
snake                       muat                POC ngmata
    warm                    LIU tmu at
snout ( p i g r e )         singri              PPH EungaD
   b i r d 1 s beak
soup                        sur                 POC SUE&( q) 1 broth'
atomac h                    kot                 POC kaqu tu b e l l y ,
                                                                    @

stone                       matiaw              POC pa t u
s u g a r cane              tow                 POC t OPU
sun                         az                  POC    qms0, qanjo
sboot                       P a                 POC:   pans( q )
taro                        maw                 POC: ngmao
Terminalia                  tali                POC t a l i n s e
they, SEE be
tie                         sag                 POC    saqit
tie                         taaw                POC    takai
think                       karikan             PPH . kuwan
three                       to1                 POC t o l u
toe,  SEE finger
torch                       Sup                  POC   sulu
tree, firevlood             aaY                  POC   k a i t tree, wood'
                                                 POC   api firer
                                                             .@

trunk                       mmu                  POC   puqu( n)'
turtle                      f on               . POC   ponu
two                             M1              POC    dua
underneaeh                      papam-an               papa 'under'
   -
  -an. i s l o c a t i o n & s u f f i x
                                                POC
                                               ?POC    Rungma 'house'
vine, rope                      war             POC    waRo
  rook of t r e e               aay warey
vomit                         lu                             POC    lua
wash, SEE bathe
water                         raan                           POC ndanu
                                                             PCP Ranu
 e
w (exclusive)                                                POC kami
we (hclusive)                                                P C kinta
                                                              O
wind                                                         POC n s a n g i
wind (from s e s t )                                         PEO saU( sau) 'windt
wing, SEE f e a t h e r
woman                                                        POC     papine
worm, SEE snake
yellow                        yanyanang                      POC
yesterday                     nor-an                         POC
  -an i s l o c a t i o n &   ( tenporal) s u f f i x
youTsingu1ar )                Un                             POC


5.2     Bikiau r e f l e x e s o f P r o t o Oceankc phonemes

          The sound changes by which t h e B i l i a u vocabulary has
developed from i t s P r o t o Oceanic a n c e s t o r language are d i s c u s s e d
in t w o p a r t s , F i r s t , the B i l i a u r e f l e x e s of POC phonemes are
d i s c u s s e d and i l l u s t r a t e d . Second, t h e syllable s t r u c t u r e
adjustments are discussed. These a d j u s t m e n t s account f o r t h e
widespread development of c l o s e d syllables Pn BiPiau w h i l e in
POC they a r e rare. These two s e t s of changes a r e ordered w i t h
r e s p e c t t o one a n o t h e r ; t h a t i s , t h e phoneme changes must precede
the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e changes. Within t h e two s e t s of changes
t h e r e i s no ordering, That t h e s e t s a r e ordered with r e s p e c t t o
each o t h e r is i l l u s t r a t e d by & 'excrement' and tow 'sugar cane',
for example, In the o r d e r of s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e a d j u s t m e n t s
followed by phoneme changes t h e y would y i e l d :




Whereas in t h e order of phoneme changes Pollowed by s y l l a b l e
s t r u c t u r e adjustments, t h e c o r r e c t forms a r e derived.
               POC *t a q i    > * tai. > . t a y 'excrement1
               POC "topu       > * t o u > tow ' s u g a r cane1
       I n a l l the examples given t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e sound changes,
t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e B i l i a u form is g i v e n as a sequence of t h r e e
forms. f i r s t t h e POC form i s given. Then an i n t e r m e d i a t e form
i s given i n which t h e POC phonemes are converted t o t h e i r regular
Iifiliau r e f l e x e s , b u t t h e s y l l a b l e a d j u s t m e n t s a r e n o t y e t made.
E5zkaliky t h e p r e s e n t day g i l i a u form is. given.                    If
                                                  37

this form d i f f e r s from what would be d e r i v e d by a p p l y i n g t h e
s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e form, t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s are marked w i t h an u n d e r l i n e . Thus an u n d e r l i n e
represents. an i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x .
          The development of t h e U a u system o f phonemes from the
phonemes o f POC i s d i a g r w e d in t h e following chart. The
arrows d i r e c t e d from POC phonemes t o S U a u phonemes r e p r e s e n t
a r e f l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p . Vbhere a series of phonemes i s enclosed
in a large r e c t a n g l e , the arrow i n d i c a t e s that t h e whole s e r i e s
of U a u phonemes. When a box on the Proto Oceanic s i d e
cololkains more than one p r o t o phoneme, a merger is i n d i c a t e d .
When a box on t h e Biliau s i d e c o n t a i n s more than one phoneme,
a s p l i t i s i n d i c a t e d . The c i r c l e s i n d i c a t e s p l i t s and mergers
i n v o l v i n g individ-            phonemes from two d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s .



             P r o t o Oceanic                                              Biliau



    L         I         I         I         J




                                                                       /
                                          38

      W now give evidence for the r e f l e x e s of each o f the POC
       e
phoneanea in turn.
POC *p       >?  / @tervocalicalLy, preceding / a /
              fl / intervocalically, elsewhere
               Poc *topu           *toll     tow 1 sugar cane&
          POC          *ctapuRL    *tawi     tar 'conch shellt
          POC          *apu        * atp     a @lime
                                              w       *
          POC          "papa      *papa      papa-ruman 'underneath'
POC *p > p o r         f / initially.                       : /p/ appears t o
                              precede /a/ and /e/,   while /f/ precedes /o/
                              and /u/, th e sounded vowels. T'nc'Yaas.'r&flexes
                              a d .oo&ditiQd::g'~f&tOr& €or * p 'occur In
                              Gcdagea- [see#Lincoln 1973)

               POC *pans          *pana         pan 'shoott
               POC "papine        "paine        pen lwomanl
         *     POC "ponu          * f onu       fon ' s e a turtle8
               POC *puqu          " fuu         fu cbaset
POC *t       >t   */   in d l environments
                o:
               P ( *tin&          *tm           tbi- 'bodyt
               POC *tans                        tan leartht
               POC "motu          *motll        mot 'island'
POC *k > k or pI / i n all environments. Both refhexes a r e well
                      aktested and there i . no apparent condit3,oning.
                                          s
               POC: *kopu         +kou           kow 'dust'
               POC Ykaqutu        *kautu         kot 'stomachf
               POC * M a          *kaka          kak 'elder brother'
               POC *kutu          *Ub            u t 'louse'
               POC "kawil         *awil          a w 9 thookl        _.

               POC *nako          *nao          'no- 'face'
POC *q   > $4 /        in all! environments
               POC *quma          *uma          un 'garden'
                                                 r
               POC *taqi          *kai .        tay 'excrement1
               POC "puqu          *fUU          fu 'base'
POC *mp      >b/        in all environments                                         .....

               POC *mpuso         *bus0         bi so- navel *        '    I
                                                                          .,
                                                                                ..
                                                                               -+           .
               POC *mpune         * bune        6 2 tdovet
               PO@ *mporo         *boro     I   bsor ' p i g *
               POC *kampi         *kabi         &ab 1 gather'

 C :
P M *ngp      >b /       only one example
               POC *ngpatu        *batu         bat& 'egg?, POC gloss i s
                                                                thead, source*
                                       39

POC * n t > d / The one possible            a t t e s t a t i o n o f t h i s r e f l e x i s very
                  tenuous.       ~          Further support i s given b$- t h e
                  p a t t e r n o f the     other n a s a l grade phonemes *mp,
                  *nJ, and *a&              and t h e Gedaged r e f l e x (Lincoln 1973).
             POC *k&nta        *ids             -
                                                yed   'we i n c l u s i v e '
POC *nB > d /      isi   all environments
             POC *riding
             POC *ndangma
                               *ding
                               *'dam            dam&-
                                                ding 'cold'
                                                         I   forehead1
                                                                      '




POG *ngk    >g /    in all environments
             POC *wan&         *waga            wag 'canoe'
             POC "ngkaun       *gaun            eon 'dog'
POC * n > a / i n a l l environments
             POC "motu         "motu            mot ' i s l a n d '
             POC *malo         *m&0             m a 1 'loincloth1
             POC * t m a       * tama           tam * f a t h e r '

POC *ngm    >m   / i n a l l environr!ients
             POC "ndangma      *dma             d-mp     I   forehead'
             POC *ngmata       *mata            mzat 'snake'
             POC * n w o       *ma0             maw ' t a r o '
POC *n    >n /   i n a11 environments
              O
             P G *Ikiu         *(niU            KLw t c oc O D U t 1
             POC *tini-        " tini.          t - 'body'
                                                 M
             P C *ponu
              O                * fo m '                     t
                                                fon l ~ e au r t E e r
POC *ng > n g / i n a l l environments

             POC *tan@         *tang%           t a a n g 'cry'
             POC * t a U g a   "takinga         talagaa- 'ear'
      Y      POC: *riding      *ding            ding 'cold'
POC * s   > s / in d l environments
             POC *Sara         *Sara            sar * d i g t
             POC *6*U          * sullu          sul ftorcht
             POC *las          *las             l a s ' s h e l l of coconut, skull     '
              POC *ponse         *foye           foy ' p a d d l e '
              POC "aase          *aye            yaye- ccbin, j a w 1
                                                  L
                                                 . c


              Po0 %ansu          *nayu           nay 'cook i n saucepan'
                                                                                           see
POC *nJ> z / in d l                  environments                                      section
         POC *.lan;le            *laze      laap ' c p r a l '                               5-4
         POC * u a n j o         *azo       az 6un
         POC *ifaTa              *z a l a   z a l 'path, r o a d '
                                                                            . .
                                                                                       I .




PO@ *d > r / iLn all environments
              POC *mudi          * muri          mur-gam * l a t e r 1
              POC *dua           *rua            r u 'two'
              POC "mudi          *muri           m-ri-an   behind'
POG *r   >r    / in   a l l environmsnts

              POC *saru          *saru           sar   fcomb'
              POC * t u r u      *turu           turu- 'knee'
              POC *Lapor0        * boro            -
                                                 bu o r C pi g 1
PO6 *R   >r /    in a U environments
           POG *tapulti          *taw&           tor 'conch s h e l l '
           POC * w e 0           "war0           w a r 'vine'
              POC *Ruqa          *rua            -ru- 'neck'
POC *l > 1     / in a l l environments
           POC *malo             "mal0           m a 1 'loincloth'
           POC *las              *las            las ' s h e l l of coconuts s k u l l '
           POC *Pua              *ha             Lu tvomit'
POC *w   >w /    in a3ik e n v i r o m e n t s

              POC *waRo          "war0           w a r vine 1
              POC *wangka        *wags           wag 'canoe'
              POC   "kaWi4       *awil;           m1
                                                 a - 'hook'
POC *y   > y / The data c o n t a i n               *       o n l y one i n s t a n c e of POC- *y.
              .     .   ,    i                                                                        ..   !
         .   ,

             '    POC *yaago             *yango         '       yagaag 'yellowl
POC *i   > i / i n a U environmeate
                  PO@ *tini.             * tini,                ~ K L -'body, skin'
                  POC * d U              "nibu!                 niw   * c oc o m t@
POC *e > e / in a l l environments
                  PO€ *arise             *we                    xaye-'chin, jaw'
                  POC *en0               weno                    i
                                                                p 's3.eept
POC *u   > n / i n a l l environments
                  POC * t u r u          * turu                 %uru- 'knees
                  POC * q u a            *uraa                  UM'garden'
POC *o > O         / in a l l environments
                  POC " t o l u          *t o l u               t o 1 'three'
                  POC *mpuso             *bus0                  b&so- navel.
POC *a   > a or             aa   / in all environments.            There is no a p p a r e n t
                                     conditioning which explains t h e origin of the
                                     / a d phoneme.          The f a c t Ghat t h e double v o w e b
                                     occur i n t h e o t h e r , dTalectss of t h e ailiau
                                     language, but w i t h no r e g u l a r correspondeQce
                                     t o the double vowels i n a i l i a u village (see
                                     Simons 1977a) i n d i c a t e s that i t is a r e c e n t
                                     i n n o v a t i o n which has been a p p l i e d in different
                                     ways by different v i l l a g e s rather than some-
                                     thing that.h;ws been i n h e r i t e d through a
                                     regular p r o c e s s of sound change.

                  POC "saru              *b a nBar lcomb~
                  POC * l i m a
                  POC "manu
                                      +a
                                       *
                                      *Manu
                                               dima- 'hand' .
                                               maan '.bird'
                                                                -
                  POC * t a L i n g a *tnlinga talngaa- 'ear'(.



5.3   Syllable s t r u c t u r e a d j u s t m e n t s

        The b a s i c s y l l a b l e ' Gbapes icrr POC are CV and V. The great
m a j o r i t y of r o o t s are of the'fosm CVCV, eg. POC *toIu 'three',
P C * l b a 'hand1. Some c o n s i s t of three CV syllables, eg. POC
 O
*tamole 'xmnf, POC*kaqutu tstomacht, I some car;es, the i n i t i a l
                                                         P
                                               42


OE    final s y l l a b l e i s simply    V!, eg, POC * a p i ttree', POC              *%hg    .   +

*fisli', POC *dua 'two', POC              *ngmao ' t a r o 1 , R a r e l y is a c l o s e d
s y l l a b l e reconstructed, and
eg. P W *koso(p) ' c r y '         POC                            .
                                          when i t is, i t is o f t e n w i t h doubt,
                                          *manu(k) bird'
          In section 1.3 of t h i s p a p e r w e noted t h a t the s y l l a b l e
shapes which occur in B i l i a u a r e four: V , W 9 VC, and CVC. The
s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e a d j u s t m e n t s account for t h e widespread
development of c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i n Biliau, while i n POC they are
rare,
POC *V    > P, /   C CC[
                    V - IC          That. is, a t h r e e s y l l a b l e proto form
                                      which i s mff'txed t o c l o s e t h e f i n a l
                                      s y l l a b l e i s reduced t o two s y l l a b l e s
                                      o f CVC shape by dropping the second vowel.
              P C * t a l i n g a * t a l i n g a - p o s s mf
               O                                                   takngaa- tear'
              POC "rnamasa        *mamasa-s                        mamsas fdryt
                cf, PAN wkalibangbang                              kalbangbang f b u t t e r f l y c
              P C *roudi
               O                  *muri- gam                       murgam 'later'

POC *V >$3      / V-
                   C#           That is, t h e word final vowel 3.q a two o r
                                 three s y l l a b l e p r o t o form i s dropped. ThLs
                                 p r o c e s s a c c o u n t s f o r the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of
                                 CVC s y l l a b l e s i n B i l i a u .

              P C *wan@
               O                    *waga            wag fcanoe?
              POC * k u E t a       *u.rita          urLt foctopuct
              P C *tapuRi
               O                    *tauri           tor 'conch s h e l l '
     This p r o c e s s of dropping the final vowel, c o u p l e 4 w i t h the
     loss of an i n i t i a l *k or *q r e s u l t s i n many of the WC s y l l a b l e s .
              POC .*panjo           *am             a2 'sun'
              POC * b t u           "Utll           u t 'louses
     When the stem final vowel La n o t word final, that is when a
     suffix f o l l o w s it, it is n o t dropped.
              P G "'Clini
               O                    * tjlxli   tw- rbody,
              POC *mpuso            *bus0             -
                                               biao- n a v e lf        f

              POC *mudi                            an
                                    *muri- an a&ri I behind 1
                                            -
                                       -an i s the l o c a t i o r r a l s u f f i x
         No C W C o r 63VV s y l l a b l e s occur i n f3iBiau. I n t h e inter-
mediate s t a g e , a f t e r t h e phoneme changes, many W sequences occur
as a r e s u l t of consonant loss ( o f POC *p, *k, o r *q) o r o f a W
sequence in tho original POC form.                      The f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e shape
a d j u s b e n t s reduce these W sequences t o single vowels t o y i e l d
t h e s y l l a b l e s h a p e s of present d a y U a u , CV and CVC.                   The
ffnal adjustment changes CW sequences t o CVC sequences, a n o t h e r
o r i g i n o f t h e B i l i a u CVC s y l l a b l e ,
                                           43

*V V    >V         / T h a t is, two i d e n t i c a l c o n s e c u t i v e vowel6 become
  1 1          1        one o c c u r r e n c e o f that s m vowel.
              POC "puqu        * fuu         f u 'base'
          ,   POC *Ropo        +r6o         roy ' f l y *
              POC *talinse * t a l i y e     tali ' B r m i n & ~ a i
                                                                         >
                T h a t is, *talinf3e > * t a L i y e > * t d i y (=*talii) tali
                (word final vowel loses does not apply twice).
*eWC > C W          / in d L environments
       *au, *ao      >o
              POC * t a p u R i   "tauri         tor       'conch shehPt
              POC *ngkaun          *gan          gon       'dog'
              POC "kaqutu         *kautu         kot       9 stomacha
              POC "nako           *nao-          no-       Iface1
              POC *paqoRu         *faop          fow       anew'
       *ai    >e
              POC "papine          *paLne        pen 'womar~*
*CV V > C V / i n word f i n a l position when V ,is POC "a
   12      1                                    2
       POC *&qa       *rua          -ru- tnockl
       POE * h a      *.:'kua       l u 'vomit'
       POC *dua       *r w          ru two'            '
*CV V
   1 2
         > CVIC /         i n word f i n a l p o s i t i o n when V is POC *u, * 0 9
                             *e, or *i. V2 becomes a s h a r semivowel.

       Vz *o and *u > w
              POC *apu.            * au          aw Pime 1
              POC *ngmao           *ma0          maw t taro     '
              POC "topu            *tou          tow 1 sugar cane'
              POC *kopu            +kou          kow 'dust'
              POC "niu             *dU           niw . 'coconut'
       V2 .*e and      *i   >y
              POC * t a q i        *td.          tay lexcrernent'
              POC *kai             *ai           aay ! t r e e '
              POC *kanae           *kanae        kanay ' I ooagulll
              POC * t u i          *t u i        tuy "bof;ke'
                                              44


5.4     B i l i a u evidence for POC *ns and *n3
         The e x i s t e n c e o f POC *nj i s n o t widely accepted by Oceanic
s c h o l a r s ( n o t e its omission i n Pawley 1975 i o r i n s t a n c e ) . The
Bjiliau data g i v e p o s s i b l e evidence for a contrast between POC
*ns and *nj, T h i s is n o t very s u r p r i s i n g , however, s i n c e *nj was
first p o s t u l a t e d by Milke p a r t l y on t h e basis of evidence from
Gedaged, a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d language (Iolilke 1965, Lincoln 1973:283).
        I t a p p e a r s t h a t POC *nj is r e f l e c t e d i n a u i a u as x and POC
*ns f    : r e f l e c t e d as y.   There are two c l e a r examples of-POC *nj:
               POC * n J a l a > z a l 'road, p a t h '
               POC *Lanje > l a a z ' c o r a l '
W also propose t h a t t h e 2 of a z 'sunt is d e r i v e d from POC +nJ,
 e
'Sun' h a s been r e c o n s t r u c t e d a F P O C *qanm. N e i t h e r t h e Bciliau
farm, s, nor t h e Gedaged f o r m , & ( G i s t h e regular reflex of
POC *nj, Lincoln L973), r e f l e c t *ns; r a t h e r t h e y s u g g e s t *nj,
The PAT+ form €or 'sun' has been r e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h *nj by Dyen
(*qanjaw>t Ellust ( * -zi(n>jafl), and Dempwolff ( * q a ( N ) jaw) (wum
and Wilson 197.5:209).           Thus we p o s i t :


    There a r e a nuniber of examples of POC *ns r e f l e c t e d as 9 i n
HJiau:
               POC *nansu > nay 'cook'
               POC: *ponse > foy ' p a d d l e '
               POC *man@. > yang Iwknd'
               POC *ame       > yaye-- ' c h i n , jaw'
               POC * t a U n s e   >
                                   * t a l i y = tali, 'Terminalia'
Two a d d i t i o n a l examples a r e p o s s i b l e , POG *usu 'nose' i s r e l f e c t e d
by W i a u     E,                                               -
                              where we would expect KtL * w u , *ns is t e n t a t i v e l y
r e c o n s t r u c t e d for PEO ( * i ( n ) s u ) , however, so w e suggest t h a t i t
be r e c o n s t r u c t e d €or P O C as well t o explain the x i n $iUau w.
POC *mas&               ' s i c k ' i s r e f l e c t e d by B U a u m a y a a y where *masaax
would be expected. Again PEO k a s *ns (=*z, * m a z h ) and w e
propose r e c o n s t r u c t i n g *ns €or POC.               Thus,
                                  >
               POC * u ( n ) s u uyu- 'nose'
               POC *ma(n)saki > mayaay ' s i c k 1
          The data c o n t a i n f o u r a d d i t i o n a l examples o f POC *ns which
appear t a he counterexamples. The first can be e x p l a i n e d as an
a l t e r n a t i o n between oral and nasal grade.                POC *nsama ' o u t r i g g e r '
                                       -
Ls r e f l e c t e d i n Sj_liau as sam which s u g g e s t s a POC *sama. The
evidence from o t h e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n i t i a l
                                                 45

consonant i s i n v o l v e d i n a n oral-nasal g r a d e a l t e r n a t i o n - - P m
*kka man and *(n')t'aman, POC *sarima and *nsama, PPN * m a and
*sama ( r e f l e c t *sama and *nsamdS r e s p e c t i v e l y ; see H a r m s 1973:299,
E o c k e t t 1973). Thus w e propose;
               POC *(n)sama         > sam     'outrigger'
The three remaining examples O f POC *m show a r e f l e x of                             .
                                                                                          2
Each of t h e s e examples, however, c o n t a i n s two a d d i t i o n a l
i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , and t h e y are t h u s v e r y q u e s t i o n a b l e .
               ?POC * p i n s i k o >mizi 'meat*
               ?POC * n d i n s i > z i z i l i ' l i t t l e f i n g e r '
               ?POC * n s a q a t > zamung ' b a d '

          Grace (1369:44) n o t e s t h a t Milke b e l i e v e d he had p e r h a p s
d i s c o v e r e d t h e t r u e n a s a l grade of POC * s i n M s *nj. The
symmetry of t h e E i l i a u r e f l e x e s of POC s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s may
be true.           The Ei1ia.u re.:lexes O f POC n a s a l g r a d e phonemes are
t h e voiced c o u n t e r p a r t s of t h c r e f l e x e s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g
o r a l g r a d e phonemes.          That is,

                            P r o t o Oceanic                        F3iliau reflexes
Oral g r a d s         'p      *t        *k      *s      >    p         t       k         6

N a s a l grade       "mp     *nt     *ngk      *nj      >     b        d        g        z


5.5     ComparLson of B i l i a u and Gedagcd reflexes of POC consonant
        phonemes

      Cornparism o f the Biliau r e f l e x e s o f POC consonant phonemes
&ins e c t i o n 5.2 w i t h t h e Gedaged r e f l e x e s ' g i v e n by L i n c o l n (1973:
284-285) shows a c l o s e r e l a t i o n between t h e two l a n g u a g e s as
expected. T-heir r e f l e x e s o f *p, *mp, *ngp, *m, +ngm, *w, *t, *nts
*ad3 "1, *ns * s s *k, *ngk, "ng, *q, and *y are i d e n t i c a l ; o n l y
*ds *r, *Ro *nj and *ns a r e r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . The d i f f e r e n c e s
are s e t o u t in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
                                             46

             IPOC      '.               Gedaged                       BLUau
       *R, *r, *d
                                             Iz)   Ia3                     r
         *rid, *nt                           d                             d


               *ns                                                         Y
               "Y                                                          Y

          The f i r s t row of t h e t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a p h o n e t i c shift only;
there is no d r f f e r e n c e Ln the resulting phonemic systems. That
is, t h e r e f l e x of POC *d3 *r3 and *R is pronounced in Gedaged
a6 a voiceless l a t e r a l f r i c a t i v e whiLle in E i U a u i t is pronounced
as a voiced r e t r o f l e x e d flap.          The n e x t two r o w s show a d i f f e r e n c e
i n the resuftdng phonemic systems. I n Gedaged t h e r e i s a merger
o f *nd and *nt with *nj which a r e a l l r e f l e c t e d by d. I n B i l i a u
there is no merger; *nd and *nt are r e f l e c t e d by d &ich is
d i s l d n c t from 25, t h e r e f l e x Of *nj. It should belhoted h e r e t h a t
i n the t h r e e e a s t e r n v i l l a g e s of the B;iliau language groug (Yam&,
Galek, and S u i t ) 2 and g have a l s o merged and d r e f l e c t s *nd,
*nt, aad *nj (Simons 1977a). The f i n a l two liEes of t h e table
show that g i l i a u h a s merged *ns an& *y t o 9 w h i l e Gedaged h a s
dropped t h e *as completely.
                                                   47


5.6     The B.sliau words l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number of
        L r r e g u l a r refkexes they c o nt ai n
          The number of: i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x e s c o n t a i n e d       a word g i v e s
a rough i n d i c a t i o n of how p r o b a b l e i t i s t h a t t h e B i l i a u form is
d i r e c t l y descended from t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d POC form.              Stated i n
a n o t h e r way, t h e fewer t h e number of i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x e s , t h e
g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e word descended d i r e c t l y from t h e
given pOC form. An i n s p e c t i o n of t h e l i s t s in 5.6.2 and 5.6.3
o f words c o n t a i n i n g i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x e s r e v e a l s a number of
E i l i a u words which d e f i n i t e l y seem t o be d e r i v e d from POC fn
"lirna should be "Pima, l u o n g ' h e a r ' from POC *dongo should be
                                                                       -
s p i t e of t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . For i n s t a n c e , dim @ h a n d @
 -
                                                                                           from POC
*rang, and fung ' h i t , killr from POC * unu s h o u l d be *fun.                             There
are a number 08 p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s k t h e s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s .
The sound changes p o s i t e d i n s e c t i o n 5.2 could be wrong, o r
incomplete. The i n d i v i d u a l words as t h e y developed may have been
s u b j e c t t o s p o r a d i c change o r borrowing, Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s
that t h e s e i r r e g u k r i t i e s arc common i n other Oceanic languages,
e i t h e r as an a r e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r throughout Oceania in
general.           F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i a n o f such c a s e s could l e a d t o t h e
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a l t e r n a t e POC form^ wikh widespread d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
o r of forms confined t o some subgroup of Oceania, I t i s hoped
that t h e following l i s t s may be u s e f u l data for this k i n d o f
research.

          I n s e c t i o n s 5.6.2 and 5.6.3 t h e form i n p a r e n t h e s e s i s t h e
form t h a t would have d e r i v e d from t h e g i v e n POC form by the
sound changes p o s i t e d i n 5.2 and 53     ..       The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e
I U l i a u word are u n d e r l i n e d . Square b r a c k e t s encPose a portion
o f a BiEiau word which i s n o t compared. Items are l i s t e d by
a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r of t h e E n g l i s h g l o s s ,


5.6.1       Briliau wards c o n t a i n i n g no i r r e g u l a r r e f l q x e s
POC *puqu > fu ' b a s e !
POC *manu > maan ' b i r d '
POC * t i n % > t i n i - @body'
POC *tui > t u y 'bane1
POC * M a >k& ' e l d e r b r o t h e r '
POC "kangari, > a n g a a r 1C;anarium n u t '
P G "wangka > wag tcanoe'
 OT
POG *niu > n i w 'coconut1
POC *adiLgg > ding, from adangdiangi ' c o l d '
POC *saru > sar 'comb'
POG *tapuRi > t o r 'conch s h e l l '
POC *lanje > l a a z @ c o r a l !
POC *tan@ >taang ' c r y '
                  >
POC *nansu nay @cook'
7
                                                                            1




                                             48

    POC *mate >maat ' d i e '
    POC *Sara> sar ' d i g '
    POC: Wrngkaun    >      gon 'dog'
    P C *kopu
     O           >      kow ' d u s t '
    POC, * t a l i n g a > t a l n g a a - 1 e a r 1
    P G *tana
     O           >      tan ' e a r t h '
    PC * t a q i
     OZ          >      t a y 'excrement1
    POC * q k o > no- ' f a c e t
    POC *taxria  >      t a m "father'
    POC, *quma > u n ' g a r d e n '
                         r
    Pob: *motu > mot ' i s l a n d '
    P C * t u r u > t u r u 'knee'
     O
    PX *mudi > mur-rgw] ' l a t e r '
    POC *apu > a w ' l i m e '
    POC *malo,> m a 1 I l o i n c l o t h '
    P C *kutu
     O           >      u t Ilouse'
    POC *tamoLe > tarnol ' m a n '
    POC * t i n a>      p n 'nother'
    POC IRuqa > a g a 3 r u - (neck'
    Y*C u ( n ) s u         uyu- 'nose'
    POC *ku,'tita > u c i t 'octopus'
    POC *(n)sama > satn ' o u t r i g g e r '
    POC *ponse > foy rpaddle'
    POC * n j d a > z a l ' p a t h , road'
    POG *lili > lbi)- lili-[wengq 'round'
    POC *ma-asi> maas ' s e a , saltwater'
    POC *kanae ) k a n a y 'seagull1
    POC *las > l a s ' s h e l l of coconut, skuU,'
    POC *ma(n) saki > rnayaay 1 sick'
    PO@ *GURU    >      s u r 'soup, b r o t h '
                     >
    PO@ *kaqQtu k o t 'stomach'
    P C *topu > tow ' s u g a r cane'
     O
    P C *qanjo > a z 'sun'
     O
    PO@ *pans > p a n ' s h o o t '
    P C *agmao> m a w ! t a r o 1
     O
    POC s t a l i n s e > t a l i ' T e r m i n a l i a '
    POC *tolu   >       to1 Ithree'
    POC *su1u > s u l ' t o r c h '
    POC * h i  >      a a y ' t r e e , firewood'
    P C *api
     O          >     aay ' t r e e , firewood'
    POC *ponu    >      fon ' t u r t l e '
    P C *dua >ru ' t w
     O
    POC *papa > papa-erum-m]                     'underneath'
    POC * R u n p a 'house'    >        ] [        1
                                                  [-
                                          papa-rum-           'underneath
    PPC *waRo    >      war t v i n e '
    POC * l u a > Lu 'vomit!
    POC *xisang&> yang 'wind'
    POC * p a p i n e ) pen twoman'
    POC *noRa > nor- [ ] ' y e s t e r d a y '
                                   a
                                           49


5.6.2   Etiliau words c o n t a i n i n g one i r r e g u l a r r e f l e x

PPC *suku       > (*suk) SUB ' b a t h e '
PUG  *muqa >(*mu) mug 'before1
PO6  *mudi > (*muri) Gri- an ' b e h i n d '
POC, *kulu > (*ILL)          un f b r e a d f r u i t c
POC  *su[sui > (*su) Zuz Itareast'
POC  *tunu > ( * t u n ) tunn 'burn'
POC  *tauom > (*tanonJ t a n ' b u r y '
POC  *anse > ("aye-) xaye- 'chin, j a w 1
POC  *kosop > (*kogop) kop I c u t 1
POC  *waRinsa > (*wari) wariE- an 'day begone y e s t e r d a y '
POC *mpune >(*bun) but *dove1
PO@ * m a m a s a > (*mamas)-mamsag d r y '
POC *panga    >    (*gang) aang f e a t '
POC *kanji > (*an) aann ' e a t '
POC "mats > ("mats-) maLaa- ' e y e '
                          -
PO@ *mona > (*mon) l o n ' f a t , g r e a s e '
POC **a       > (*i) ;ri ' f i s h '
POC *Ropo > ( * r o ) r o x 'fly1
POC "rmdangma > (*dams-> dam+ Iforehead!
PGC *kampi > (*kab) gab lga.Yher1
POC *lima > ( " l i n a - ) dima- 'hand1
POC *ia > ( * i ) i n 'he';- s h e , i t , t h e y )
Pocl *punu > (*fuz) fun^ I h i t , k i l l '
POC * s a l u > ( t s a l ) sa12 'hoe'
POC *kawil > (*awil) awul (hook'
POC *pana > ( * p a n ) ganwzney ' h o t '
POC *awang   >     (*awann) awa- 'mouth'
POC *mpuso   >     (*buso-) biso- ' n a v e l '
POC *paqoRu > ( * f o r ) SO; 'new'
POC *mpoRo   >     (*borT buor 'pig'
POC * l a u > (*law) l a n n '&ore'
POC *en0 > (*en) Len 'sheep'
POC *ngmata > (*mat) mEat 'snake'
POC "takai,  >     ( * t a y ) taaE ' t i e '
POC wndanu > (*dan) Laan 'water'
POC *kami > (*am) am * w e e x c l u s i v e '
POC *yango > (*yang) yanyasang ' y e l l o w l
5.6.3      R i l i a u words contafning two o r more irregular reflexes
POC, *nsaqat > ( * y a z ) za[mung] 'badf
POT, * M a t i > (YkaraLF gar 'bite, eat meat'
POC *ngkele > ( * g e l ) n g k l n g i l i 'black1
POC *quto > (*ut) 1ci.t ' b r a i n '
POC * a m b a t > ( * q a x t ) zom ' c a r r y '
                                      7


POC *mru > ( * s u r ) sg&r 'descendt
POC Wsigun > (*&gun)              g u s g u a n g 'elbow1
POC *pan2 > ("pard-) &a21 'feather, wing'
POC *oso > ( " 0 s ) y e s I f i l l up!
POC * a p i > (*ay) Xaaw ' f i r e '
                                    ---
POC * n d i n s i > ( * d i y i r z i z i l i ' l i t t l e f i n g e r '
POC * k h > (*kuk) g u 'finger'            ~
POG +kampu > (*kab) Zabor 1 fog',
POG * p a t >(*pat) waa&[Gd] ' f o u r '
POC * l i a > ( * X i ) 1% ' g i n g e r '
POC *pulu > ('"Jlul) bubulu body hdrf
POC *dongo > ("rang) &g          &         ' h e a r , know'
POC * s e l e > (*sel) s i l a           'knife'
POC "pinsiko > ( * p i y & f i z i
POC *odo > ( * o r ) udog-9nie;ht'
                                       --      'meat1

POC "pads > ( * p a r r p a d a E Cpandanus sp.'
POC *daRa > (*rar) cJare~ 'red*
POC *puru > t*?ur) p a l a 'runt
POC * s a q i t > i * s e t ) T a z k ~ e t
POC Ypuqu > ( * il)                 ;trunk'
POC *kinta > ( * i d ) yed 'we i n c l u s i v e '
POC *ko >(*to)          -
                       un 'you s i n g u l a r !
5.7    Evidence f o r new P r o t o A u s t r o n e s i a n and P r o t o Oceanic forms
          I n the list of p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s , B i l i a u words
were l i s t e d f o r which no similar POC form b a s been r e c o n s t r u c t e d
b u t whiich show s i m i l a r i t y t o a form t h a t has. been r e c o n s t r u c t e d
elsewhere i n Austronesia.                These g i v e e v i d e n c e f o r POC forms that
have n o t y e t been r e c o n s t r u c t e d .      Examples a r e c i t e d from P r o t o
A u s t r o n e s i a n (PAN), P r o t o P M l k p p i n e (PPK)             Proto Eastern
                                                   ,
Oceanic (PEO) P r o t o M a l a i t a n ( P a ) and P r o t o P o l y n e s i a n (PPR).
I n terms o f a f a m i l y t r e e diagram, t h e s e are r e l a t e d t o P W ,
Biiliau (BIL), and t o one a n o t h e r as follows.

                           PAN

                 PPH                  POE.




     From this diagram i t c a n be s e e n t h a t a B i l i a u word which
is similar t o a PEO, PML, or PPR form g i v e s evidence for a new
POC form.   A B i l i a u word t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o a P N form a l s o gives
                                                                A
evidence f o r a new POC form. F i n a l l y , a a U a u word which is
similar t o a PPH form g i v e s evidence f o r a new PAN form and a
new POC form,
          Some of the g i l i a u words d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t t h e P N form v i a
                                                                             A
r e g u l a r POC r e f l e x e s o f PAN phonemes (from Pawley 1975) and
r e g u l a r B i l i a u r e f l e x e s of POC phonemes.    I n t h e s e cases, t h e
shape of a POC form c a n be p o s i t e d as the regular r e f l e x of PAN.
The POC phoneme f o r a correspondence between PAN * b and BIL b is
g i v e n as *(m)p. PAJT *b s h o u l d y i e l d POC *p, b u t BfL b shoulz be
                                                                             L.

a r e f l e x of POC *mp.

POC *suRu(q) 'blood, s a p '
          from F E *ZuRuq3 evidenced by EIL asur 'blood' and
          BIL
                AT                                              -
                     s u r u ' s a p of t r e e r . POC *suRu(q) has a l r e a d y
          been r e c o n s t r u c t e d by ELIke w i t h t h e glosses ' f l u i d ,
          liquAd, f l o o d , wet, coconut ELLUS, b o i l , b r o t h , ,       Here
          the two g l o s s e s 'blood! and ' s a p ' are added.

POC * k a l i ( m) pang( m) pang 1 b u t t e r f l y 1
                from PAN +kalibangbang, evidenced by EIL kalbangbans.
Pm *mama ' f a t h e r '
             from PAN *mama, evidenced by BIL                    E.
POC "punu, P,m *bunut 'husk o f coconut'
          evidenced by PPH *bunut and BIL funfun.

POG *(rn)palu 'pigeon, dove'
              from PAN *balug; evidenced by EEIL baal,
POC * d p u 'shrimp, prawn'
              from PAN * S i p , evidenced by BIL s i w .        -
POC *wana ' r i g h t (hand)
                from PAN *wanan, evidenced by BIL wan,           -
POC *pung ' r o o % '
          from PAN *bung, evidenced by BIL fungung.
        Other p a i r s of forms which o f f e r p o s s i b l e evidence f o r new
POC and P N f o r m a r e given below. Here t h e evidence i s not
               A
sufficient t o p o s i t t h e s h a p e of a P G or PAN form, or even i t s
                                                          O
s u r e e x i s t e n c e , s o only t h e s u p p o r t i n g f o r m s a r e given.
       BELL, SLIT GONG    A          -
                         P N " g i r i n g , BIL giram
       BURN   -
              PPH *tutung, BIL t u n 5 ( c f . POC * t u n u )
       COUGH    -       PPH "buhaq, P L * f u ' u ,
                                     M                RIL   fu
       EVERYTHING            - PAN       *spa, PPM *afal   B U abang
       FLY (n,)          -
                   PEO *xava,               pab
       HOLE P F *lUbmg, RIL lb
                AT                        i
            -
       ORE PEO *tam, PPN * t a d , BIL daseg
       PINEAPPLE             -
                    PPH *ananas, BIL ananas ( I t i s n o t c l e a r whether
              thLs word i s d i r e c t l y i n h e r i t e d o r borrowed through
              German Ananas.)
            -
       RAT PAN "labav, BIL palaf
       SITOUT, BEAK              -
                        PPH *suEGaD, EIL sinC;rl,
       TaENK        -
                PPB "kuwan, E L kankanX
       WIND     -
               PEO * s a u ( s a u ) ) EWCL dawdaw ' w i a d from westr
                                    53
                                         4


                               REPEPCES

Dempwolf f , Otto. 1920. Die Lautenksprechungen der Fndonesfechen
    Lippen l a u t e in einigen anderen austronesischen Sadeeesprachen.
    Beihefte zu: Z e i t s c h r i f t far Ehgeborenen-Sprachen, 15, 17,
    and 19.

Grace, George Y.
               J   1969. A Proto-Oceanic f i n d e r list.
     University o f Hawaii Working Papers i n Linguksfice 2(3):39-84.
b p , E r i c P.1973. P r e n a s a l i z a t i o n i n Eastern Oceanic,
   . Oceanic L i n g u i s t i c s 12:295-301,

Eockatt, Charles F. 1973. The reconstruction of P r o t o Mjian-
    Polynesian. Paper presented at t h e Flrst I n t e r n a t i o n a l
    Conference on Austronesian Comparative L i n g u i s t i c s , Eonolulu,
    Jatkuaray 2-7, 1974.
Lincoln, P e t e r C. 1973. Some possible implications of POC * t
     as /1/ in Gedaged. Oceanic L i n g u i s t i c s 12:279-293,
      , 1976, R a i Coast Austronedan language survey data:
      P a r t I--word lists, Part II--grammatical data. Typascrip’t.
      27 PP.
Mager, J. 1952. Gedaged-English dictionary, Columbus, O h i o 8
     Board of M&sSiOn6 of t h e American Luthern Church.
Ylhalic, F r a ~ C i 6 . 1971, The Jacaranda d i c a o n a r y and graBlmar of
     Melanesian PidgLn. Milton, QueensBand: Jacaranda Press.
MiIke, wUheh. 1961. Beitrage zur ozeanishen lknguistik.                           -
     Z e i t s c h r i i t fur C t h n o l o g i e 88: 162-182.
-----.
     1965.      Comparative n o t e s on t h e Austronesian languages
      of New Guinea. Lingua 14:330-348.
...----.   1968.   Proto-Oceanic addenda.         Oceanic L i n g u i s t i c s
      7 ( 2):347-171
Pawley, Andrew K, 1975. AUStrOne6ian languages,                     Encyclopaedia
     Britannic a 2 :484-494.
SLmons, Gary F.         1977a. R a l e c t s t u d i e s in t h e Biliau language.
      To appear i n b r k i n g Papers f o r the Language Variation and
      L i m i t s t o Communicakion Project, Gornelk University.
 . -
- I -- .   1977b. A u s e r c s manual f o r PTP--the programmable t e x t
      processor, Working Papers for t h e Language Variation and
      L i m i t s t o Communication P r o j e c t , Number 1 C o r a e l l Univerdty.
                                                            .
                                                                                               .

Wm S A. and B Wilsoil, t . 6 ~ . 1975, English Cinder l i s t of
 u , .            .
    rezoaqitruc tions in .&stronesian languages. Pacific
      L i n g u i s t i c s C-33.

Z'graggen, J o h n A. 1975. T-he l a n g u a g e s of t h e Madaeg D i s t r i c t ,
     Papua New Guinea. Pacific L i n g u i s t i c s E-41.




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