The 11 th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and - PDF

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					                                          Final Program
            , 07
        C EM
    I




                                  ICEM , 07

                       The 11th
    International Conference on
 Environmental Remediation and
 Radioactive Waste Management

                           September 2 - 6, 2007
                       Bruges (Brugge), Belgium
                              Organized and Sponsored by
  The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
The Technological Institute of the Royal Flemish Society of
                                      Engineers (TI-K VIV)
                        The Belgian Nuclear Society (BNS)
                                           In cooperation with
                         U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE)
                   International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
                                 Belgian Nuclear Forum (BNF)
                                                   FORATOM



                                                    International Atomic
                                                       Energy Agency
Welcome to ICEM’07
The Eleventh International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM’07)
is a global information exchange, featuring engineering and scientific solutions to environmental problems. More than
600 scientists, engineers, managers, project directors, business representatives, equipment vendors and government
officials from more than 30 countries are expected to attend the conference, held this year in Bruges, Belgium. This
year we have an increased emphasis on Global Partnering as it relates to technologies, environmental cleanup and
material stabilization and handling.
For ICEM’07, ASME has joined forces with the Technological Institute of the Royal Flemish Society of Engineers (TI-
K VIV) and the Belgian Nuclear Society (BNS). The conference and exhibition will offer a unique opportunity to foster
cooperation and establish contacts with participants from several countries. Conference participants will be able to
speak directly with peers who are reporting new research, initiating and managing environmental projects, establishing
national and international regulations and applying new methods and equipment. ICEM’07 is expected to feature over
300 technical papers, research presentations and discussions of field applications.
We have organized this Final Program so you can easily find additional details on the technical program and ways to
participate. Also included is a listing of Exhibitors, Sponsors and their services, and the technical abstracts. Please take
a look inside for more details. We are sure you will find something of interest. We hope that you have a successful
meeting!

    Conference General Co-Chairs                               Honorary Co-Chairs
    Anibal Taboas, US DOE (retired) (USA)                      Hans Forström, Director of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and
    Rik Vanbrabant, Belgoprocess (BELGIUM)                     Waste Technology IAEA (AUSTRIA)
                                                               Inés Triay, Chief Operating Officer, Environmental
                                                               Management – US DOE (USA)
    Conference Manager
    Gary Benda, Studsvik (USA)



         During the conference, in case of an emergency, contact +32 50 476 108
         Visit our website for additional contact information: www.icemconf.com


            We especially wanted to thank our Corporate Sponsors for ICEM’07
                                 ~ Platinum Sponsors ~
               BRITISH NUCLEAR GROUP PROJECT SERVICES LTD
         Host of the Sunday Welcome Reception and the Wednesday Morning Break
                                FLUOR CORPORATION
                  Host of Monday Lunch and the Tuesday Afternoon Break
                       WASHINGTON GROUP INTERNATIONAL
             Host of the Wednesday Banquet and the Thursday Morning Break

                                       ~ Gold Sponsors ~
                           BELGOPROCESS – Host of Monday Evening Event
                                SCK – Host of the Monday Breakfast
                             TECNUBEL – Host of the Wednesday Lunch
                              TRACTEBEL – Host of the Tuesday Lunch

                                       ~ Silver Sponsors ~
                        ENERGYSOLUTIONS – Host of the Tuesday Morning Break
                           US EPA – Host of the Wednesday Afternoon Break
                           STUDSVIK – Host of the Monday Afternoon Break

                                                ~ Bronze Sponsor ~
                                             MHF Logistical Solutions Inc.
Table of Contents
Background, Location and Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Objectives and Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Participating Attendees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Format and Venue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   City of Bruges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Hotel – Pre-Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Travel and Currency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Insurance & Liability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ICEM’07 Sponsors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Front Cover, 3
   US Sponsors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   European Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Cooperating International Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Social Events and Guest Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Social Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Saturday - Belgian Countryside, Bruges Tour and Belgian Beer Fest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Sunday Welcome Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   Monday Civic Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   Tuesday Exhibitor Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   Wednesday Banquet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   Guest Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Conference Registration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   On-Site Registration Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Technical Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Participating Attendees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Sunday Technical Training Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Conference Venue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Major Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Monday Morning Opening Session at the Royal City Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   Poster Sessions in the Upper Exhibit Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Special Panel Sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Conference Proceedings on CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Daily Speaker/Session Co-Chair Breakfast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Coffee/Tea Breaks in Both Exhibit Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Lunch Periods in Exhibit Halls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Speaker Ready Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Technical Tours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Acronym List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Technical Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Condensed Conference Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   City of Bruges Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center (Ground Floor, 1st Floor, 2nd Floor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Technical Program at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Technical Sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Exhibition and Sponsorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   Exhibit Hall Maps (Ambassador Room, White Rose) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   Exhibition Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   Sponsors and Exhibitors Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   Company Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Technical Program Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   Monday (1-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   Tuesday (12-31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   Wednesday (32-49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
   Thursday (50-57) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Int’l Advisory Committee & Technical Program Organizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Schedule of Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center 3D Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover



                                                                                                                                                                                              1
                                                                  The ICEM’07 Program is divided into 57 technical
    Background, Location and                                      sessions conducted over three-and-one-half days. A
    Contact Information                                           listing of the specific sessions within each of the six
                                                                  technical program tracks can be found in the “Technical
    Objectives and Background                                     Program at a Glance” section. The full registration
    The Eleventh International Conference on                      provides the attendee entrance to all technical
    Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste               presentations and the exhibit hall. Included in the
    Management (ICEM) promotes a broad global                     registration fee is the Sunday evening Welcoming
    exchange of information on technologies, operations,          Reception at the Brewery “De Halve Maan” – the
    management approaches, economics, and public                  Monday Civic Reception at the Town Hall of Bruges
    policies in the critical areas of environmental               and the Tuesday Evening Exhibitor Reception in the
    remediation and radioactive waste management. The             Exhibit Halls. Also included are the refreshments
    conference provides a unique opportunity to foster co-        during the conference breaks and lunch for three days.
    operation among specialists from countries with mature        The meeting materials provided will be the final
    environmental management programs and those with              program, which includes the complete conference
    emerging programs. Attendees include scientists,              outline, abstracts and a complete CD-ROM containing
    engineers, technology developers, equipment suppliers,        all approved papers that were presented. The CD will
    government officials, utility representatives and owners      be mailed after the conference.
    of environmental problems.
                                                                  City of Bruges
    The 2007 conference is the eleventh in the ICEM series
    of biennial international conferences on environmental        Bruges is often fondly called “the Venice of the North.”
    remediation and radioactive waste management                  This splendid medieval city is one of Belgium’s crown
    organized by the ASME. The first conference was held          jewels. In no other European city is the feel and the
    in Hong Kong in 1987; followed by Kyoto, Japan, in            look of medieval times as present as here in this city
    1989; Seoul, Korea, in 1991; Prague, Czech Republic,          close to the North Sea. It is also located less than an
    in 1993; Berlin, Germany, in 1995; Singapore, in 1997;        hour away from the Brussels airport and the ferries at
    Nagoya, Japan, in 1999; Bruges, Belgium, in 2001;             Calais, France coming from the United Kingdom.
    Oxford, UK, in 2003; and Glasgow, Scotland, in 2005.          Today’s Bruges has a population of about 45,000
                                                                  people (the old center) or 120,000 people (center
    Participating Attendees                                       together with the suburbs). It ranks, even today, as one
    Over 300 abstracts have been accepted from more than          of the most important cities of Belgium. It is also the
    30 countries, including submittals from Western,              capital of the Belgian province of West-Flanders.
    Central and Eastern Europe, the Far and Middle East,          Bruges is unique, in the sense that the town’s authorities
    and from North and South America. This strong                 have done their utmost to preserve the medieval nature
    technical program is expected to draw more than 600           of the city. Of course, not every stone in Bruges has
    scientists, engineers, managers, project directors, utility   come straight from the Middle Ages. The 19th century
    and other business representatives, equipment vendors         neo-gothic style is more modern than one would think.
    and government officials from around the world.               Nevertheless, the combination of old, not so old, and
    The traditionally strong participation from countries         new fascinates everyone who first sets foot in Bruges.
    with mature environmental programs will be
    supplemented by a contingent of attendees from Central        Hotel – Pre-registration
    and Eastern Europe, as well as key representatives from       ICEM has teamed with First Class International to assist
    other countries from around the world with emerging           in room accommodations. The ICEM’07 Committee is
    programs. In the past, the ICEM meetings have allowed         not responsible for any violations of any ordinances, and
    participants to exchange technical information, discover      all other claims of losses, costs, and damages arising
    solutions to problems and make valuable business              from the attendee’s occupancy at any of the local hotels.
    contacts or even arrange business agreements.                 If you have made your hotel arrangements through First
                                                                  Class International and you need to reach them for any
    Format and Venue                                              reason, contact: First Class International – Van
    The ICEM’07 technical program includes concurrent             Meterenkaai 4 – B – 2000 Antwerp – Belgium.
    technical sessions in six subject tracks:                     Phone: +32 (0) 3 226 30 45; Fax: +32 (0) 3 226 35 98
      1) Low/Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste                 or E-mail: firstclass@firstclass.be
          (L/ILW) Management
                                                                  Travel & Currency
      2) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), Fissile, Transuranic
          (TRU), and High-Level Waste (HLW)                       Transport Details by Air to Brussels or Bruges
          Management                                              Brussels International Airport provides direct access to
      3) Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning             and from Major European and North American cities
          (D&D)                                                   and is a 30 minute drive from Bruges. Alternatively, the
      4) Environmental Remediation (ER)                           Paris Charles De Gaulle airport is approximately a three
      5) Crosscutting, Institutional and Stakeholder Issues       hour drive from Bruges. Both airports are served by
          in Environmental Management (EM)                        many international carriers.
      6) Global Partnering (GP) and Multi-National Pro-
          grams.                                                  By Coach to Bruges
    The technical program consists of an opening plenary          All Belgian coach operators run services to the Bruges
    session and several parallel program tracks with up to        Bus Station.
    eight concurrent sessions. The sessions include 25            By Rail to Bruges
    minute oral presentations, panels, roundtables, and
                                                                  The easiest way to get to Bruges from the Brussels
    poster displays that are designed to enhance dialogue
                                                                  airport is by train. The trains leave from the airport
    between presenters and participants.
2
several times every hour. It is not necessary to order          European Sponsors
tickets in advance. Please visit www.b-rail.be for train        The ICEM conferences have always been conducted
schedules from Brussels to Bruges.                              jointly with a major technical society and other co-
Foreign Exchange and Traveler’s Checks                          sponsors in the host country. For ICEM’07, the
                                                                conference is organized in cooperation with the
The conference secretary on-site will accept only EUR
                                                                European Commission, the Technological Institute of
(no USD or Traveler’s Checks) for payment of any fees.
                                                                the Royal Flemish Society of Engineers (TI-KVIV),
Visa and MasterCard are also accepted.
                                                                and the Belgian Nuclear Society (BNS). Many in the
Disclaimer                                                      region view ICEM as a valuable opportunity to meet
                                                                with international experts, make personal contacts,
Neither ASME, TI-KVIV nor BNS can accept any                    gain a comprehensive view of the trends and activities
liability for death, injury, or any loss, cost or expense       in radioactive waste management and environmental
suffered or incurred by any person if such loss is caused       remediation fields around the world, and to
or results from the act, default or omission of any             demonstrate to policy makers and public groups that
person other than an employee or agent of ASME, TI-             suitable methods do exist and can be applied to
KVIV, BNS. In particular, neither ASME, TI-KVIV nor             today’s problems.
BNS can accept any liability for losses arising from the
provision or non-provision of services provided by              Cooperating International Agencies
hotel companies or transport operators. Nor can ASME,
                                                                Since the beginning, the ICEM meetings have been held
TI-KVIV, or BNS accept liability for losses suffered by
                                                                in cooperation with major international organizations
reason of war including threat of war, riot and civil
                                                                responsible for programs and research in radioactive
strife, terrorist activity, natural disaster, weather, flood,
                                                                waste management and environmental remediation
drought, technical, mechanical or electrical breakdown
                                                                fields. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
within any premises visited by delegates and/or partners
                                                                and European Commission have been assisting this
in connection with the conference, industrial disputes,
                                                                conference in several ways. Their support has included
governmental action, regulations or technical problems
                                                                assistance in the organizing of the technical program,
which may affect the services provided in connection
                                                                presentation of technical papers and other agency
with the conference. Neither ASME, TI-KVIV nor BNS
                                                                information, promotion of the conference to their
is able to give any warranty that a particular person will
                                                                member states and financial and technical assistance.
appear as a speaker or panelist.

Insurance and Liability                                         Social Events and Guest Program
All participants are encouraged to make their own
arrangements for health and travel insurance. Neither           Social Events
ASME, TI-KVIV nor BNS and their agents, can be held
responsible for any personal injury, loss, damage,              The conference registration fee includes lunch for three
accident to private property or additional expenses             days (Monday through Wednesday), the Sunday
incurred as a result of delays or changes in air, rail, sea,    Welcome Reception, the Monday Civic Reception and
road or other services, strikes, sickness, weather or any       the Tuesday Exhibitor Reception. Tickets for the
other cause.                                                    Conference Banquet on Wednesday are optional. If
                                                                available, tickets will be available on-site to purchase
                                                                €55 (USD $72). Space is limited to 350 tickets – tickets
ICEM’07 Sponsors                                                will be issued on a first-come, first-serve basis.
                                                                Saturday – Belgian Countryside,
US Sponsors
                                                                Bruges Tour and Belgian Beer Fest 2007
The Nuclear Engineering Division and the Environmental
                                                                Plan to come early for the weekend and enjoy the
Engineering Division of the ASME are the primary
                                                                beauty and hospitality Belgium has to offer. Centrally
sponsors of the ICEM conference. Since the conference’s
                                                                located, Bruges is an easy train ride to Brussels and
inception in 1987, its original as well as current objective
                                                                with Brussels connections from Paris, London,
has been to conduct international forums on key
                                                                Amsterdam, and Frankfurt. Many local towns and
environmental management topics in locations convenient
                                                                historical sites are just minutes away.
to large numbers of technical experts from emerging
environmental programs. The ASME is committed to                You can also attend the 9th annual BELGIAN BEER
continue to provide this global conference wherever the         WEEKEND at the Brussels’ Grand’ Place. The Belgian
greatest need and interest are shown.                           Brewers’ Association in collaboration with the City of
                                                                Brussels organizes this annual event. This year it will
ICEM’07 is also organized in cooperation with the US
                                                                take place on Friday, August 31 from 6:00 until 22:00,
Department of Energy (US DOE), the US Nuclear
                                                                Saturday, September 1 from 11:00 until 22:00 and
Regulatory Commission (US NRC), and the US
                                                                Sunday, September 2 from 11:00 until 20:00. Plan to
Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Each
                                                                visit this historical city on this special weekend where
agency has had significant involvement with the ICEM
                                                                48 small-to-large sized breweries will present the best
series. The DOE is responsible for managing the wastes
                                                                selection of beers for your tasting pleasure. Entrance to
and cleaning the sites from past US government nuclear
                                                                the fest is free and the beer prices are very democratic!
operations. Thus the DOE staff has viewed this
                                                                Nowhere else in the world you can find a larger choice
conference series as an opportunity to identify new
                                                                of regional, authentic and colorful beers in such a
technical solutions and provide information on the
                                                                beautiful setting. You can also have dinner in one of the
results of their programs to the international
                                                                many excellent restaurants that line Brussels’ festive
community. Federal regulatory participants from both
                                                                city square. If you prefer, you can also join our Brussels
the EPA and the NRC have also been active in program
                                                                Guest program tour on Sunday.
development and participation.

                                                                                                                         3
    Sunday Welcome Reception                                     Guest Program
    All conference participants are invited to attend a          ICEM will sponsor a Guest Welcome Reception on
    welcoming reception at the Brewery “De Halve Maan”,          Monday morning at 8:00 in Room 9, the first floor
    on Sunday, September 2, 2007 at 18:30 to 20:30. The          Salon, to get acquainted and review tour options. This
    “De Halve Maan” is located on Walplein 26 (a three           will be open to both registered and non-registered
    minute walk from the Conference Center after you             guests (guests are primarily family members over the
    register). This family brewery has been active since         age of 16 of ICEM paid registrants). A local guide will
    1856. The cooking- and brewing-cauldron, the cooler          be available on each of the tours. Dianne Benda and Jan
    and the malt-store were the authentic working                Lewis will be on-site advising guests on the events and
    instruments for brewing “Bruges Straffe Hendrik”             tours. These women have hosted our guests programs in
    (Strong Harry). On Sunday evening, our welcome               Edinburgh and Oxford, as well as Bruges, and will do
    reception will be on the first and second floor of this      the same again this year. Join the other guests for
    brewery. The cost of the reception has been included in      morning coffee and teas in Conference Room 9 before
    the conference registration fee. This event is hosted by     you head out on your adventures and gather informative
    one of our Platinum Sponsors, British Nuclear Group          tips on the fabulous shopping and sight seeing that
    Project Services Ltd.                                        awaits you in Belgium. Below is a list of attractions you
                                                                 might like to consider.
    Monday Civic Reception at the Town Hall of Bruges
    All participants are invited by the Mayor and the            Brussels Tour – #1: On Sunday, September 2, 2007
    Aldermen of Bruges on Monday, September 3, 2007 at           (9:30-16:30) €58 – USD $75
    18:30 and is at the Gothic Hall of the Town Hall. The        From Bruges, we will depart by a 30-minute train trip
    cost of the reception has been included in the               to Brussels for the Sunday market. An experienced
    registration fee. Guests can purchase a guest badge to       guide provides information about the world-famous
    attend all of the receptions. The reception will be          GRAND’ PLACE with its unique city hall and splendid
    followed by a short boat trip on the canals at 19:00-        guild houses. We will continue with shopping in the
    19:30. The boat trip is approximately 20 minutes.            Grand Plaza, visit some of the sites including the
    Afterwards you can explore the many restaurants and          symbolic Brussels’s Manneken Pis and return late
    shops in the town center. This event is hosted by one of     afternoon in time for the Sunday night reception. The
    our Gold Sponsors, Belgoprocess.                             famous Belgian Beer Festival will still be well
                                                                 underway on Sunday and you too can join in on the
    The Town Hall of Bruges is one of the oldest Gothic
                                                                 sampling of 48 breweries finest.
    town halls of the Low Countries (1376-1420). The
    frontage is adorned with statues and bas-reliefs. Inside     Bruges Tour – #2: On Monday, September 3, 2007
    is the Gothic Hall with a graceful hanging-vault ceiling     (9:00-16:30) €38 – USD $50
    (1402) with wall-paintings. Adjoining the central hall is    The tour of this medieval city begins in the Market
    the Historic Room where objects related with the             Square with the Belfry. We will visit Our Lady’s
    history to the city of Bruges on are display.                Church, with the Madonna statue by Michelangelo, and
                                                                 the Town Hall square (Burg) with the Chapel of the
    Tuesday Exhibit Reception
                                                                 Holy Blood. Additional time will be going to the lace
    A complimentary reception for registrants will be held       museum, chocolate museum, with lunch and shopping
    from 18:00 to 19:30 in the Exhibit Hall. Please take this    on your own.
    opportunity to review, evaluate and test the current
    products and services of the exhibiting companies.           Antwerp Tour – #3: On Tuesday, September 4, 2007
    Guests tickets will be available on-site €27 (USD $35).      (8:30-16:30) €58 – USD $75
    Badges are required. This event is hosted by all of our      Just a short ride from Bruges, is Antwerp. Belgium’s
    Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze Sponsors.                  second largest city and Europe’s second largest harbor,
                                                                 Antwerp has kept many memories of its rich past.
    Wednesday Medieval Banquet                                   Above all, it is the city of the painter Peter Paul
    The entertainment hallmark of the ICEM conferences is        Rubens, world famous master of the 17th century. We
    the traditional and culturally festive banquet, reflective   will visit the Market Square with its ancient houses and
    of the host country. This year’s ICEM 2007 banquet           Our Lady’s Cathedral. This cathedral contains, among
    will be held at the Holy Hart Church on Wednesday,           other treasures, two of Rubens’ masterworks: “The
    September 5th, 2007 at 19:30. Participants will go back      Elevation of the Cross” and “The Descent from the
    in time to July 3, 1468 and take part in the wedding of      Cross”. Antwerp is also the world’s diamond center. We
    Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. The festivities       will visit a diamond workshop, continue with shopping
    are carried merrily along by the richly costumed jesters,    and lunch on your own, and return by train/coach in the
    minstrels, knights and dancers, a falconer, witches, and     late afternoon.
    fire throwers! The meal itself is a delightful four course
                                                                 Ghent Tour – #4: On Wednesday, September 5, 2007
    dinner, richly complimented by unlimited native beers
                                                                 (8:30-16:00) €58 – USD $75
    and wine. Make plans now to attend this unforgettable
                                                                 In Ghent, we will visit St. Bavo’s Cathedral, home of
    evening hosted by one of our Platinum Sponsors,
                                                                 the world famous “Mystic Lamb” painting. During the
    Washington Group International.
                                                                 city tour you will see all the important buildings from
    The Conference Cultural Banquet is optional, but             the Middle Ages, such as the Belfry, the St. Nicholas
    should not be missed. Tickets will be required and           Church and the very impressive and memorable Castle
    space will be limited to 350 tickets. Refer above to         of the Counts of Flanders. Shopping and lunch are on
    Social Events for ticket prices.                             your own; then return by train/coach by mid-late
                                                                 afternoon with ample time to prepare for and attend the
                                                                 fabulous ICEM’07 Cultural Banquet.



4
Damme Tour – #5: On Thursday, September 6, 2007               fundamentals, and then focus on project management in
(9:30-12:30) €38 – USD $50                                    practice, specifically for projects in the nuclear
Damme, formerly an outer harbor to Bruges, is now a           environment – power plants, nuclear remediation
beautiful medieval market town, with nice historical          projects, radioactive waste management, and
buildings: the Town Hall, Church of our Lady’s, the Old       decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The course is
Hospital, and several old houses. Damme is surrounded         aimed at providing training for new project managers
by a wonderful landscape. A minibus will take us to the       and project engineers as well as refresher training for
canal launch site where we will visit Damme by boat on        experienced project managers. Dr. Jas Devgun will
the connecting canal. Imagine the tranquility of the          serve as the Course Director; other faculty will include
canals, bursting with life from the herons to the eel         senior managers from industry. Attendees will receive a
fishermen. Breathtaking views of polders farmland             course notebook and a certificate of attendance. The
dotted with windmills, castles and medieval                   course may also be eligible for professional
fortifications. After a stroll through the village with       development credits. The cost of this eight hour course
some shopping, and perhaps a traditional Belgian snack        and all materials is € 225 – $200 USD. Pre-registration
on your own, we will return to Bruges by boat around          is required.
midday.
                                                              Conference Venue
                                                              Oud Sint-Jan Hospital Conference Center
Conference Registration                                       The conference is being held in the Oud Sint-Jan
                                                              Hospital Conference Center, parts of which date from
On-Site Registration Hours                                    the 13th century. The hospital has been converted to a
It is strongly recommended that the conference                modern conference facility and refurbished since the
participants register on Sunday, September 2, to avoid        ICEM’01 conference, retaining much of its old charm.
the rush before the opening session on Monday                 The renovated complex offers numerous possibilities
morning, September 3. Badges are required for the             with its eight spacious technical meeting rooms,
Sunday Reception. The registration desk will be located       banquet hall, exhibit halls, restaurant, coffee shop, bar
in the Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer, which is         and an internet establishment. Most accommodations
located on the lower level, during the following hours:       are within a 10-minute walk of the conference center.
      Sunday, September 2           17:00 to 19:00            The Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center is located at
      Monday, September 3            7:30 to 17:00            Mariastraat 38, 8000 Bruges.
      Tuesday, September 4           7:30 to 17:00
      Wednesday, September 5         7:30 to 17:00            Major Topics
      Thursday, September 6          7:30 to 12:30            The ICEM’07 Technical Program is divided into 57
                                                              technical sessions conducted over three-and-one-half
                                                              days. A listing of the specific sessions within each of
Technical Events                                              the six technical programs can be found in the
                                                              “Program at a Glance” Section.
Participating Attendees
                                                              Monday Morning Opening Session at the Royal
Over 300 abstracts have been accepted from more than          City Theatre
30 countries, including submittals from Western,
Central and Eastern Europe, the Far and Middle East,          Monday – 9:00                         Royal City Theatre
and from North and South America. This strong                 The Opening Session will take place at the Royal City
technical program is expected to draw more than 600           Theatre, Vlamingstraat 29 in Bruges near-by to the Oud
scientists, engineers, managers, project directors, utility   Sint-Jan Hospital Conference Center. The Bruges City
and other business representatives, equipment vendors         Theatre (1869) is one of the best preserved theatre
and government officials from around the world.               buildings in Europe and has recently been restored to its
                                                              former glory. The sober but elegant neo-Renaissance
The traditionally strong participation from countries
                                                              façade conceals a majestic auditorium and a foyer in
with mature environmental programs will be
                                                              eclectic style. The Opening Session will begin Monday
supplemented by a contingent of attendees from Central
                                                              morning at 9:00 and with the keynote presentations
and Eastern Europe, as well as key representatives from
other countries from around the world with emerging           setting the theme for this year’s conference – Global
                                                              Partnering. There are five key-note speakers:
programs. In the past, the ICEM meetings have allowed
participants to exchange technical information, discover         • Hans Forström, Director of Nuclear Fuel Cycle
solutions to problems, and make valuable business                   and Waste Technology IAEA (AUSTRIA)
contacts or even arrange business agreements.                    • Inés Triay, Chief Operating Officer – US DOE
                                                                    EM Program (USA)
Sunday Technical Training Course: Project
                                                                 • Jean-Paul Minon, Director General of
Management in the Nuclear Environment
                                                                    NIRAS/ONDRAF (BELGIUM)
Sunday – 9:30-17:00              Room 9 – Simon Salon            • Ute Blohm-Hieber, European Commission
ICEM’07 in collaboration with ASME and other                        (LUXEMBOURG)
supporting organizations will be offering this one day           • Alain Mathiot, Chairman of Contact Expert
course on Sunday, September 2, 2007 (9:00-17:00). The               Group, IAEA (FRANCE)
course will be a very condensed version of a project-
management training course that usually takes a week.
It will provide an overview of project management




                                                                                                                          5
    Poster Sessions in the Upper Exhibit Hall                  Emerging Issues in the Management for
    The conference technical program will contain five         L/ILW – Session 12
    major Poster Sessions, on Monday, Tuesday and              Tuesday – 8:30                     Room 8 – Simon Stevin
    Wednesday from the six Tracks in the following             This panel will focus on the appropriate strategies in the
    sessions: 11, 19, 31, 38 and 49. The Wednesday             management of all Low and Intermediate Level Waste
    afternoon poster session 49 is a non-paper poster          (L/ILW). The extent to which facilities for the disposal
    session for late breaking news and project updates.        of such wastes are engineered should be proportionate
    The leading objective for organizing poster sessions       to the long-term environmental impact that might arise.
    was that experts in the field and interested attendees     Particular issues arise in relation to waste of very low
    could gather for a half day in the Exhibit Halls where     activity, often arising in high volumes as contaminated
    they can move around freely and engage in discussions      land or from decommissioning. Based on experience in
    that would normally not be possible during the oral        different national programs, this panel will discuss the
    sessions. The extension into the luncheon or evening       range of different management options for L/ILW and
    receptions will give the meeting a social flavor, giving   their merits. There will be a focus on any implications
    the authors further opportunity to leave their posters     for the definition of different categories of L/ILW,
    and socialize with their colleagues in the field.          which might be disposed in different types of facility.
                                                               Panelists include the following; Inés Triay, US DOE;
    Special Panel Sessions                                     Phil Davies, NDA Head of National Waste Mgmt
                                                               Strategy; and Hans Forsstrom, Head of IAEA’s
    GNEP – Fuel Disposal, Waste Minimization, and
                                                               Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology.
    Safeguards – Session 3
    Monday – 16:15                   Room 8 – Simon Stevin     Panel: Challenges and Issues of the Young
    This panel will focus on high-level waste minimization     Generation Network (YGN) – Session 14
    processes, spent fuel management, recycling, and the       Tuesday – 10:45                            Room 7 – Vives
    impact of these strategies on the Global Nuclear Ener-     This roundtable session will discuss issues pertinent to
    gy Partnership (GNEP) activities. Because recycling        the young generation within the nuclear industry, both
    promises to minimize the long-lived TRU component          on a UK and international basis. In addition, the YGN
    of the once-through fuel cycle and the PUREX-based         plans to address initiatives for attracting young
    processes, which recover only plutonium for the pro-       engineers and scientists into the nuclear industry and
    duction of MOX fuel, the panel will specifically           discuss the influence of the YGN on the promotion of
    address this technology. In 2006, U.S. President           the industry as a whole. Roundtable panelists include
    George W. Bush proposed the recycle process as an          Jean Llewellyn, Project Director of the National Skills
    international cooperative activity with the purpose of     Academy for Nuclear; Neil Crewdson, Chair of the UK
    minimizing waste and enhancing nuclear material safe-      Young Generation Network; and Linda McLean,
    guards. The panel is preceded by an oral session pre-      Sellafield Ltd., roundtable organizer (UK).
    senting papers on the topic. Panelists include the fol-
    lowing; Hans Forsstrom, Head of IAEA’s Division of         International Radioactive Waste Management Pro-
    Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; James L.          jects in the Russian Federation – Session 21
    Laidler, Argonne National Laboratory (Representing         Tuesday – 16:15                  Room 8 – Simon Stevin
    DOE); Todd Wright, Savannah River National Labo-           This panel will provide a status on cooperation between
    ratory; Albert Machiels, Technical Executive, EPRI;        countries and international organizations on
    and Shaun McCabe, Consultant (USA).                        management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste
                                                               in the Russian Federation and on identified priorities for
    Emerging Issues in D&D – Session 5                         specific projects. Since the 1990s, several countries and
    Monday – 16:15                           Room 7 – Vives    international organizations have joined together under
    This panel will focus on emerging issues in D&D            the auspices of the IAEA in a partnership to assist
    programs worldwide. One topic of discussion will be        Russia in the frames of bilateral and multilateral
    the substantial experience in decommissioning the          programs to resolve the most severe problems occurring
    power reactors and how it is being considered or should    primarily in Northwest Russia (Murmansk and
    be considered in the design of the new generation of       Arkhangelsk Regions). The panel is preceded by an oral
    nuclear power reactors. This is a timely topic because     session presenting papers on the topic. Panelists include
    there is a worldwide resurgence in the nuclear power       the following: Alan Heyes, Deputy Director,
    and the plans to build the new reactors. Other key         Department of Trade and Industry, UK; Robert Kvile,
    issues and lessons learned from various national           Deputy Director General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
    programs will also be discussed. Panelist include: Peter   Norway; Michael Washer, Senior Project Manager –
    Waggitt, IAEA (AUSTRIA); Jean-Jacques                      Nuclear Submarines, DFAIT, Canada; Victor
    Grenouillet, EDF (FRANCE); Maria Lindberg,                 Kovalenko, Deputy Head Dismantlement Department,
    Studsvik, (SWEDEN); Iris Graffunder, Karlsruhe,            RosAtom, Russian Federation; and Jill Zubarev, US
    Germany; Con Murphy, Fluor Hanford (USA); and              DOE, NNSA, USA.
    Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, (USA).




6
The Nuclear Renaissance and Its Impact on HLW                  days to the CEG for their regular meeting. It will begin
Management – Session 22                                        Wednesday morning and is not open to the ICEM
Tuesday – 13:30                          Room 7 – Vives        registrants. However, CEG Members will be sharing
This panel will focus on the rapid increase in interest in     events and discussing ways to promote partnership in the
expanding nuclear power programs for energy supply             solving of global radioactive waste problems.
reasons or on environmental grounds could have two
                                                               Achieving Legitimacy in Radioactive Waste
opposing influences on waste management.
                                                               Management – Session 40
Recognition of the key role of nuclear could increase
                                                               Wednesday – 13:30                          Room 7 – Vives
pressure to implement deep repositories, since the lack
                                                               This roundtable will examine progress in radioactive
of these is constantly used as an argument against
                                                               waste management programs at national and local levels,
nuclear. On the other hand, the pressing problems of
                                                               and how legitimacy in decision making, underpinned by
ensuring energy supplies might relegate waste
                                                               transparency and openness, is helping achieve this. Past
management to a less important role, since safe storage
                                                               repository siting failures can be put down in part to
facilities make disposal postponable. This panel will
                                                               secrecy and mistrust of the organizations involved and
examine the impacts of the nuclear renaissance on three
                                                               many have now adopted strategies aiming for more
important aspects of waste management: 1) Impact on
                                                               successful public engagement. This international
national programs (big and new/small); 2) Impact on
                                                               roundtable of well-respected and experienced individuals
multinational initiatives (GNEP, Russia) and 3) Impact
                                                               will examine the political, social and ethical aspects of
on education/training. Panelists include the following:
                                                               radioactive waste management and how successful
Bernard Neerdael, IAEA; Neil Chapman, ITC; Irena
                                                               implementation of long-term strategies can be achieved.
Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Tom Isaacs, US DOE; and
                                                               Discussions will be facilitated, and active audience
Charles McCombie, Arius Corporation.
                                                               participation will be encouraged.
The UK Objectives and Strategy for the Manage-
                                                               UMREG Panel/Roundtable: Uranium Mining
ment of its Nuclear Legacy – Session 32
                                                               Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) - III –
Wednesday – 8:30                  Room 8 – Simon Stevin
                                                               Session 43
This panel will discuss issues on the UK Objectives and
                                                               Wednesday – 16:15                     Room 6 – Erasmus
Strategy for the Management of it Nuclear Legacy. The
                                                               This panel/roundtable will focus on uranium mine and
United Kingdom Government has brought together the
                                                               mill remediation issues as contemplated by the
management of the UK civil nuclear liabilities under
                                                               international IAEA UMREG Group. The Uranium
one body: the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
                                                               Mining Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG)
(NDA). The liabilities cover the former UKAEA
                                                               constituted itself during the ICEM’95 Berlin Meeting as
licensed sites including Dounreay, Harwell and
                                                               an informal network group for multilateral exchange on
Winfrith and the former BNG Sites, Magnox North,
                                                               issues related to uranium mine and mill remediation.
Magnox South and Sellafield. An update on the status
                                                               The USDOE UMTRA-Group and the German BMWi-
of the NDA’s program of competitions and governance
                                                               WISMUT Group started the exchange in 1993 on
on the decommissioning process, organization, and the
                                                               specific topics related to major projects UMTRA Title I
overall structure, and the progress in implementing
                                                               and WISMUT. Since then, several meetings were held
strategy and priorities will be discussed. Panelists
                                                               in conjunction with international conferences focusing
include David Hayes, NDA (UK); Sandy McWhirter,
                                                               on environmental remediation. Also, the Group has
UKAEA; and Andy Scargill, Sellafield Ltd.
                                                               grown into an international network including
UK NDA Funding, Contracting, Subcontracting                    representatives of regulating, permitting and
Selection and Arrangements – Session 33                        supervising institutions, operating and consulting
Wednesday – 10:45                Room 8 – Simon Stevin         companies, and research organizations.
This panel will summarize and provide a status of
funding, contracting and subcontracting selection and          Conference Proceedings on CD-ROM
arrangements for decommissioning through the NDA.              Each conference registrant will receive the conference
The focus would be to openly discuss these ideas and           proceedings on a CD-ROM mailed approximately two
new lessons that are applicable to the UK with the             months after the conference. Additional proceedings
audience. Panelists include: Ron Gorham, NDA; Steve            may be ordered at an additional charge, by writing to
Morgan, Sellafield Ltd; Peter Walkden, Magnox                  the ASME Order Department, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box
Reactors; Colin Baylis, UKAEA; Ron Gallagher,                  2300, Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300, US, Telephone 1-800-
Fluor Ltd; and Rosie Mathisen, West Lakes                      THE-ASME.
Renaissance (UK).
                                                               Daily Speaker/Session Co-Chair Breakfast
IAEA Contacts Expert Group (CEG) Meetings —
Members Only – Session 39                                      A complimentary continental breakfast will be provided
Wed. – 8:30 - Thurs. 18:00                       ‘t leerhuys   to all Speakers, Panelists, Poster Presenters, and
The Contact Expert Group (CEG) of the International            Session Co-Chairs on the day of their session. The
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a consortium of                 breakfast will be served Monday at 8:00-8:30, Tuesday,
countries established in 1996 that assist Russia in the        Wednesday and Thursday at 7:30-8:00 in room 3 and 4
handling of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel           (Mozart and Strauss rooms.) Most hotels have breakfast
(SNF) to help the country deal with its Cold War legacy.       included in the cost of the room, but the speaker’s
The group’s main objectives include fostering co-              continental breakfast will give you the time for final
operation between counties interested in enhancing the         arrangements before your session. The attendance at the
safety of radwaste management in Russia, providing a           breakfast will provide an opportunity for the Session
forum for information exchange, presenting specific            Co-Chairs to meet with the speakers, and for all to
projects and identifying priorities. The group is comprised    discuss the topics they will be addressing. It is essential
of 12 nations, including Russia, Norway, the UK, Canada        that all panel, oral and poster speakers/co-chairs attend
and Europe’s largest powers. This session is devoted two       the breakfast.

                                                                                                                             7
    It is mandatory that all presenters (oral, panelists and     of these excellent tours at a minimum resulting with
    poster) and Session Co-Chairs check in at the                many on our waiting lists. Regrettably, for our past
    Presenter/Co-Chairs’ office located in the annex             ICEM tours, we have had numerous last minute
    between Rooms 1 and 2 with Shari Brabham. Available          cancellations with insufficient time to process the
    check-in times are Sunday from 17:00-19:00 and               security clearance for individuals on the waiting list. To
    resuming Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday from 7:00             assist space for the attendees who strongly desire to
    until 17:00 and Thursday from 7:00 until 11:00.              attend, we are implementing for ICEM’07 a tour
    Speakers not checked in two hours before their session       cancellation fee of EUR 75 or $140 USD. An invoice
    or making prior arrangements will have their                 for the additional amount will be sent after the
    presentation shown as cancelled on the presentation          conference if you do not attend your technical tour
    boards at the session room entrance or on their poster       without sufficient time for us to process a substitute. The
    space.                                                       cancellation fee will be waived for justified cancellations
    It is strongly recommended that you bring a copy of          approved by the ICEM Finance Committee.
    your PowerPoint presentation on CD-ROM as a                  Tour A – COVRA, the Netherlands
    backup. If your presentation is hand carried, it must be     COVRA is the Central Organization for Radioactive
    turned in by 16:30 the day before your presentation for      Waste in the Netherlands and responsible for collection,
    sequential system loading. No changes will be made           treatment and storage of all waste. The facilities for
    after that time. Presenters missing the deadline will        treatment and storage are located in Borsele. The visit
    have to make special arrangements with Shari Brabham         will include a guided tour through al the treatment
    for possible uploading.                                      installations for low and medium level radioactive
                                                                 waste and the storage centers for conditioned low and
    Coffee/Tea Breaks                                            medium level radioactive waste. Also a visit to the
    Complimentary coffee and tea will be served for all          interim storage centre for high level waste (HABOG) is
    meeting participants in both of the Exhibit Halls during     foreseen. The cost for this tour is €60/ $80 USD (9:00
    the morning break and the afternoon breaks every day         departure – 18:30 arrival)
    of the conference. Thursday breaks will be served only
    in the upper exhibit room.                                   Tour B-1 – BELGOPROCESS, Belgium
                                                                 (in combination with SCK-CEN)
    Lunch Periods                                                Belgoprocess was set up in 1984 in Dessel, in the
    Lunch will be served in both of the Exhibit Halls on         Antwerp region. It is a subsidiary of the National
    Monday-Wednesday. Lunches served three days will             Agency for Radioactive Waste and Irradiated Fuels
    mainly consist of sandwiches and other food that can be      (NIRAS/ONDRAF), which is responsible for outlining
    easily consumed while visiting the exhibits and posters.     the Belgian policy on radioactive waste. Belgoprocess
    Luncheon hours are from 12:30-13:40. Paid full week          is currently processing all categories of radioactive
    registration includes the luncheon price for all three       waste resulting from both the nuclear fuel cycle
    days. If you prefer, there are also several local            activities and from the production and uses of isotopes
    restaurants near the conference center. A listing of local   in medicine and industry. The shutdown reprocessing
    restaurants can be found in the Eating-Out Guide that        plant on its site is being dismantled on an industrial
    will be given to delegates on arrival.                       scale. A visit is foreseen at the treatment facility
                                                                 (CILVA), with its supercompaction unit, cementation
    Speaker Ready Room                                           unit and incinerator and the former reprocessing plant
    The Speaker Ready Room will be available for speakers        Eurochemic, at this moment in phase of
    to review their PowerPoint slides, overheads, and notes.     decommissioning. The cost for this tour is €60/ $80
    This room will be open from Monday to Wednesday              USD – 9:00 departure – 19:30 arrival
    from 7:30-17:00 and Thursday from 7:30-11:00 at the          Tour B-2 – SCK-CEN, Belgium
    Conference Centre. It is located in back of the              (in combination with Belgoprocess)
    Presenter/Co-Chairs’ office in the annex between             The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, was
    Rooms 1 and 2.                                               created in 1952. SCK-CEN is a foundation of public
                                                                 utility with a legal status according to private law, under
    Technical Tours                                              the tutorial of the Belgian Federal Minister in charge of
    There are two technical tours planned for the                energy. About 600 employees realize a turnover of 80
    conference attendees as well as five sightseeing tours as    MEUR. The statutory mission gives priority to research
    part of the Guest Program. Many of these tours are           on problems of societal concern such as safety of
    subsidized by the sponsoring companies and have              nuclear installations, radiation protection, safe
    limited space. The two technical tours scheduled are         treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, fight
    being planned immediately following the conference on        against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials,
    Friday, September 7, 2007 and include visits of A)           and education and training. A visit is foreseen at the
    COVRA (the Netherlands), and tour B) Belgoprocess            BR3 (reactor in phase of dismantling) and at the
    and SCK-CEN (Belgium). Pre-registration sign up is           visitor’s centre E.I.G. EURIDICE (Economic Interest
    required to attend either on of the tours. Registrants       Grouping European Underground Research
    who require a visa for Belgium should have a Schengen        Infrastructure for Disposal of nuclear waste In Clay
    visa to allow your entrance into the Netherlands.            Environment). The cost for this tour is €60/$80 USD –
    All technical tours for ICEM’07 are space limited and        9:00 departure – 19:30 arrival.
    require early security clearances. Paperwork for
    security clearances for tours A, B-1 and B-2 must be
    received by August 17, 2007. We strive to keep the costs




8
 Acronym List
   AEA     Atomic Energy Agency                                          ISM      Integrated Safety Management                          PRA       Probabilistic Risk Analysis
 ALARA     As Low As Reasonably Achievable                            JAERI       Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute                PWR       Pressurized Water Reactor
  ASME     American Society of Mechanical Engineers                   KAERI       Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute                R&D       Research & Development
   BWR     Boiling Water Reactor                                         LEU      Low-Enriched Uranium                                RCRA        Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
   CEA     Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique                            LILW      Low-Intermediate Level Waste                       RH-TRU       Remote Handled-Transuranic Waste
CERCLA     Comprehensive Environmental Response,                         LLW      Low-Level Waste                                       ROC       Republic of China
           Compensation and Liability Act                                LSA      Low Specific Activity                                 RPV       Reactor Pressure Vessel
CH-TRU     Contact Handled-Transuranic Waste                             M&I      Management & Integration                               RW       Rad Waste
   DAW     Dry Activated Waste                                          M&O       Management & Operation                               SFEN       French Nuclear Society
 DNFSB     Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board                      MOX       Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide                         SNF       Spent Nuclear Fuel
   DOE     Department of Energy                                          MW       Mixed Waste                                           SRW       Solid Radioactive Waste
    EIS    Environmental Impact Statement                               NDA       Non-Detectable Activity                           TENORM        Technologically Enhanced Naturally
     EM    Environmental Management                                     NDA       Nuclear Decommissioning Authority                               Occurring Radioactive Material
    EPA    Environmental Protection Agency                              NEA       Nuclear Energy Agency                                 TRU       Transuranic
   EPRI    Electric Power Research Institute                            NED       Nuclear Engineering Division                      TRUPACT       Transuranic Package Transporter
     ER    Environmental Remediation                                      NEI     Nuclear Energy Institute                            USACE       United States Army Corps of Engineers
FUSRAP     Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action                     NEPA       National Environmental Policy Act                  US DOD       United States Department of Defense
           Program                                                    NNSA        National Nuclear Security Administration           US DOE       United States Department of Energy
  HEPA     High-Efficiency Particulate Air                            NORM        Natural Occurring Radioactive Material             US NRC       United States Nuclear Regulatory
    HEU    Highly Enriched Uranium                                      NPO       Nuclear Power Operations                                        Commission
   HLW     High-Level Waste                                             NPP       Nuclear Power Plant                                    WAC      Waste Acceptance Criteria
   IAEA    International Atomic Energy Agency                         NWPA        Nuclear Waste Policy Act                               WIPP     Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
     ILW   Intermediate Level Waste                                   OECD        Organization for Economic Cooperation &                 WM      Waste Management
  IPSN     Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire                          Development                                            WNA      World Nuclear Association


 Technical Program
 Approximate Presentation Times
       Morning Presentation                            Start Time                                                  Afternoon Presentation                        Start Time
       Session Start                                       8:30                                                    Session Start                                    13:45
       Paper 1                                             8:35                                                    Paper 1                                          13:50
       Paper 2                                             9:00                                                    Paper 2                                          14:15
       Paper 3                                             9:25                                                    Paper 3                                          14:40
       Paper 4                                             9:50                                                    Paper 4                                          15:05
       Break                                           10:15-10:40                                                 Break                                         15:30-16:10
       Session Start                                      10:45                                                    Session Start                                    16:15
       Paper 5                                            10:50                                                    Paper 5                                          16:20
       Paper 6                                            11:15                                                    Paper 6                                          16:45
       Paper 7                                            11:40                                                    Paper 7                                          17:10
       Paper 8                                            12:05                                                    Paper 8                                          17:35
       Session Ends                                       12:30                                                    Session Ends                                     18:00
       Lunch                                          12:30 - 13:40

 The above Approximate Presentation Times are provided so you can tentatively arrange your schedule. We rely on the
 Session Co-Chairs to manage the presentations to this schedule so that you can move between sessions and attend the
 presentations you desire. We recognize however that due to cancellations or other unplanned events, the order or time may
 be changed from the Final Program. The posters outside each speaking room are intended to show the cancelled papers and
 any changed time periods. We also encourage the Session Co-Chairs to manage the sessions that is best for the majority of
 the attendees and request that they mark on the posters their changes before the session starts. We offer our regrets if you
 missed a presentation due to these changes.

 Condensed Conference Schedule

      ICEM'07 Tracks         Mon. am      -    Mon. pm                  Tues. am                -   Tues. pm                Wed. am                  -   Wed. pm         Thurs. am
           Tracks                 9:00           13:30        16:15        8:30         10:45         13:30         16:15    8:30        10:45           13:30   16:15      8:30        10:45

  Low Level /                                             6                      12-P                         26                    37                     46                      53
  Intermediate Level WM                  L                7                                     L             27                                     L    47
                                                                                                       28                                                  48
  High Level Waste /                     U                8                        16           U     22-P           23             36               U     44                      54
  Spent Nuclear Fuel WM                                                                                       24                                                            55
  D&D                                    N        4           5-P                  17           N             25                    35               N     45                      50
  Environmental
  Remediation                                             9                        18                                29             34                     41                      51
                                         C                                                      C             30                                     C    42     43-P       57
  Envir. Mgmt/Crosscutting                               10                 13          14-P                                                             40-P                            56
  Global Partnering                1     H        2           3-P                  15           H     20-P          21-P     32-P          33-P      H                      52
  Posters Sessions                                       11 HLW                    19    LLW                  31    LLW             38 D&D/ER              49
                                              A "P" as a prefix designates a panel session.

                                                                                                                                                                                                9
     Map of Bruges


                                                    D




                                                C




                                                                    E
                                        4




                                                        F


                                        A


                                                                        3



             — LEGEND —
     1 Novotel, Katelijnestraat 65b,
       8000 Brugge                          B
     2 Ibis, Katelijnestraat 65a,
       8000 Brugge
     3 Montanus, Nieuwe Gentweg 78,
                                                            2
       8000 Brugge
     4 Acacia, Korte Zilverstraat 3a,
       8000 Brugge
                                                                1

     A Oud-Sint-Jan
       Conference Center
     B Brewery “De Halve Maan”
       (Sunday Reception)
     C Royal City Theatre
       (Opening Session)
     D Holy Hart Church
       (Wednesday Banquet)
     E Town Hall
       (Monday Reception)
     F ‘t leerhuys


10
Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center - Ground Floor




           CONFERENCE
             ENTRANCE




                                                11
     Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center - 1st Floor




              SPEAKER
              CHECK-IN




12
Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center - 2nd Floor




                                             SESSIONS
                                              POSTER




                                                        13
             Technical Program at a Glance
 SESSION #




                                                                                                                                                 ROOM #
                                                                                                               HWD




                                                                                                                                                                TIME
                                                                                                                     D&D
                                                                                                         LLW




                                                                                                                                EM
                                                                                                                                     GP
                                       SESSION TITLES




                                                                                                                           ER
             MONDAY AM - SEPTEMBER 3, 2007

  1          Opening Session                                                                                          ALL                 Royal City Theatre   9:00

             MONDAY PM - SEPTEMBER 3, 2007

  2          Support to the Global G-8 Partnership in Nuclear Nonproliferation                                                       X            8            13:30

  3          GNEP - Fuel Disposal, Waste Minimization, and Safeguards                                                                X            8            16:15

  4          D&D Programs: Status, Approaches, Policies and Challenges                                               X                            7            13:30

  5          Panel: Emerging Issues in D & D                                                                         X                            7            16:15

  6          National and International Programs for L/ILW Management                                    X                                        1            13:30

  7          Waste Minimization, Avoidance, and Recycling                                                X                                        2            13:30

  8          Repository Programs: Site Selection & Characterization, URLs, Engr. & Geological Barriers         X                                  6            13:30

  9          Environmental Remediation Management Approaches and Planning Tools                                            X                      3            13:30

 10 Local Participation and Decision-Making Process, Behavior and Politics                                                      X                 4            13:30

 11          HLW, SNF, and TRU Poster Session                                                                  X                          Upper Exhibit Hall   13:30

             TUESDAY AM - SEPTEMBER 4, 2007

 12 Panel: Emerging Issues in the Management for L/ILW                                                   X                                        8            8:30

 13 The Young Generation Network, Workforce Issues and Training Programs                                                        X                 7            8:30

 14 Roundtable: Challenges and Issues of the Young Generation Network (YGN)                                                     X                 7            10:45

 15 Global Partnering in Multi-National Support in Waste Management & Clean-Up Programs                                              X            6            8:30

 16 Risk-Performance Assessment Related to Spent Fuel, TRU or HLW Disposal-I                                   X                                  5            8:30

 17 D & D Lessons Learned                                                                                            X                            1            8:30

 18 Experiences in ER Clean-Up Actions and Legacy                                                                          X                      2            8:30

 19 Low/Intermediate Level Waste Management Posters-I                                                    X                                Upper Exhibit Hall   8:30

             TUESDAY PM - SEPTEMBER 4, 2007

 20 Panel: Global Partnerships Supporting Radioactive Waste Management Projects and Nonproliferation                                 X            8            13:30

 21 International Radioactive Waste Management Projects in the Russian Federation                                                    X            8            16:15

 22 Panel: The Nuclear Renaissance and Its Impact on HLW Management                                            X                                  7            13:30

 23 Risk-Performance Assessment Related to Spent Fuel, TRU or HLW Disposal-II                                  X                                  7            16:15

 24 Transportation and Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Fissile, TRU, and HLW                                  X                                  6            13:30

 25 D&D of Power Reactors and Research Reactors                                                                      X                            5            13:30

 26 Safety Considerations Associated with L/ILW Management                                               X                                        1            13:30

 27 L/ILW Waste Characterization, Assay, and Tracking Systems                                            X                                        2            13:30

 28 Solid Waste Volume Reduction, Treatment, and Packaging Experience                                    X                                        3            13:30

14
SESSION #   Technical Program at a Glance




                                                                                                                                       ROOM #
                                                                                                     HWD




                                                                                                                                                      TIME
                                                                                                           D&D
                                                                                               LLW




                                                                                                                      EM
                                                                                                                           GP
                                SESSION TITLES




                                                                                                                 ER
            TUESDAY PM - SEPTEMBER 4, 2007

29 National and International ER Program                                                                         X                      3            16:15

30 Environmental Remediation Site Characterizations, Monitoring, and Clean-up                                    X                      4            13:30

31 Low/Intermediate Level Waste Management Posters-II                                          X                                Upper Exhibit Hall   14:00

            WEDNESDAY AM - SEPTEMBER 5, 2007

32 The UK Objectives and Strategy for the Management of Its Nuclear Legacy                                                 X            8            8:30

33 Panel: The UK NDA Funding, Contracting, and Subcontracting Selection and Arrangements                                   X            8            10:45

34 Uranium Mining Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) - I                                                         X                      7            8:30

35 D&D of Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities                                                                   X                            6            8:30

36 Repository Programs: Site Selection & Characterization, URLs, Engr. & Geological Barriers         X                                  1            8:30

37 Liquid Waste Treatment Process and Experience                                               X                                        2            8:30

38 Decontamination & Decommissioning; and Environmental Remediation Posters                                X     X         X Upper Exhibit Hall      8:30

39 Contact Expert Group (CEG) Meeting (Only for CEG Members)                                                                       ‘t leerhuys       8:30

            WEDNESDAY PM - SEPTEMBER 5, 2007

40 Panel: Achieving Legitimacy in Radioactive Waste Management                                                        X                 6            13:30

41 Recent Developments in ER Technologies                                                                        X                      7            13:30

42 Uranium Mining Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) Meeting - II                                                X                      8            13:30

43 Panel/Roundtable: Uranium Mining Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) – III                                     X                      8            16:15

44 HLW, Fissile, TRU and Spent Nuclear Fuel Short and Long-Term Storage Issues                       X                                  1            13:30

45 Decommissioning Strategies and Facility Release                                                         X                            2            13:30

46 Advanced L/ILW Conditioning Technologies                                                    X                                        3            13:30

47 L/ILW Disposal Site and Waste Form Characterization and Performance Assessment              X                                        5            13:30

48 Radioactive Waste from Research Institutions and General Industries                         X                                        4            13:30

49 Projects in Progress: Non-Paper Poster Session                                                                     X         Upper Exhibit Hall   14:00

            THURSDAY AM - SEPTEMBER 6, 2007

50 D & D Technologies                                                                                      X                            8            8:30

51 Contaminant Migration and Transfer Assessment                                                                 X                      7            8:30

52 Global Partnering for World Safety & Security                                                                           X            6            8:30

53 Siting, Design, Construction, and Operation of L/ILW Disposal Facilities                    X                                        1            8:30

54 National and International Programs for Spent Nuclear Fuel, Fissile, TRU, and HLW Mgmt            X                                  2            8:30

55 HLW Characterization/Recent Advances in HLW Treatment Systems                                     X                                  3            8:30

56 Information Gathering and Decision Making                                                                          X                 3            10:45

57 Uranium Mining Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) -IV                                                         X                      5            8:30

                                                                                                                                                             15
Monday AM                                                                                                        Technical Sessions

            Monday, September 3, 2007                             nuclear material safeguards. The panel is preceded by an oral
                                                                  Session 2, presenting papers on the topic.
     SESSION 1 – PLENARY SESSION                                  Panelists include: Hans Forsström, Head of IAEA’s
                                                                  Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
Monday – 9:00-12:15                         Royal City Theatre    (AUSTRIA); James L. Laidler, Argonne National Laboratory
Co-Chairs: Anibal Taboas, US DOE, Retired (USA)                   (Representing DOE); Todd Wright, Savannah River National
             Rik Vanbrabant, Belgoprocess (BELGIUM)               Laboratory; Albert Machiels, EPRI; and Shaun McCabe,
                                                                  Consultant (USA).
Welcome to the ICEM’07 Conference: Anibal Taboas
Welcome to Belgium: Rik Vanbrabant
Plenary Speakers include the following:                                                  SESSION 4
  • Hans Forström, Director of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and             Monday – 13:30                                         Room: 7
    Waste Technology IAEA (AUSTRIA)
  • Inés Triay, Chief Operating Officer - US DOE                  D&D PROGRAMS: STATUS, APPROACHES, POLICIES
    Environmental Management Program (USA)                        AND CHALLENGES
  • Jean-Paul Minon, Director General of                          Co-Chairs: Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage
    NIRAS/ONDRAF(BELGIUM)                                                      Karlsruhe GmbH (GERMANY)
  • Ute Blohm-Hieber, European Commission                                      Con Murphy, Fluor Hanford (USA)
    (LUXEMBOURG)
                                                                  Organizers: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA);
  • Alain Mathiot, Chairman of IAEA Contact Expert Group,
                                                                               Lucien Teunckens, Colenco Power Engineering
    IAEA (FRANCE)
                                                                               Limited (Switzerland)
Conference Organization and Administration:
    Gary Benda, Studsvik (USA)                                    Reviewer: Lucien Teunckens
                                                                   1. Decommissioning of the Nuclear Licensed Facilities at
                      SESSION 2                                       the Fontenay Aux Roses CEA Center-7060
                                                                      Michel Jeanjacques, Laurence Piketty; Nathalie
Monday – 13:30                                        Room: 8         Letuhaire; Lionel Mandard; Igor Meden; David Estivié;
SUPPORT TO THE GLOBAL G-8 PARTNERSHIP IN                              Jean François Boissonneau; Alain Fouquereau; Eric
NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION                                              Pichereau; Cedric Binet, Commissariat à l’Energie
                                                                      Atomique, Direction de l’Energie Nucléaire (France)
Co-Chairs: Ken Kok, Washington Group International (USA)           2. Decommissioning Considerations at a Time of Nuclear
             Rod Strand, IAP Worldwide Services, Inc. (USA)           Renaissance-7214
Organizers: Rod Strand                                                Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy LLC (USA)
Reviewers: Mike Cull, Teledyne Brown Engineering (USA)             3. Windscale Pile Reactors - Decommissioning Progress on
             Rod Strand                                               a Fifty Year Legacy-7157
                                                                      Richard Sexton, CH2M Hill International Nuclear
 1. The Closed Fuel Cycle-7043
                                                                      Services/UKAEA (UK)
    Antoine Froment, Philippe Gillet, AREVA NC (France)
                                                                   4. Decommissioning - An Approach to Predict the Amount
 2. The Crucial Importance of the Back-End in Multinational
                                                                      of Arising Radioactive Waste-7304
    Initiatives to Enhance Fuel Cycle Security-7208
                                                                      Karin Kugel, Peter Brennecke. Wolf Koch, Bundesamt für
    Charles McCombie, Neil Chapman, Arius Association
                                                                      Strahlenschutz (Germany)
    (Switzerland); Tom Isaacs, LLNL (USA)
 3. Vision for the Development of an International Nuclear
    Fuel Recycling Program-7356                                                          SESSION 5
    Kenneth Kok, Washington Group International (USA)             Monday – 16:15                                         Room: 7
 4. Spent Fuel Management - A User’s Perspective: Summary
    of Panel Discussions and Findings from WM’07 in               PANEL: EMERGING ISSUES IN D&D
    Tucson, Arizona-7357                                          Co-Chairs: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA)
    Dennis Berry, Sandia National Laboratory (USA)                              Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage
                                                                                Karlsruhe GmbH (GERMANY)
                      SESSION 3                                   Organizer: Jas Devgun
Monday – 16:15                                        Room: 8     This panel will focus on emerging issues in D&D programs
                                                                  worldwide. One topic of discussion will be the substantial
GNEP - FUEL DISPOSAL, WASTE MINIMIZATION,                         experience in decommissioning the power reactors and how it
AND SAFEGUARDS                                                    is being considered or should be considered in the design of the
Co-Chairs: Ken Kok, Washington Group International (USA)          new generation of nuclear power reactors. This is a timely
              Shaun McCabe, Consultant (USA)                      topic because there is a worldwide resurgence in the nuclear
Organizers & Reviewers: Ken Kok; Shaun McCabe                     power and the plans to build the new reactors. Other key issues
                                                                  and lessons learned from various national programs will also
This panel will focus on high level waste minimization
                                                                  be discussed.
processes, spent fuel management, recycling, and the impact of
these strategies on the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership         Panelist include: Peter Waggitt, IAEA; Jean-Jacques
(GNEP) activities. Because recycling promises to minimize the     Grenouillet, EDF (France); Maria Lindberg, Studsvik,
long-lived TRU component of the once-through fuel cycle and       (Sweden); Iris Graffunder, Karlsruhe, Germany; Con
the PUREX-based processes, which recover only plutonium for       Murphy, Fluor Hanford (USA); and Jas Devgun, Sargent &
the production of MOX fuel, the panel will specifically address   Lundy, (USA)
this technology. In 2006, U.S. President George W. Bush
proposed the recycle process as an international cooperative
activity with the purpose of minimizing waste and enhancing
16
Technical Sessions                                                                                             Monday PM

                                                               3. Nuclear Waste Treatment - Studying the Mixed Ion Type
                     SESSION 6                                    Effects and Concentration on the Behavior of Oxide
Monday – 13:30                                     Room: 1        Dispersions-7005
                                                                  Qanitalillahi Omokanye, Simon Biggs, University of
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR                           Leeds (UK)
L/ILW MANAGEMENT                                               4. Using Pressure Decay Methodology to Detect Glovebox
Co-Chairs: Járgen Krone, DBE Technology GmbH                      Glove Failures-7018
            (GERMANY)                                             Michael Cournoyer, Stephen Schreiber, Los Alamos
            John Greeves, Talisman International, LLC             National Laboratory; Steve Chunglo, Getinge la Calhene
            (USA)                                                 (USA)
Organizer: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth and Environmental                              ——— Break ———
            (USA)                                              5. The Role of Non-Destructive Assay in Support of the
                                                                  Exemption of Solid Waste from Nuclear Licensed Sites-
Reviewers: Járgen Krone; John Greeves                             7057
 1. Management of Radioactive Waste in Belgium:                   Alan Fisher, UKAEA, Harwell; Ian Adsley, Tommy
    ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess as Major Actors of              Green, NUKEM Ltd (UK)
    the Waste Acceptance System-7257                           6. Removal - An Alternative to Clearance-7079
    Gunter Van Zaelen, ONDRAF/NIRAS; Annick Verheyen,             Jörg Feinhals, Alexander Kelch, TÜV NORD SysTec;
    Belgoprocess N.V. (Belgium)                                   Volker Kunze, Federal Agency for Radiation Protection
 2. Current Status of the Radioactive Waste Management            (Germany)
    Program in Spain-7101                                      7. Alternatives to the Burial of Low-Level Radioactive
    Emilio Garcia, Jorge Lang-Lenton; ENRESA, (Spain)             Waste-7137
 3. The Belgian Approach and Status on the Radiological           J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison (USA)
    Surveillance of Radioactive Substances in Metal Scrap      8. Development of a Carbon-14 Bioseperation Technique for
    and Non-Radioactive Waste and the Financing of Orphan         Cleanup of Nuclear Graphite-7164
    Sources-7096                                                  Pulane Molokwane, Evans Chirwa, University of
    Marnix Braeckeveldt, NIRAS/ONDRAF; Jan Michiels,              Pretoria (South Africa)
    FANC/AFCN; Peter De Preter, NIRAS/ONDRAF;
    Stéphane Pepin, Manfred Schrauben, An Wertelaers,                              SESSION 8
    FANC/AFCN (Belgium)
 4. Feasibility Study of Enlargement of the National          Monday – 13:30                                     Room: 6
    Repository at Mochovce - 7391
    Enrique Biurrun, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH                      REPOSITORY PROGRAMS: SITE SELECTION &
    (Germany); Juan Sanchez Sudon INITEC Nuclear SAU          CHARACTERIZATION, UNDERGROUND RESEARCH
    (Spain); Dusan Sedliak, Oto Chren, JAVYS AS (Slovak       LABS, ENGINEERING & GEOLOGICAL BARRIERS
    Republic)                                                 Co-Chairs: Neil Chapman, ITC School of Underground
                    ——— Break ———                                         Waste Storage and Disposal (SWITZERLAND);
 5. Operational Programs for National Radioactive Waste and               Robert Gens, NIRAS/ONDRAF (BELGIUM)
    Spent Fuel Management Program in Slovenia-7103            Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)
    Nadja Zeleznik, Metka Kralj, Irena Mele; ARAO             Reviewers: Neil Chapman; Robert Gens
    (Slovenia)
 6. Challenges Dealing with Depleted Uranium in Germany -      1. Site Descriptive Modeling as a Part of Site
    Reuse or Disposal-7294                                        Characterization in Sweden - Concluding the Surface
    Kai Möller, Federal Office for Radiation Protection           Based Investigations-7062
    (Germany)                                                     Johan Andersson, JA Streamflow AB; Anders Winberg,
 7. Packaging and Transportation of Radioactively                 Conterra AB; Kristina Skagius, Kemakta Konsult AB;
    Contaminated Lead-7182                                        Tobias Lindborg, Anders Ström, SKB (Sweden)
    Eugene Gleason, MHF Logistical Solutions (USA);            2. Geological Repository for Nuclear High Level Waste in
    Gerard Holden, Gravatom Engineering Limited (UK)              France from Feasibility to Design Within a Legal
                                                                  Framework-7034
                                                                  Patrice Voizard, Gérald Ouzounian, Stefan Mayer, Andra
                     SESSION 7                                    (France)
Monday – 13:30                                     Room: 2     3. Current Status of the Japanese Geological Repository
                                                                  Program-7078
WASTE MINIMIZATION, AVOIDANCE, AND                                Kazumi Kitayama, Nuclear Waste Management
RECYCLING                                                         Organization of Japan (Japan)
Co-Chairs: Sean Bushart, EPRI (USA)                            4. Evaluation of a Method for Designing Sealing Plugs for
            Gregor Krause, Studsvik (Sweden)                      HLW Geological Disposal Facilities, Taking into Account
Organizer: Sean Bushart                                           the Heterogeneous Characteristics of the Geological
                                                                  Environment-7092
Reviewers: Sean Bushart; Paul McClelland, UKAEA (UK)              Yasuhiro Suyama, Kajima Corporation (Japan); Koichi
 1. Thermal Treatment of Historical Radioactive Solid and         Yanagizawa, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Albania);
    Liquid Waste into the CILVA Incinerator-7333                  Masaru Toida, Kajima Corporation (Japan)
    Jan Deckers, Ludo Mols, Belgoprocess N.V. (Belgium)                           ——— Break ———
 2. Melting of Low-Level Radioactive Non-Ferrous Metal for     5. Roadmap to Plan and Structure the Preliminary Site
    Release-7036                                                  Investigation Program for a Geological Repository in
    Ulrich Quade, Thomas Kluth, Rainer Kreh, Siempelkamp          Japan-7131
    Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)                                 Akira Deguchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Kazumi Kitayama,
                                                                  Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan
                                                                                                                       17
Monday PM                                                                                                    Technical Sessions

    (NUMO) (Japan); Neil Chapman, ITC School of                     Mark Williams, Nathalie Galais, Chris Lennon, Divyesh
    Underground Waste Storage and Disposal (Switzerland);           Trivedi, Nexia Solutions Ltd (UK)
    Johan Andersson, JA Streamflow AB (Sweden); Tatsuya          7. Retrospection of Chernobyl Nuclear Accident for
    Tanaka, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)                            Decision Analysis Concerning Remedial Actions in
 6. Development of Improved Methodology for the                     Ukraine-7328
    Comparative Assessment of Potential Repository                  Vladimir Georgievskiy, Russian Research Center (Russia)
    Concepts and Locations-7140                                  8. Soils: Man-Caused Radioactivity and Radiation Forecast-
    Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Akihisa Koike, Nuclear Waste                   7038
    Management Organization of Japan (NUMO); Shoko                  Vassily Gablin, Scientific-Industrial Association, (Russia)
    Sato, Hideki Kawamura, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)
 7. Concept and Development of Information Flow Diagram                              SESSION 10
    for Literature Survey(IFDLS)-7156
    Masaru Noda, Shoko Sato, Obayashi Corporation;              Monday – 13:30                                        Room: 4
    Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Akihisa Koike, Nuclear Waste               LOCAL PARTICIPATION AND DECISION-MAKING
    Management Organization of Japan; Tadashi Ueda,             PROCESS, BEHAVIOR AND POLITICS
    Obayashi Corporation (Japan)
 8. A New User-Friendly Experiment Visual Database              Co-Chairs: Anne Bergmans, University of Antwerp
    System Application to the Gas Migration Test (GMT) at                    (BELGIUM)
    the Grimsel Test Site-7124                                               Judith Connell, Fluor (USA)
    Tomoyuki Shimura, Hidekazu Asano, RWMC; Kenichi             Organizers: Anne Bergmans; Bernard. Neerdael, IAEA
    Ando, Obayashi Corporation; Fumiko Okuma, Shuichi                        (AUSTRIA)
    Yamamoto, Obayashi Corporation (Japan); Stratis             Reviewers: Emmy Roos, Shaw Environmental &
    Vomvoris, NAGRA (Switzerland)                                            Infrastructure (USA); Anne Bergmans
                                                                 1. Factors Affecting Public and Political Acceptance for the
                      SESSION 9                                     Implementation of Geological Disposal-7195
Monday – 13:30                                      Room: 3         Bernard Neerdael, International Atomic Energy Agency
                                                                    (Austria)
ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION MANAGEMENT                             2. Local Negotiation About Compensation Siting of the
APPROACHES AND PLANNING TOOLS                                       Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Finland-7094
Co-Chairs: Wayne Lewis, The Shaw Group (USA)                        Matti Kojo, University of Tampere, Department of
             Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and                   Political Science and International Relations (Finland)
             Consultancy Group (NETHERLANDS)                     3. Development of Local Partnership for Siting of LILW
                                                                    Repository in Slovenia-7102
Organizers: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA); Leo van Velzen
                                                                    Metka Kralj, Nadja Zeleznik, ARAO (Slovenia)
Reviewer: Leo van Velzen                                         4. UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and US
 1. Performance-Based Acquisition: A Tool to Reduce Costs           Saltstone Waste Management Issues-7089
    and Improve Performance at US Army Environmental                William Lawless, Paine College; John Whitton, Nexia
    Remediation Sites-7050                                          Solutions (UK)
    Janet Gilman, CALIBRE Systems, Inc.; Nancy Kosko, US                             ——— Break ———
    Army Environmental Command; Debbie White, CALIBRE            5. OBRA: A European Project to Create an Observatory for
    Systems, Inc. (USA)                                             Long-Term Governance on Radioactive Waste
 2. Cost Effective ER Data Acquisition Using a Dynamic              Management-7192
    Characterization Strategy-7063                                  Meritxell Martell, Lara Duro, Jordi Bruno, Irene Kopetz,
    Kenneth Skinner, Perot Systems Government Services;             Enviros Spain S.L. (Spain)
    Peter Salpas, Salpas Consulting, (USA)                       6. Restoring Public Trust While Tearing Down Site in Rural
 3. Experiences in the Field of Radioactive Materials               Ohio-7319
    Seizures in the Czech Republic-7175                             Jerry Schneider, Fluor Limited (UK); Judy Connell,
    Karel Svoboda, Josef Podlaha, David Sir, Josef Mudra,           Fluor; Jeffrey Wagner, Fluor Enterprises (USA)
    Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. (Czech Republic) Risk    7. Integrating Natural & Social Sciences to Inspire Public
    Newsboy:                                                        Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study -
 4. Approach for Addressing Uncertainty in Developing               Committee on Radioactive Waste Management-7240
    Action Levels and Cleanup Limits-7324                           Sam Usher, Linda Collins, AMEC NNC (UK)
    Roger Cooke, Resources for the Future/TU Delft (USA);
    Margaret MacDonell, Argonne National Laboratory                                  SESSION 11
    (USA)
                    ——— Break ———                               Monday – 13:30                             Upper Exhibit Hall
 5. Fire as a Long-Term Stewardship Issue for Soils             POSTERS: HLW, SNF, AND TRU POSTER SESSION
    Contaminated with Radionuclides in the Western U.S.-
    7181                                                        Co-Chairs: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)
    David Shafer, David DuBois, Vic Etyemezian, Ilias                      Murthy Devarakonda, Washington Group
    Kavouras, Julianne Miller, George Nikolich, Mark Stone,                International (USA)
    Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher          Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem
    Education (USA)                                             Reviewers: Pierre Van Iseghem; Bernard Vigreux, SFEN
 6. ReCLAIM V2.0: Comparison of Calculated Doses with                      (FRANCE); Ed Bentz, E. J. Bentz & Associates
    Other Assessment Tools When Emulating Contaminated                     (USA)
    Land Scenarios-7309
                                                                 1. Radiolytic Decomposition of Organic C-14 Released from
                                                                    TRU Waste-7147
18
Technical Sessions                                                                                                      Monday PM

      Yuko Kani, Kenji Noshita, Toru Kawasaki, Hitachi, Ltd.            Sviatoslav Ignatiev, Mikhail Leonchuk , Yury Orlov ,
      (Japan); Tsutome Nishimura, Tomofumi Sakuragi,                    Dmitry, Pankratov, Gennady Suvorov, Alexey Zabudko,
      Hidekazu Asano, Radioactive Waste Management                      Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russia)
      Funding and Research Center (Japan)                         13.   Radiation and Chemical Durability of the Cm-Doped
 2.   Hydrogeological Characterization on Surface-Based                 Waste Forms with Garnet Structure-7030
      Investigation Phase in the Mizunami Underground                   Anatoly Lukinykh, Sergey Tomilin, Institute of Atomic
      Research Laboratory Project, in Japan-7117                        Reactors; Tatiana Livshits, Sergey Yudintsev, Institute of
      Hiromitsu Saegusa, Hironori Onoe, Shinji Takeuchi, Ryuji          Geology of Ore Deposits; Sergey Stefanovsky, SIA;
      Takeuchi, Takuya Ohyama, Japan Atomic Energy Agency               Andrey Lizin, Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russia);
      (Japan)                                                           Rodney Ewing, University of Michigan (USA)
 3.   Hydrogeological Conceptual Model Determined from            14.   The Results of HLW Processing Using Zirconium Salt of
      Baseline and Construction Phase Groundwater Pressure              Dibutyl Phosphoric Acid-7039
      and Surface Tiltmeter Data at the Mizunami Underground            Yury Fedorov, Boris Zilberman, Olga Shmidt, Vladimir
      Research Laboratory, Japan-7141                                   Saprikin, Valery Ryasantsev, Khlopin Radium Institute
      Shinji Takeuchi, Ryuji Takeuchi, Walter Salden, Hiromitsu         (Russia)
      Saegusa, Japan Atomic Energy Agency; Takashi Arai,          15.   Synthesis of Crystalline Ceramics for Actinide
      Daiwa Geological Laboratory, Ltd.; Koji Matsuki, Tohoku           Immobilisation-7047
      University (Japan)                                                Boris Burakov, Victoria Gribova, Alexander Kitsay, V. G.
 4.   Coincidence Gate Utilization Factors for Neutron                  Khlopin Radium Institute (Russia); Michael Ojovan, Neil
      Correlation Counters with Up to Three Components in the           Hayatt, Martin Stennett, University of Sheffield (UK)
      Die-Away Profile-7173                                       16.   Evaluation of Transuranium Isotopes Inventory for
      Stephen Croft, R.D. McElroy, Susan C. Kane, AREVA -               CANDU/ ACR Standard and SEU Spent Fuel and the
      Canberra Industries, Inc (USA)                                    Possibility to Transmute Them-7152
 5.   Inner Material Candidates Selection and Evaluation for            Ghizdeanu Elena - Nineta, University; Pavelescu
      Spanish High Level Radioactive Waste Canister-7178                Alexandru, University; Balaceanu Victoria, Institute for
      Francesc Puig, Javier Dies, Manuel Sevilla, Joan de               Nuclear Research - Pitesti (Romania)
      Pablo, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC); Juan     17.   Radwaste Immobilization with the Use of Special
      José Pueyo, Lourdes Miralles, Universitat de Barcelona            Protective Coatings-7172
      (UB); Aurora Martínez-Esparza, Empresa Nacional de                Yury Pokhitonov, Yury Pokrovski, Evgeniy Kolobov,
      Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) (Spain)                             Sergey Strelkov, Radium Institute (Russia)
 6.   Study on Creating Hydraulic Tomography for Crystalline      18.   Improvement of Operational Safety of Dual-Purpose
      Rock Using Frequency Dependent Elastic Wave Velocity-             Transport and Storage Cask for Naval SNF-7389
      7233                                                              Vladimir Guskov, Gennady Korotkov, JSC "KBSM",
      Kimitaka Yoshimura, Susumu Sakashita, Radioactive                 (Russia); Bob Dyer, Ella Barnes, US EPA (USA); Randy
      Waste Management Funding and Research Center;                     Snipes, ORNL, (USA)
      Kenichi Ando, Patric Bruines, Obayashi Corporation
      (Japan); Ingo Blechschmidt, Wolfgang Kickmaier,
      National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive                    Tuesday, September 4, 2007
      Waste (Switzerland); Yozo Onishi; Satoshi Nishiyama,
      Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University                                   SESSION 12
      (Japan)
 7.   Environmental Safety Aspects of the New Spent Nuclear       Tuesday – 8:30                                          Room: 8
      Fuel Management and Storage System at Ignalina NPP-
                                                                  PANEL: EMERGING ISSUES IN THE MANAGEMENT
      7248
                                                                  FOR L/ILW
      Povilas Poskas, Valdas Ragaisis, Erdvilas Adomaitis,
      Lithuanian Energy Institute (Lithuania)                     Co-Chairs: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth and Environmental
 8.   Modeling of Radionuclide Releases from the Geological                     (USA)
      Repository for RBMK-1500 Spent Nuclear Fuel in                            Hans Codee, COVRA (NETHERLANDS)
      Crystalline Rocks in Lithuania-7272                         Organizers: Angie Jones, Andy Baker, Environment Agency
      Povilas Poskas, Asta Brazauskaite, Lithuanian Energy                      (UK)
      Institute (Lithuania)                                       This panel will focus on the appropriate strategies in the
 9.   Transparent Tools for Uncertainty Analysis in High Level    management of all Low and Intermediate Level waste (L/ILW).
      Waste Disposal Facilities Safety Assessment-7277            The extent to which facilities for the disposal of such wastes
      Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy                 are engineered should be proportionate to the long term
      Commission CNEN/CDTN (Brazil); Karl-Heinz Hellmuth,         environmental impact that might arise. Particular issues arise in
      STUK - The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety             relation to waste of very low activity, often arising in high
      Authority (Finland); Terrence Sullivan, Brookhaven          volumes as contaminated land or from decommissioning.
      National Laboratory (USA)                                   Based on experience in different national programs, this panel
10.   Characteristics of Solidified Products Containing           will discuss the range of different management options for
      Radioactive Molten Salt Waste-7303                          L/ILW and their merits. There will be a focus on any
      In-Tae Kim, Hwan-Seo Park, Yong-Zun Cho, Kwang-             implications for the definition of different categories of L/ILW,
      Wook Kim, Seong-Won Park, Eung-Ho Kim, Korea                which might be disposed in different types of facility.
      Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
                                                                  Panelists include: Inés Triay, Chief Operating Officer,
11.   The Rheology of Oxide Dispersions and the Role of
                                                                  US DOE EM; Phil Davies, NDA Head of National Waste
      Concentrated Electrolyte Solutions-7010
                                                                  Management Strategy; and Hans Forsström, Head of IAEA’s
      Simon Biggs, Amy Tindley, University of Leeds (UK)
                                                                  Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology.
12.   Problems of Development of the Pilot Lead-Bismuth
      Target Circuit TC-1 for Ads-7381

                                                                                                                                 19
Tuesday AM                                                                                                       Technical Sessions

                                                                        Ole Reistad, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/
                      SESSION 13                                        Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Tuesday - 8:30                                         Room: 7          (Norway); Frits Steenhuisen, Arctic Centre, University of
                                                                        Groningen/Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
THE YOUNG GENERATION NETWORK,                                           (Netherlands); Øystein B. Dick, Department of
WORKFORCE ISSUES AND TRAINING PROGRAMS                                  Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian
Co-Chairs: Linda McLean, Sellafield, Ltd. (UK)                          University of Life Sciences; Gisle Grepstad, Multiconsult;
             Neil Crewdson, Sellafield, Ltd. (UK)                       Styrkaar Hustveit, Anita Sørlie, Ingar Bjørn Amundsen,
Organizer & Reviewer: Linda McLean                                      Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)
                                                                   2.   Waste Management Regulations and Approaches in the
 1. Education in Nuclear Decommissioning in the North of                EU: Potential Areas for Enhancement or Harmonization-
    Scotland-7209                                                       7217
    Fred Catlow, George Reeves, DERC, UHI (UK)                          Peter Salzer, DECOM Slovakic (Slovak Republic); Gregg
 2. Developing Satisfied and Talented Consultants-7347                  Butler, Integrated Decision Management (UK); Neil
    Sarah Greenwood, Helen Higgs, RM Consultants Ltd.                   Chapman, Charles McCombie, Arius Association
    (UK)                                                                (Switzerland); Grace McGlynn, Integrated Decision
 3. Nuclear Workforce Issues and Training Programs - A UK               Management (UK)
    Perspective-7361                                               3.   Opportunity, Risk, and Success Recognizing, Addressing,
    Warren Richards, Dalton Nuclear Institute (UK)                      and Balancing Multiple Factors Crucial to the Success of
 4. The Next Generation - How Are We Equipping Our                      a Project Management System Deployed to Support
    Young Generation for the Future-7353                                Multi-Lateral Decommissioning Programs – 7342
    Corhyn Horsfall, AMEC (UK)                                          Greg Funk, Paul Longsworth, Fluor Limited (UK)
 5. Personnel Training Experience in the Radioactive Waste         4.   Support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and
    Management: 10 Years of Moscow SIA “Radon”                          Disposal Program-7282
    International Education Training Centre-7263                        Roger Coates, International Atomic Energy Agency; John
    Olga Batyukhnova, Sergey Dmitriev, Artur Arustamov,                 Cochran, Jeff Danneels, Sandia National Laboratories;
    Scientific and Industrial Association (Russia); Mikhael             Ronald Chesser, Carlton Phillips, Brenda Rogers, Center
    Ojovan, Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of            for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech
    Sheffield (UK)                                                      University (USA)
                                                                                        ——— Break ———
                      SESSION 14                                   5.   International Radioactive Material Recycling Challenges-
Tuesday – 10:45                                        Room: 7          7326
                                                                        John T. Greeves, Jim Lieberman, Talisman International,
ROUNDTABLE: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES OF THE                                LLC (USA)
YOUNG GENERATION NETWORK (YGN)                                     6.   European Experience in Transport/Storage Cask for
Co-Chairs: Linda McLean, Sellafield, Ltd. (UK )                         Vitrified Residues-7336
               Neil Crewdson, Sellafield, Ltd. (UK)                     Camille Otton, Damien Sicard, AREVA - TN International
                                                                        (France)
Organizers: Linda McLean; Neil Crewdson
This roundtable session will discuss issues pertinent to the                            SESSION 16
young generation within the nuclear industry, both on a UK
and international basis. In addition, the YGN plans to address    Tuesday – 8:30                                         Room: 5
initiatives for encouraging young engineers and scientists into
the nuclear industry and the influence of the YGN on the          RISK-PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RELATED TO
promotion of the industry as a whole and the papers presented     SPENT FUEL, TRU OR HLW DISPOSAL
in the previous Session 13.                                       Co-Chairs: Jerry McNeish, Sandia National Laboratories
Roundtable panelists include: Jean Llewellyn, Project                         (USA)
Director, National Skills Academy for Nuclear; and Neil                       Stratis Vomvoris, Nagra (SWITZERLAND)
Crewdson, Chair of the Young Generation Network (UK)              Organizers: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)
                                                                  Reviewers: Jerry McNeish; Strais Vomvoris
                      SESSION 15                                   1. Developing a Fuzzy Rule Based Cognitive Map for Total
Tuesday – 8:30                                         Room: 6        System Performance Assessment-7072
                                                                      Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy
GLOBAL PARTNERING IN MULTI-NATIONAL                                   Commission-CNEN/CDTN (Brazil); Terry Sullivan,
SUPPORT IN WASTE MANAGEMENT & CLEAN-UP                                Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA)
PROGRAMS                                                           2. Estimates of Mean Consequences and Confidence Bounds
Co-Chairs: Rod Strand, IAP Worldwide Services, Inc. (USA)             on the Mean Associated with Low-Probability Seismic
            Jean-Marie Deconinck, NIRAS/ONDRAF                        Events in Total System Performance Assessments-7037
            (BELGIUM)                                                 Osvaldo Pensado, James Mancillas, Center for Nuclear
                                                                      Waste Regulatory Analyses (USA)
Organizer: Rod Strand
                                                                   3. Landscape Modeling for Dose Calculations in the Safety
Reviewers: Shaun McCabe, Consultant (USA); Clay Crocker,              Assessment of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel-7115
            Teledyne Brown Engineering; George Cajigal,               Tobias Lindborg, Ulrik Kautsky, Swedish Nuclear Fuel
            Teledyne Brown Engineering (USA); Rod Strand              and Waste Management Co.; Lars Brydsten, Umeå
 1. Site Survey of Former Naval Base in Andreeva Bay,                 University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science
    Northwest-Russia - Radiation Levels and Radionuclide              (Sweden)
    Concentrations on and Below the Surface Level-7148                                ——— Break ———

20
Technical Sessions                                                                                               Tuesday AM

 4. On the Role of H2 as an Inhibitor of UO2 Matrix
    Dissolution-7109                                                                SESSION 18
    Juan Merino, Xavier Gaona, Lara Duro, Jordi Bruno,         Tuesday – 8:30                                      Room: 2
    Aurora Martínez-Esparza, ENRESA (Spain)
 5. Lessons Learned from Cleaning Out the Sludge from the      EXPERIENCES IN ER CLEAN-UP ACTIONS AND
    Spent Fuel Storage Basins at Hanford-7316                  LEGACY
    Peter Knollmeyer, Fluor Government Group (USA)             Co-Chairs: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
                                                                            Tommy Green, NUKEM (UK)
                     SESSION 17                                Organizer: Steve Brown
Tuesday – 8:30                                     Room: 1     Reviewer: Tommy Green
                                                                1. Contaminated Land and Groundwater Management at
D & D LESSONS LEARNED                                              Sellafield; A Large Operational Site with Significant
Co-Chairs: Ingrid Verstraeten, NIRAS/ONDRAF                        Legacy Contaminated Land Challenges-7051
            (BELGIUM)                                              Phil Reeve, Katherine Eilbeck, British Nuclear Group
            Detlef Schmidt, Nuclear Projects Consultancy           Sellafield Ltd. (UK)
            (GERMANY)                                           2. UK Contractors’ Experience of Management of Tritium
Organizers: Ingrid Verstraeten; Lucien Teunckens, Colenco          During Decommissioning Projects-7153
            Power Engineering Limited (SWITZERLAND)                Tommy Green, Keith Stevens, John Heaney, NUKEM
Reviewer: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA)                   Limited; Alan Murray, Tetronics Limited; Phil Warwick,
                                                                   Ian Croudace, GAU-Radioalytical, National
 1. Sharing Lessons Learned and Best Practices in                  Oceanography Centre (UK)
    Deactivation and Decommissioning Techniques Among           3. Fernald Closure Project - Lessons Learned in the
    U.S. Department of Energy Contractors-7317                     Execution of this Successful Project, Completed October
    Michael Lackey, P.E., Fluor; Sandra Waisley, US DOE,           2006-7314
    EM-23; Lansing Dusek, P.E., Fluor (USA)                        Cornelius Murphy, Fluor; Johnny Reising, US DOE
 2. Lessons Learned from Decommissioning of a Research             (USA)
    Lab and How to Apply These on Upcoming                      4. Phased Implementation of in Situ Chemical Oxidation for
    Decommissioning Projects at the Studsvik Site-7265             a Large TCE DNAPL Source Area at the Portsmouth
    Christoffer Ellmark, Anders Eriksson, Maria Lindberg,          Gaseous Diffusion Plant-7200
    Studsvik (Sweden)                                              Paul Cross, Del Baird, CDM Federal (USA)
 3. Switching from Deferred Dismantling to Immediate
    Dismantling: The Example of Chooz A, A French PWR-
    7106                                                                            SESSION 19
    Jean-Jacques Grenouillet, EDF-CIDEN (France                Tuesday – 8:30                            Upper Exhibit Hall
 4. Lessons Learnt from Ignalina Decommissioning Project-
    7351                                                       POSTERS: LOW/INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE
    Jean-Claude, NAISSE, Tractebel Engineering (Belgium)       MANAGEMENT -I
                    ——— Break ———                              Co-Chairs: Ian Beadle, AMEC (UK)
 5. Management of Liabilities at SCK-CEN: Lessons                           Kurt Wigle, Bruce Power (CANADA)
    Learned-7155                                               Organizers: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth and Environmental
    Rene Cornelissen, Luc Noynaert, SCK (Belgium)                           (USA)
 6. Progress and Experiences from the Decommissioning of                    Kurt Wigle
    the Eurochemic Reprocessing Plant-7210
    Robert Walthéry, Patrick Lewandowski, Bart Ooms,           Reviewers: Ian Beadle; Kurt Wigle
    Nancy Reusen, René Gilis, Wim Van Laer, Belgoprocess        1. Research on Thermal Stability of Sorbents on the Basis of
    NV (Belgium)                                                   Microspheres Modified with Ferrocyanides of Transient
 7. Implementing Comprehensive De-Licensing Process for            and Heavy Metals-7374
    the West Jefferson North Facility-7388                         Valery Drozhzhin, Lev Danilin, Federal State Unitary
    Keith Anderson, Environmental Chemical Corporation             Enterprise Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russia
    (USA)                                                          Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russia)
 8. Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning Process            2. Modified Microspheres for Cleaning Liquid Wastes from
    Affected by an Accident During Operation. The Case of          Radioactive Nuclides-7373
    A1 NPP in Slovakia-7298                                        Valery Drozhzhin, Lev Danilin, Federal State Unitary
    Vladimir Daniska, Deconta, a.s.; Jan Timulak, DECOM            Enterprise Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russia
    Slovakia, Ltd.; Anton Pekar, VUJE, a.s.; Vojtech               Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russia)
    Niznansky, Javys, a.s.; Ladislav Konecny, UJD SR (Slovak    3. Retention Capacity of Biofilms Formed on the Surface of
    Republic)                                                      Nuclear and Basaltic Glasses-7337
                                                                   Jean Louis Crovisier, EOST (France)
                                                                4. Cost and Waste Volume Reduction in HEPA Filter Trains
                                                                   by Effective Pre-Filtration-7003
                                                                   Chris Chadwick, Microfiltrex, part of the Porvair
                                                                   Filtration Group (UK)
                                                                5. Effects of Lump Characteristics on Plutonium Self
                                                                   Absorption Correction Methods-7308
                                                                   Debbie Curtis, Malcolm Wormald, AREVA - Canberra UK
                                                                   Ltd. (UK); Stephen Croft, AREVA - Canberra Industries
                                                                   Inc. (USA)

                                                                                                                          21
Tuesday AM                                                                                                      Technical Sessions

 6. Non Radiological Issues in the Treatment of Low-Level             Jill Zubarev, US DOE/National Nuclear Security
    Liquid Wastes-7107                                                Administration (USA)
    Jeroen Welbergen, Ewoud Verhoef, Anton Eijke, Alex de        2.   Global Partnership - Canada’s Dismantlement of Nuclear-
    Best, Jan Hengst, Hans Codée, COVRA N.V.                          Powered Submarines in the Russian Federation-7255
    (Netherlands)                                                     Michael Washer, Department of Foreign Affairs and
 7. Development of Iodine Immobilization Technique by                 International Trade, Canada (Canada); Clay Crocker,
    Low Temperature Vitrification with BiPbO2-7142                    Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. (USA); Mark
    Atsushi Mukunoki, Tamotsu Chiba, Yasuhiro Suzuki, JGC             Gerchikov, Nuclear Safety Solutions, Ltd. (Canada);
    Corporation, Technology Development Department;                   Michael Cull, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. (USA);
    Seiichiro Uehara, Kyushu University, Dept. of Earth and           Alexy Maltsev, Federal State Unitary Enterprise
    Planetary Sciences; Tsutomu Nishimura, Hidekazu Asano,            Zvezdochka (Russia)
    Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research            3.   UK Assistance to Kazakhstan with the Decommissioning
    Center (Japan)                                                    of the BN-350 Fast Reactor at Aktau-7162
 8. Downselect Ion Specific Media (ISM) Utilization in                David Wells, Andrew Herrick, NUKEM Limited; Nicholas
    Upset and Outage Conditions-7187                                  Organ, UK Department of Trade & Industry (UK)
    Mark Denton, EnergySolutions; William Bostick,               4.   Towards Solving the Problems of the Solid Radioactive
    Materials and Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (USA)                  Wastes from Decommissioned Soviet Nuclear
 9. Storage and Treatment of SNF of Alfa Class Nuclear                Submarines-7133
    Submarines: Current Status and Problems-7382                      Ingar Amundsen, Ole Reistad, The Norwegian Radiation
    Sviatoslav Ignatiev, Alexey Zabudko, Dmitry Pankratov,            Protection Authority (Norway)
    Ivan Somov, Gennady Suvorov, Institute for Physics and       5.   The UK Government’s Global Partnership Program - Its
    Power Engineering (Russia)                                        Achievements Over the Past Four Years and the
10. Calculation of Radioactive Waste Acceptance Quantities            Challenges Ahead-7099
    for Near Surface Disposal-7378                                    Alan Heyes, Department of Trade and Industry (UK)
    Narmine Mahmoud, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)
11. Possible Approach to Cleaning “Problematic” LRW with                              SESSION 21
    Large Contents of Suspended Particles, Oils and Other
    Organic Substances-7146                                     Tuesday – 16:15                                         Room: 8
    Vadim Ilin, Yury Karlin, Alexey Laurson, Eugeny Volkov,     PANEL: INTERNATIONAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE
    Sergey Dmitriev, Moscow SIA Radon (Russia)                  MANAGEMENT PROJECTS IN THE RUSSIAN
12. Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Sodium           FEDERATION
    Hydroxide Solution in a Packed Bed and Studying the
    Effect of Operating Parameters on Absorption-7007           Co-Chairs: Mike Cull, Teledyne Brown Engineering (USA)
    Farzad Yazdanbakhsh, Ata’ollah Soltani Goharrizi, Hassan                  Alain Mathiot, CEG (FRANCE)
    Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Kerman University (Iran)            Organizers: Mike Cull
13. Curing Time Effect on the Fraction of 137Cs from            Moderators: Mark Gerchikov, Nuclear Safety Solutions, Ltd.
    Cement-Ion Exchange Resins-Bentonite Clay                                 (Canada)
    Composition-7013                                                          Clay Crocker, Teledyne Brown Engineering
    Ilija Plecas, Slavko Dimovic, Vinca Institute of Nuclear                  (USA)
    Sciences (Serbia and Montenegro)
                                                                This panel will provide a status on cooperation between
14. Removal of Co-60 from Aqueous Solutions by Alfalfa
                                                                countries and international organizations on management of
    Biosorbent-7020
                                                                spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in the Russian
    H. A. Omar , Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear
                                                                Federation and on identified priorities for specific projects.
    Research Center; M. Abdel Geleel, A. A. Tawfik, National
                                                                Since the 1990s, several countries and international
    Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (Egypt)
                                                                organizations have joined together under the auspices of the
15. Curing Time Effect on the Fraction of 137Cs from
                                                                IAEA in a partnership to assist Russia in the frames of bilateral
    Immobilized Radioactive Evaporator Sludge by
                                                                and multilateral programs to resolve the most severe problems
    Cement-7016
                                                                occurring primarily in Northwest Russia (Murmansk and
    Slavko Dimovic, Ilija Plecas, Vinca Institute for Nuclear
                                                                Arkhangelsk Regions). The panel is preceded by Session 6
    Sciences (Serbia and Montenegro)
                                                                presenting papers on the topic.
                                                                Panelists include: Alan Heyes - Deputy Director, Department
                    SESSION 20                                  of Trade and Industry (UK); Robert Kvile - Deputy Director
Tuesday – 13:30                                     Room: 8     General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NORWAY); Michael
                                                                Washer - Senior Project Manager - Nuclear Submarines,
PANEL: GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP SUPPORTING                            DFAIT (CANADA); Victor Kovalenko - Deputy Head
RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS                           Dismantlement Department, RosAtom, Russian Federation
AND NONPROLIFERATION                                            (RUSSIA); and Jill Zubarev – US Department of Energy,
Co-Chairs: Robert Dyer, US EPA (USA)                            NNSA (USA)
           Clay Crocker, Teledyne Brown Engineering
           (USA)
Organizer: Rod Strand, IAP Worldwide Services, Inc.(USA)
Reviewers: Mike Cull, Teledyne Brown Engineering; Clay
           Crocker; Ken Kok, Washington Group (USA)
 1. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative: Enhancing
    Radiological and Nuclear Security in the Former Soviet
    Union-7377

22
Technical Sessions                                                                                                  Tuesday PM


                     SESSION 22                                                        SESSION 24
Tuesday – 13:30                                      Room: 7     Tuesday – 13:30                                       Room: 6
PANEL: THE NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE AND ITS                           TRANSPORTATION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL,
IMPACT ON HLW MANAGEMENT                                         FISSILE, TRU, AND HLW
Co-Chairs: Bernard Neerdael, IAEA (AUSTRIA)                      Co-Chairs: Ron Gallagher, Fluor Limited (UK)
               Charles McCombie, Arius (SWITZERLAND)                          Robin Sweeney, U.S. Department of Energy
Organizers: Charles McCombie; Murthy Devarakonda,                             (USA)
               Washington Group International (USA)              Organizers: Jennifer Biedscheid, Washington Group
This panel will focus on the rapid increase in interest in                    International (USA); Robin Sweeney
expanding nuclear power programs for energy supply reasons       Reviewers: Ron Gallagher; Robin Sweeney; Ed Bentz, E. J.
or on environmental grounds could have two opposing                           Bents & Associates (USA)
influences on waste management. Recognition of the key role       1. Synthesis of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia Matrices for
of nuclear could increase pressure to implement deep                 Immobilisation of Actinides by Internal Gelation Method-
repositories, since the lack of these is constantly used as an       7360
argument against nuclear. On the other hand, the pressing            Gael Benay, Giuseppe Modolo, Rheinard Odoj,
problems of ensuring energy supplies might relegate waste            Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)
management to a less important role, since safe storage           2. Safety Analysis of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Transportation
facilities make disposal postponable. This panel will examine        Container-7184
the impacts of the nuclear renaissance on three important            Eugenijus Uspuras, Sigitas Rimkevicius, Lithuanian
aspects of waste management: 1) Impact on national programs          Energy Institute (Lithuania)
(big and new/small); 2) Impact on multinational initiatives       3. Depleted Uranium Dioxide Melting in Cold Crucible
(GNEP, Russia) and 3) Impact on education/training.                  Melter and Production of Granules from the Melt for use
Panelists include: Bernard Neerdael, IAEA; Neil Chapman,             in Casks for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Wastes-
ITC; Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia, Tom Isaacs, US DOE; and             7259
Charles McCombie, Arius Corporation.                                 Vitaly Gotovchikov, V. A. Seredenko, V. V. Shatalov, B. S.
                                                                     Mironov, V. N. Kaplenkov, A.V. Seredenko, V. K.
                     SESSION 23                                      Saranchin, A. S. Shulgin, All-Russian Research Institute of
                                                                     Chemical Technology (ARRICT) (Russia); M. J. Haire, C.
Tuesday – 16:15                                      Room: 7         W. Forsberg, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
RISK-PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RELATED TO                               (USA); Danila Kalmakov, All-Russian Research Institute
SNF, TRU OR HLW DISPOSAL - II                                        of Chemical Technology (ARRICT) (Russia)
                                                                                     ——— Break ———
Co-Chairs: Jerry McNeish, Sandia National Laboratories            4. Advances in Development of the Fission Product
             (USA)                                                   Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and
             Pete Knollmeyer, Fluor Government Group                 Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel-7077
             (USA)                                                   Jack Law, David Meikrantz, Dean Peterman, Catherine
Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)                     Riddle, Terry Todd, Idaho National Laboratory (USA)
Reviewers: Jerry McNeish; Peter Knollmeyer                        5. The Carbon Matrices made of Pyrolised BIS-
 1. Using Population Risk Assessment as a Basis for                  Phthalocyanines as a base for Encapsulation of the Long
    Administrative Decisions Related to Storage of Irradiated        Lived Nuclides of Iodine, Technetium and Minor
    Nuclear Fuel-7189                                                Actinides-7084
    James G. Droppo, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory           Valeri Tikhonov, Pavel Moskalev, Valerian Kapustin, S.-
    (USA); V.A. Eremenko, International Knowledge Bridge             Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russia)
    LLC; J. Linde, Association on Computer Technology and
    Informational Systems (ACTIS); E. Shilova, Moscow                                  SESSION 25
    Institute of International Economic Relations (Russia)       Tuesday – 13:30                                       Room: 5
 2. Application of Total Uncertainty Theory in Radioactive
    Waste Disposal Facilities Safety Assessment-7266             D&D OF POWER REACTORS AND RESEARCH
    Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy                  REACTORS
    Commission CNEN/CDTN (Brazil); Timothy Ross,                 Co-Chairs: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA)
    University of New Mexico; Terrence Sullivan, Brookhaven                  Luc Noynaert, SCK-CEN (Belgium)
    National Laboratory (USA)
                                                                 Organizers: Jas Devgun; Luc Noynaert
 3. The Treatment of Uncertainty in Performance Assessment
    and Safety Case Development-7329                             Reviewer: Jas Devgun
    Daniel Galson, Galson Sciences Limited; Amjad                 1. Decommissioning of the Secondary Containment of the
    Khursheed, Galson Sciences Limited (UK)                          Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor at UKAEA
                                                                     Winfrith-7068
                                                                     Keith Miller, Rowland Cornell, Steve Parkinson, NUKEM
                                                                     Limited; Kevin McIntyre, Andy Staples, United Kingdom
                                                                     Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) (UK)
                                                                  2. Proven Concepts for LLW-Treatment of Large
                                                                     Components for Free-Release and Recycling-7218
                                                                     Lena Bergstrom, Maria Lindberg, Anders Lindström, Bo
                                                                     Wirendal, Joachim Lorenzen, Studsvik Nuclear (Sweden)

                                                                                                                              23
Tuesday PM                                                                                                    Technical Sessions

 3. Decommissioning of the BR3 Reactor: Status and                    Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Michael Parsons,
    Perspectives-7128                                                 Kristina Hogancamp, Mississippi State University,
    Ingrid Verstraeten, NIRAS/ONDRAF; Luc Noynaert, SCK               Institute for Clean Energy Technology (USA)
    (Belgium)                                                      7. Evaluation of the Effects of Media Velocity on HEPA
 4. Decommissioning Strategy Options for MR Reactor at the            Filter Performance-7075
    Kurchatov Institute, Moscow-7191                                  Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Kristina
    Martin Cross, NUKEM Ltd.; Neil Harman, Dafydd                     Hogoncamp, Michael Parsons, Mississippi State
    Charles, Alex Harper, Serco Assurance Ltd. (UK); Boris            University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology (USA)
    Bylkin, Yuri Gorlinskij, Vyacheslav Kolyadin, V A Kutkov, V    8. Radiation Safety Requirements for Radioactive Waste
    I Pavlenko. Yuri Sivintsev, RRC Kurchatov Institute,              Management in the Framework of a Quality Management
    Moscow (Russia); Yuri Lobach, INR NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)            System-7220
                    ——— Break ———                                     Mercedes Salgado, Juan Carlos Benitez, Rene Pernas,
 5. The AVR (HTGR) Decommissioning Project with New                   Niurka Gonzalez, Centre for Radiation Protection and
    Strategy-7040                                                     Hygiene (Cuba)
    Hakan Sterner, Dieter Rittscher, AVR GmbH (Germany)            9. Gamma and X-ray Shielding Compositions Utilizing
 6. Closure of the Fast Flux Test Facility: Current Status and        Bauxite - Red Mud Regional Research Laboratory(CSIR),
    Future Plans-7279                                                 INDIA-7048
    Christopher Lesperance; Steven Doebler; Thomas Burke,             Avneesh Anshul, Sudhir Sitaram Amritphale, Navin
    Fluor Hanford (USA)                                               Chandra, N. Ramakrishnan, Regional Research
 7. Segmentation and Removal of the Carolina-Virginias                Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    Tube Reactor (CVTR) Moderator Tank-7154                           (India)
    Michael Anderson, MOTA Corporation (USA)
 8. The Radioactivity Analysis of 14C in the Graphite                                  SESSION 27
    Samples from the Dismantled KRR-1&2 Sites by a High
    Temperature Furnace and A LSC-7145                            Tuesday – 13:30                                      Room: 2
    Hee Reyoung Kim, Moon Ja Kang, Geun Sik Choi,                 L/ILW WASTE CHARACTERIZATION, ASSAY, AND
    Chang Woo Lee, Dong Kyu Lee, Wanno Lee, Kun Ho                TRACKING SYSTEMS
    Chung, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear
    Environment Research Division (Korea)                         Co-Chairs: Ronald Keyser, ORTEC (USA)
                                                                              Karen North, Sellafield, Ltd. (UK)
                     SESSION 26                                   Organizer: Ronald Keyser
                                                                  Reviewers: Ronald Keyser; Karen North
Tuesday – 13:30                                       Room: 1
                                                                   1. Current Trends for Packaging Transuranic Waste At Los
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH                                 Alamos National Laboratory (LA-UR-07-0359)-7312
L/ILW MANAGEMENT                                                      Kapil Goyal, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA);
Co-Chairs: Ian Crossland, Crossland Consulting (UK)                   Peter Carson, Los Alamos National Laboratory,
             Stephen Wickham, Galson Sciences Ltd. (UK)               Environmental Program Waste Services (USA); Alejandro
                                                                      Enriquez, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pu-238
Organizers & Reviewers: Ian Crossland; Stephen Wickham
                                                                      Science and Technology (USA)
 1. Radiological Characterization of Waste in Interim Storage      2. Three Dimensional Reconstruction of Activity Profiles in
    Buildings-7234                                                    220 Litres Radioactive Waste Packages Containing Super
    Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy                  Compacted 100 Liter Drums-7247
    Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Jeroen Welbergen, COVRA                Leo van Velzen, Jos Maes, Nuclear Research and
    (Netherlands)                                                     Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands)
 2. Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility Design for         3. Systematic Approach to Radioactive Waste
    Managing Candu 600 MW Nuclear Generating Station                  Characterization at Belgoprocess-7267
    Retube/Refurbishment Waste Streams-7283                           Huys Thomas, Gielen Paul, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
    Nikos Pontikakis, Dave Scott, Vijay Bajaj, Larry Nosella,      4. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Cementitious
    Jamie Hopkins, AECL (Canada)                                      Wasteforms-7049
 3. Centrifuge Modeling of Radioactive Waste Migration                Lyubka Spasova, Michael Ojovan, Immobilisation
    Through Backfill in a Near Surface Disposal Facility-             Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, (UK); Martin
    7032                                                              Hayes, Hugh Godfray, Nexia Solutions (UK)
    Chandraskharan Gurumoorthy, Kusakabe Osamu, Tokyo                                 ——— Break ———
    Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and               5. ISO Standardization of Scaling Factor Method for Low
    Environmental Engineering (Japan)                                 and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes Generated at
 4. Uncertainty Analysis of the Radiological Characteristics          Nuclear Power Plants-7015
    of Radioactive Waste Using a Method Based on Log-                 Makoto Kashiwagi, JGC (Japan); Hideki Masui, TEPCO
    Normal Distributions-7285                                         (Japan); Yasutaka Denda TEPCO (Japan); David James,
    Yves Gigase, European Commission AIDCO Nuclear                    DW James Consulting (USA); Bertrand Lantès EDF
    Safety (Belgium)                                                  (France); Wolfgang Müller, ISTec (Germany); Mike
                     ——— Break ———                                    Garamszeghy, OPG (Canada); Jose Luis Leganes,
 5. Study of Loading/Air Backpulse Cleaning Cycles on the             ENRESA (Spain); Harald Maxeiner, NAGRA
    Performance of Ceramic Membrane Filters-7076                      (Switzerland)
    Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Michael Parsons,            6. Derivation of the Korean Radwaste Scaling Factor-7297
    Kristina Hogancamp, Steven Alderman, Mississippi State            Kwang Yong Jee, Hong Joo Ahn, Se Chul Sohn, Sun Ho
    University (USA)                                                  Han, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea); Ki
 6. HEPA Filter Performance Under Adverse Conditions-                 Seop Choi, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.
    7074                                                              (Korea)
24
Technical Sessions                                                                                               Tuesday PM

 7. Site Characterization and Monitoring for Environmental
    Remediation-7058                                                                SESSION 29
    Ian Adsley, Michael Davies, Robert Murley, Ian              Tuesday – 16:15                                    Room: 3
    Pearman, Nicholas Harman, Lorna Proctor, Jack
    Armitage, Helen Beddow, NUKEM Ltd. (UK)                     NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ER PROGRAM
 8. Use of a Shielded Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometer         Co-Chairs: Virgene Ideker-Mulligan, ARS (USA)
    for Segregation of Free Release and Low Level Waste-                     Bruce Schappell, Savannah River Site (USA)
    7163                                                        Organizers: Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and
    Colin Wilkins, James Cocks, Eloisa Alvarez, AREVA -                      Consultancy Group (FRANCE)
    Canberra UK Ltd. (UK)                                                    Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
 9. Evaluation and Analysis of the Residual Radioactivity for
    the 15UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility.-7114               Reviewer: Bruce Schappell; Leo van Velzen
    Rajendra Sonkawade, Inter University Accelerator             1. Remediating while Preserving Wetland Habitat at an LLR
    Centre (India)                                                  Waste Site in Canada-7088
                                                                    Heather Kleb, Robert (Bob) Zelmer, Atomic Energy of
                     SESSION 28                                     Canada Limited, Low-Level Radioactive Waste
                                                                    Management Office (Canada)
Tuesday – 13:30                                      Room: 3     2. European Network on the Determination of Site End
                                                                    Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land-7105
SOLID WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION, TREATMENT,                            Peter Booth, Chris Lennon, Nexia Solutions (UK)
AND PACKAGING EXPERIENCE                                         3. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and
Co-Chairs: Mike Garamszeghy, Ontario Power Generation               Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Closure
            Inc. (CANADA)                                           Projects has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A
            Hans Codee, COVRA (NETHERLANDS)                         Case Study-7199
Organizers: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth & Environmental                 Bruce Schappell, Bechtel Savannah River Company
            (USA)                                                   (USA)
Reviewer: Mike Garamszeghy                                       4. Remediation of Former Uranium Mining and Milling
                                                                    Activities in Central Asia-7207
 1. The HRA/SOLARIUM Project: Processing of Historical              Peter Waggitt, IAEA (Austria)
    Waste on the Begoprocess Site (Belgium): Project
    Description and Lessons Learned After 3 Years
    Operations-7026                                                                 SESSION 30
    Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgatom (Belgium); Paul Luycx,          Tuesday – 13:30                                    Room: 4
    Marcel Willem, Belgoprocess; André De Goeyse, Marnix
    Braeckeveldt, ONDRAF/NIRAS; Marc Wathion,                   ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SITE
    Belgoprocess (Belgium)                                      CHARACTERIZATIONS, MONITORING,
 2. Development of a Processing and Treatment Solution for      AND CLEAN-UP
    a Thorium Waste Stream-7204                                 Co-Chairs: Don Goebel, SEC (USA)
    Jon Jenkins, Andy Anderson, Richard Simmons, Charles                    Margaret MacDonell, Argonne National
    Mitchell, Waste Management Technology Limited (UK)                      Laboratory (USA)
 3. Provision of a Sludge Conditioning and Handling Plant at    Organizers: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
    UKAEA Winfrith-7252                                                     Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and
    Keith Johnson, Madoc Hagan, NUKEM Limited; Steve                        Consultancy Group (FRANCE)
    Mott, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
    (UKAEA)(UK)                                                 Reviewer: Margaret MacDonell
 4. Optimizing Waste Management Performance - The Key to         1. Measurement Systems in the Area of Land Remediation
    Successful Decommissioning-7367                                 and Soil Segregation Activities-7011
    Matthew Keep, Entec UK Ltd.(UK)                                 Gerold G. Simon, Marina Sokcic-Kostic, Ingolf Auler,
 5. Radioactive Spent Resins Conditioning by the Hot Super-         Ludger Eickelpasch, NUKEM Technologies GmbH
    Compaction Process: Principle Function, Experience from         (Germany); Jonathan Betts, NUKEM (UK)
    more than 20 Years Operation in NPP Philippsburg and         2. Remediation of a Uranium-Contamination in Ground-
    New Application for NPP Tihange-7310                            Water-7270
    Andreas Roth, Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH;                Joerg Woerner, Sonja Margraf, Walter Hackel, RD
    Alain Lemmens, Electrabel S.A.; Baudouin Centner,               Hanau GmbH (Germany)
    Suez-Tractebel S.A.(Belgium)                                 3. Paleochannel Deposition of Natural Uranium at a US Air
                                                                    Force Landfill-7028
                                                                    Carl Young, Joseph Weismann,Daniel Caputo, Cabrera
                                                                    Services, Inc. (USA)
                                                                 4. Problems and Experience of Detecting Particles on the
                                                                    Beaches in the Vicinity of the Dounreay Nuclear Site-
                                                                    7253
                                                                    Ian Adsley, Mike Davies, George McCulloch, Alan
                                                                    Gerrard, NUKEM Limited (UK)
                                                                                    ——— Break ———
                                                                 5. Study of the Oxidation State of Arsenic and Uranium in
                                                                    Individual Particles from Uranium Mine Tailings,
                                                                    Hungary-7354
                                                                    Anita Alsecz, Osán János, Török Szabina, MTA KFKI
                                                                    AEKI; Máthé Zoltán , Mecsek Ore Environment,
                                                                                                                         25
Tuesday PM                                                                                                  Technical Sessions

    (Hungary); Falkenberg Gerald, Desy,(Germany); Pálfalvi           Andrei Varlakov, Aleksandr Germanov, Olga Gorbunova,
    József, MTA KFKI AEKI; Sajó István, Chemical Research            Sergei Dmitriev, Aleksandr Barinov, Moscow State-Owned
    Centre (Hungary); Simon Rolf, ANK (Germany)                      Research and Production Company; Dmitry Vasendin,
 6. Experience of Gamma-Locator System Using for Radiation           J.S.C. (Russia)
    Monitoring During Rehabilitation Works at Temporal         10.   Bonding Material Containing Ashes After Domestic
    Radwaste Storage Area of Kurchatov Institute-7056                Waste Incineration for Cementation of Radioactive
    Oleg Ivanov, Victor Potapov, Sergei Ignatov, Sergey              Waste-7595
    Smirnov, Viacheslav Stepanov, Anatolii Volkovich, Victor         Andrei Varlakov, Olga Gorbunova, Sergei Dmitriev,
    Volkov, RRC Kurchatov Institute (Russia)                         Aleksandr Barinov, Artur Arustamov, Moscow State-
                                                                     Owned Research and Production Company (Russia)
                     SESSION 31                                11.   A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for the
                                                                     Inspection of the Clearance Level for the Radioisotope
Tuesday – 14:00                           Upper Exhibit Hall         Waste-7296
POSTERS: LOW/INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE                                Hong Joo Ahn, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute;
MANAGEMENT POSTERS                                                   Ju Yeol Kim, FNC Technology Co. Ltd.; In Koo Lee, Korea
                                                                     Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd.; Se Chul Sohn, Kwang
Co-Chairs: Hans Codee, COVRA (NETHERLANDS)                           Yong Jee, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
             David Wallace, CDM (USA)                          12.   Electrolytic Recycling of a Used Carbonate Solution in a
Organizers: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth & Environmental                  Process with a Dissolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel in a
             (USA)                                                   Alkaline Carbonate Medium-7327
             Kurt Wigle, Bruce Power (USA)                           Kwang-Wook Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Yeon-Hwa Kim, Eil-
Reviewers: Hans Codee; David Wallace                                 Hee Lee, Kwang-Yong Jee, Korea Atomic Energy
                                                                     Research Institute (Korea)
 1. Proficiency Test for Non-Destructive Assay of 220 Litres
                                                               13.   Characterization of TE-NORM Wastes in Turkey-7262
    Waste Drums by Gamma Assay Systems-7236
                                                                     Ahmet Erdal Osmanlioglu, Turkish Atomic Energy
    Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy
                                                                     Authority Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training
    Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Michel Bruggeman, SCK-
                                                                     Centre (Turkey)
    CEN; John Botte, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
                                                               14.   Radioactive Beryllium Waste from Research Nuclear
 2. Innovative In-Situ Determination of Unsaturated
                                                                     Reactors: Problems and Ways of Solution-7278
    Hydraulic Properties in Deep Loess Sediments in North-
                                                                     M. L. Lubchenko, B. I. Levakov, Research Institute of
    West Bulgaria-7202
                                                                     Atomic Reactors (Russia)
    Dirk Mallants, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK
                                                               15.   Gradual Degradation of Concrete Fiber Containers and
    (Belgium); Doncho Karastanev, Antonov Dimitar,
                                                                     Preliminary Safety Analysis for the Slovak Near-Surface
    Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
                                                                     Repository-7311
    (Bulgaria); Janez Perko, Belgian Nuclear Research
                                                                     Juraj Duran, VUJE, Inc. Trnava (Slovak Republic)
    Centre SCK (Belgium)
                                                               16.   Immobilization of Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in a
 3. Modeling Multi-Phase Flow Phenomena in Concrete
                                                                     Developed Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) Matrix-7213
    Barriers used for Geological Disposal of Radioactive
                                                                     M Wagdy Abdel Azim, Atomic Energy Authority; Ahmed
    Waste-7203
                                                                     Husain, National Research Center; Belal El-Gammal,
    Dirk Mallants, Jacques Diederik, Janez Perko, Belgian
                                                                     Atomic Energy Authoriy (Egypt)
    Nuclear Research Centre SCK (Belgium)
 4. Determination of Optimum Data Points for Scaling Factor
    Determination-7230
    Michael Dennis Fernandez, Sang Chul Lee, Kun Jai Lee,                Wednesday, September 5, 2007
    Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    (Korea)                                                                          SESSION 32
 5. Development of the Sampling and Nuclide Analysis           Wednesday – 8:30                                     Room: 8
    Methods for Spent HEPA Filter Wastes-7245
    Young-Yong Ji, Dae-Seok Hong, Il-Sik Kang, Bum-            PANEL: THE UK OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY FOR
    Kyoung Seo, Jong-Sik Shon, Korea Atomic Energy             THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS NUCLEAR LEGACY
    Research Institute (Korea)                                 Co-Chairs: Richard Mrowicki, NDA (UK)
 6. Removal of Alkaline-Earth Elements by a Carbonate                         Fred Sheil, Sellafield Ltd. (UK)
    Precipitation in a Chloride Molten Salt-7288
    Yung-Zun Cho, Hee-Chul Yang, Hee-Chul Eun, Hwan-Seo        Organizers: Richard Mrowicki; Fred Sheil
    Park, Eung-Ho Kim, In-Tae Kim, Korea Atomic Energy         This panel will discuss issues on the UK Objectives and
    Research Institute (Korea)                                 Strategy for the Management of it Nuclear Legacy. The United
 7. Determination of 125I and 131 I in Radioisotope Wastes-    Kingdom Government has brought together the management of
    7290                                                       the UK civil nuclear liabilities under one body: the Nuclear
    Sang Hoon Kang, Ke Chon Choi, Heung N. Lee, Sun Ho         Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The liabilities cover the
    Han, Kwang Yong Jee, Korea Atomic Energy Research          former UKAEA licensed sites including Dounreay, Harwell
    Institute (Korea)                                          and Winfrith and the former BNG Sites, Magnox North,
 8. Determination of 35S in Radioisotope Wastes by a Wet       Magnox South and Sellafield. An update on the status of the
    Oxidation-7291                                             NDA’s program of competitions and governance on the
    Heung Nae Lee, Sang-Hoon Kang, Hong Joo Ahn, Wook          decommissioning process, organization, and the overall
    Hyun Sohn, Kwang Yong Jee, Korea Atomic Energy             structure, and the progress in implementing strategy and
    Research Institute (KAERI) (Korea)                         priorities will be discussed.
 9. Development of Technology for Cementation of Oil           Panelists include: David Hayes, NDA (UK); Sandy
    Containing LRW Using Porous Concrete-7292                  McWhirter, UKAEA; and Andy Scargill, Sellafield Ltd.

26
Technical Sessions                                                                                             Wednesday AM

                                                                  3. Past Uranium Mining: Legacy, Environmental
                     SESSION 33                                      Remediation and Radioactivity Monitoring in Portugal.
Wednesday – 10:45                                     Room: 8        Fernando P. Carvalho
                                                                  4. Uranium Mining and Remediation in Romania
PANEL: THE UK NDA FUNDING, CONTRACTING,                              I. Moldovan
AND SUBCONTRACTING SELECTION AND                                  5. Completing remediation in Hungary: What have we
ARRANGEMENTS                                                         learned?
Co-Chairs: Richard Mrowicki, NDA (UK)                                Jenö Banik
               Fred Sheil, Sellafield Ltd. (UK)
Organizers: Richard Mrowicki; Fred Sheil                                             SESSION 35
This panel will summarize and provide a status of funding,       Wednesday – 8:30                                   Room: 6
contracting and subcontracting selection and arrangements for
decommissioning through the NDA. The focus would be to           D&D OF NON-REACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES
openly discuss these ideas and new lessons that are applicable   Co-Chairs: Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgonucleaire (BELGIUM)
to the UK with the audience. The M&O contractors for each of                  Takatoshi Hattori, CRIEPI (JAPAN); Robert
the sites will present their procurement plans and status.                    Walthery
Panelists include: Ron Gorham, NDA; Steve Morgan,                Organizers: Jean-Marie Cuchet; Jas Devgun, Sargent &
Sellafield Ltd; Peter Walkden, Magnox Reactors; Colin                         Lundy, LLC (USA)
Baylis, UKAEA; Ron Gallagher, Fluor Ltd; and Rosie
                                                                 Reviewers: Jean-Marie Cuchet; Iris Graffunder,
Mathisen, West Lakes Renaissance (UK).
                                                                              Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe GmbH
                                                                              (GERMANY)
                     SESSION 34                                   1. Dismantling of Alpha Contaminated Obsolete
Wednesday – 8:30                                      Room: 7        Installations and Glove Boxes on the IRMM Site in Geel
                                                                     (Belgium)-7134
PANEL: URANIUM MINING REMEDIATION                                    Lenie Koen, Pieter Cretskens , Tecnubel; Melis Gustaaf,
EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) - I                                           I.R.M.M. (Belgium)
Co-Chairs: Alex Jakubick, IAEA (AUSTRIA)                          2. Remediation of the Site of a Former Active Handling
              Peter Waggitt, IAEA (AUSTRIA)                          Building at UKAEA Winfrith-7066
Organizers: Alex Jakubick                                            Jack Armitage, Nick Brown, Rowland Cornell, NUKEM
                                                                     Limited; Gareth Jessop, United Kingdom Atomic Energy
UMREG OPENING: Role of UMREG: Facilitating The
                                                                     Authority (UKAEA) (UK)
Balanced Development Of The Uranium Industry. Alex
                                                                  3. Release and Disposal of Materials during
Jakubick
                                                                     Decommissioning of Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication
Stakeholders Involvement: A Key Element For Environmental            Plant at Hanau, Germany-7205
Sustainability And Safety In Uranium Mining. E. Falck                Werner Koenig, TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH &
Country Reports I.:                                                  Co. KG; Roland Baumann, Siemens PG
Session Chair: H. Monken-Fernandes                                   Decommissioning Projects (Germany)
  1. Uranium Mine Development, Environmental Strategies           4. Open-Air Demolition of Facilities Highly Contaminated
     and Remedial Activities in Australia.                           with Plutonium-7318
     Peter Waggitt                                                   Earl Lloyd, P.E., PMP, Fluor Hanford; Michael Lackey,
  2. Uranium Mine Development, Environmental Strategies              P.E., Fluor Government Group; Michael Stevens, Fluor
     And Remedial Activities In Canada.                              Government Group; Lloyd Zinsli, Fluor Hanford (USA)
     Bob Vance                                                                       ——— Break ———
  3. State Of Remedial Activities In US: What Are The             5. Strategy for Decommissioning of the Glove-Boxes in the
     Lessons For The New Mines?                                      Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant-7023
     Raymond M. Plieness                                             Alain Vandergheynst, Jean-Marie Cuchet,
  4. Environmental And Remedial Strategy Associated With             Belgonucleaire, (Belgium)
     Uranium Production In France.                                6. Clean-Up of Nuclear Licensed Facility 57-7061
     Philippe Crochon                                                Michel Jeanjacques, Marie Pierre Bremond, Carole
  5. State And Achievements Of The Wismut Remediation: A             Marchand, Cécile Poyau, Cécile Viallefont, Laurent
     Region Is Being Revitalized In Germany                          Gautier, Frederic Masure, CEA, DANS-DRSN-SAFA
     Michael Paul and Ulf Barnekow                                   (France)
                     ——— Break ———                                7. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment of
Country Reports II.:                                                 Decommissioning Radioisotope Thermoelectric
Session Chair: P. Waggitt                                            Generators (RTG’s) in Northwest Russia-7059
  1. Uranium Production and Remediation of past Uranium              Ali Hosseini, William Standring, Mark Dowdall, Justin
     Mining liabilities at DIAMO in the Czech Republic;              Brown, Ingar Amundsen, Norwegian Radiation
     Meeting the Global Shortage of Professionals in the             Protection Authority (Norway)
     Uranium Industry; The International School of Uranium
     Production, World Nuclear University.
     J. Trojacek
  2. Uranium Mining and Remediation in Brazil: Plans and
     Implementation Practice.
     H. Monken-Fernandes



                                                                                                                             27
Wednesday AM                                                                                              Technical Sessions


                     SESSION 36                                                    SESSION 37
Wednesday – 8:30                                   Room: 1     Wednesday – 8:30                                   Room: 2
REPOSITORY PROGRAMS: SITE SELECTION &                          LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS AND
CHARACTERIZATION, UNDERGROUND RESEARCH                         EXPERIENCE
LABS, ENGINEERING & GEOLOGICAL BARRIERS                        Co-Chairs: Sean Bushart, EPRI (USA)
Co-Chairs: Bernhard Kienzler, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                  Paul Haigh, The Paul Haigh Partnership (UK)
             INE (GERMANY)                                     Organizer: Sean Bushart
             Frederic Bernier, EURIDICE, SCK (BELGIUM)
                                                               Reviewers: Sean Bushart; Paul Haigh
Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem
                                                                1. Optimizing Liquid Waste Treatment Processing in PWRs:
Reviewer: Bernhard Kienzler; Frederic Bernier                      Focus on Modeling of the Variation of Ion-Exchange
 1. Results of a Multi-Year Study Aimed at the Resolution of       Resins Selectivity Coefficients-7116
    Regulatory Issues Related to the Storage and                   Frédéric Gressier, EDF R&D; Jan Van Der Lee, Ecole
    Transportation of High-Burnup Spent Fuel-7244                  Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris ; Hélène
    Joseph Rashid, ANATECH; Albert Machiels, EPRI (USA)            Schneider, Martin Bachet, Hubert Catalette, EDF R&D
 2. Radioactive Waste Disposal in Germany: No Site                 (France)
    Decision - Keeping Competence-7222                          2. Destruction of Nuclear Organic Waste by Supercritical
    Bernhard Kienzler, Horst Geckeis, Klaus Gompper,               Water Oxidation. Scale-Up of the Process-7170
    Reinhard Klenze, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                   Sandrine Moussiere, Anne Roubaud, Christophe Joussot-
    (Germany)                                                      Dubien, Hubert-Alexandre Turc, Bruno Fournel, CEA
 3. The Strategy of The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre in         Valrhô (France)
    the Area of High-Level Waste form Compatibility             3. Reduction of Radioactive Secondary Waste with Steam
    Research-7232                                                  Reforming in Treatment of Waste TBP/Dodecane-7144
    Karel Lemmens, Christelle Cachoir, Elie Valcke, Karine         Tomoyuki Sone, Toshiki Sasaki, Hiromi Yamaguchi,
    Ferrand, Marc Aertsens, Thierry Mennecart (SCK.CEN)            Japan Atomic Energy Agency, (Japan)
    (Belgium)                                                   4. The Mochovce Final Treatment Center for Liquid
 4. Grimsel Test Site - Phase VI: Review of                        Radioactive Waste Introduced to Active Trial Operation-
    Accomplishments and Next Steps-7239                            7301
    Stratis Vomvoris, Nagra; Wolfgang Kickmaier, University        Tibor Krajc, Marián Stubna, Kamil Kravárik, Milan
    of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland                   Zatkulák, VUJE, a.s.; Martin Slezák, Vladimír Remiás,
    (Switzerland)                                                  JAVYS, a.s. (Slovak Republic)
                    ——— Break ———                                                  ——— Break ———
 5. The FP6 Integrated Project NF-PRO: Recent                   5. Waste Treatment by Selective Mineral Ion Exchanger-
    Advancements in European Research on the Near-Field            7340
    System-7269                                                    Aurelie Polito, AREVA Business Unit Clean UP/STMI
    Alain Sneyers, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-            (France)
    CEN, (Belgium); Pedro Hernan, ENRESA (Spain); Bernd         6. Bioremediation of Organic Pollutants in a Radioactive
    Grambow, ARMINES (France); Hans-Joachim Alheid,                Wastewater-7014
    Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften (Germany); Jean-          Bilainu Oboirien, Evans Chirwa, University of Pretoria
    François Aranyossy, ANDRA (France); Lawrence                   (South Africa)
    Johnson, NAGRA (Switzerland)
 6. Development of a Requirements Management System for                            SESSION 38
    Technical Decision-Making Processes in the Geological
    Disposal Project-7221                                      Wednesday – 8:30                         Upper Exhibit Hall
    Hiroyoshi Ueda, Katsuhiko Ishiguro, Kazumi Kitayama,       POSTERS: DECONTAMINATION &
    Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan             DECOMMISSIONING POSTERS
    (NUMO); Kiyoshi Oyamada, JGC Corporation; Shoko
    Sato, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)                         Co-Chairs: Paul Luyex, Belgoprocess (BELGIUM)
 7. Flow and Radionuclide Transport from Rock to Surface                   Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage
    Systems: Characterization and Modeling of Potential                    Karlsruhe GmbH (GERMANY)
    Repository Sites in Sweden-7300                            Organizer: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA)
    Kent Werner, Golder Associates AB; Emma Bosson, Sten       Reviewers: Paul Luyex; Detlef Schmidt, Nuclear Projects
    Berglund, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management                    Consultancy (GERMANY)
    Co. (Sweden)                                                           Jas Devgun; Iris Graffunder
 8. A Heating Experiment in the Argillites in the
                                                                1. Performance and Review of Safety Assessment for
    Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory-
                                                                   Decommissioning-7372
    7276
                                                                   K. Perciva , Consultant (Austria); S. Thierfeldt, Brenk
    Yannick Wileveau, Su Kun, ANDRA; Mhedi Ghoreychi,
                                                                   Systemplanung GmbH (Germany); A. Joubert, National
    INERIS (France)
                                                                   Nuclear Regulator (South Africa); J. Kaulard,
 9. The PRACLAY Demonstration & Confirmation
                                                                   Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit GmbH
    Experiments-7251
                                                                   (Germany); P. Manson , British Nuclear Group Sellafield
    Bernier Frédéric, Demarche Marc, EURIDICE (Belgium)
                                                                   Ltd. (UK); R. Ferch, Consultant (Canada); B.
                                                                   Batandjieva, International Atomic Energy Agency
                                                                   (Austria)
                                                                2. On-site Characterization, Re-packaging and Transport of
                                                                   Luminised, Former Aircraft Escape Hatches.-7289
28
Technical Sessions                                                                                               Wednesday AM

      Nigel Reeves, AMEC NNC; Colette Grundy, Alex
      Sutherland, The Environment Agency; Gordon John,                           SESSION 38 (con’t)
      AMEC NNC; Catherine Shaw, The Environment Agency;          Wednesday– 8:30                            Upper Exhibit Hall
      Lisa Green, The Environment Agency; Ian Beadle, AMEC
      NNC (UK)                                                   POSTERS: ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION
 3.   Decommissioning of the Iraq Former Nuclear Complex-        POSTERS
      7280                                                       Co-Chairs: Paul Luyex, Belgoprocess (BELGIUM)
      Mohammed Abbas, Ministry of Science and Technology;                     Ed Alperin, The Shaw Group (USA)
      Tuama Helou, Bushra Ahmead, Ministry of Environment;       Organizers: Leo van Velzen; Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
      Mousa Al-Atia, Mowaffak Al-Mubarak, Iraqi Radiation
      Sources Regulatory Authority (Iraq); Jeffrey Danneels,     Reviewers: Wayne Lewis, The Shaw Group (USA);
      John Cochran, Ken Sorenson, Sandia National                             Steve Brown
      Laboratories (USA); Roger Coates, International Atomic     13. Agriculture in an Area Impacted by Past Uranium Mining
      Energy Agency (Austria)                                        Activities-7370
 4.   Making the Optimal Decision in Selecting Protective            Fernando P. Carvalho, Joâo M. Oliveira, Instituto
      Clothing-7135                                                  Tecnológico e Nuclear; Orquídia Neves, Maria M. Abreu,
      J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison (USA)                Dept Ciências do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de
 5.   EIA Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning-7299                     Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa; Elsa M.
      Igor Matejovic, Deconta, a.s., Trnava; Vincent Polak,          Vicente, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquímica, Instituto
      STM-POWER, a.s. Trnava (Slovak Republic)                       Superior Técnico (Portugal)
 6.   Cost Calculations at Early Stages of Nuclear Research      14. Immobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Soil by
      Facilities in the Nordic Countries By Anna Cato, Staffan       Natural Apatite Addition-7362
      Lindskog and Rolf Sjöblom, The Swedish Nuclear Power           Jelena Mrdakovic Popic, Mirjana Stojanovic, Sinisa
      Inspectorate and Tekedo AB-7168                                Milosevic, Deana Iles, Snezana Zildzovic, Institute for
      Anna Cato, Staffan Lindskog, The Swedish Nuclear Power         Technology of Nuclear and other Mineral Raw Materials
      Inspectorate; Rolf Sjöblom, Tekedo AB (Sweden); Klaus          (Serbia and Montenegro)
      Iversen, Dansk Dekommissionering (Denmark); Seppo          15. Chemical Decontamination of the Residual Heat Removal
      Salmenhaara, VTT FiR 1 Reactor (Finland); Steinar              System (RHRS) of Flamanville 1-7349
      Backe, Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Clas          Claude Steinkuhler, Tecnubel/DDR Consult; Reginald
      Callander, Henrik Efraimsson, Swedish Radiation                Coomans, Koen Lenie, Tecnubel (Belgium)
      Protection Authority; Inga Andersson, Studsvik Nuclear     16. Development and Performance Assessment of a Soil
      AB (Sweden)                                                    Washing Equipment for Soil Contaminated with
 7.   The Unit Cost Factors and Calculation Methods for              Radionuclide-7198
      Decommissioning Cost Estimation of Nuclear Research            Gye-Nam Kim, Jei-Kwon Moon, Chong-Hun Jung, Korea
      Facilities-7125                                                Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
      Kwan Seong Jeong, DongGyu Lee, Chong-Hun Jung,             17. Strategy on Rehabilitation of the Former Uranium
      Kune-Woo Lee, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute           Facilities at the “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant” in
      (Korea)                                                        Ukraine-7196
 8.   Experimental Investigation on the Volume Reduction of          Oleg Voitsekhovitch, Centre for Monitoring Studies and
      Irradiated Graphite Arising from the Decommissioning of        Environment Technologies (Ukraine)
      KRR-2-7138                                                 18. Final Covering of the Ronneburg Uranium Mining Site-
      Dong-Gyu Lee, Hee Chul Yang, Kune Woo Lee, Chong               7190
      Hun Jung, Yong Jun Cho, Korea Atomic Energy Research           Uwe Hoepfner, LAGB Halle (Germany)
      Institute (Korea)                                          19. Evaluation of Americium-241 Toxicity Influence on the
 9.   Melting Characteristics of the Stainless Steel Wastes          Microbial Growth of Organic Wastes-7100
      Generated from the Uranium Conversion Plant-7159               Júlio Takehiro Marumo, Rafael Vicente de Pádua
      Wangkyu Choi, Song, Byungyoun Min, Wonzin Oh,                  Ferreira, Vera Lúcia Keiko Isiki, Hissae Miyamoto, Aline
      Chonghun Jung, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute          Sayuri Takara, Solange Kazumi Sakata, Maria Helena
      (Korea)                                                        Bellini, Luis Filipe Cardoso Pedroso de Lima, Nuclear
10.   Innovative Decontamination Technology by Abrasion in           and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)
      Vibratory Vessels-7223                                     20. Influence of Biologically Active Substances on 137Cs and
      Silvio Fabbri, Sergio Ilarri, Atomic Energy National           Heavy Metals Uptake by Barley Plant-7031
      Commission (Argentina)                                         Stanislav Kruglov, Alexander Filipas, Russian Institute of
11.   Decontamination of the Shaft No.1 and Cleaning                 Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russia)
      Container of 2. Block NPP Paks-7286
      Jan Bolcha, Zuzana Mala, VUJE, a.s. (Slovak Republic);                          SESSION 39
      Peter Tilky, NPP Paks PA Zrt. (Hungary)
12.   Analysis on Uranium Isotope in the Facilities of Nuclear   Wednesday – 8:30                                   ‘t leerhuys
      Fuel Materials Using Depleted Uranium-7160                 IAEA CONTACTS EXPERT GROUP (CEG)
      Jong Seon Jeon, Ki Chul Jung, Sang Gyu Park, Tae Hyun      MEETINGS - MEMBERS ONLY
      Kim, Jae Min Lee, Enesys Co. Ltd. (Korea)
                                                                 Co-Chairs: Alain Mathiot, CEG (FRANCE)
                                                                               Sergey Bocharov, CEG (France)
                                                                 Organizers: Alain Mathiot; Sergey Bocharov
                                                                 The Contact Expert Group (CEG) of the International Atomic
                                                                 Energy Agency (IAEA) is a consortium of countries
                                                                 established in 1996 that assist Russia in the handling of
                                                                 radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to help the
                                                                                                                              29
Wednesday PM                                                                                                     Technical Sessions

country deal with its Cold War legacy. The group’s main               5. Enhanced Phytoextraction Not a Feasible Option to Clean
objectives include fostering co-operation between counties               Up Uranium Contaminated Soil-7281
interested in enhancing the safety of radwaste management in             Hildegarde Vandenhove, Lise Duquène, SCK-CEN,
Russia, providing a forum for information exchange,                      Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Tack Filip, Ghent
presenting specific projects and identifying priorities. The             University; Joke Baeten, Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen;
group is comprises of 12 nations, including Russia, Norway,              Jean Wannijn, SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research
the UK, Canada and Europe’s largest powers. This session has             Centre (Belgium)
is devoted two days to the CEG for their regular meeting. It          6. Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Solutions by ETS-4
will begin Wednesday morning and is not open to the ICEM                 Microporous Titanosilicate: Effect of Contact Time,
registrants. However, CEG members will be sharing events and             Titanosilicate Mass and Initial Metal Concentration-7201
discussing ways to promote partnership in solving global                 Cláudia Lopes, Marta Otero, Zhi Lin, Maria Eduarda
radioactive waste problems.                                              Pereira, João Rocha, Armando Duarte, Carlos Silva,
                                                                         CICECO & Department of Chemistry, University of
                       SESSION 40                                        Aveiro, Portugal (Portugal)
                                                                      7. Bioavailability and Stability of Mercury Sulfide in
Wednesday – 13:30                                        Room: 6         Armuchee (USA) Soils-7122
ROUNDTABLE: ACHIEVING LEGITIMACY IN                                      David L. Monts, Fengxiang Han, Safwan Shiyab, Yi Su,
RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT                                             Charles A. Waggoner, ICET, Mississippi State University;
                                                                         Frank Matta, Department of Plant & Soil Sciences,
Co-Chairs: Judith Connell, Fluor (USA)                                   Mississippi State University (USA)
              Anne Bergmans, University of Antwerp                    8. Accumulation of Mercury in Selected Plant Species
              (BELGIUM)                                                  Grown in Soils Contaminated with Different Mercury
Organizers: Judith Connell, Fluor (USA)                                  Compounds-7123
This roundtable will examine progress in radioactive waste               Yi Su, Safwan Shiyab, Jian Chen, David L. Monts,
management programs at national and local levels, and how                Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi
legitimacy in decision making, underpinned by transparency               State University (USA)
and openness, is helping achieve this. Past repository siting
failures can be put down in part to secrecy and mistrust of the                           SESSION 42
organizations involved and many have now adopted strategies
                                                                     Wednesday – 13:30                                   Room: 8
aiming for more successful public engagement. This
international roundtable of well-respected and experienced           PANEL: URANIUM MINING AND MILLING
individuals will examine the political, social and ethical aspects   EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) MEETING - II
of radioactive waste management and how successful
                                                                     Co-Chairs: Alex Jakubick, IAEA (AUSTRIA)
implementation of long-term strategies can be achieved.
                                                                                  Peter Waggitt, IAEA (AUSTRIA)
Discussions will be facilitated, and active audience
participation will be encouraged.                                    Organizer: Peter Waggitt
                                                                     Central Asian Reports
                       SESSION 41                                    Session Chair: Alex Jakubick, IAEA
                                                                      1. The IAEA Central Asian Regional Project
Wednesday – 13:30                                        Room: 7          Peter Waggitt
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ER TECHNOLOGIES                                2. The NATO Central Asian Project
                                                                          P. Stegnar
Co-Chairs: Ed Alperin, The Shaw Group (USA)                           3. Remediation and expansion of uranium mines in
            Tommy Green, NUKEM (UK)                                       Kazakhstan
Organizers: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)                                   Marat Kaftaranov
            Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and                      4. Remediation plans in Kyrgyzstan
            Consultancy Group (NETHERLANDS)                               National Representative
Reviewer: Ed Alperin                                                  5. Remediation plans in Tajikistan
                                                                          National Representative
 1. Remediation with Permanganate: Current State of the
                                                                      6. Remediation plans in Uzbekistan
    Art-7002
                                                                          Damir Zaredinov
    Brenda Veronda, Matthew Dingens, Carus Corporation
                                                                      7. Summing up the state of remediation in Central Asia
    (USA)
                                                                          O. Voytsechovitch
 2. Green Remediation: Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination
    Using Recycled Rinsewater as Bioremediation
    Substrate-7090                                                                        SESSION 43
    Tom McKeon, Gaynor Dawson, CALIBRE Systems, Inc.                 Wednesday – 16:15                                   Room: 8
    (USA)
 3. Advances in the Application of in Situ Electrical                PANEL/ROUNDTABLE: URANIUM MINING
    Resistance Heating-7136                                          REMEDIATION EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) - III
    Gregory Smith, Gregory Beyke, Thermal Remediation                Co-Chairs: Alex Jakubick, IAEA (AUSTRIA)
    Services, Inc. (USA)                                                         Peter Waggitt, IAEA (AUSTRIA)
 4. Utilizing the Right Mix of Environmental Cleanup
                                                                     Organizer: Alex Jakubick
    Technologies-7369
    Wade Whitaker, Department of Energy; Chris Bergren,              Panel Discussion Topic: “How To Utilize Remediation Know-
    Bechtel Savannah River Company; Mary Flora,                      How In The Development And Operation Of New Mines And
    Washington Savannah River Company (USA)                          New Remediation Projects?”
                    ——— Break ———

30
Technical Sessions                                                                                              Wednesday PM

This panel with meeting roundtable will focus on uranium          8. Inductive Cold Crucible Melting and Characterization of
mine and mill remediation issues as contemplated by the              Uranium- and Thorium-Bearing Murataite Ceramics-7126
international IAEA UMREG Group. The Uranium Mining                   Oleg Knyazev, Alexander Ptashkin, Sergey Stefanovsky,
Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG) constituted itself                Maria Zen’kovskaya, SIA Radon; Sergey Yudintsev, Boris
during the ICEM’95 Berlin Meeting as an informal network             Nikonov, IGEM RAS; Olga Stefanovsky, SIA Radon
group for multilateral exchange on issues related to uranium         (Russia)
mine and mill remediation. The DOE UMTRA-Group and the
German BMWi-WISMUT Group started the exchange in 1993                                 SESSION 45
on specific topics related to major projects UMTRA Title I and
WISMUT. Since then, several meetings were held in                Wednesday – 13:30                                   Room: 2
conjunction with international conferences focusing on           DECOMMISSIONING STRATEGIES AND FACILITY
environmental remediation. Also, the Group has grown into an     RELEASE
international network including representatives of regulating,
permitting and supervising institutions, operating and           Co-Chairs: Maria Lindberg, Studsvik (SWEDEN)
consulting companies, and research organizations.                            Ernst Warnecke, IAEA (AUSTRIA)
                                                                 Organizer: Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy, LLC (USA)
                     SESSION 44                                  Reviewers: Ernst Warnecke. IAEA (AUSTRIA)
                                                                             Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage
Wednesday – 13:30                                     Room: 1
                                                                             Karlsruhe GmbH (GERMANY)
HLW, FISSILE, TRU AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL                          1. Pre-Decommissioning Radiological Characterization of
SHORT AND LONG-TERM ISSUES                                           Concrete-7044
Co-Chairs: Vincenzo Rondinella, European Commission,                 Sven Boden, Eric Cantrel, Belgian Nuclear Research
            JRC-ITU (GERMANY)                                        Centre (SCK-CEN) (Belgium)
            Luc Janssen , SYNATOM (BELGIUM)                       2. Lower Bound of Optimization in Radiological Protection
                                                                     System Taking Account of Practical Implementation of
Organizer: Vincenzo Rondinella
                                                                     Clearance-7042
Reviewers: Vincenzo Rondinella                                       Takatoshi Hattori, CRIEPI (Japan)
            Hans Codee, COVRA (NETHERLANDS); Luc                  3. Integrated Approach to Planning the Remediation of Sites
            Janssen                                                  Undergoing Decommissioning-7335
 1. Turbulent Impinging Flow Simulation for High-Level               Horst Monken Fernandes, International Atomic Energy
    Waste Storage and Processing Applications-7009                   Agency (Austria); James L. Regens, College of Public
    Simon Rhea, Michael Fairweather, University of Leeds             Health University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
    (UK)                                                             (USA); W. Eberhard Falck, Nuclear Safety Unit - Institute
 2. Dose Rate Effects on the Accumulation of Radiation               for Energy - CEC-JRC (Netherlands); Marc Audet,
    Damage-7322                                                      Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada); Frank Dennis,
    Vincenzo Rondinella, Thierry Wiss, Jean-Pol Hiernaut,            Golder Consultants - UK (UK); Dejanira Lauria, Instituto
    Dragos Staicu, JRC-ITU (Germany)                                 de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil)
 3. Development of a Computer Simulation Technique for            4. Final Cleanup of Buildings Within in Legacy French
    Predicting Heat Transfer in Multiphase Liquid-Particle           Research Facilities: Strategy, Tools and Lessons Learned-
    Flow Systems-7025                                                7132
    Kevin F. Malone, AWE Plc; Bao H. Xu, Michael                     Christophe Le Goaller, Marianne Berton, Olivier Doucet,
    Fairweather, Institute of Particle Science and                   Carole Doutreluingne, CEA (France)
    Engineering, University of Leeds (UK)                                            ——— Break ———
 4. Immobilization of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Carbon          5. Concrete Crushing and Sampling, a Methodology and
    Matrices Produced with the Use of Polyimide Binders-7127         Technology for the Unconditional Release of Concrete
    Murat Abdulakhatov, Sergey Bartenev, Nikolai Firsin,             Material from Decommissioning-7237
    Mikhail Zykov, Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI); Mikhail           Robert Walthéry, René Gilis, Bart Ooms, Nancy Reusen,
    Goikhman, Alexander Gribanov, Institute of                       Wim Van Laer, Patrick Lewandowski, Belgoprocess NV
    Macromolecular Compounds RAS (IMC RAS); Valery                   (Belgium)
    Novikov, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS             6. Overcoming Decommissioning Challenges Through
    (Russia); John Krasznail, Kinectrics Inc. (Canada)               Client/Laboratory Co-Operation-7332
                    ——— Break ———                                    Mike Wharton, Lesley Gray, AMEC (UK)
 5. Interim Storage Technology of Spent Fuel and High-Level       7. In-House Developed Methodologies & Tools or
    Waste in Germany-7211                                            Decommissioning Projects-7350
    Heinz Geiser, Jens Schröder, GNS Gesellschaft f.                 Michel Detilleux, Baudouin Centner, Tractebel
    Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)                                    Engineering (Belgium)
 6. A National Perspective: Establishing and Implementing a       8. Study for Radionuclide Transfer Ratio of Aerosols
    Characterization Program in the U.S. for Remote-Handled          Generated During Heat Cutting-7139
    Transuranic Waste-7129                                           Yukihiro Iguchi, Tsutomu Baba, Hiroto Kawakami, Japan
    Roger Nelson, Alton D. Harris III, US DOE (USA)                  Nuclear Energy Safety Organization; Takashi Kitahara,
 7. Application of the Spent Fuel Characterization and               Atsushi Watanabe, Hitachi, Ltd.; Mitsuhiro Kodama,
    Leaching Studies for Validating Alteration Models-7243           Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. (Japan)
    Javier Quiñones, Ciemat (Spain); Joaquin Cobos Sabate,
    ITU-JRC (Germany); Eduardo Iglesias, Nieves Rodriguez
    Villagra, CIEMAT (Spain); Aurora Martínez Esparza,
    ENRESA (Spain)


                                                                                                                            31
Wednesday PM                                                                                                Technical Sessions


                     SESSION 46                                                      SESSION 47
Wednesday – 13:30                                   Room: 3     Wednesday – 13:30                                   Room: 5
ADVANCED L/ILW CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGIES                        DISPOSAL SITE AND WASTE FORM
Co-Chairs: Michael Ojovan, University of Sheffield (UK)         CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE
             Kapil Goyal, Los Alamos National Laboratory        ASSESSMENT
             (USA)                                              Co-Chairs: Ed Bentz, E.J. Bentz & Associates (USA)
Organizer: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth & Environmental                           Steve Doebler, Fluor (USA)
             (USA)                                              Organizer: Angie Jones, AMEC Earth and Environmental
Reviewers: Ernst Warnecke, IAEA (AUSTRIA)                                    (USA);
             Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage         Reviewer: Ed Bentz
             Karlsruhe GmbH (GERMANY)                            1. Modelling Approach to LILW-SL Repository Safety
 1. Oil Immobilization Program at Sellafield: an Innovative         Evaluation for Different Waste Packing Options-7069
    Approach-7065                                                   Janez Perko, Dirk Mallants, Geert Volckaert, Belgian
    Helen Cassidy, Sellafield Ltd. (UK)                             Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Mike
 2. The ZWILAG Interim Storage Plasma Plant Technology              Egan, George Towler, Quintessa Limited (UK); Sandi
    to Handle Operational Waste from Nuclear Plants-7242            Virsek, Slovenian Radioactive Waste Management Agency
    Walter Heep, ZWILAG Interim Storage Facility                    ARAO; Bojan Hertl, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre
    (Switzerland)                                                   SCK-CEN (Slovenia)
 3. The Role of Tetronics Plasma Vitrification Technology in     2. Alpha-Contaminated Solid Waste Sorting and
    the Management and Conditioning of Nuclear Waste-7271           Conditioning at Belgoprocess (Belgium): Lessons
    David Deegan, Tetronics Limited; Charlie Scales, Nexia          Learned from the First Three Years Operation-7219
    Solutions (UK)                                                  Jean-Marie Cuchet, Jean-Pierre Lahaye, Paul Luycx,
 4. The Influence of Zeta Potential and Yield Stress on the         Erwin Van Nueten, Belgonucleaire; André De Goeyse,
    Filtration Characteristics of a Magnesium Hydroxide             ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium)
    Simulant-7071                                                3. Set-up and Organisation of a NDA-System Procurement
    Simon Biggs, Rafiq Nabi, Colin Poole, Institute of              Project-7274
    Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds;          John Botte, Paul Gielen, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
    Ashok Patel, British Nuclear Group (UK)                      4. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Baita Bihor
                     ——— Break ———                                  Radioactive Waste Repository, Romania-7095
 5. New Innovative Electrocoagulation (EC) Treatment                Richard Little, Quintessa Limited (UK); Felicia
    Technology for BWR Colloidal Iron Utilizing the Seeding         Dragolici, IFIN-HH (Romania); Alex Bond, Quintessa
    and Filtration Electronically (“Safe”) System-7186              Limited (UK); Ludovic Matyasi, Geo Prospect SRL;
    Mark Denton, EnergySolutions; William D. Bostick, MCL           Sandor Matyasi, Geo Prospect SRL; Mihaela Naum,
    (USA)                                                           Ortenzia Niculae, SITON (Romania); Mike Thorne, Mike
 6. The Effect of Particle-Particle Interaction Forces on the       Thorne and Associates; Sarah Watson, Quintessa Limited
    Flow Properties of Silica Slurries-7104                         (UK)
    David Harbottle, Institute of Particle Science and
    Engineering; Dominic Rhodes, Nexia Solutions; Mike                               SESSION 48
    Fairweather, Institute of Particle Science and
    Engineering; Simon Biggs, Institute of Particle Science     Wednesday – 13:30                                   Room: 4
    and Engineering (UK)                                        RADIOACTIVE WASTE FROM RESEARCH
 7. Investigation of Particle-Laden Flow in a Straight Duct     INSTITUTES AND GENERAL INDUSTRIES
    Using Large Eddy Simulation-7029
    Michael Fairweather, Jun Yao, University of Leeds (UK)      Co-Chairs: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)
 8. Novel Technology for Hydrothermal Treatment of NPP                       Pete Knollmeyer, Fluor Government Group
    Evaporator Concentrates-7093                                             (USA)
    Valentin Avramenko Vitaly Dobrzhansky, Dmitry Marinin,      Organizer & Reviewer: Pierre Van Iseghem
    Valentin Sergienko, Sergey Shmatko, Institute of              1. Accelerator Waste - A New Challenge for Radioanalytics-
    Chemistry, Far East Department, Russian Academy of               7008
    Sciences (Russia)                                                Michael Wohlmuther, Jörg Neuhausen, Dorothea
 9. Technology for NPP Decantate Treatment Realized at               Schumann, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)
    Kola NPP.-7383                                                2. Radiological Characterization of the Nuclear Waste
    Michael Stakhiv, Kola Nuclear Power Plant; Alexander             Streams of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-
    Savkin, Denis Fedorov, Sergei Dmitriev, SUE SIA; Slava           CEN-7249
    Avezniyazov, Kola Nuclear Power Plant; Vladimir                  Patrick Maris, René Cornelissen, Michel Bruggeman,
    Kornev, JSC (Russia)                                             SCK (Belgium)
                                                                  3. Upgrading of Sergiev Posad Department of Moscow NPO
                                                                     Radon-7027
                                                                     Pierre Debieve, Belgatom; Grégory Delecaut, Daniel
                                                                     Vanleeuw, I.R.E. (Belgium)
                                                                  4. Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies and
                                                                     Environment -7359
                                                                     Jan H?rvath, Dusan Krásny, JAVYS, Nuclear
                                                                     Decommissioning Company (Slovak Republic)
                                                                                    ——— Break ———
32
Technical Sessions                                                                                                Wednesday PM

 5. Processing of Historic High Level Waste-7268                   3. An Optimized Strategy for the Management of Spent
    Leo van Velzen, Renate de Vos-Keulemans, Lars Roobol,             Steam Generators-7330
    NRG (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group); Ruud                Eric Cantrel, SCK-CEN (The Belgian Nuclear Research
    IJpelaan, ECN; Remco van Tongeren, ECN (Netherlands)              Center); Luc Denissen, SCK-CEN; Henri Davain,
 6. Research, Development and Optimization of Real Time               TRACTEBEL Engineering; Jean-Phillipe Leveau,
    Radioscopic Characterization of Remote Handled Waste              Husqvarna Belgium; Johan Lauwers, Thierry Gillet,
    and Intermediate Level Waste, Using X-Ray Imaging at              Husqvarna Belgium (Belgium)
    MeV Energies.-7385                                             4. Evaluation of Aluminum Pit Corrosion in Oak Ridge
    Stephen Halliwell, V.J.Technologies (USA)                         Research Reactor Pool by Quantitative Imaging and
 7. Management of Small Producers Waste in Slovenia-7067              Thermodynamic Modeling-7121
    Marija Fabjan, Joze Rojc, Agency for Radwaste                     David L. Monts, Ping-Rey Jang, Rangaswami
    Management (Slovenia)                                             Arunkumar, Jeffrey S. Lindner, Zhiling Long, Melissa A.
                                                                      Mott, Walter P. Okhuysen, Yi Su, David L. Monts, Institute
                      SESSION 49                                      for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State
                                                                      University; Paula G. Kirk, Oak Ridge National
Wednesday – 14:00                           Upper Exhibit Hall        Laboratory; John Ettien, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC
PROJECTS IN PROGRESS: NON-PAPER POSTER                                (USA)
SESSION                                                                               ——— Break ———
                                                                   5. Abrasive Blasting, a Technique for the Industrial
Co-Chairs: Gary Benda, Studsvik (USA)                                 Decontamination of Metal Components and Concrete
               Paul Luycx, BELGOPROCESS (BELGIUM)                     Blocks from Decommissioning to Unconditional Release
Organizer: Gary Benda                                                 Levels-7235
This Poster Session is for emerging projects in progress and          Robert Walthéry, Wim Van Laer, Patrick Lewandowski,
provides the latest updated information on the topic. No papers       Bart Ooms, René Gilis, Nancy Reusen, Belgoprocess NV
will be published from this poster session.                           (Belgium)
  1. Studies on Spent Fuel Cladding Evolution During               6. The Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay, Scotland.
      Storage-7321                                                    Process and Engineering Development for Sodium
      Vincenzo Rondinella, JRC-ITU (Germany); Karl-Fredrik            Removal-7250
      Nilsson, JRC-IE (Netherlands); Enrique Toscano, Detlef          Allan Mann, William Husband, James Gunn, UKAEA
      Wegen, JRC-ITU (Germany); Cesar Chenel-Ramos,                   (Scotland); Brian Fletcher, Mike Smith, AMEC NNC
      Oliver Martin, JRC-IE (Netherlands)                             (UK); Robin Herrick, UKAEA (Scotland)
  2. Recycling and Volume Reduction Services for                   7. Relative Performance of a TGS for the Assay of
      International Low Level and Intermediate Waste                  Drummed Waste as Function of Collimator Opening-7174
      Generators - 7394                                               Susan C. Kane, Stephen Croft, R. Venkataraman, M.F.
      Michael F. Johnson, Phil Gianutsos, EnergySolutions,            Villani, P. McClay, AREVA - Canberra Industries (USA)
      LLC Barry Moloney, Safeguard International: Claude           8. Application of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection
      Steinkhuler; Kenny Self, Troy Eshleman, EnergySolutions,        System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Waste-
      LLC                                                             7119
  3. In-Situ Comparison of Wired, Wireless and Non-Intrusive          Michiya Sasaki, Haruyuki Ogino, Takatoshi Hattori,
      Standard Monitoring Techniques - The Tem Project at the         CRIEPI (Japan)
      Grimsel Test Site
      Ingo Blechschmidt, Nagra (Switzerland), M. Johnson,                              SESSION 51
      NDA (UK); H. R. Maurer, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); T.        Thursday – 8:30                                      Room: 7
      Fierz, Solexperts AG (Switzerland); S. Parsons, NISL Ltd.
      (Canada); I. Barcena, J. L. Garcia-Sineriz, AITEMIN         CONTAMINANT MIGRATION AND TRANSFER
      (Spain)                                                     ASSESSMENT
                                                                  Co-Chairs: Virgene Ideker-Mulligan, ARS (USA)
                                                                              Greg Rucker, Washington Savannah River
           Thursday, September 6, 2007                                        Company (USA)
                                                                  Organizers: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
                      SESSION 50                                              Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and
Thursday – 8:30                                        Room: 8                Consultancy Group (FRANCE)
                                                                  Reviewers: Jordi Guimera, Enviros (Spain); Leo van Velzen
D&D TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                   1. Numerical Assessment of the Origin of Deep Salinity in a
Co-Chairs: Robert Walthery, Belgoprocess (BELGIUM)                    Low Permeability Fractured Medium-7363
            Maria Lindberg, Studsvik (SWEDEN)                         Eduardo Ruiz, Miguel Luna, David Arcos, Salvador
Organizers: Robert Walthery                                           Jordana, Enviros-Spain, SL (Spain); Hiromitsu Saegusa,
Reviewers: Takatoshi Hattori, CRIEPI (JAPAN);                         Teruki Iwatsuki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan);
            Robert Walthery                                           Jordi Guimera, Cristina Domenech, Enviros Span SL
                                                                      (Spain)
 1. Radiological Characterization of a Vitrification Facility
                                                                   2. Estimating Fate and Transport of Multiple Contaminants
    for Decommissioning-7070
                                                                      in the Vadose Zone Using a Multi-Layered Soil Column
    Marielle Arou, Christopher Legoaller, CEA; Franck
                                                                      and Three-Phase Equilibrium Partitioning Model-7150
    Martin, AREVA NC (France)
                                                                      Gregory Rucker, Washington Savannah River Company
 2. Recent Progress in Low-Level Gamma Imaging-7046
                                                                      (USA)
    Charly Mahe, Philippe Girones,; Fabrice Lamadie,
    Christophe Le Goaller, CEA (France)
                                                                                                                              33
Thursday AM                                                                                                  Technical Sessions

 3. Reactive Transport Modelling of the Interaction of Fission
    Product Ground Contamination with Alkaline and                                    SESSION 53
    Cementitious Leachates-7334                                  Thursday – 8:30                                     Room: 1
    Simon Kwong, Joe Small, Nexia Solutions Ltd. (UK)
 4. Cumulative Health Risk Assessment: Integrated                SITING, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATION
    Approaches for Multiple Contaminants, Exposures, and         OF L/ILW DISPOSAL FACILITIES
    Effects-7325                                                 Co-Chairs: Philip Rendell, NDA (UK)
    Glenn Rice, U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental                    Cathy Hickey, Washington Group International
    Assessment (USA); Margaret MacDonel, (Argonne                             (USA)
    National Laboratory(USA); Linda Teuschler, U.S. EPA          Organizer: Ian Crossland, Crossland Consulting (UK)
    National Center for Environmental Assessment (USA);
    Rick Hertzberg, Emory University (USA); Lynne Harou,         Reviewers: Philip Rendell; Cathy Hickey
    Environ (USA); Jim Butler, Molly Finster, Argonne             1. Planning for the Recreational End Use of a Future LLR
    National Laboratory (USA)                                        Waste Mound in Canada - Leaving an Honourable
                    ——— Break ———                                    Legacy-7087
 5. Modelling of Contaminant Release from a Uranium Mine             Heather Kleb, Robert (Bob) Zelmer, Atomic Energy of
    Tailings Site-7302                                               Canada Limited, Low-Level Radioactive Waste
    René Kahnt, G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft              Management Office (Canada)
    mbH; Thomas Metschies, Wismut GmbH (Germany)                  2. The Korean Final Repository For Low And Intermediate
 6. Application of Water Flow and Geochemical Models to              Radwaste-7130
    Support the Remediation of Acid Rock Drainage from the           Kim Young Ki, Choi Gi Won, Lee Byung Sik, Ko Kwang
    Uranium Mining Site of Poços De Caldas, Brazil-7346              Hun, Lee Sang Sun, Korea Power Engineering Company;
    Mariza Franklin, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission             Park Bok Ok, Kwon Heon Woo, Lee Hyeong Nam, Yoo
    (Brazil); Horst Fernandes, International Atomic Energy           Jun Sang, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (Korea)
    Agency (Austria); Martinus Th. van Genuchten, U.S.            3. Enlargement of the Baldone Near-Surface Radioactive
    Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS (USA); Eurípedes                  Waste Repository-7165
    Vargas Jr., Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro; José          Andrejs Dreimanis, Radiation Safety Centre (Latvia)
    Paulo Azevedo, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro           4. The Environmental Constraints Needs the Design
    (Brazil)                                                         Improvements to the Saligny I/LLW-Repository Near
 7. Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Around Old                Cernavoda NPP-7082
    Uranium Mining Sites Near Manual (Vise), Portugal-7366           Gheorghe Barariu, National Authority for Nuclear
    Fernando Carvel, João Oliveira, Lubélia Torres, Instituto        Activity-Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for
    Tecnológico e Nuclear (Portugal)                                 Nuclear Projects (Romania)
 8. Integrated Fate and Toxicity Assessment for Site                                 ——— Break ———
    Contaminants-7323                                             5. The Belgian Approach Towards the Study of the
    Margaret MacDonell, John Peterson, Molly Finster,,               Compatibility of Eurobitum with the Geological Disposal
    Argonne National Laboratory (USA); R. Douglas                    Environment-7284
    Hildebrand, U.S. DOE (USA)                                       Elie Valcke, SCK-CEN; Robert Gens, ONDRAF/NIRAS
                                                                     (Belgium)
                     SESSION 52                                   6. Application of FEPs Analysis to Identify Research
                                                                     Priorities Relevant to the Safety Case for an Australian
Thursday – 8:30                                      Room: 6         Radioactive Waste Facility-7064
                                                                     Timothy Payne, Peter McGlinn, Australian Nuclear
GLOBAL PARTNERING FOR WORLD SAFETY &                                 Science and Technology Organisation (Australia)
SECURITY                                                          7. Operational Experience at Radioactive Waste Treatment
Co-Chairs: Rod Strand, IAP Worldwide Services, Inc. (USA)            Plant, After 15 Years-7158
             Rik Vanbrabant, BELGOPROCESS (BELGIUM)                  Azucena Sanhueza-Mir, Commission Chilena de Energia
Organizer: Rod Strand                                                Nuclear (Chile)
Reviewer: Rik Vanbrabant; Rod Strand
 1. Building Relationships with Foreign Governments in                                SESSION 54
    Support of Threat Reduction-7254                             Thursday – 8:30                                     Room: 2
    George L. Cajigal, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Threat
    Reduction Support Center (USA)                               NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR
 2. Long-Term Storage Facility for Reactor Compartments in       SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, FISSILE, TRU, AND HLW
    Sayda Bay - German Support for Utilization of Nuclear        MANAGEMENT
    Submarines in Russia —7083                                   Co-Chairs: Mark Denton, Energy Solutions (US)
    Dietmar Wolff, Holger Völzke, Wolfgang Weber, Volker                     Javier Quinones Diez, Ciemat (GERMANY)
    Noack, Federal Institute for Materials Research and          Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)
    Testing (BAM); Günther Bäuerle, Federal Ministry of
    Economics and Labour (BMWi) (Germany)                        Reviewer: Javier Quinones Diez, Ciemat; Chris Phillips,
 3. Global Partnering Related to Nuclear Materials                           EnergySolutions (USA)
    Safeguards and Security a Pragmatic Approach to               1. The Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste and Spent
    International Safeguards Work-7261                               Fuel: Safety and Policy Considerations-7355
    Dennis Stanford, Monty Morris, Nuclear Fuel Services,            John Rowat, Phil Metcalf, International Atomic Energy
    Inc. (USA)                                                       Agency (Austria)



34
Technical Sessions                                                                                             Thursday AM

 2. The Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. Program to Support          5. Flexible Process Options for the Immobilisation of
    Disposition of Enriched Uranium-Bearing Materials-7256         Residues and Wastes Containing Plutonium-7246
    Steve Schutt, Norman Jacob, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.        Martin Stewart, Bruce Beg, Salvatore Moroccan, R.
    (USA)                                                          Arthur Day, ANSTO (Australia); Charles Scales, Wean
 3. European Concepts for Shared Storage and Disposal              Mandrel, Adam Eilbeck, Nexia Solutions (UK)
    Facilities for Radioactive Wastes?-7108
    Ewoud Verhoef, Hans Codee, COVRA N.V. (Netherlands);                           SESSION 56
    Charles McCombie, Arius (Switzerland); Vladan Stefula,
    AMEC NNC Ltd. (UK)                                         Thursday – 10:45                                   Room: 3
                    ——— Break ———                              INFORMATION GATHERING AND DECISION
 4. Effects of Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel on         MAKING
    Repository SNF Performance-7111
    Robert Quinn, EnergySolutions (USA)                        Co-Chairs: Jennifer Biedscheid, Washington Group
 5. Key Issues Identified from Project TRU-2 on the Generic                  International (USA)
    Co-Location Concept of Transuranic (TRU) Waste and                       Evelyn Hoof, NIRAS/ONDRAF (BELGIUM)
    High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Repositories in         Organizers: Jennifer Biedscheid; Anne Bergmans, University
    Japan-7231                                                               of Antwerp (BELGIUM)
    Andrew Martin, NAGRA (Switzerland); Shigeki Kuroda,        Reviewers: Jennifer Biedscheid; Evelyn Hoof
    Kansai Electric Power Company Inc.; Keiji Morimoto,
                                                                 1. Experience of the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental
    Kansai Electric Power Company Inc.; Gento Kamei,
                                                                    Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations
    Masao Shiotsuki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)
                                                                    1999, as Amended, in Great Britain-7212
                                                                    Sarah Brown, Elaine Mattress, Jo Nettleton, Nuclear
                     SESSION 55                                     Directorate, Health and Safety Executive (UK)
Thursday – 8:30                                     Room: 3      2. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: A
                                                                    Model for Stakeholder Involvement in Environmental
HLW CHARACTERIZATION/RECENT ADVANCES IN                             Monitoring-7180
HLW TREATMENT SYSTEMS                                               William Hartwell, David Shafer, Desert Research
Co-Chairs: Joe Perez, Washington Group International                Institute, Division of Hydrological Sciences (USA)
            (USA)                                                3. Clark County Monitoring Program-7110
            Thibaut Gain, AREVA (FRANCE)                            Sheila Conway, Urban Environmental Research; Jeremy
Organizer: Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK-CEN (BELGIUM)                    Auger, Applied Analysis; Irene Navies, Clark County
                                                                    Department of Comprehensive Planning (USA)
Reviewers: Joe Perez; Thibaut Gain
 1. WDC - Advanced System For Characterization of Alpha-
    Bearing Waste Contained in 200l and 400l Drums :                               SESSION 57
    Performances and Lessons Learned from the First
    Industrial Measurement Campaigns-7022                      Thursday – 8:30                                    Room: 5
    Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgonucleaire S.A.; Marc
                                                               URANIUM MINING AND REMEDIATION EXCHANGE
    Vandorpe, Tecnubel; Antoine Libens, Tecnubel (Belgium)
                                                               GROUP (UMREG) MEETING - IV
 2. Evaluation of Fourier Transform Profilometry
    Performance: Quantitative Waste Volume Determination       Co-Chairs: Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
    Under Simulated Hanford Waste Tank Conditions-7120                     Margaret MacDonell, Argonne National
    David L. Monts, Ping-Rye Jang, Teresa Leone, Shilling                  Laboratory (USA)
    Long, Melissa A. Mott, O. Perry Norton, Walter P.          Organizer and Reviewer: Steve Brown
    Knudsen, Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET),      1. Uranium Mine and Mill Tailings - Liabilities in the
    Mississippi State University (USA)                             European Union-7375
 3. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the               Wolfgang Hilden, Simon Murphy, European Commission
    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant               (Luxembourg); Jan Vrijen, KARUWEEG BV
    (WTP) High-Level Waste Vitrification (HLW) System-             (Netherlands)
    7352                                                        2. Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Uranium
    Bradley Bowan, EnergySolutions, LLC; Kurt Gerdes, US           Mill and Processing Plant at Seelingstädt, Germany-7380
    DOE; Ian Pegg, The Vitreous State Laboratory of the            Ulf Barnekow, Matthias Bauroth, Michael Paul, Wismut
    Catholic University of America; Langdon Holton, Pacific        GmbH (Germany)
    Northwest National Laboratory (USA)                         3. Radiological Aspects of In Situ Uranium Recovery-7379
 4. Estimation of Clearance Potential Index and Hazard             Steven Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
    Factors of Candu Fuel Bundle and its Validation Based on    4. Uranium Mining Wastes, Garden Exhibition and Health
    the Measurements of Radioisotopes Inventories from             Risks-7112
    Pickering Reactor Fuel-7086                                    Gerhard Schmidt, Oeko-Institute e.V.; Peter Schmidt,
    Alexandru Octavian Pavelescu, University Politehnica of        Wilko Hinz, Wismut GmbH, (Germany)
    Bucharest (Romania); Renato Tinti, ENEA FIS-NUC,
    Bologna; Dan Gabriel Cepraga, ENEA FIS-MET,
    Bologna; Konstantina Voukelatou, ENEA FIS-NUC,
    Bologna (Italy)




                                                                                                                         35
     White Rose — Upper Exhibit Hall




                                             POSTER
                                            SESSIONS




     Ambassador Room — Lower Exhibit Hall




36
Exhibition Hours                            Exhibitors Listings
 Monday, September 3       12:00 to 18:00     We would like to thank all of our exhibiting
                                             companies. Company descriptions and contact
 Tuesday, September 4       8:00 to 19:30    information is listed in the next section, along
   Exhibitor Reception     18:00 to 19:30               with our Sponsors ads.
 Wednesday, September 5     8:00 to 16:30   Exhibitors in Alphabetical Order
                                            STAND   COMPANY
                                              10    A. N. Technology Ltd
                                               2    AREVA
                                              11    ASME
 We especially wanted to thank our             3    Belgoprocess
 Corporate Sponsors for ICEM’07               16a   British Nuclear Group Project Services Ltd.
                                              16    COVRA
      ~ Platinum Sponsors ~                    4    EnergySolutions
                                              20    International Atomic Energy Agency
 BRITISH NUCLEAR GROUP                         7    International Nuclear Solutions Plc.
   PROJECT SERVICES LTD                        1    MHF Logistical Solutions Inc.
   Host of the Sunday Welcome                 19    Microfiltrex
                                               8    Nexia Solutions Ltd
  Reception and the Wednesday                 16    Nuclear Research & Consultancy Group
          Morning Break                       21    NUKEM Ltd
                                               9    NUKEM Technologies GmbH
    FLUOR CORPORATION                         17    Pacific Nuclear Solutions
  Host of Monday Lunch and the                18    Retech Systems LLC
     Tuesday Afternoon Break                   3    SCK•CEN
                                              15    Sellafield Ltd.
     WASHINGTON GROUP                         14    Serapid
        INTERNATIONAL                         12    Stoller Corporation
                                               6    Studsvik
Host of the Wednesday Banquet and              3    Tecnubel
   the Thursday Morning Break                  3    Tractebel Engineering
                                               5    UKAEA
                                              13    Waste Management Technology
         ~ Gold Sponsors ~
                                            Exhibitors in Numerical Order
        BELGOPROCESS
   Host of Monday Evening Event             STAND   COMPANY
                SCK                            1    MHF Logistical Solutions Inc.
                                               2    AREVA
    Host of the Monday Breakfast
                                               3    Belgoprocess
            TECNUBEL                           3    SCK•CEN
    Host of the Wednesday Lunch                3    Tecnubel
                                               3    Tractebel Engineering
            TRACTEBEL                          4    EnergySolutions
      Host of the Tuesday Lunch                5    UKAEA
                                               6    Studsvik
                                               7    International Nuclear Solutions Plc.
          ~ Silver Sponsors ~                  8    Nexia Solutions Ltd
                                               9    NUKEM Technologies GmbH
       ENERGYSOLUTIONS                        10    A. N. Technology Ltd
  Host of the Tuesday Morning Break           11    ASME
                                              12    Stoller Corporation
                US EPA                        13    Waste Management Technology
 Host of the Wednesday Afternoon Break        14    Serapid
                                              15    Sellafield Ltd.
              STUDSVIK                        16    COVRA
  Host of the Monday Afternoon Break          16    Nuclear Research & Consultancy Group
                                              16a   British Nuclear Group Project Services Ltd.
                                              17    Pacific Nuclear Solutions
         ~ Bronze Sponsor ~
                                              18    Retech Systems LLC
      MHF Logistical Solutions Inc.           19    Microfiltrex
                                              20    International Atomic Energy Agency
                                              21    NUKEM Ltd
                                                                                                  37
 A. N. Technology Ltd.                          Stand: 10         AREVA                                          Stand: 2
For almost 20 years ANTECH have produced a range of              With manufacturing facilities in 41 countries and a sales
nuclear instrumentation solutions for the measurement and        network in more than 100, AREVA offers customers reliable
characterisation of SNM and radionuclides in waste and           technological solutions for CO2-free power generation and
provide sales, service and support worldwide.                    electricity transmission and distribution. We are the world
Our products are used to measure waste in crates, boxes, drums   leader in nuclear power and the only company to cover all
and cans and fall into three basic categories or combinations    industrial activities in this field.
thereof:                                                         Our 61,000 employees are committed to continuous
   • Gamma Ray Measurement Systems                               improvement on a daily basis, making sustainable development
   • Neutron Measuring Measurement Systems                       the focal point of the group’s industrial strategy.
   • Calorimeter Measurement Systems                             AREVA’s businesses help meet the 21st century’s greatest
   • Combined Technology Systems and Instruments                 challenges: making energy available to all, protecting the
   • Including Portal Monitoring for Homeland Security           planet, and acting responsibly towards future generations.
   • Custom Systems
                                                                 Contact: Anne Laure Revol
The Company also provides fully automated waste
                                                                          1, plase de la Coupole
characterisation systems employing multiple technologies,
                                                                          FR – 92084 Paris La Défense Cedex
conveyors and drum handling equipment.
                                                                          Tel: +33 1 47 96 61 28
Contact: Nick Challacombe                                                 Fax: +33 1 47 96 79 89
         Units 5/6 Thames Park, Lester Way                                e-mail: annelaure.revol@areva.com
         GB – Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 9TA                           www.areva.com
         Tel: +44 1491 824444
         Fax: +44 1491 832800
         e-mail: challacombe.nick@antech-inc.com
         www.antech-inc.com




38
 ASME                                               Stand: 11      COVRA                                               Stand: 16
ASME is a 125,000-member organization focused on technical,       All radioactive waste in the Netherlands is managed by
educational and research issues for the engineering community.    COVRA, the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste. Its
ASME conducts one of the world’s largest technical publishing     task is to execute the policy of the government. The policy is
operations, holds numerous technical conferences worldwide        that all kinds and categories of radioactive waste are stored for
(including the International Conference on Environmental          at least 100 years at one site, above ground in engineered
Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM) and           structures, which allows retrieval at all times. This step is to be
the International Conference on Nuclear Engineering               followed by deep disposal for all categories (low, intermediate
(ICONE)), and offers hundreds of professional development         and high level waste) in one single repository. The long term
courses each year. ASME sets internationally recognized           storage is in full operation now and necessary provisions for
industrial and manufacturing codes and standards that enhance     the next step have been taken as well. The capital growth fund
public welfare and safety. With offices in the US, Europe and     to finance the final disposal exists, waste generators pay for
Asia, ASME is a global organization serving the needs of          this and there is a clear choice for the ownership of the waste:
engineers everywhere. For additional information visit            all liabilities are transferred to the waste management
www.asme.org                                                      organisation COVRA.
Contact: John Bendo                                               The long term storage is a logical consequence of the small
         Nuclear Energy Business Manager                          volume of waste being generated in the Netherlands. Direct
         Three Park Avenue                                        disposal is economically not feasible for countries with a
         New York, NY 10016-5990 (USA)                            small nuclear power programme. For these countries there are
         Tel:(212) 591-7055                                       only two options: either long term storage to be followed by
         Fax: (212) 591-7671                                      deep disposal or join forces and start with a multilateral,
         E-mail: bendoj@asme.org                                  shared repository. Thus, the policy in the Netherlands for long
         www.asme.org                                             term storage is the result of a well balanced decision, accepted
                                                                  by Parliament in 1984.
                                                                  COVRA has a site available of about 25 ha at the industrial
 Belgoprocess                                        Stand: 3     area Vlissingen-Oost. This site offers enough space for the
                                                                  storage of existing waste and the waste expected to be
Belgoprocess ~ Cost effective solutions in radioactive waste
                                                                  produced in the next hundred years. At this site COVRA
management and decommissioning of nuclear facilities
                                                                  operates a facility including the following:
Belgoprocess is a Belgian leader in radioactive waste                 • an office building including an exhibition centre;
management and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.             • a building for the treatment of low and medium level
Belgoprocess is offering cost effective solutions to technical           wastes;
problems related to radioactive waste processing and storage or       • various storage buildings for conditioned low and
to decontamination and dismantling of nuclear facilities. Its            intermediate level waste, for NORM waste, for depleted
services include:                                                        uranium and for high level waste, including spent
   • Advice On Waste Processing Technologies                             research reactor fuel.
   • Characterization Of Waste Streams
                                                                  Contact: Eric van Leeuwen
   • Assistance In The Commissioning Of Nuclear Processing
                                                                           Postbus 202
      Facilities
                                                                           NL – 4680 AE Vlissingen
   • Development Of A Decommissioning Strategy
                                                                           Tel: +31 113 61 66 66
   • Development Of Decommissioning Plans
                                                                           Fax: +31 113 61 66 50
   • Advice On Decontamination And Dismantling
                                                                           e-mail: eric.van.leeuwen@covra.nl
      Techniques And Methods
                                                                           www.covra.nl
Contact: Paul Luycx
         Gravenstraat 73
         BE-2480 Dessel
         Tel: + 32 14 33 41 01
         e-mail: paul.luycx@belgoprocess.be
         www.belgoprocess.be


 British Nuclear Group                          Stand: 16a
   Project Services Ltd.
For additional information see our ad on page 40.




                                                                                                                                   39
40
 EnergySolutions                                    Stand: 4        International Nuclear Solutions Plc              Stand: 7
EnergySolutions is a nuclear-licensed operator and owner of        INS provides innovative ‘fit for purpose’ and safety-driven
nuclear facilities, providing management, transport, treatment     solutions from inception through to implementation. INS
and disposal services to governments, institutions and             undertakes:
companies world-wide. We provide clients with facility                • Decommissioning and Waste Management
management and operational support services, remediation and          • Waste and nuclear materials handling, packaging and
decommissioning, handling and transportation of radioactive              storage
materials and spent nuclear fuel. We develop start-up and             • New build activities and plant upgrades/modifications to
operate unique engineered solutions to liquid-solid; low,                support accelerated clean-up
intermediate and high level waste challenges encompassing the         • Support to commercial operational facilities including
complete nuclear fuel cycle.                                             fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing activities
Specific services include licensed site/facility, assessment and      • Plant asset care and maintenance
characterization; site remediation and closure;                       • Supply and integration of special purpose equipment and
decommissioning, decontamination and demolition for license              systems (including installation, commissioning and
termination; pollution prevention and waste minimization;                operational support)
facilities operation & management; waste processing and               • Nuclear design and engineering services
treatment; transportation and logistics; permanent waste           Architects of certainty, INS delivers: Technical solutions in
disposal; and engineering and technology applications.             support of clean-up and operational facilities.
In our effort to reduce the nuclear impact on our natural          Contact: Lisa Hayes
resources, we have developed unique waste volume reduction                  Northbank, Irlam,
technologies, innovative packaging alternatives and large scale             GB - Manchester M44 5AY
radioactive contaminated metal recycling capabilities. During               Tel : + 44 161 222 5500
the past decade EnergySolutions has safely processed 4 billion              Fax : +44 161 222 5501
liters of radioactive waste water; packaged, transported and                e-mail : lisa.hayes@ins-innovation.com
disposed of 3 million cubic meters of LLW, including spent ion              www.ins-innovation.com
exchange resin; incinerated and disposed of 115,000 metric tons
of Dry Active Wastes; and recycled more than 53,000 metric
tons of contaminated metal from Belgium, Canada, France,
Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom and United States.
Contact: Mark Kirshe
         423 West 300 South, Suite 200
         Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (USA)
         Tel: +1 301 957 3842
         Fax: +1 301 497 0148
         e-mail: mkirshe@energysolutions.com
         www.energysolutions.com


 International Atomic Energy                      Stand: 20
   Agency (IAEA)
The IAEA is the world´s Center of cooperation in the nuclear
field. It was set up as the world´s “Atoms for Peace”
organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The
Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners
worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear
technologies.
The Agency works to foster the role of nuclear science and
technology in support of sustainable human development.
Three main pillars - or areas of work - underpin the IAEA´s
mission: Safety and Security; Science and Technology; and
Safeguards and Verification A substantial part of the Agency’s
work relates to nuclear power, including its safety and waste
management, and ensuring that nuclear technology is being
used only for peaceful purposes. Where appropriate, the IAEA
facilitates transfer of nuclear technology to Member States for
use in medical, agricultural, industrial, water management, and
other applications.
The information available at the booth will be mainly related to
waste technology and waste safety issues.
Contact: Bruno Neerdael
         Wagramer Strasse 5
         AT – 1400 Vienna
         Tel: + 43 1 2600 22607
         e-mail: b.neerdael@iaea.org
         www.iaea.org

                                                                                                                              41
42
 MHF Logistical Solutions Inc.                      Stand: 1        Nexia Solutions Ltd.                               Stand: 8
MHF Logistical Solutions UK Limited is an asset-based,             Nexia Solutions is a nuclear technology products and services
vertically integrated packaging and transportation logistics       provider. The business specialises in providing customers with
provider that offers seamless solutions for generators and         tailored solutions and in delivering value.
shippers of radioactive, hazardous and non-hazardous waste,        Although its history and pedigree can be traced back to the
materials and byproducts.                                          beginnings of the nuclear industry, the foundation of Nexia
MHFLS-UK Ltd.’s operating units provide all of the project         Solutions was established by parent company British Nuclear
engineering and regulatory management, packaging, technical        Fuels plc (BNFL) in 1996. BNFL created an integrated
services, transportation (rail, truck, marine) and equipment       research and technology function out of dispersed units
necessary for end-to-end movement and disposition of clients’      resulting in operational efficiencies and the rationalisation of
streams of waste, materials and byproducts. This integrated        facilities.
approach offers improved project safety and lower overall          The business now has a strong commercial outlook and has
costs.                                                             evolved into a customer and delivery focused technology
MHF Logistical Solutions UK Ltd.’s corporate headquarters          organisation. Nexia Solutions was established on April 1, 2005.
are based in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S., suburb of         National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL)
Cranberry Township, with other offices in the U.S. and
                                                                   During the autumn of 2006, UK Government announced that
representation in the U.K. The company’s headquarters may be
                                                                   Nexia Solutions will form the foundation of a National Nuclear
reached at 724.772.9800, or info@mhfls.com.
                                                                   Laboratory. The NNL will be based around the skills and
Contact: Candace Preteroti                                         experience and products and services already residing in Nexia
         800 Cranberry Woods Drive, Site 450                       Solutions. The business will continue to develop these, while
         Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (USA)                        also developing collaborations and alliances with academia,
         Tel: +1 724 772 9800                                      research councils, industry and National Laboratories in other
         Fax: +1 724 772 9850                                      leading industrial countries.
         e-mail: candace_preteroti@mhfls.com                       Environmental Remediation
         www.mhfls.com
                                                                   The fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90 are typical examples of
                                                                   radionuclides occurring in ground contamination at civil
 Microfiltrex                                     Stand: 19        nuclear sites. Such contamination is often associated with
                                                                   alkaline liquids and the mobility of these fission products may
Microfiltrex designs and supplies specialised filtration           be affected by these chemical conditions. Nexia Solutions has
equipment for gas and liquid applications to the Nuclear           developed a comprehensive integrated suite of modelling
Industries of the UK, Europe and the USA.                          techniques to investigate the behaviour of radioactive plumes
Working primarily with metallic filter media, Microfiltrex can     containing these fission products. Results show that modelling
provide filters for high temperature, high solids (for example     is a highly cost-effective method to study the complex hydro-
powder transport), high activity and chemically aggressive         geological and geochemical processes involved. These
environments.                                                      techniques can also help predict the mobility of contaminants
                                                                   in a range of site end point scenarios and can be used to assess
Microfiltrex Pulsed Jet Self Cleaning gas filters are used in a
                                                                   the consequences of the whole range of decommissioning
variety of applications, returning to the user the captured
                                                                   activities.
solids, either for disposal, recycling or forward use in the
process, without interruption to the process flow and with very    Contact: Janet Collinson
low pressure loss.                                                          H260
The company can also provide HEPA grade metal filters for                   Hinton House
both vent and process applications for extreme environments,                Risley, Warrington
as well as cost-effective Pulsed Jet HEPA pre-filtration systems            GB – Cheshire WA3 6AS
capable of removing >99.95% of particles above 0.5 microns                  Tel: +1925 834560
                                                                            Fax: +1925 864362
Microfiltrex manufactures a wide range of specially designed
                                                                            e-mail: janet.collinson@nexiasolutions.com
waste package breathers, each designed specifically to meet                 www.nexiasolutions.com
customer’s needs, as well as it’s fully WIPP ‘TRUvent’ filter
bung for US transuranic waste packaging.
The company can also supply liquid filtration solutions using
crossflow, backflushing and dead-end filtration techniques.
Microfiltrex is an engineering company working in the field of
nuclear filtration and has the capability of taking the most
difficult solids separation duties and providing technically and
economically optimised solutions, designed individually for
purpose.
Contact: Margaret Gregory
         Fareham Industrial Park
         GB – Fareham PO16 8XG
         Tel: +44 1329 285616
         Fax: +44 1329 822442
         e-mail: info@porvairfiltration.com
         www.porvairfiltration.com




                                                                                                                                 43
                                                                   ability to deliver practical and cost-effective solutions to the
 Nuclear Research & Consultincy Group (NRG)                        most demanding problems faced by the nuclear industry today.
                                   Stand: 16
                                                                   Contact: Christopher Medlock
As the Dutch centre of excellence, The Nuclear Research &                   The Library
Consultancy Group (NRG) develops knowledge, products                        Harwell Science and Innovation
and processes for safe applications of nuclear technology on                Campus Didcot
behalf of energy, environment and health. Safety and quality                GB – Oxfordshire OX11 0RL
are our main priorities.                                                    Tel: +44 1235 514883
The group Radiation & Environment has various teams that                    Fax: +44 1235 514591
deal with “Measurement of Radioactivity”, “Consultancy and                  e-mail: christopher.medlock@nukem.co.uk
Safety”, “Environmental and Individual Monitoring”                          www.nukem.co.uk
“Decommissioning, Waste treatment and Disposal”. These
teams use various techniques and methodologies for the
determination of the radioactivity in a large range of materials    NUKEM Technologies GmbH                            Stand: 9
and in the environment and advise about the safe use and           NUKEM Technologies GmbH is a leading service provider for
handling of radioactive materials. In addition research is being   the nuclear industry world-wide, in particular the company
done to minimize the amount of radioactive waste. This             target markets are Western and Eastern Europe as well as Asia.
research involves recycling options for low level waste,           Main business activities include the management of radioactive
transmutation studies and safe long-term disposal options for      waste, decommissioning, engineering and consulting.
high radioactive waste.
                                                                   The company’s waste management program comprises a broad
NRG provides consultancy and Operational Support during the        spectrum of services ranging from the development, delivery
operational phase and Decontamination and Decommissioning          and operation of radioactive waste treatment systems (e.g.
phase of nuclear as well as non-nuclear industries. Activities     sorting stations, evaporation, cementing and incineration
range from planning, licence applications, risk analysis, cost     systems, high-pressure compactors, etc.) to the construction of
studies, measurements to clean-up operations.                      complete waste treatment centers. Operating since 2003, the
Some examples of Decontamination and Dismantling work              Waste Treatment Center at the Russian Balakovo NPP acts as a
conducted by NRG:                                                  industry-proven referee.
   • ALARA planning in several facilities                          Nuclear facility decommissioning, decontamination and
      Low Flux Reactor, 10 kW research reactor: removal and        dismantling require extensive technical know-how as well as a
      rebuilding;                                                  solid understanding of regulatory laws and procedures.
   • KSTR, 1 MW research reactor: complete removal of              NUKEM’s long-standing experience and successful projects
      reactor and systems; return to greenfield High Flux          like the decommissioning and dismantling of the Kahl Nuclear
      Reactor, 50 MW research reactor: vessel and thermal          Power Test Plant in Germany underline the company’s role as
      column replacement; 1984                                     perfect partner for all decommissioning tasks.
   • Decommissioning of radiological laboratories;
      Dodewaard, 60 MWe BWR: operational support 2000 +            The Group`s Engineering and Consulting services play an
      Decommissioning of naval vessels                             important role in contributing to innovative design and build,
      Decommissioning and operational support of NORM              better facility management, safe and efficient operational
      contaminated facilities.                                     control.
                                                                   Consistent customer orientation and quality management are
Contact: Maaike Bakker                                             essential cornerstones of NUKEM’s corporate philosophy. The
         Utrechtseweg 310, P.O.Box 9034                            company places a high premium on individualized service,
         NL – 6800 ES Arnhem                                       timely project completion, complete and understandable
         Tel: +31 224 56 80 19                                     documentation and providing its customers with superior-
         Fax: +31 264 43 536                                       quality products.
         e-mail: bakker@nrg-nl.com
         www.nrg-nl.com                                            Contact: Beate Scheffler
                                                                            Industriestrasse 13
                                                                            DE – 63755 Alzenau
 NUKEM Ltd.                                       Stand: 21                 Tel: +49 6023 911147
                                                                            Fax: +49 6023 911188
NUKEM Limited is one of Europe’s largest independent                        e-mail: beate.scheffler@nukem.de
suppliers of nuclear engineering, consulting and health physics             www.nukem.de
services. The Company is part of the Freyssinet Group, a
specialist in construction and ground engineering with a strong
presence at nuclear sites in France and around the world.
Freyssinet is a subsidiary of VINCI, the largest company in
construction and related services worldwide.
NUKEM Limited has supported the UK nuclear industry for
over 40 years, and has around 1,000 staff based at offices on or
near key nuclear facilities in the UK. The Company’s
capabilities range from front-end consultancy through
construction and operations to final liabilities management.
Activities include design and build of new facilities, nuclear
decommissioning, waste management, land remediation and
radiation safety.
NUKEM Limited’s breadth and depth of experience is
enhanced by an understanding of international best practice
developed through global operations, resulting in the proven
44
 Pacific Nuclear Solutions                         Stand: 17          Retech Systems LLC                               Stand: 18
Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS) / Nochar is a global leader in       Since its inception in 1968, Retech continues to engineer and
liquid solidification technologies for organic, aqueous, sludge      manufacture vacuum and controlled atmosphere furnaces for
types and complex radioactive waste streams generated at             melting and casting high performance metals, including
NPP’s, weapons facilities, research institutes, etc. The high-       titanium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, Ni-based super-alloys,
tech polymer systems provide a safe and economic method of           rare earths, etc. Retech is the world’s leading supplier of
stabilization for low to high level radwaste. Once solidified, the   Plasma and EB Furnaces (exclusively featuring Von Ardenne
waste can be safely transported and stored for short term,           EB Guns), Plasma Welders and Vacuum Precision Investment
interim or final disposal or it can be incinerated.                  Casting Furnaces (VIM). With approximately 380 systems
The “N” series products are used at many U.S. Department of          installed in over 16 countries, Retech is also among the world’s
Energy sites (Savannah River, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, Oak           leading suppliers of VAR Furnaces, Cold Wall Induction
Ridge) and in many countries; France, U.K., China, Russia,           (ISM), Ti Consumable Casting, vacuum atomization and strip
Romania, Slovenia, Canada and Australia.                             casting furnaces, lab furnaces, etc.
The primary advantages of the “N” series are: no leaching,           Contact: Jennifer Tamayo
minimal volumetric increase, no degradation under irradiation,                100 Henry Station Road
helps to immobilize heavy metals and good absorbent capacity.                 Ukiah, CA 95482 (USA)
Nochar’s polymers may be applied to contaminated oils, oil                    Tel: +1 707 462 6522
with tritium, mixed sludges, acids, aqueous solutions with salts              Fax: +1 707 462 4103
and other solids, extractants, and solvents.                                  e-mail: Jennifer.tamayo@retechsystemsllc.com
                                                                              www.retechsystemsllc.com
Contact: Dennis Kelley
         Pacific Nuclear Solutions
         450 East 96th Street, suite 335
         Indianapolis, IN 46240 (USA)
         Tel: +1 317 705 8848
         Fax: +1 317 705 8849
         e-mail: pwtusa@aol.com
         www.pacificworldtrade.com




                                                                                                                                   45
 SCK•CEN                                             Stand: 3        Sellafield Ltd.                                  Stand: 15
Belgian Nuclear Research Centre ~ Research towards a                Sellafield Ltd is a Specialist Site Management and nuclear
sustainable option                                                  clean-up business. Part of the BNFL Group, our strategy and
SCK•CEN: at first glance, little more than a set of initials. Yet   focus is clear - to deliver accelerated nuclear clean-up
behind those six capitals, more than 600 dedicated people           programs, safely and cost-effectively for our customers in the
advance the peaceful, sustainable, medical and industrial           UK and overseas. Our company is founded on a proud track
applications of nuclear energy.                                     record of applying in-depth experience to complex nuclear
                                                                    challenges. The end result will be a safe environment, both
SCK•CEN’s activities go -literally- from the deep underground       now and for future generations.
to outer space and are concentrated into the following main
tracks:                                                             A key part of the UK nuclear industry for more than five
   • Nuclear Materials Science                                      decades the Sellafield Site represents the most challenging
   • Advanced Nuclear Systems                                       nuclear site management programme in the world.
   • Environment, Health and Safety                                 Sellafield was originally established during the early 1940s to
   • Education and Training                                         home Royal Ordnance factories, producing explosives for
                                                                    World War II. However, the British Government sought to
Contact: Anne Verledens                                             develop its own independent nuclear capability recognising
         Boeretang 200                                              atomic energy could be harnessed for commercial uses.
         BE-2400 Mol
         Tel: + 32 14 33 25 86                                      During the early 1950s Britain’s scientists and engineers
         e-mail: anne.verledens@sckcen.be                           combined to develop the world’s first civil nuclear reactor
         www.sckcen.be                                              programme In 1953 Prime Minister Winston Churchill ordered
                                                                    the building of four reactors and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth
                                                                    II officially opened Calder Hall, the first commercial Nuclear
                                                                    Power Station in the world in October 1956.




46
Today, Sellafield Ltd manage and operate the site on behalf of
the owners, The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA).
                                                                      Stoller Corporation                                Stand: 12
Activities centre on remediation, decommissioning, accelerated       Stoller UK Limited is the British-based subsidiary of the
hazard reduction and clean-up of the historic legacy.                Stoller Corporation, a Colorado-based consultancy and
Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980s although at the          contracting firm providing expertise in nuclear
time the Site emphases was focused on commercial                     decommissioning, radioactive and hazardous waste
reprocessing and waste management.                                   management, contaminated land remediation, nuclear
                                                                     engineering, risk assessment and regulatory compliance.
Minimal funding delayed real decommissioning progress until
the formation of the NDA and British Nuclear Groups Clean            Our reputation spans four decades of innovative approaches,
Up organisation shifted this emphasis towards accelerated            effective management, and demonstrated success with
Decommissioning.                                                     international and national clients in both the public and private
                                                                     sectors. In the United States, Stoller is the leading environmental
Nuclear Decommissioning and Major Project Group was
                                                                     contractor to the Department of Energy and manages clean-up
formed in November 2006 to manage all of the current and
                                                                     programs at over 100 contaminated sites including at Hanford,
future decommissioning work and major build projects on the
                                                                     Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats and the Nevada Test Site.
Sellafield Site.
                                                                     Stoller now offers to the European market this practical site
The Nuclear Decommissioning and Major Projects programme
                                                                     decommissioning and remediation experience combined with
is the largest and most diverse in the world today with a total
                                                                     in-depth knowledge of European policy, regulations and
value of £42 billion.
                                                                     working arrangements. In the UK, Stoller has recently been
Contact: Gill Marsden                                                awarded by British Nuclear Group (BNG) a contract to manage
         Sellafield B548, Seascale                                   the groundwater and contaminated land monitoring programme
         GB – Cumbria CA20 1PG                                       at the Sellafield site.
         Tel: +44 19467 87772
                                                                     Contact: Bill Miller
         e-mail: gill.m.marsden@sellafieldsites.com
                                                                              43 Westgate
         www.sellafieldsites.com
                                                                              GB – North Berwick, Scotland EH39 4AG
                                                                              Tel: +44 7931 256288
                                                                              e-mail: bmiller@stoller.com
 Serapid                                            Stand: 14                 www.stoller.com
For over 30 years Serapid has been supplying its rigid chain
linear actuators to the most demanding industries across the
globe.                                                                Studsvik                                             Stand: 6
During that time Serapid products have been widely used in the       Studsvik is a leading service supplier to the international
nuclear industry world-wide for moving trolleys, bogies and          nuclear industry. The company has sixty years’ experience of
tools.                                                               nuclear technology and radiological services. Studsvik
They are the first choice in the nuclear industry for horizontal     addresses a market in strong growth with specialized services
and vertical linear actuation due to their strength, simplicity      in four Strategic Business Areas:
and reputation for reliability. The unique system employs a          Waste treatment
chain which locks up in the horizontal plane to become a rigid           • Processing of radioactive waste
pushing bar in the direction of travel with the ability to coil up       • On-site waste services
into a compact magazine as it is retracted. In most situations           • Transport logistics
the drive and motorisation can be fitted outside the radioactive         • Waste management consulting services
area, leaving only a passive steel chain and guide within the            • Health physics services
radioactive area.
                                                                     Decommissioning
A standard range of chains provides linear pushing and pulling           • Decommissioning services
forces up to 160kN over any distance required                            • On-site waste services
Serapid’s engineers are very familiar with the requirements of           • Health physics services
the nuclear industry and can provide specialist support on the       Operating efficiency
application and integration of Serapid’s products for the                • Fuel and materials performance
nuclear industry.                                                        • Materials integrity and water chemistry
As well as their standard products, the systems are available in         • Nuclear fuel analysis software
Stainless steel. Serapid can provide a high level of                     • Transport logistics
customisation to suit every environment and can provide              Service and Maintenance
secondary design services such as seismic design and analysis.           • Operational and outage support
More information about Serapid’s products can be found on                • Health physics services
our website www.serapid.com                                              • On-site waste services
Contact: Dominique Thoumire                                          Studsvik has 1,200 employees in 7 countries and the
         453 Roude de Dieppe                                         company’s shares are listed on the nordic Stock exchange
         FR – 76660 Londinieres                                      Stockholm, MidCap
         Tel: +33 2 35 93 82 82                                      Contact: Gregor Krause
         Fax: +33 2 68 94 10 93                                               Karlsruher Strasse 20
         e-mail: info@serapid.com                                             DE – 75179 Pforzheim
         www.serapid.com                                                      Tel: +49 7231 586 9515
                                                                              Fax: +49 7231 586 9513
                                                                              e-mail: gregor.krause@sina.de
                                                                              www.studsvik.de


                                                                                                                                      47
 Tecnubel                                             Stand: 3        Tractebel Engineering                             Stand: 3
Tecnubel/ECS provides services to nuclear sites in Belgium           Innovative engineering solutions throughout the whole nuclear
and abroad, from nuclear power plants to nuclear fuel cycle          life cycle
facilities and from nuclear research centers to waste treatment      Since the 1960s,Tractebel Engineering has built up a very
facilities.                                                          substantial track record in the nuclear power sector, providing
Tecnubel is your partner from the beginning of the project and       project management, consulting and engineering services to
offers you a full spectrum of technical skills and capabilities in   nuclear power plant operators, nuclear research centers,
the field of decontamination and dismantling.                        radwaste management agencies and nuclear equipment
Besides this Tecnubel can also take care of some secondary           suppliers around the world. Their multidisciplinary expert
tasks like teleoperations,                                           teams provide sound, unbiased advice and state-of-the-art
                                                                     services.
televisual inspections, construction of confined areas, nuclear
logistics and waste treatment.                                       Tractebel Engineering implements safe and cost-effective
                                                                     strategies for the management of radwaste and spent fuel
Tecnubel has a wide range of materials and tools for executing       with highly diverse constraints and requirements. And also
D & D projects. A variety of mechanical and chemical means           developed a range of integrated concepts to assist with the
can be deployed for different applications. All techniques are       decommissioning of nuclear installations.
mobile and can easily be transported and easily put into action
on site.                                                             Contact: Yves Crommelynck
                                                                              Avenue Ariane 7
Contact: Koen Lenie                                                           BE -1200 Brussels
         Gravenstraat 73                                                      Tel: +32 2 773 79 71
         BE-2480 Dessel                                                       e-mail: yves.crommelynck@tractebel.com
         Tel: +32 14 34 69 11                                                 www.tractebel.com
         e-mail: koen.lenie@tecnubel.be
         www.tecnubel.be




48
49
                                                     UKAEA                                              Stand: 5
                                                    Founded in 1954, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy
                                                    Authority (UKAEA) initially pioneered the development of
                                                    civil nuclear energy in the UK. UKAEA is now Europe’s most
                                                    experienced nuclear decommissioning organisation, with a
                                                    record of safely restoring sites and regenerating them to leave a
                                                    positive legacy. On behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning
                                                    Authority, it manages the clean-up of former research sites at
                                                    Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith.
                                                    The organisation is now aiming to target wider opportunities in
                                                    nuclear clean-up, waste management and environmental
                                                    restoration markets, in the UK and overseas. A key part of this
                                                    strategy was to establish a partnership with AMEC and CH2M
                                                    Hill. UKAEA also manages the UK’s research into Nuclear
                                                    Fusion.
                                                    Contact: Suzi Thompson
                                                             Marshall Building
                                                             531 Downs Way, Harwell Didcot
                                                             GB – Oxon OX11 0RA
                                                             e-mail: suzi.thompson@ukaea.org.uk
                                                             www.ukaea.org


                                                     Waste Management Technology                       Stand: 13
                                                    Waste Management Technology (WMT) business is a leading
                                                    provider of independent radioactive waste management
                                                    services to the UK and overseas nuclear market.
                                                    Few companies in the UK can offer similar depth and breadth
                                                    of resource and expertise and indeed, no single company offers
                                                    the same comprehensive radioactive waste management
                                                    capabilities.
                                                    WMT is able to provide a full range of services for radioactive
                                                    waste management, including:
                                                       • Waste management assessments and consultancy studies
         Waste Management Technology                   • Waste sampling and characterisation
                                                       • Advanced waste treatment processes
             provides a comprehensive                  • Recycling, recovery and recategorisation
                                                          (e.g.detritiation)
      radioactive waste menagement service             • Waste packaging and immobilisation
                                                       • Impact and fire testing of transport packages
               to the nuclear industry,                • Radioactive materials transport
                                                       • Analytical and radiochemistry
      from assessments and strategy studies            • Waste management plant optimisation, design review
                                                          and validation
            to processing and disposal              WMT is able to provide a highly specialised and fully
                                                    integrated approach to delivering solutions across the waste
                                                    management cycle.


     Contact Details: Kevin Butler
                      Waste Management Technology
                      B44 Winfrith
                      Dorchester
                      Dorset DT2 8DH
                      UK

                    Tel +44 (0)1305 202291
                    Fax +44 (0)1305 202663
                    email kevin.butler@wmt.co.uk




50
51
Session 1-2                                                                                                                     Abstracts

                                                SESSION 1 - OPENING SESSION
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

         SESSION 2 - SUPPORT TO THE GLOBAL G-8 PARTNERSHIP IN NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION
                                              1) THE CLOSED FUEL CYCLE-7043
                                       Antoine Froment; Philippe Gillet, AREVA NC (France)
     The fast growth of the world’s economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and
for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21st century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficien-
cy of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the “ren-
aissance” of this greenhouse gas free energy.
     Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corre-
sponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloadings
14,000 tHM/year.
     AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the
worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preserva-
tion of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while
significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations.
                       2) THE CRUCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE BACK-END IN MULTINATIONAL
                                 INITIATIVES TO ENHANCE FUEL CYCLE SECURITY-7208
                   Charles McCombie; Neil Chapman, Arius Association (Switzerland); Tom Isaacs, LLNL (USA)
     There have been repeated proposals for establishing multinational cooperation approaches that could reduce the security con-
cerns of spreading nuclear technologies. Most recently, there have been initiatives by both Russia (GNPI) and the USA (GNEP) -
each aimed at promoting nuclear power whilst limiting security concerns. In practice, both initiatives place emphasis on the sup-
ply of reactors and enriched fuel but neither has made clear and specific proposals about the back-end part of the arrangement. The
primary incentive offered to the user countries is “security of supply” of the front end services. However, there is no current short-
age of supply of front end services, so that the incentives are not large. A much greater incentive could be the provision of a spent
fuel or waste disposal service. The fuel supplied to Tier 2 countries could be shipped back (with no return of wastes) to the suppli-
er or else to an accepted third party country that is trusted to operate safe and secure disposal facilities. If a comprehensive service
that obviates the need for a national deep repository is offered to small countries then there will be a really strong incentive for them
to sign up to GNEP or GNPI type deals.
 3) VISION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR FUEL RECYCLING PROGRAM-7356
                                       Kenneth Kok, Washington Group International (USA)
     The purpose of the development of an international nuclear fuel recycle program is to:
     • Demonstrate advanced recycling by working to prove the technologies needed to close the fuel cycle, minimize waste, and
         obtain more energy benefit for each unit of fuel.
     • Build a global vision by enlisting partners to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies in a way that enables nuclear
         power to meet global challenges.
     The program will begin with the establishment of a smaller scale secure fuel cycle facility that would serve as a model for inter-
national nuclear fuel reprocessing centers that would eventually be built in several countries world wide. The operating process
plants will provide the secure and safe guarded environment for the recycle of spent fuel from nuclear power stations around the
world. The demonstration site will provide for developing and testing processes that would lead to the more complete use of the
energy available in nuclear fuels and the minimization of long lived nuclear waste.
                                    4) SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT - A USER’S PERSPECTIVE:
          SUMMARY OF PANEL DISCUSSIONS AND FINDINGS FROM WM’07 IN TUCSON, ARIZONA-7357
                                            Dennis Berry, Sandia National Laboratory (USA)
     A global partnership between nuclear energy supplier nations and user nations could enable the safe and secure expansion of
nuclear power throughout the world. Although it is likely that supplier nations and their industries would be anxious to sell reac-
tors and fuel services as part of this partnership, their commitment to close the fuel cycle (i.e., permanently take back fuel and high-
level waste) remains unclear. At the 2007 Waste Management Symposia in Tucson, Arizona, USA, a distinguished international
panel explored fuel take back and waste disposal from the perspective of current and prospective user nations. This paper reports
on the findings of that panel and presents a path for policy makers to move forward with the partnership vision.




52
Abstracts                                                                                                                Session 3-4

            SESSION 3 - GNEP PANEL - FUEL DISPOSAL, WASTE MINIMIZATION, AND SAFEGUARDS
                                                ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

              SESSION 4 - D&D PROGRAMS: STATUS, APPROACHES, POLICIES AND CHALLENGES
                           1) DECOMMISSIONING OF THE NUCLEAR LICENSED FACILITIES
                                    AT THE FONTENAY AUX ROSES CEA CENTER-7060
      Michel Jeanjacques; Laurence Piketty; Nathalie Letuhaire; Lionel Mandard; Igor Meden; David Estivié; Jean François
          Boissonneau; Alain Fouquereau; Eric Pichereau; Cedric Binet, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Direction de
           l’Energie Nucléaire (France) Direction de l’Energie Nucléaire, DANS-DRSN-SAFAR, (France); Cedric Binet,
               Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Direction de l’Energie Nucléaire, DANS-DRSN-SAFAR, (France)
     The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission’s oldest center
is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went
critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site.
             2) DECOMMISSIONING CONSIDERATIONS AT A TIME OF NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE-7214
                                           Dr. Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy LLC, (USA)
     At a time of renaissance in the nuclear power industry, when it is estimated that anywhere between 60 to 130 new power reac-
tors may be built worldwide over the next 15 years, why should we focus on decommissioning? Yet it is precisely the time to exam-
ine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account as the industry proceeds with developing final designs for
new reactors and the construction on the new build begins.
     One of the lessons learned from decommissioning of existing reactors has been that decommissioning was not given much
thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Even though decommissioning may be sixty years down the
road from the time they go on line, eventually all reactors will be decommissioned. It is only prudent that new designs be optimized
for eventual decommissioning, along with the other major considerations.
     The overall objective in this regard is that when the time comes for decommissioning, it can be completed in shorter time
frames, with minimum generation of radioactive waste, and with better radiological safety. This will ensure that the tail end costs
of the power reactors are manageable and that the public confidence in the nuclear power is sustained through the renaissance
and beyond.
      3) WINDSCALE PILE REACTORS - DECOMMISSIONING PROGRESS ON A FIFTY YEAR LEGACY-7157
                             Richard Sexton, CH2M Hill International Nuclear Services/UKAEA (UK)
     The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challeng-
ing decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident,
its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile
Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, high payload
robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decom-
missioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessments of reactor core fire and criticality risk
which concluded if relatively simple controls are applied these type of events are not credible. This paper presents an overview
of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the
Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste esti-
mate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated
project cost and schedule.
4) DECOMMISSIONING - AN APPROACH TO PREDICT THE AMOUNT OF ARISING RADIOACTIVE WASTE-7304
                        Karin Kugel, Peter Brennecke, Wolf Koch, Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Germany)
      In the next decades many facilities are going to be decommissioned in Germany. On the basis of the agreement between the
utilities and the Federal Government on the phase out of nuclear energy use for commercial electricity generation predictions can
be made on the schedule of the shut down of nuclear installations in Germany and a prognosis might be given for the complete
amount of decommissioning waste that will arise. 17 nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations are to be shut down and
decommissioned within the next 2 decades.
      An approach for the prediction of the amount of radioactive waste and an overview on the underlying assumptions is given.
The prognosis for the expected radioactive waste in Germany depends on several assumptions.
      Utilities in Germany expect approx. 5000 m3 of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation from decommissioning per
reactor. New inquiries seem to indicate that less radioactive waste may arise due to new techniques in decontamination and condi-
tioning. Nevertheless, there will be limits due to costs and physical properties.




                                                                                                                                  53
Session 5-6                                                                                                                   Abstracts

                                     SESSION 5 - PANEL: EMERGING ISSUES IN D & D
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

              SESSION 6 - NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR L/ILW MANAGEMENT
                   1) MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN BELGIUM: ONDRAF/NIRAS AND
                   BELGOPROCES AS MAJOR ACTORS OF THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE SYSTEM-7257
                   Gunter Van Zaelen, ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Annick Verheyen, Belgoprocess N.V. (Belgium)
     The management of radioactive waste in Belgium is undertaken by the national agency for radioactive waste and enriched fis-
sile materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, and its industrial partner Belgoprocess.
     ONDRAF/NIRAS has set up a management system designed to guarantee that the general public and the environment are pro-
tected against the potential hazards arising from radioactive waste.
     Belgoprocess is a private company, founded in 1984 and located in Dessel, Belgium. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS
and its activities focus on the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste.
     The management system of ONDRAF/NIRAS includes two aspects: a) an integrated system and b) an acceptance system.
     The integrated system covers all aspects of management ranging from the origin of waste to its transport, processing, interim
storage and long-term management. The safety of radioactive waste management not only depends on the quality of the design and
construction of the processing, temporary storage or disposal infrastructure, but also on the quality of the waste accepted by
ONDRAF/NIRAS. In order to be managed safely, both in the short and the long term, the waste transferred to ONDRAF/NIRAS
must meet certain specific requirements. To that end, ONDRAF/NIRAS has developed an acceptance system.
           2) CURRENT STATUS OF THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN SPAIN-7101
                                          Emilio Garcia, Jorge Lang-Lenton; Enresa (Spain)
      Since 1984, ENRESA is responsible of the radioactive waste management and the decommissioning of nuclear installations in
Spain.
      The major recent challenge has been the approval of the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan (GRWP) as “master plan” of
the activities to be performed by ENRESA. Regarding the LILW program, the El Cabril LILW disposal facility will be described
highlighting the most relevant events especially focused on optimizing the existing capacity and the start-up of a purpose -built dis-
posal area for VLLW.
      Concerning the HLW program, two aspects may be distinguished in the direct management of spent fuel: temporary storage
and long-term management.
      In this regards, a major challenge has been the decision adopted by the Spanish Government to set up a Interministerial Com-
mittee for the establishment of the criteria that must be met by the site of the Centralized Intermediate Storage (CTS) facility as the
first and necessary step for the process.
      Also the developments of the long-term management program will be presented in the frame of the ENRESA’s R&D program.
      Finally, in the field of decommissioning they will be presented the PIMIC project at the CIEMAT centre and the activities in
course for the decommissioning of José Cabrera NPP.
                3) THE BELGIAN APPROACH AND STATUS ON THE RADIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
                     OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN METAL SCRAP AND NON-RADIOACTIVE
                                 WASTE AND THE FINANCING OF ORPHAN SOURCES-7096
              Marnix Braeckeveldt, NIRAS/ONDRAF (Belgium); Jan Michiels, FANC/AFCN (Belgium); Peter De Preter,
              NIRAS/ONDRAF (Belgium); Stéphane Pepin, Manfred Schrauben, An Wertelaers, FANC/AFCN (Belgium)
      Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sec-
tor and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These meas-
uring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors
concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facil-
ities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium’s federal nuclear control
agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioac-
tive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port’s alarm goes off. Following the
publication of the European guideline 2003/122/Euratom of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive
sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency
for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further manage-
ment of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-
2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management.
      At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive
waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources
and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund.




54
Abstracts                                                                                                                  Session 6-7

     4) FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENLARGEMENT OF THE NATIONAL REPOSITORY AT MOCHOVCE - 7391
    No Abstract Provided

                        5) OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR NATIONAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE
                            AND SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN SLOVENIA-7103
                                      Nadja Zeleznik, Metka Kralj, Irena Mele; ARAO (Slovenia)
     The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Program (National Program) was prepared in
Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Program and was adopted in February 2006 by the
Slovenian Parliament. The new National Program includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste
and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the manage-
ment of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near
future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Program identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the tech-
nical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010-2015. According to the requirement of Act on Pro-
tection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the opera-
tional programs for the four year period with technical details on the implementation of National program. ARAO gained the
detailed plans of different involved holders and propose 9 operational programs with aims, measures, individual organizations in
charge, expenses and resources for each of the program. The Operational programs were already reviewed by Ministry of Environ-
ment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the
National Program and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategic decisions of Slovenian Government
is presented in the paper.
        6) CHALLENGES DEALING WITH DEPLETED URANIUMIN GERMANY - REUSE OR DISPOSAL-7294
                                   Kai Möller, Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Germany)
      During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium
are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore
since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of deplet-
ed Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated
by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with deplet-
ed uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment
is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF6 is generated. It is an international consensus that
for storage it should be converted to U3O8. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be
characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for
non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license wouldn’t
allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has
not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted
uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some indus-
trial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks
for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well
as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium
(HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements.
           7) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTAION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMNINATED LEAD-7182
          Eugene Gleason, MHF Logistical Transportation (USA); Gerard Holden, Gravatom Engineering Limited (UK)
     Under the management of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) the government of the United Kingdom has
launched an ambitious program to remediate the nation’s nuclear waste legacy. Over a twenty-five year period NDA plans to
decommission several first generation nuclear power plants and other radioactive facilities. The use innovative, safe “fit for pur-
pose” technologies will be a major part of this complex program. This paper will present a case study of a recently completed proj-
ect undertaken in support of the nuclear decommissioning activities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom. The focus is on
an innovative application of new packaging technology developed for the safe transportation of radioactively contaminated lead
objects. Several companies collaborated on the project and contributed to its safe and successful conclusion. These companies
include British Nuclear Group, Gravatom Engineering, W. F. Bowker Transport, Atlantic Container Lines, MHF Logistical Solu-
tions and Energy Solutions. New containers and a new innovative intermodal packaging system to transport the radioactive lead
were developed and demonstrated during the project. The project also demonstrated the potential contribution of international
nuclear recycling activities as a safe, economic and feasible technical option for nuclear decommissioning in the United Kingdom.
Eugene J. Gleason is Vice President for Government Affairs and International Initiatives at MHF Logistical Solutions. Gerard Hold-
en is Director for Waste packaging at Gravatom Engineering Limited.

                         SESSION 7 - WASTE MINIMIZATION, AVOIDANCE, AND RECYCLING
                           1) THERMAL TREATMENT OF HISTORICAL RADIOACTIVE SOLID
                               AND LIQUID WASTE INTO THE CILVA INCINERATOR-7333
                                        Jan Deckers, Ludo Mols, Belgoprocess N.V. (Belgium)
     Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable
technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by
the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Bel-
gian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne
of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incinera-

                                                                                                                                   55
Session 7                                                                                                                      Abstracts

tion process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of
tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste
and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGO-
PROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is special-
ized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency.
According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim
storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land;
operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste.
             2) MELTING OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE NON-FERROUS METAL FOR RELEASE-7036
                    Ulrich Quade, Thomas Kluth, Rainer Kerch, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)
     Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear
cycle as well as for release to general reuse.
     Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will
remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes
more important.
     Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt
treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside differ-
ent procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used.
     Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have
met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance.
     The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg.
     Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released.
     The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a coopera-
tion with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned.
                   3) NUCLEAR WASTE TREATMENT - STUDYING THE MIXED ION TYPE EFFECTS
                      AND CONCENTRATION ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF OXIDE DISPERSIONS-7005
                                   Qanitalillahi Omokanye, Simon Biggs, University of Leeds (UK)
     In order to gain good control over a particulate dispersion it is necessary to accurately characterise the strength of inter-parti-
cle forces that may be operating. Such control is not routinely used, as yet, in the nuclear industry despite the possible benefits.
     We are investigating the impact of mixed electrolyte systems, for example NaCl and Na2SO4, on the stability of oxide simu-
lant particle dispersions. The electroacoustic zeta potentials and shear yield stresses for concentrated dispersions have been meas-
ured across a range of pH conditions and electrolyte concentrations (0.001 M - 1.0 M). This paper summarizes initial data from
these studies showing how the shear yield stress of concentrated aqueous oxide particle dispersions, can be adjusted through regu-
lation of pH and the addition of background electrolytes (salt). The yield stress as a function of pH for these dispersions in mixed
electrolytes showed a direct correlation with corresponding measurements of the zeta potential. Changes in the background elec-
trolyte concentration or type were seen to cause a shift in the position of the isoelectric point (iep). Measurements of the shear yield
stress showed a maximum at the iep corresponding to the position of maximum instability in the suspension. The consequences of
these data for the efficient treatment of solid-liquid systems will be discussed.
          4) USING PRESSURE DECAY METHODOLOGY TO DETECT GLOVEBOX GLOVE FAILURES-7018
                          Michael Cournoyer, Stephen Schreiber, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA);
                                             Steve Chunglo, Getinge la Calhene, (USA)
     At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium’s Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides
are handled in a glove box environment. Data collected from 700 unplanned openings in the glovebox environment indicate that
40% of these ruptures are glove failures, openings in the glove caused by degradation of the mechanical properties over time, e.g.
exposure to chemicals and nuclear materials. The primary means of minimizing these types of glove failures is through a robust
glove inspection program. Through a collaborative effort with Getinge La Calhène, we have beta-tested their In-situ Glove Leak
Tester (GLT2) in an active ventilation glovebox environment. This instrument tests glovebox gloves in place and uses pressure
decay methodology, to tests up to four gloves at a time, in less than 5 minutes per test, and provides documentation of each test.
While the GLT2 has been successful in static pressure enclosures that are possible in the pharmaceutical industry, the uninterrupt-
ible active negative pressure gloveboxes used in the nuclear industry present a new set of issues. In the following report, these issues
are addressed and the limits of this technology defined, with the end result being that waste generated from glove failures has been
minimized.
                  5) THE ROLE OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSAY IN SUPPORT OF THE EXEMPTION
                              OF SOLID WASTE FROM NUCLEAR LICENSED SITES-7057
                       Alan Fisher, UKAEA, Harwell (UK); Ian Adsley, Tommy Green, NUKEM Ltd (UK)
     Nuclear Site License Holders within the United Kingdom are increasingly re-examining the options available for disposal of
solid waste produced during routine operations and decommissioning activities. The incentives to do so include:
     “Compliance with the requirement to minimise radioactive waste, as stipulated in Disposal Authorisations issued by the Envi-
ronment Agency” Reducing the burden on the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) “ Achieving cost savings on waste man-
agement, by avoiding expensive conditioning, transport and disposal costs for certain wastes




56
Abstracts                                                                                                                  Session 7

     Wastes may be exempted from regulation under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1993 (RSA 93) provided they comply with
the conditions laid out in the relevant Exemption Orders. In effect, they may be legally disposed as if they were non-radioactive
waste. A national Code of Practice on Clearance and Exemption Principles, Processes and Practices was introduced in 2005 to clar-
ify the requirements of these Exemption Orders and provide guidance on their practical application [2]. In order to demonstrate
compliance with these Exemption Orders, it is essential to have good knowledge of the items’ history and their potential for con-
tamination. Monitoring is frequently used as definitive evidence that the radioactivity content of waste items does not exceed lim-
its proscribed in the relevant Exemption Orders.
     The practicalities of monitoring require careful consideration in order to achieve meaningful results and be capable of achiev-
ing the low specific activity limits quoted in the Exemption Orders. The Cross Industry Assay Working Group is a national collec-
tion of non-destructive assay specialists from a range of companies, which meets regularly to discuss challenges relating to the
assay of all categories of waste. In this paper, the Group presents examples of how NDA techniques are being used to support the
exemption of waste items.
                                  6) REMOVAL - AN ALTERNATIVE TO CLEARANCE-7079
                                  Jörg Feinhals, Alexander Kelch, TÜV NORD SysTec, (Germany);
                                 Volker Kunze, Federal Agency for Radiation Protection (Germany)
      This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materi-
als leaving radiation protection areas permanently. For clearance two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are
activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs
not to be applied to objects which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in
other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be
proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas
where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the
material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can
be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal pro-
cedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent author-
ity. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the
application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or acti-
vated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially
in the case of decommissioning.
                 7) ALTERNATIVES TO THE BURIAL OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE-7137
                                       J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison (USA)
    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and
public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography.
    There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to:
    • Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material
    • Direct Burial
    • Treatment (Processing) Burial
    • Treatment Unconditional Release
    • Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry
    • Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry
                         8) DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON-14 BIOSEPERATION TECHNIQUE
                                      FOR CLEANUP OF NUCLEAR GRAPHITE -7164
                             Pulane Molokwane, Evans Chirwa, University of Pretoria (South Africa)
     A preliminary study on the bioseperation of Carbon-14 was carried out using a mixed-culture of microorganisms obtained from
the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Company (PBMR). The culture demonstrated the ability to bioaccumulate radiocarbon-14 (C-14)
from solution. The experiment consisting of a growth vessel and a biofilter connected in a closed loop. The biofilter was not
installed for the purpose of treatment but rather as a method of isolation of microorganisms for further processing. Significant
amounts of C-14 were detected in the trapped cells in the biofilter, significantly higher than in controls taken before adding carbon
sources containing C-14. The microorganisms were grown under micro-aerobic conditions with graphite carbon and commercially
purchased powdered carbon as the predominant supplied carbon sources. Small amounts of sucrose (500 mg/L) were added at 48
hour intervals to promote the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms. Additional work is required to determine the amount of C-
14 escaping through gases produced as a product of metabolism (CO2 and CO) and the total carbon metabolized by the microor-
ganisms in order to report with accuracy the degree of separation of C-14 from the C-14/C-12 mixture. A proof of concept study is
underway to determine the C-14 mass balance, characterize the microorganisms in the reactor, and establish the presence or absence
of processes that might have affected the preliminary observations.




                                                                                                                                   57
Session 8                                                                                                                     Abstracts

                SESSION 8 - REPOSITORY PROGRAMS: SITE SELECTION & CHARACTERIZATION,
                 UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABS, ENGINEERING & GEOLOGICAL BARRIERS
            1) SITE DESCRIPTIVE MODELING AS A PART OF SITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SWEDEN -
                              CONCLUDING THE SURFACE BASED INVESTIGATIONS-7062
                      Johan Andersson, JA Streamflow AB (Sweden); Anders Winberg, Conterra AB (Sweden);
                  Kristina Skagius, Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden); Tobias Lindborg, Anders Ström, SKB (Sweden)
     The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for
the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Östhammar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the
Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology,
rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site
data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be inter-
preted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The hreedimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribu-
tion of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and
in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermaland hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also
provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed togeth-
er with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during
the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program.
                    2) GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR HIGH LEVEL WASTE IN FRANCE
                          FROM FEASIBILITY TO DESIGN WITHIN A LEGAL FRAMEWORK-7034
                                    Patrice Voizard, Gérald Ouzounian, Stefan Mayer, Andra (France)
     Over the past 15 years, the French program on deep geologic disposal of high level and long-lived radioactive waste has ben-
efited from a clear legal framework as the result of the December 30, 1991 French Waste Act.
     To fulfill its obligations stipulated in this law, Andra has submitted the “Dossier 2005 Argile” (clay) and “Dossier 2005 Gran-
ite” to the French Government. The first of those reports presents a concept for the underground disposal of nuclear waste at a spe-
cific clay site and focuses on a feasibility study. Knowledge of the host rock characteristics is based on the investigations carried
out at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory. The repository concept addresses various issues, the most impor-
tant of which relates to the large amount of waste, the clay host rock and the reversibility requirement.
     This phase has ended upon review and evaluation of the “Dossier 2005” made by different organisations including the Nation-
al Review Board, the National Safety Authority and the NEA International Review Team.
     By passing the “new”, June 28, 2006 Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, the
French parliament has further defined a clear legal framework for future work. This June 28 Planning Act thus sets a schedule and
defines the objectives for the next phase of repository design in requesting the submission of a construction authorization applica-
tion by 2015. The law calls for the repository program to be in a position to commission disposal installations by 2025.
               3) CURRENT STATUS OF THE JAPANESE GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY PROGRAM-7078
                           Kazumi Kitayama, Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (Japan)
     The program for disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is now moving ahead on a number of fronts. On the regulatory side,
responsibility for TRU waste disposal has been assigned to NUMO and guidelines for the safety goals for disposal of LLW have
been published. NUMO, as the implementer for the deep geological disposal program, has been developing the special tools for
project management that are needed as a result of the decision to adopt a volunteering approach to siting. NUMO is also building
up the technical infrastructure for flexible tailoring of site characterisation, repository design and the associated safety assessment
to the conditions found in any volunteer site. This work requires openness and transparency in decision-making but, as several sites
may need to be investigated in parallel, particular emphasis is placed on operational practicality.
                      4) EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR DESIGNING SEALING PLUGS FOR HLW
              GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL FACILITIES, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE HETEROGENEOUS
                            CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT-7092
            Yasuhiro Suyama, Kajima Corporation (Japan; Koichi Yanagizawa, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Albania);
                                             Masaru Toida, Kajima Corporation (Japan)
     In order to ensure that a repository for the geological disposal of HLW is isolated from the human environment, underground
excavations, including pits and tunnels, must be properly sealed. Effective sealing requires that these excavations are backfilled,
and that the Excavation Damage or Disturbed Zone (EDZ), which includes preferential flowpaths, must be intersected by sealing
plugs. Methods for constructing a full-scale sealing plug and their influence on plug performance were evaluated and confirmed by
a Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX). This experiment was carried out by an international partnership of the Japan Nuclear Cycle
Development Institute (JNC) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). However certain specific roles of the sealing plugs
at the scale of the whole repository were not studied. There remain issues to be clarified, notably the effectiveness of sealing plugs
in a geological environment with heterogeneous characteristics and the resulting influences of the heterogeneities in performance
assessment. Focusing on a geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed a
method for designing the sealing plugs, based on a concept of ‘primarily design for closure, secondarily design for construction’.
Though the proposed method for designing sealing plugs has presently been developed only at a conceptual level, it indicates the
possibility of establishing a repository even in a strongly heterogeneous geological environment that may have been considered pre-
viously to be inappropriate for a repository.




58
Abstracts                                                                                                                     Session 8

                5) ROADMAP TO PLAN AND STRUCTURE THE PRELIMINARY SITE INVESTIGATION
                              PROGRAM FOR A GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY IN JAPAN-7131
          Akira Deguchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Kazumi Kitayama, Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO)
                  (Japan); Neil Chapman, ITC School of Underground Waste Storage and Disposal (Switzerland);
                   Johan Andersson, JA Streamflow AB (Sweden); Tatsuya Tanaka, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)
     A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed
by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the suc-
cessive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be
implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occur-
rence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting
from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engi-
neered barrier system and the repository.
     In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time peri-
od, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase
are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have suffi-
cient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in
the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise.
Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals.
     This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (roadmap) and discusses NUMO’s experience in apply-
ing it in ‘dry-runs’ to model sites.
            6) DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED METHODOLOGY FOR THE COMPARATIVE ASSESMENT
                             OF POTENTIAL REPOSITORY CONCEPTS AND LOCATIONS-7140
                Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Akihisa Koike, Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) (Japan);
                                   Shoko Sato, Hideki Kawamura, Obayashi Corporation (Japan))
     NUMO has adopted a volunteering approach to siting a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is
important for this process that the pros and cons of volunteers can be assessed from literature data in a clear and transparent man-
ner, prior to the very sensitive selection of those sites that will be carried forward for more detailed characterisation. For this pur-
pose, multi-attribute analysis (MAA) methodology has been developed that allows the technical assessment of criteria to be repre-
sented as scoring models. The trickier job of weighting different criteria involves expert opinion, which can be solicited by differ-
ent methods. In particular, weighting of top-level attributes involves balancing a range of technical and socio-economic issues,
which can be examined by considering the viewpoint of different stakeholders. The applicability of the MAA tool and its sensitiv-
ity to stakeholder viewpoints have been examined by simple case studies.
                         7) CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION FLOW DIAGRAM
                                             FOR LITERATURE SURVEY(IFDLS)-7156
                 Masaru Noda, Shoko Sato, Obayashi Corporation (Japan); Hiroyuki Tsuchi, Akihisa Koike, Nuclear
                  Waste Management Organization of Japan (Japan); Tadashi Ueda, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)
      In Japan selection of HLW disposal site will be implemented by NUMO through the process of literature survey, preliminary
investigation, and detailed investigation. In the first step NUMO needs to assess availability of volunteer areas as preliminary inves-
tigation areas. There are two sets of factors or site conditions that can be used to screen volunteer areas and select potential PIAs.
First are factors that must be met as required by “Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act” (the Final Disposal Act). Sec-
ond are factors that would indicate more favorable sites. The Final Disposal Act requires that areas with the following characteris-
tics defined in through the literature review will be excluded from consideration as PIAs. Factors relating to legal requirements are
the following five, Earthquakes, Fault Activity, Igneous Activity, Uplift/ Erosion, Quaternary Unconsolidated Deposits, and Min-
eral Resources. In addition to the legal requirements there are characteristics favorable such as groundwater and host rock proper-
ties, availability of land, efficiency of transportation, etc. It will be important to consider completeness of survey and explanation
to public, also to ensure traceability and transparency of the site selection process in literature survey and information assemble
both on the factors related to legal requirements and on the favorable factors, during this literature survey stage. The Information
Flow Diagram for Literature Survey (IFDLS) is developed to manage information and process in literature survey phase. IFDLS is
the tool using information technology, which can organize, analyze, and evaluate the information from literature survey and man-
age their process systematically. IFDLS can show the flow of information and data and the history of the process of their informa-
tion management. …
                8) A NEW USER-FRIENDLY EXPERIMENT VISUAL DATABASE SYSTEM APPLICATION
                        TO THE GAS MIGRATION TEST (GMT) AT THE GRIMSEL TEST SITE-7124
                Tomoyuki Shimura, Hidekazu Asano, RWMC (Japan); Kenichi Ando, Obayashi Corporation (Japan);
            Fumiko Okuma, Shuichi Yamamoto, Obayashi Corporation (Japan); Stratis Vomvoris, NAGRA (Switzerland)
     Long-term integrated field investigations combine information from different groups (laboratory, modeling, experimental)
often working in different locations and on different time scales. The results of these different groups are evaluated and integrated
for decision making during the experiment execution, but at the end of the experiment a huge database exists, which may be diffi-
cult to use at a later stage - for example, for further modeling, benchmarking etc. How can one preserve the information obtained
and present it in a transparent and user-friendly manner? A new visual database system developed is presented and its application
to the “Gas Migration in-situ Test (GMT)” is described. The GMT project has been conducted to assess the gas migration (for exam-
ple from TRU waste) through the engineered barrier system and the adjacent geosphere. The experiment was initiated in 1997 under
the auspices of RWMC and with primary funding by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The project consists
of a large-scale in-situ test, laboratory tests and numerical modeling. The in-situ test has been performed at the Grimsel Test Site
(GTS) in Switzerland operated by NAGRA (National cooperative for the disposal of radioactive waste, Switzerland). Laboratory
                                                                                                                                     59
Session 9                                                                                                                           Abstracts

tests have been performed in facilities in Japan, Germany, Spain and Switzerland. Finally, the modeling activities, performed with-
in the modeling group, have included teams from the US, Spain, France, Japan, Germany and Switzerland with support from organ-
izations BGR, ENRESA, ANDRA, and RWMC. More than 250 reports document the various data and analyses. The database
developed uses a three layered framework. The first (or bottom) layer is the data storage which contains all reports, publications as
well as the raw data; the second layer is a dataflow diagram - from material data, generation of input data to the model and output
to the end user; the third layer is the interface with external users to facilitate optimal use of the database for their needs - it includes
search through key words, publication year, data type etc.

     SESSION 9 - ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND PLANNING TOOLS
               1) PERFORMANCE-BASED ACQUISITION: A TOOL TO REDUCE COSTS AND IMPROVE
                     PERFORMANCE AT US ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SITES-7050
                                Janet Gilman, CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (USA); Nancy Kosko, US Army
                           Environmental Command (USA); Debbie White, CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (USA)
     The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environ-
mental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an
effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initia-
tive Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup.
     Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-
based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing
properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army’s most complex active installations. The contracts
address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges
including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and bio-
logical agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase envi-
ronmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has
conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were
conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of con-
tractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts.
    2) COST EFFECTIVE ER DATA ACQUISITION USING A DYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION STRATEGY-7063
                Kenneth Skinner, Perot Systems Government Services (USA); Peter Salpas, Salpas Consulting, (USA)
     The important first step in remediating contaminated sites is completing characterization. The process for characterization of
natural environmental media (i.e., soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater) involves three basic steps: (1) develop a plan, (2)
implement the plan by collecting information necessary to define the nature and extent of contaminants in the natural media, and
(3) integrate, interpret and report the results. Because of budgetary constraints, these three steps are typically applied linearly with
the expectation that by the end of one application of the process the site will be characterized with sufficient resolution to make
decisions about remedial actions. Our experience over the past 13 years at a complex site in Tennessee has shown that this linear
approach to characterization does not produce the desired resolution. Because characterization is typically a process of defining
unknowns the inflexible nature of the linear approach makes it impractical to react as the conceptual understanding of site contam-
inants changes in response to the acquisition of new data. An alternative, flexible approach to characterization has been developed
based on lessons learned. Over the past 3 years the flexible approach has cost-effectively produced the information needed for deci-
sion making.
  3) EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SEIZURES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC-7175
            Karel Svoboda, Josef Podlaha, David Sir, Josef Mudra, Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. (Czech Republic)
     In the last years amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) were going up. It was above all due
to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance
to iron-mills, check a municipal waste on the entrance to municipal storage yards even incineration plants or check vehicles going
through borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to appli-
cation of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. But in according our experiences the number cases
of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the civil sphere was lower, but not negligible, in the
municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic act No. 18/1997 Coll. will to everybody, who is providing activities leading
to exposure, mandatory assure as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low
as reasonably achievable in according social and economic aspects. Hence, attend to examination of all cases of the radioactive
material seizure on the basis of detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arisen from the other information is
important. Therefore, a service composed by group of workers, who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and even-
tual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear research institute Rez plc. This
service has covered also transport, storage, conditioning and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service arisen especially
for municipal storage yard, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State office
for nuclear safety, etc. Our experiences in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval
of radioactive sources will be present in the paper.




60
Abstracts                                                                                                                      Session 9

                           4) RISK NEWSBOY: APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING UNCERTAINTY
                                IN DEVELOPING ACTION LEVELS AND CLEANUP LIMITS
                              Roger Cooke, Resources for the Future/Technical University Delft (USA);
                                      Margaret MacDonell, Argonne National Laboratory (USA)
     Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection
during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels,
based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environ-
mentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research,
as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against
the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks
and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both
radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing “regret” levels. Associated tools include
structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such
as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting.
                     5) FIRE AS A LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP ISSUE FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED
                                    WITH RADIONUCLIDES IN THE WESTERN U.S.-7181
                   David Shafer, David DuBois, Vic Etyemezian, Ilias Kavouras, Julianne Miller, George Nikolich,
                         Mark Stone, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education. (USA)
     On both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense sites in the southwestern United States (U.S.), signif-
icant areas of surface soils are contaminated with radionuclides from above-ground nuclear testing, and with depleted uranium, pri-
marily from military training. At DOE sites in Nevada, the proposed regulatory closure strategy for most sites is to leave contam-
inants in place with administrative controls and periodic monitoring. Closure-inplace is considered an acceptable strategy because
the contaminated sites exist on access-restricted facilities, decreasing the potential risk to public receptors, the high cost and feasi-
bility of excavating contaminated soils over large areas, and the environmental impacts of excavating desert soils that recover very
slowly from disturbance. The largest of the contaminated sites on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada covers over 1,200 hectares.
However, a factor that has not been fully investigated in the long-term stewardship of these sites is the potential effects of fires.
Because of the long half-lives of some of the contaminants (e.g., 24,100 years for 239Pu) and changes in land-cover and climatic
factors that are increasing the frequency of fires throughout the western U.S., it should be assumed that all of these sites will even-
tually burn, possibly multiple times, during the timeframe when they still pose a risk. Two primary factors are contributing to
increased fire frequency. The first is the spread of invasive grasses, particularly cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens),
which have out-competed native annuals and invaded interspaces between shrubs, allowing fires to burn easier. The second is a
sharp increase in fire frequency and size throughout the western U.S. beginning in the mid-1980s. …
              6) RECLAIM V2.0: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED DOSES WITH OTHER ASSESSMENT
                          TOOLS WHEN EMULATING CONTAMINATED LAND SCENARIOS-7309
                      Mark Willans, Nathalie Galais, Chris Lennon, Divyesh Trivedi, Nexia Solutions Ltd (UK)
     ReCLAIM v2.0 is a software tool designed to calculate doses to exposure groups from radioactively contaminated land includ-
ing UK Nuclear Licensed Sites. When using tools to undertake contaminated land assessments, it is important to understand the
functionality of the tool and how the tool should be best used to undertake an assessment. This work describes the results from
inter-comparison of ReCLAIM v2.0 with two other radioactively contaminated land tools (Conland and RCLEA). For the majori-
ty of cases there was little difference between ReCLAIM v2.0 and the other tools. In all cases where there were significant differ-
ences, the cause of the variation could be explained and quantified. In the majority of these cases the main exposure pathway was
external irradiation. In these cases, variations in the calculated doses were due to the differing ways in which underpinning shield-
ing calculations were undertaken to calculate external radiation dose coefficients. The effect was most noticeable for radionuclides
emitting high energy penetrating radiation such as Co-60, Cs-134 and Cs+137. For these cases, there was a greater difference of up
to around 60% in the dose comparisons between ReCLAIM v2.0 and the alternative tools, with ReCLAIM v2.0 being more con-
servative. These results demonstrate that where the algorithms and parameter values are similar, different tools will produce simi-
lar results. The user of such tools should be aware of cases where different results may be produced in order that an appropriate
level of confidence can be assigned when making decisions based upon the results.
                      7) RETROSPECTION OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT FOR DECISION
                             ANALYSIS CONCERNING REMEDIAL ACTIONS IN UKRAINE-7328
                                       Vladimir Georgievskiy, Russian Research Center (Russia)
     It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or)
in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union
where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from “Krasnoyarsk-26” into Enisey River, releases of
radioactive materials from “Chelabinsk-65” (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl
nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial
actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous.
For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident
and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this
Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. There of-site radiological mon-
itoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made.
All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of 137Cs in body (40 measurements
in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Cher-
nobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farm-
land model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine…
                                                                                                                                      61
Session 9-10                                                                                                                    Abstracts

                     8) SOILS: MAN-CAUSED RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION FORECAST-7038
                                        Vassily Gablin, Scientific-Industrial Association (Russia)
     One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia
they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to
assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors
including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technolo-
gies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents,
and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base
of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled.
This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of back-
ground radioactivity is proposed.
     Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogene-
ity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including
natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown
on”Fig. 1”. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation meas-
urement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge
which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused
contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if human activity had led to contamination of soil only by artificial
radionuclides. But we can view a totality of soil radioactivity factors in the following way.

     SESSION 10 - LOCAL PARTICIPATION AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS, BEHAVIOR AND POLITICS
                             1) FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC AND POLITICAL ACCEPTANCE
                              FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL-7195
                                   Bernard Neerdael, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)
     The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and politi-
cal acceptance for developing and implementing programs for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how
citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome
towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk man-
agement addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders.
     In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed.
Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The
analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository program and implementation process, from policy development to the realisa-
tion of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of ref-
erence are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision mak-
ing processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management.
     In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out
this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and there-
fore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and
political acceptance…
                          2) LOCAL NEGOTIATION ABOUT COMPENSATION SITING OF THE
                                 SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPOSITORY IN FINLAND-7094
             Matti Kojo, University of Tampere, Department of Political Science and International Relations (Finland)
     The aim of the paper is to analyse the local negotiation process between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the nuclear power
company Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) and the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy. The aim of the negotiations was to
find out an acceptable form of compensation for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto, Finland. The paper includes
background information about the siting process in Finland, the local political setting in the Municipality of Eurajoki and a descrip-
tion of the negotiation process. The analysis of the negotiations about compensation is important for understanding better the
progress of the Finnish siting process. The paper clarifies the picture of the contest to host the spent nuclear fuel repository. It also
provides more information about the relationship between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the power company TVO. The negoti-
ations about compensation and the roles of different players in the negotiations have not been studied in detail because the minutes
of the Vuojoki liaison group were not available before the decision of the Supreme Adminstrational Court in May 2006.
      3) DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL PARTNERSHIP FOR SITING OF LILW REPOSITORY IN SLOVENIA-7102
                                            Metka Kralj, Nadja Zeleznik, ARAO (Slovenia)
     Slovenia has only temporary storage facilities for radioactive waste. According to the legislation, a permanent LILW reposito-
ry site should be authorized by 2008, and the repository has to acquire the operating licence by 2013. In 2006, ARAO, the general
public and three municipalities established local partnerships in order to increase public acceptability of the LILW repository. Civil
initiative groups opposed to the siting appeared in all three local communities. In one case they forced the municipality to with-
draw, in one case they changed the siting location, and in one case they were integrated to local partnership.
     In the municipality of Krško, the program of local partnership was publicly discussed. There is an NPP in Krško, so the local
partnership also demanded to discuss the power plant issues. Thematic committees were established that worked separately. They
also discussed the issues of the spatial plan for the repository. In the municipality of Brežice, a steering committee was established
to promote local partnership activities and organization of thematic committees. There was only one active thematic committee, but
many activities for the general public were organised. In the municipality of Sevnica, the local partnership was soon cancelled.


62
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 10

 4) UK-NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING AUTHORITY AND US SALTSTONE WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES-7089
                             William Lawless, Paine College (USA); John Whitton, Nexia Solutions (UK)
     We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006
[16] and 2007 [49] and at ICEM 2005 [54]. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent
years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been car-
ried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be “dialogue based” and will “inform” the final
decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the nation-
al level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority’s (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site
Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper
updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement
process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US:
The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on saltstone by Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Cit-
izens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina’s regulatory Department of
Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow
SRS to restart saltstone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE [3] blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in
restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)
would be built [28]. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction
destined for saltstone...
                 5) OBRA: A EUROPEAN PROJECT TO CREATE AN OBSERVATORY FOR LONG-TERM
                            GOVERNANCE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT-7192
                         Meritxell Martell, Lara Duro, Jordi Bruno, Irene Kopetz, Enviros Spain S.L. (Spain)
     This paper introduces a number of topics that will be addressed by the ‘OBRA’ project. The OBRA project (2006-2008) is a 2-
year Coordination Action under the 6th Euratom Framework Program (FP) which started on 1st November 2006 and will finish on
31st October 2008. The project aims to assess the feasibility of creating an Observatory for Long-term Governance on Radioactive
Waste Management in Europe.
     OBRA will devise an Observatory to promote appropriate forms of interaction between stakeholders, mainly local and region-
al communities and experts. The focus and value of OBRA lies on the development of a concrete tool to promote governance
processes. With respect to this objective, the paper introduces the project and some of the key questions that have been addressed
in the first creative workshop and which will be the focus of OBRA in the following months.
                 6) RESTORING PUBLIC TRUST WHILE TEARING DOWN SITE IN RURAL OHIO-7319
            Jerry Schneider, Fluor Limited, (UK); Judy Connell, Fluor (USA); Jeffrey Wagner, Fluor Enterprises, (USA)
     In the mid-1980s, the impact of three decades of uranium processing near rural Fernald, Ohio, 18 miles northwest of Cincin-
nati, became the centre of national public controversy. When a series of incidents at the uranium foundry brought to light the years
of contamination to the environment and surrounding farmland communities, local citizens’ groups united and demanded a role in
determining the plans for cleaning up the site. One citizens’ group, Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health
(FRESH), formed in 1984 following reports that nearly 300 pounds of enriched uranium oxide had been released from a dust-col-
lector system, and three off-property wells south of the site were contaminated with uranium. For 22 years, FRESH monitored activ-
ities at Fernald and participated in the decision-making process with management and regulators.
     The job of FRESH ended on 19 January this year when the U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman and U.S. Environmen-
tal Protection Agency Administrator Stephen Johnson - flanked by local, state, and national elected officials, and citizen-led envi-
ronmental watchdog groups including FRESH - officially declared the Fernald Site clean of all nuclear contamination and open to
public access. It marked the end of a remarkable turnaround in public confidence and trust that had attracted critical reports from
around the world: the Cincinnati Enquirer; U.S. national news programs 60 Minutes, 20/20, Nightline, and 48 Hours; worldwide
media outlets from the British Broadcasting Company and Canadian Broadcasting Company; Japanese newspapers; and German
reporters.
    7) INTEGRATING NATURAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES TO INSPIRE PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN RADIOACTIVE
           WASTE POLICY CASE STUDY - COMMITTEE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT-7240
                                             Sam Usher, Linda Collins, AMEC NNC (UK)
     Integrating Natural & Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on
Radioactive Waste Management
     Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experi-
ence is littered with policy and program failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it
must also inspire the confidence of the public and other stakeholders. However, in today’s modern society, communities will not
simply accept the word of scientists for setting policy based purely on technical grounds. This is particularly so in areas where there
are significant social and ethical issues, such as radioactive waste disposal.
     To develop and implement effective policy, governments, waste owners and implementing bodies must develop processes
which effectively integrate both complex technical and scientific issues, with equally challenging social and ethical concerns. These
integrating processes must marry often intricate technical issues with broad public and stakeholder engagement programs, in pro-
grams which can expect the highest levels of public scrutiny, and must invariably be delivered within challenging time and budg-
et constraints.
     This paper considers a model for how such integrating processes can be delivered. The paper reviews, as a case study, how
such challenges were overcome by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), which, in July 2006, made rec-
ommendations to the UK government for the establishment of a long-term radioactive waste policy. Its recommendations were
underpinned by sound science, but also engendered public confidence through undertaking the largest and most significant delib-
erative public and stakeholder engagement program on a complex policy issue in the UK…
                                                                                                                                    63
Session 11                                                                                                                     Abstracts

                              POSTER SESSION 11 - HLW, SNF, AND TRU POSTER SESSION
             1) RADIOLYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC C-14 RELEASED FROM TRU WASTE-7147
             Yuko Kani, Kenji Noshita, Toru Kawasaki, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Tsutome Nishimura, Tomofumi Sakuragi,
                     Hidekazu Asano, Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (Japan)
     It has been found that metallic TRU waste releases considerable portions of C-14 in the form of organic molecules such as
lower molecular weight organic acids, alcohols and aldehydes. Due to the low sorption ability of organic C-14, it is important to
clarify the long-term behavior of organic forms under waste disposal conditions. From investigations on radiolytic decomposition
of organic carbon molecules into inorganic carbonic acid, it is expected that radiation from TRU waste will decompose organic C-
14 into inorganic carbonic acid that has higher adsorption ability into the engineering barriers. Hence we have studied the decom-
position behavior of organic C-14 by gamma irradiation experiments under simulated disposal conditions. The results showed that
organic C-14 reacted with OH radicals formed by radiolysis of water, to produce inorganic carbonic acid. We introduced the con-
cept of “decomposition efficiency” which expresses the percentage of OH radicals consumed for the decomposition reaction of
organic molecules in order to analyze the experimental results. We estimated the effect of radiolytic decomposition on the concen-
tration of organic C-14 in the simulated conditions of the TRU disposal system using the decomposition efficiency, and found that
the concentration of organic C-14 in the waste package will be lowered when the decomposition of organic C-14 by radiolysis was
taken into account, in comparison with the concentration of organic C-14 without radiolysis. Our prediction suggested that some
amount of organic C-14 can be expected to be transformed into the inorganic form in the waste package in an actual system.
          2) HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION ON SURFACE-BASED INVESTIGATION PHASE
             IN THE MIZUNAMI UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY PROJECT, IN JAPAN-7117
                                 Hiromitsu Saegusa, Hironori Onoe, Shinji Takeuchi, Ryuji Takeuchi,
                                        Takuya Ohyama, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)
     The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the
Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research labora-
tory project that is planned for broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development
for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for
investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Sur-
face-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a step-
wise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water con-
ducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have
been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to
identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the
investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved.
               3) HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONCEPTUAL MODEL DETERMINED FROM BASELINE AND
             CONSTRUCTION PHASE GROUNDWATER PRESSURE AND SURFACE TILTMETER DATA
                     AT THE MIZUNAMI UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY, JAPAN-7141
     Shinji Takeuchi, Ryuji Takeuchi, Walter Salden, Hiromitsu Saegusa, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Takashi Arai,
                       Daiwa Geological Laboratory, Ltd. (Japan); Koji Matsuki, Tohoku University (Japan)
     A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed based on pressure responses observed at multilevel pressure moni-
toring zones in seven boreholes and surface tilt data in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site. Pressure
changes caused by some earthquakes, cross-hole hydraulic testing, and shaft excavation activities are considered. Surface tilt has
been measured from the half way of the shaft excavation phase. The shaft excavation has been commenced from July 2003 with
two shafts (Main shaft and Ventilation shaft). By the end of October 2005, discharging of water in the shafts has been halted at the
depths of 172m and 191m respectively to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility due to an excess of F and
B concentration in the water. This results in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings. Begin-
ning in February 2006 pumping has been resumed and the underground workings have been reoccupied. Continuous groundwater
pressure and surface tilt measurements with some numerical analysis during the shaft excavation phase show the existence of the
flow barrier fault predicted from the surface-based investigation phase and hydraulic parameter around the shafts.
           4) COINCIDENCE GATE UTILIZATION FACTORS FOR NEUTRON CORRELATION COUNTERS
                        WITH UP TO THREE COMPONENTS IN THE DIE-AWAY PROFILE-7173
                      Stephen Croft, R.D. McElroy, Susan C. Kane, AREVA - Canberra Industries, Inc (USA)
     We present analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors (GUFs), up to fourth order, for both signal triggered and ran-
dom triggered histograms based on a three-component capture time profile. These are useful for refined design performance calcu-
lations of passive neutron multiplicity counters using shift register correlation analysis. To our knowledge, these expressions are
new.
                        5) INNER MATERIAL CANDIDATES SELECTION AND EVALUATION FOR
                              SPANISH HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE CANISTER-7178
       Francesc Puig, Javier Dies, Manuel Sevilla, Joan de Pablo, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) (Spain); Juan
       José Pueyo, Lourdes Miralles, Universitat de Barcelona (UB) (Spain); Aurora Martínez-Esparza, Empresa Nacional de
                                               Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) (Spain)
      This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Span-
ish high level waste canister for long term storage. Repository preliminary design considers granitic or clay formations, compact-
ed bentonite sealing, corrosion controlled steel canisters and glass bed filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This
filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event once the container is finally breached by
64
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 11

corrosion and flooded by groundwater, thus becoming an issue of major importance. It covers, in first place, a complete and detailed
set of requirements devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection. It is based on careful study of
ENRESA’s (Spanish waste management company) preliminary design and objectives, the waste forms involved and other dispos-
al needs. It should be noted that this compilation of demands is significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other that had
been found in literature, including over 20 requirements, additionally to another dozen general aspects that could involve improve-
ments in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or materials families have been chosen for their potentially interesting
properties for geologic disposal. These materials are cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeo-
lites, hematite, phosphates and olivine…
                 6) STUDY ON CREATING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY FOR CRYSTALLINE ROCK
                           USING FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ELASTIC WAVE VELOCITY-7233
         Kimitaka Yoshimura, Susumu Sakashita, Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center, (Japan);
         Kenichi Ando, Patric Bruines, Obayashi Corporation (Japan); Ingo Blechschmidt, Wolfgang Kickmaier, National
       Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Switzerland); Yozo Onishi, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto
                University (Japan); Satoshi Nishiyama, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)
     The objective of this study is to establish a technique to obtain hydraulic conductivity distribution in granite rock masses using
seismic tomography. We apply the characteristic that elastic wave velocity disperses in fully saturated porous media on frequency
and this velocity dispersion is governed by the hydraulic conductivity - this characteristic has been confirmed in laboratory exper-
iments. The feasibility and design of the field experiment was demonstrated in a first step with numerical simulations. In a second
step we applied the technique to the fractured granite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. The emphasis of the field campaign
was on the evaluation of the range of applicability of this technique. The field campaign was structured in three steps, each one cor-
responding to a larger spatial scale. First, the seismic tomography was applied to a small area - the two boreholes were located at
a distance of 1.5m. In the following step, we selected a larger area, in which the distance of the boreholes amounts to 10 m and the
field corresponds to a more complex geology. Finally we applied the testing to a field where the borehole distance was of the order
of 75 m. We also drilled a borehole to confirm hydraulic characteristic and reviewed hydraulic model in the 1.5m cross-hole loca-
tion area. The results from the field campaign are presented and their application to the various fields are discussed and evaluated.
                    7) ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASPECTS OF THE NEW SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL
                            MANAGEMENT AND STORAGE SYSTEM AT IGNALINA NPP-7248
                   Povilas Poskas, Valdas Ragaisis, Erdvilas Adomaitis, Lithuanian Energy Institute (Lithuania)
     In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) a new Interim Spent
Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) will be built in the existing sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of INPP. In addition to the ISFSF,
the new spent nuclear fuel management activity will include all necessary spent nuclear fuel retrieval and packaging operations at
the Reactor Units, transfer of storage casks to the ISFSF, and other activities appropriate to the chosen design solution and required
for the safe removal of the existing spent nuclear fuel from storage pools and insertion into the new ISFSF. The Republic of Lithua-
nia regulations require that the average annual dose to the critical group members of population due to operation of nuclear facili-
ty shall not exceed dose constraint. If several nuclear facilities are located in the same SPZ, the same dose constraint shall enve-
lope radiological impacts from all operating and planned nuclear facilities. The paper discusses radiological safety assessment
aspects as relevant for the new nuclear activity to be implemented in the SPZ of INPP considering specificity of Lithuanian regu-
latory requirements. The safety assessment methodology aspects, results and conclusions as concern public exposure are outlined
and discussed.
           8) MODELING OF RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM THE GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY FOR
                  RBMK-1500 SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS IN LITHUANIA-7272
                              Povilas Poskas, Asta Brazauskaite, Lithuanian Energy Institute (Lithuania)
     During 2002-2005 the assessment of possibilities for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Lithuania was performed with
support of Swedish experts. Potential geological formations for disposal of SNF were selected, disposal concept was developed,
reference disposal site was defined and preliminary generic safety assessment was performed. Performing safety assessment the
analysis of radionuclides migration from the repository as well as their impact to human and environment were also very impor-
tant issues. In this paper results on the analysis of the radionuclide releases from the reference geological repository site for RBMK-
1500 SNF in crystalline rocks in Lithuania are presented. For radionuclide migration in the near field region of the repository inte-
grated finite difference method and the concept of compartments were used. For radionuclide migration in the far field the discrete
channel network concept was used. The assessment of radionuclide migration in the near and far field region was performed using
computer codes AMRER4.5 [1] and CHAN3D [2]. The results of analysis show that most of safety relevant radionuclides of
RBMK-1500 SNF are effectively retarded in the near field region. The exposure due to possible release of the radionuclides from
the crystalline rocks would be dominated by 129I firstly while after app. 250 thousand years 226Ra is dominating already.
                      9) TRANSPARENT TOOLS FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN HIGH LEVEL
                               WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES SAFETY ASSESSMENT-7277
       Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy Commission CNEN/CDTN (Brazil); Karl-Heinz Hellmuth, STUK - The
       Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Terrence Sullivan, Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA)
     In this paper some results of a further development of a technical cooperation project, initiated in 2004, between the
CDTN/CNEN, The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, and the STUK, The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety
Authority, are presented. The objective of this project is to study applications of fuzzy logic, and artificial intelligence methods, on
uncertainty analysis of high level waste disposal facilities safety assessment. Uncertainty analysis is an essential part of the study
of the complex interactions of the features, events and processes, which will affect the performance of the HLW disposal system
over the thousands of years in the future. Very often the development of conceptual and computational models requires simplifica-
tions and selection of over conservative parameters that can lead to unrealistic results. These results can mask the existing uncer-

                                                                                                                                     65
Session 11                                                                                                                        Abstracts

tainties which, consequently, can be an obstacle to a better understanding of the natural processes. A correct evaluation of uncer-
tainties and their rule on data interpretation is an important step for the improvement of the confidence in the calculations and pub-
lic acceptance. This study focuses on dissolution (source), solubility and sorption (sink) as key processes for determination of
release and migration of radionuclides. These factors are affected by a number of parameters that characterize the near and far fields
such as pH; temperature; redox conditions; and other groundwater properties. On the other hand, these parameters are also conse-
quence of other processes and conditions such as water rock interaction; pH and redox buffering. Fuzzy logic tools have been
proved to be suited for dealing with interpretation of complex, and some times conflicting, data…
                          10) CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDIFIED PRODUCTS CONTAINING
                                        RADIOACTIVE MOLTEN SALT WASTE-7303
                          Tae Kim, Hwan-Seo Park, Yong-Zun Cho, Kwang-Wook Kim, Seong-Won Park,
                                 Eung-Ho Kim, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     For a treatment of molten salt wastes generated from a pyroprocessing of oxide spent fuel, we had suggested a stable chemi-
cal route, named GRSS (Gel-Route Stabilization/Solidification), and a subsequent consolidation method. By using this method, a
series of monolithic wasteforms with different conditions were fabricated, and then their physicochemical properties were investi-
gated. A simulated salt containing 90wt% LiCl, 6.8wt% CsCl, and 3.2wt% SrCl2 was treated with a gel-forming material system,
Si/Al/P=0.4/0.4/0.2 and 0.35/0.35/0.3, and the gel-products were treated at 1100C° after mixing with borosilicate glass powder,
where the salt loadings were about 16~20wt%. The solidified products had a density of 2.3~2.35g/cm3, a micro-hardness of
4.69~4.72GPa, a glass transition temperature of 528~537C°, and a thermal expansion coefficient of 1.65X10-7~3.38X10-5/C°.
Leaching results by the PCT-A method revealed leached rates, 10-3~10-2g/m2day and 10-4~10-3g/m2day for Cs and Sr, respective-
ly. From the long-term ISO leaching test, the 900day-leached fraction of Cs and Sr predicted by a semi-empirical model were 0.89%
and 0.39%. The leaching behaviors indicated that Cs would be immobilized into a Si-rich phase while Sr would be in a P-rich phase.
The experimental results revealed that the GRSS method could be an alternative method for a solidification of radioactive molten
salt wastes.
                             11) THE RHEOLOGY OF OXIDE DISPERSIONS AND THE ROLE OF
                                      CONCENTRATED ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS-7010
                                           Simon Biggs, Amy Tindley, University of Leeds (UK)
      Stability control of particulate dispersions is critical to a wide range of industrial processes. In the UK nuclear industry, signif-
icant volumes of waste materials arising from the corrosion products of Magnox fuel rods currently require treatment and storage.
The majority of this waste is present as aqueous dispersions of oxide particulates. Treatment of these dispersions will require a vari-
ety of unit operations including mobilisation, transport and solid-liquid separation. Typically these processes must operate across a
narrow optimal range of pH and the dispersions are, almost without exception, found in complex electrolyte conditions of high
overall concentration. Knowledge of the behaviour of oxides in various electrolyte conditions and over a large pH range is essen-
tial for the efficient design and control of any waste processing approach.
      The transport properties of particle dispersions are characterised by the rheological properties. It is well known that particle
dispersion rheology is strongly influenced by particle-particle interaction forces, and that particle-particle interactions are strongly
influenced by adsorbed ions on the particle surfaces. Here we correlate measurements of the shear yield stress and the particle zeta
potentials to provide insight as to the role of ions in moderating particle interactions. The zeta potential of model TiO2 suspensions
were determined (Colloidal Dynamics ZetaProbe) over a range of pH for a series of alkali metal halides and quaternary ammoni-
um halides at a range of solution concentrations (0.001M - 1M). The results show some surprising co-ion effects at high electrolyte
concentrations (>0.5M) and indicate that even ions generally considered to be indifferent induce a shift in iso-electric point (i.e.p.)
which is inferred as being due to specific adsorption of ions.
     12) PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT THE PILOT LEAD-BISMUTH TARGET CIRCUIT TC-1 FOR ADS-7381
      Sviatoslav Ignatiev, Mikhail Leonchuk, Yury Orlov, Dmitry Pankratov, Gennady Suvorov, Alexey Zabudko, Institute for
                                               Physics and Power Engineering (Russia)
     Main problems on development of pilot molten lead-bismuth target circuit of 1 MW proton beam power (TC-1) as an impor-
tant part of target-blanket accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration are analyzed.
                            13) RADIATION AND CHEMICAL DURABILITY OF THE CM-DOPED
                                        WASTE FORMS WITH GARNET STRUCTURE-7030
             Anatoly Lukinykh, Sergey Tomilin, Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russia); Tatiana Livshits, Sergey Yudintsev,
                            Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits (Russia); Sergey Stefanovsky, SIA (Russia);
                  Andrey Lizin, Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russia); Rodney Ewing, University of Michigan (USA)
     Complex iron-based oxides with garnet-type structure are proposed as promising forms for actinide waste immobilization. To
confirm this suggestion, properties of Cm-loaded garnets with formulae Ca1.5Gd0.908Cm0.092Th0.5ZrFe4O12 were examined. Accel-
erated radiation damage in the samples was induced by doping with 244Cm. Irradiation results in the structure disordering and com-
plete amorphization in one year since fabrication. The garnet lattice was rendered to amorphous state at a dose of 1.6×1018 α-
decays/g or 0.17 displacements per atom (dpa). This value is in a good agreement with earlier results for similar phases obtained
under ion beam irradiation. Normalized Cm leach rate (MCC-1, 14 days) from the garnet after amorphization increased from
1.4 · 10-3 to 5.8 · 10-3 g/(m2 · d) or by 4 times. Structure was recovered from the metamict state by heat-treatment. The strongest
reflections on the XRD pattern of the heat-treated sample are due to the garnet with a lattice parameter 0 = 12.641 ± 0.002 Å. This
value is close to the unit cell dimension (12.652 ± 0.002 Å) of the garnet before radiation-induced disordering. Weak reflections
from minor ThO2 and Fe2O3 phases occur. Radiation and chemical durability of these garnet-based forms is close to other materi-
als composed of titanates (pyrochlore, perovskite).



66
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 11

   14) THE RESULTS OF HLW PROCESSING USING ZIRCONIUM SALT OF DIBUTYL PHOSPHORIC ACID-7039
      Yury Fedorov, Boris Zilberman, Olga Shmidt, Vladimir Saprikin, Valery Ryasantsev, Khlopin Radium Institute (Russia)
     Zirconium salt of dibutylphosphoric acid (ZS HDBP) dissolved in a diluent, is a promising solvent for liquid HLW process-
ing. The investigations carried out earlier showed that ZS HDBP can recover a series of radionuclides (TPE, RE, U, Pu, Np, Sr)
and some other elements (Mo, Ca, Fe) from aqueous solutions. The possibility of TPE and RE effective recovery and separation
into appropriate fractions with high purification from each other was demonstrated as well. The results of extraction tests in the
mixer-settlers in the course of liquid HLW treatment in hot cells, using ZS HDBP (0.4 M HDBP and 0.044 M Zr) dissolved in 30%
TBP are presented. 30 liters of the feed solution containing TPE, RE, Sr and Cs with the total specific activity of 520 MBq/L and
acidity of 2 M HNO3 were processed using the two-cycle flowsheet. TPE and RE recovery with subsequent stripping was realized
in the first cycle, while Sr was recovered and concentrated in the second cycle. Raffinate of the latter contained almost all Cs. The
degree of TPE and RE recovery was 104, and that of Sr was ~10. Decontamination factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 104,
and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 103. So, ZS HDBP can be used for separation of long-lived radionuclides from HLW with
respect to radiotoxic category of the process products.
                15) SYNTHESIS OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR ACTINIDE IMMOBILISATION-7047
                     Boris Burakov, Victoria Gribova, Alexander Kitsay, V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Russia);
                             Michael Ojovan, Neil Hayatt, Martin Stennett, University of Sheffield (UK)
     Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive
ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specif-
ic ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some
important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form
of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all proce-
dures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis meth-
ods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box
or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Sci-
ence Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to intro-
duce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochem-
ical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed
for industrial applications.
           16) EVALUATION OF TRANSURANIUM ISOTOPES INVENTORY FOR CANDU/ACR STANDARD
                      AND SEU SPENT FUEL AND THE POSSIBILITY TO TRANSMUTE THEM-7152
                   Ghizdeanu Elena - Nineta, University (Romania); Pavelescu Alexandru, University (Romania);
                                Balaceanu Victoria, Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti (Romania)
     The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation
could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel repro-
cessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%).
     For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high-
level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of
new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) techniques could
contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce
both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time need-
ed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy.
     The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an inter-
comparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes
released by a fuel standard from a CANDU reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a CANDU-SEU reactor
and an ACR reactor…
          17) RADWASTE IMMOBILIZATION WITH THE USE OF SPECIAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS-7172
                   Yury Pokhitonov, Yury Pokrovski, Evgeniy Kolobov, Sergey Strelkov, Radium Institute (Russia)
     One of the most important conditions for the realization of the concept of closed nuclear fuel cycle consists in the availability
of highly developed infrastructure, including reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and further utilization of the resulted waste.
The major way for increasing the safety of radwastes management is the development of advanced technologies, which would
enable to reprocess the whole volume of high-level waste (HLW) and to obtain the solid products offering high chemical stability
which would be suitable for long-term monitored storage and/or final disposal. At the same time another way to enhance the safe-
ty of solidified HLW storage and disposal is to apply a special coating on granulated wastes or to encapsulate solidified HLW using
adequate materials. The object of this work was to conduct experimental study on technology development to obtain protective cov-
ering at ceramic materials containing cesium radionuclides. Physicochemical characteristics of these materials (data on cesium
leaching rate) are presented. An alternative objective of the work was to perform experiments on increasing the chemical stability
of matrix compositions based on “reactor” palladium containing europium oxide and iodine.
                          18) IMPROVEMENT OF OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF DUAL-PURPOSE
                           TRANSPORT PACKAGING SET FOR NAVAL SNF IN STORAGE-7389
      Vladimir Guskov, Gennady Korotkov, JSC "KBSM", (Russia); Ella Barnes, US EPA (USA); Randy Snipes, ORNL, (USA)
     In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been
intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the
place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides
preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation
                                                                                                                                    67
Session 11-13                                                                                                                  Abstracts

protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or com-
posite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is
discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual-
purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned
nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants
involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvez-
da involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK-
108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by
removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1-
2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the ! Program, there has been
developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108/1
drying facility; a pilot facility has been manufactured. This report describes key issues of cask drying technology, justification of
terms of dry storage of naval SNF in "#-108/1, design features of the mobile drying facility, results of tests of the pilot facility at
the Far Eastern plant Zvezda.

                    SESSION 12 - PANEL: EMERGING ISSUES IN THE MANAGEMENT FOR L/ILW
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

     SESSION 13 - THE YOUNG GENERATION NETWORK, WORKFORCE ISSUES AND TRAINING PROGRAMS
               1) EDUCATION IN NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND-7209
                                           Fred Catlow, George Reeves, DERC, UHI, (UK)
     This paper describes the work covered and experience gained in the first two years of operation of DERC, a Center for Decom-
missioning and Environmental Remediation in the Highlands of Scotland.
     The Center is a unique development which was set up to teach nuclear decommissioning as a separate discipline, address the
problem of a declining skills base in the field of nuclear technologies and to take advantage of the unique and exceptional innova-
tive, technical and research opportunities offered through the decommissioning of Britain’s fast reactor site at Dounreay.
     The Center is an offshoot from North Highland College which is a member of UHI, the University in embryo of the Highlands
and Islands. The Centre currently supports ten PhD students completing various diverse projects mainly in the field of nuclear envi-
ronmental remediation. In addition there are a number of full and part time MSc students who participate in NTEC (Nuclear Tech-
nology Education Consortium) a consortium of British Universities set up specifically to engender interest and skills in nuclear
technology at postgraduate level. At undergraduate level, courses are offered in Nuclear Decommissioning and related subjects as
part of Electrical and Mechanical degree courses.
     In addition to our relationship with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) the Dounreay site licensee, we
have links with Rolls-Royce and the Ministry of Defence who also share the Dounreay site and with other stakeholders such as, the
UK regulator (HSE/NII), the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), local and international contractors and we liaise
with the newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), who provide some sponsorship and support…
                             2) DEVELOPING SATISFIED AND TALENTED CONSULTANTS-7347
                                       Sarah Greenwood, Helen Higgs, RM Consultants Ltd. (UK)
     The future for the nuclear industry rests with people in their 20s and 30s. It is essential that not just technical talent but also
managerial talent be identified early and that they are nourished and allowed to flourish.
     Having seen the age profile of the industry and linked the growth and survival of their business to altering their own profile,
RM Consultants Ltd has developed a comprehensive approach to identifying, developing and retaining competent people to sup-
port new build, operational and decommissioning activities.
     The key starting point for recruitment is to create, not only a specification of the technical, project management and general
management skills, but also personality characteristics required of a consultant. This enables a less subjective method for recruit-
ment to uncover appropriate skills that may otherwise be ignored.
     Technically, the key to development lies through a mix of classroom, online and on-the-job training. Understanding how to do
this effectively (not just efficiently) comes down to line management skills, human resources processes and most importantly, the
company’s culture and ethos that must come down from top level.
     To retain good people, the emphasis must also be on supporting their career development, ensuring links with institutes, and
recognition for the individual. All the activity has to be seen to link to where the company wants to go and for results to be as
demonstrable as possible.
     Ultimately, the key is a positive and encouraging environment that empowers the right people.
            3) NUCLEAR WORKFORCE ISSUES AND TRAINING PROGRAMS - A UK PERSPECTIVE-7361
                                          Warren Richards, Dalton Nuclear Institute (UK)
    Over the past 20 years underinvestment has led to the UK’s nuclear skills base being run down to the point where it is now
very fragile and the cracks are showing. As a result a number of key nuclear science and engineering disciplines are now showing
signs of shortages developing which is being reflected in both industry and academia.
    Fortunately, the skills gap has been recognised and the trend of underinvestment is being reversed. Industry, Government and
the Research Councils are starting to take steps to address the issue and new nuclear education and research initiatives are under-
way including the Dalton Nuclear Institute and the plans to create a National Nuclear Laboratory.




68
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 13-15

     The concern over a skills gap still exists but hopefully with the realisation of high profile projects such as new nuclear build,
the establishment of a National Nuclear Laboratory and continued support from the UK’s Research Councils, involvement in the
nuclear field will prove to be an attractive career option for a greater number of people which will put the UK back in the position
of having a vibrant and sustainable world class nuclear skills base.
  4) THE NEXT GENERATION - HOW ARE WE EQUIPPING OUR YOUNG GENERATION FOR THE FUTURE-7353
                                                  Corhyn Horsfall, AMEC (UK)
     The nuclear industry until a few years ago was perceived to be a dying breed in the UK. As the lifetime of our operating sta-
tion comes to a close younger engineers and scientists favoured other industries such as IT, manufacturing or banking. As we enter
a nuclear renaissance in the UK it is becoming increasingly more important to attract and retain the best scientists and engineers to
secure our energy requirements for the future as well as decommission the current liabilities.
     This paper discusses 3 groups focusing on graduate recruitment and retention, Companies, YGN and NDA. All three need to
work together to not only promote the nuclear industry and encourage graduates but also to develop them for the future.
     Companies are continuously refocusing their schemes to the changing requirements of the industry, the YGN are a link between
these companies assisting with career developing of new recruits and the NDA have launched a program to encourage a national
graduate program. All three elements are discussed and required to evolve together to ensure the successful development of the
industry on a national level.
      5) PERSONNEL TRAINING EXPERIENCE IN THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT: 10 YEARS OF
                   MOSCOW SIA “RADON” INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION TRAINING CENTRE-7263
                 Olga Batyukhnova, Sergey Dmitriev, Artur Arustamov, Scientific and Industrial Association (Russia);
                          Mikhael Ojovan, Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield (UK)
      The education service for specialists dealing with radioactive waste was established in Russia (former USSR) in 1983 and was
based on the capabilities of two organisations: the Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association “Radon” (SIA “Radon”) and the
Chemical Department of Lomonosov’s Moscow State University. These two organizations are able to offer training programs in the
science fundamentals, applied research and in practical operational areas of the all pre-disposal activities of the radioactive waste
management. Since 1997 this system was upgraded to the international level and now acts as International Education Training Cen-
tre (IETC) at SIA “Radon” under the guidance of the IAEA. During 10 years more than 300 specialists from 26 European and Asian
countries enhanced their knowledge and skills in radioactive waste management. The IAEA supported specialized regional train-
ing courses and workshops, fellowships, on-the-job training, and scientific visits are additional means to assure development of per-
sonnel capabilities. Efficiency of training was carefully analysed using the structural adaptation of educational process as well as
factors, which have influence on education quality. Social-psychological aspects were also taken into account in assessing the over-
all efficiency. The analysis of the effect of individual factors and the efficiency of education activity were carried out based on attes-
tation results and questioning attendees. A number of analytical methods were utilised such as Ishikawa’s diagram method and Pare-
to’s principle for improving of training programs and activities.

   SESSION 14 - PANEL: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES OF THE BNES YOUNG GENERATION NETWORK (YGN)
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                        SESSION 15 - GLOBAL PARTNERING IN MULTI-NATIONAL SUPPORT IN
                                 WASTE MANAGEMENT & CLEAN-UP PROGRAMS
  1) SITE SURVEY OF FORMER NAVAL BASE IN ANDREEVA BAY, NORTHWEST-RUSSIA - RADIATION LEVELS
              AND RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS ON AND BELOW THE SURFACE LEVEL-7148
       Ole Reistad, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway);
       Frits Steenhuisen, Arctic Centre, University of Groningen/Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Netherlands);
          Øystein B. Dick, Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
      (Norway); Gisle Grepstad, Multiconsult (Norway); Styrkaar Hustveit, Anita Sørlie, Ingar Bjørn Amundsen, Norwegian
                                             Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)
     The nuclear industry until a few years ago was perceived to be a dying breed in the UK. As the lifetime of our operating sta-
tion comes to a close younger engineers and scientists favoured other industries such as IT, manufacturing or banking. As we enter
a nuclear renaissance in the UK it is becoming increasingly more important to attract and retain the best scientists and engineers to
secure our energy requirements for the future as well as decommission the current liabilities.
     This paper discusses 3 groups focusing on graduate recruitment and retention, Companies, YGN and NDA. All three need to
work together to not only promote the nuclear industry and encourage graduates but also to develop them for the future.
     Companies are continuously refocusing their schemes to the changing requirements of the industry, the YGN are a link between
these companies assisting with career developing of new recruits and the NDA have launched a program to encourage a national
graduate program. All three elements are discussed and required to evolve together to ensure the successful development of the
industry on a national level.




                                                                                                                                       69
Session 15                                                                                                                   Abstracts

                       2) WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AND APPROACHES IN THE EU:
                         POTENTIAL AREAS FOR ENHANCEMENT OR HARMONIZATION-7217
     Peter Salzer, DECOM Slovakic (Slovak Republic); Gregg Butler, Integrated Decision Management (UK); Neil Chapman,
            Charles McCombie, Arius Association (Switzerland); Grace McGlynn, Integrated Decision Management (UK)
     This paper describes the results of a survey and study performed for the European Commission on “Regulations Governing
Radioactive Waste Disposal in EU Countries”. Its main purposes were to provide a survey of the regulations governing the dispos-
al of all forms of radioactive waste in all EU Members States and, based on this study, to consider the potential for harmonization
in different regulatory areas. Three key parts of the study are presented and the results discussed: collection and assessment of
national data, including its verification by national stakeholders, application of multi-attribute analysis methodology to identify
optimal waste classification scheme and a workshop of national authorities regulating disposal of radioactive waste. For five deter-
mined regulatory issues, the workshop carried out a “strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats” (SWOT) analysis of the
impacts of harmonization.
     Opinions expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not represent the EC’s official position.
              3) OPPORTUNITY, RISK, AND SUCCESS RECOGNIZING, ADDRESSING, AND BALANCING
            MULTIPLE FACTORS CRUCIAL TO THE SUCCESS OF A PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                 DEPLOYED TO SUPPORT MULTI-LATERAL DECOMMISSIONING PROGRAMS – 7342
                                          Greg Funk, Paul Longsworth, Fluor Limited (UK)
     This paper addresses factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information sys-
tem funded by multiple nations. Along with other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drives
accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such
systems.
     While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only
one element of the overall system. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with
one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established
targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity).
     This paper present the approach being used to support the European Bank of Reconstruction (ERBD) in providing a program-
management system to give to the Russian Federation.
     The system will have the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets in north-
west Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class
techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring
those funding such programs optimum value for money.
       4) SUPPORT OF THE IRAQ NUCLEAR FACILITY DISMANTLEMENT AND DISPOSAL PROGRAM-7282
      Roger Coates, International Atomic Energy Agency (USA); John Cochran, Jeff Danneels, Sandia National Laboratories
         (USA); Ronald Chesser, Carlton Phillips, Brenda Rogers, Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech
                                                            University (USA)
     Iraq’s former nuclear facilities contain large quantities of radioactive materials and radioactive waste. The Iraq Nuclear Facil-
ity Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the Iraq NDs Program) is a new program to decontaminate and permanently dispose of
radioactive wastes in Iraq. The NDs Program is led by the Government of Iraq, under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
auspices, with guidance and assistance from a number of countries. The U.S. participants include Texas Tech University and San-
dia National Laboratories. A number of activities are ongoing under the broad umbrella of the Iraq NDs Program: drafting a new
nuclear law that will provide the legal basis for the cleanup and disposal activities; assembly and analysis of existing data; charac-
terization of soil contamination; binging Iraqi scientists to the world’s largest symposium on radioactive waste management; tour-
ing U.S. government and private sector operating radwaste disposal facilities in the U.S., and hosting a planning workshop on the
characterization and cleanup of the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility.
                  5) INTERNATIONAL RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL RECYCLING CHALLENGES-7326
                                John T. Greeves, Jim Lierberman, Talisman International, LLC (USA)
     The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational
regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries reg-
ulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary
Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA mem-
ber States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint
Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006.
           6) EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE IN TRANSPORT/STORAGE CASK FOR VITRIFIED RESIDUES-7336
                                 Camille Otton, Damien Sicard, AREVA - TN International (France)
     Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transport-
ed in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks
with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TNTM81 casks currently in use in
Switzerland and the TNTM85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active
vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kiloWatts).
     The challenges for the TNTM81 & TNTM85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were com-
bined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister.



70
Abstracts                                                                                                                      Session 16

     The TNTM81 & the TNTM85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue
production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping
facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flaks such as the TNTM28 cask
and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance…

    SESSION 16 - RISK-PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RELATED TO SPENT FUEL, TRU OR HLW DISPOSAL
                          1) DEVELOPING A FUZZY RULE BASED COGNITIVE MAP FOR TOTAL
                                          SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT-7072
                         Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy Commission-CNEN/CDTN (Brazil);
                                        Terry Sullivan, Brokhaven National Laboratory (USA))
     Total System Performance Assessment, TSPA, for radioactive waste disposal is a multi and interdisciplinary task that is char-
acterized by complex interactions between parameters and processes; lack of data; and ignorance regarding natural processes and
conditions.
     The vagueness in the determination of ranges of values of parameters and identification of interacting processes pose further
difficulties to the analysts with regard to the establishment of the relations between processes and parameters. More specifically the
vagueness makes uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis challenging to analyze.
     To cope with these difficulties experts often use simplifications and linguistic terms to express their state of knowledge about
a certain situation. For example, experts use terms such as “low pH,” “very unlikely,” etc to describe their perception about natu-
ral processes or conditions.
     In this work we propose the use of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, FCM, for representation of interrelation between processes and
parameters as well as to promote a better understanding of the system performance.
     Fuzzy cognitive maps are suited for the case where the causal relations are not clearly defined and, therefore, can not be rep-
resented by crisp values. In other words, instead of representing the quality of the interactions by crisp values, they are assigned
degrees of truth. For example, we can assign values to the effect of one process on another such that (+) 1 corresponds to positive,
(-) 1 to negative and 0 to neutral effects respectively. In this case the effect of a process A, on a process, B, can be depicted as func-
tion of the membership to the fuzzy set “causal effect” of the cause process to the target one…
  2) ESTIMATES OF MEAN CONSEQUENCES AND CONFIDENCE BOUNDS ON THE MEAN ASSOCIATED WITH
         LOW-PROBABILITY SEISMIC EVENTS IN TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS-7037
                     Osvaldo Pensado, James Mancillas, Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (USA)
     An approach is described to estimate mean consequences and confidence bounds on the mean of seismic events with low prob-
ability of breaching components of the engineered barrier system. The approach is aimed at complementing total system perform-
ance assessment models used to understand consequences of scenarios leading to radionuclide releases in geologic nuclear waste
repository systems. The objective is to develop an efficient approach to estimate mean consequences associated with seismic events
of low probability, employing data from a performance assessment model with a modest number of Monte Carlo realizations. The
derived equations and formulas were tested with results from a specific performance assessment model. The derived equations
appear to be one method to estimate mean consequences without having to use a large number of realizations.
               3) LANDSCAPE MODELING FOR DOSE CALCULATIONS IN THE SAFETY ASSESSMENT
                                    OF A REPOSITORY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL-7115
                    Tobias Lindborg, Ulrik Kautsky, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden);
                       Lars Brydsten, Umeå University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)
     The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent
nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site (figure 1). Data from the two site
investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system prop-
erties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000
years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in
the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem
types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects has
a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge
points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is fol-
lowed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model con-
sists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which consti-
tutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model
equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial…
                    4) ON THE ROLE OF H2 AS AN INHIBITOR OF UO2 MATRIX DISSOLUTION-7109
                  Juan Merino, Xavier Gaona, Lara Duro, Jordi Bruno, Aurora Martínez-Esparza, Enresa (Spain)
     The study of spent fuel behaviour under disposal conditions is usually based on conservative approaches assuming oxidising
conditions produced by water radiolysis at the fuel/water interface. However, the presence of H2 from container corrosion can inhib-
it the dissolution of the UO2 matrix and enhance its long-term stability. Several studies have confirmed the decrease in dissolution
rates when H2 is present in the system, although the exact mechanisms of interaction have not been fully established. This paper
deals with a radiolytic modeling exercise to explore the consequences of the interaction of H2 with radicals generated by radioly-
sis in the homogeneous phase. The main conclusion is that in all the modeled cases the presence of H2 in the system leads to a
decrease in matrix dissolution. The extent of the inhibition, and the threshold partial pressure for the inhibition to take place, both
depend in a complex way on the chemical composition of the water and the type of radiation present in the system.

                                                                                                                                       71
Session 16-17                                                                                                                 Abstracts

                          5) LESSONS LEARNED FROM CLEANING OUT THE SLUDGE FROM
                                  THE SPENT FUEL STORAGE BASINS AT HANFORD-7316
                                           Peter Knollmeyer, Fluor Government Group (USA)
     Until 2004, the K Basins at Hanford, in southeastern Washington State, held the largest collection of spent nuclear fuel in the
United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The K East and K West Basins are massive pools - each holding more than
1.3 million gallons of water - that sit less than 400 yards from the Columbia River. In a significant multi-year campaign that ended
in 2004, Fluor Hanford removed all of the fuel from the two Basins, over 2,300 metric tons (4.6 million pounds), dried it, and then
placed it into dry storage in a specially designed facility away from the River.
     Removing the fuel, however, did not finish the cleanup work at the K Basins. The years of underwater storage had corroded
the metallic uranium fuel, leaving behind a thick and sometimes hard-packed layer of sludge that coated the walls, floors and equip-
ment inside the Basins. In places, the depth of the sludge was measured in feet rather than inches, and its composition was definite-
ly not uniform. Together the Basins held an estimated 50 cubic meters of sludge (42 cubic meters in K East and 8 cubic meters in
K West). The K East sludge retrieval and transfer work was completed in May 2007…
     Vacuuming up the sludge into large underwater containers in each of the Basins and then consolidating it all in containers in
the K West Basin have presented significant challenges, some unexpected. This paper documents some of those challenges and
presents the lessons learned so that other nuclear cleanup projects can benefit from the experience at Hanford.

                                           SESSION 17 - D&D LESSONS LEARNED
     1) SHARING LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES IN DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING
                      TECHNIQUES AMONG U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTORS-7317
                                         Michael Lackey, P.E., Fluor (USA); Sandra Waisley,
                             U.S. Department of Energy, EM-23 (USA); Lansing Dusek, P.E., Fluor (USA)
     Approximately $153.2 billion of work currently remains in the United States Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Envi-
ronmental Management (EM) lifecycle budget for United States projects. Contractors who manage facilities for the DOE have been
challenged to identify transformational changes to reduce the lifecycle costs and develop a knowledge management system that
identifies, disseminates, and tracks the implementation of lessons learned and best practices.
     At the request of the DOE’s EM Office of Engineering and Technology, the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG)
responded to the challenge with formation of the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) and Facility Engineering (DD/FE)
Working Group. Since October 2006, members have already made significant progress in realizing their goals: adding new D&D
best practices to the existing EFCOG Best Practices database; participating in lessons learned forums; and contributing to a DOE
initiative on identifying technology needs. The group is also participating in a DOE project management initiative to develop imple-
mentation guidelines, as well as a DOE radiation protection initiative to institute a more predictable and standardized approach to
approving authorized limits and independently verifying cleanup completion at EM sites. Finally, a D&D hotline to provide real-
time solutions to D&D challenges is also being launched.
          2) LESSONS LEARNED FROM DECOMMISSIONING OF A RESEARCH LAB AND HOW TO APPLY
               THESE ON UPCOMING DECOMMISSIONING PROJECTS AT THE STUDSVIK SITE-7265
                              Christoffer Ellmark, Anders Eriksson, Maria Lindberg, Studsvik (Sweden)
    The clearance of material and release of buildings for unconditional use are crucial factors for the waste amounts coming from
decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The possibilities for clearance is also very much dependent on the regulatory body’s ability
to put in place the correct regulations or legislations.
    During the last decade the development of new guidelines for decommissioning has taken place. The implementation of these
guidelines on a national level has not been fast but in Sweden it is on its way.
    This paper will describe the Swedish situation from the point of view of a decommissioner, i.e. an organization in need of clear
and long term regulations.
                3) SWITCHING FROM DEFERRED DISMANTLING YO IMMEDIATE DISMANTLING:
                                     THE EXAMPLE OF CHOOZ A, A FRENCH PWR-7106
                                          Jean-Jacques Grenouillet, EDF-CIDEN (France)
     Located in the north of France, close to Belgian border, Chooz A is the first PWR that was built in France from 1962 to 1967.
When it was shutdown in 1991, a deferred dismantling strategy was selected. Further to an evolution of EDF decommissioning
strategy in 2001, the decommissioning of the plant was accelerated by reducing the safe enclosure period to only a few years. Thus
Chooz A will be the first PWR to be fully dismantled in France and it gives a good insight of what is needed to reactivate a plant
for final dismantling after a safe enclosure period.
                      4) LESSONS LEARNT FROM IGNALINA DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT-7351
                                       Jean-Claude NAISSE, Tractebel Engineering (Belgium)
     The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe
RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1st of May 2004, the Republic of Lithua-
nia became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to
the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005
and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts
of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement,
the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objec-
tive of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will


72
Abstracts                                                                                                                     Session 17

also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define
the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally
selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were
managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit.
                      5) MANAGEMENT OF LIABILITIES AT SCK-CEN: LESSONS LEARNED-7155
                                          Rene Cornelissen, Luc Noynaert, SCK (Belgium)
      SCK-CEN launched its technical liabilities and waste management program in 1989. This program refers to: “ the BR1 facil-
ity, a 3.5 MW nuclear uranium-graphite moderated-air cooled reactor; “ the BR2 facility, a high flux material testing reactor using
highly enriched uranium, moderated by a beryllium matrix and cooled with pressurized water; “ the BR3 facility, a 40 MWth pres-
surized water reactor which has served both as pilot and as an experimental reactor and which is now in dismantling since 1989; “
the nuclear laboratories buildings where research is performed on reactor constitutive material, fuel and waste conditioning; “ a
farm with pastures where the effects of a contamination on the biosphere are studied.
      The main decommissioning activities at SCK-CEN are focused on the BR3 reactor, but decommissioning activities are also
carried out in other SCK-CEN facilities. These activities mainly concern old equipments and experiments which have to be decom-
missioned to make room for new R&D projects. In the past, 4 laboratory buildings of SCK-CEN were fully cleaned before they
were transferred for unrestricted reuse to a non nuclear institute. The management of spent fuel and nuclear material is also part of
this program. It mainly concerns the back end of BR2 HEU spent fuel, the BR3 LEU and MOX spent fuel.
      The Technical Liabilities and Waste Management Program are continuously monitored and costs are regularly reassessed. The
purpose of the paper is to draw the lessons learned from the experience gained by SCK-CEN since 1989. The main lessons learned
concerns:
      • Regulatory issues and licensing
      • Technological issues
      • Training
      • Waste management
      • Funding and financing
                          6) PROGRESS AND EXPERIENCES FROM THE DECOMMISSIONING
                                   OF THE EUROCHEMIC REPROCESSING PLANT-7210
                                 Robert Walthéry, Patrick Lewandowski, Bart Ooms, Nancy Reusen,
                                       René Gilis, Wim Van Laer, Belgoprocess NV (Belgium)
     Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing
plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels.
The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions
restored.
     The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The
main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m², concrete volume 12,500 m³, and 1,500 Mg of
metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involv-
ing the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the
dismantling of the ventilation system.
     Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and
automatic positioning systems are successfully applied.
     In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part
is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be
demolished.
     The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of
the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium…
                             7) IMPLEMENTING COMPREHENSIVE DE-LICENSING PROCESS
                                     FOR THE WEST JEFFERSON NORTH FACILITY-7388
                                     Keith Anderson, Environmental Chemical Corporation (USA)
      Implementation of the comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North (WJN) facility was documented
through the Final Certification of Completion. The Final Certification of Completion summarizes the performance and results of
the final status surveys of the affected and unaffected areas of the West Jefferson North (WJN) site as part of the completion of the
Columbus Closure Project (CCP). Final status survey processes adhered to the requirements of the “Radiological Characterization
and Final Status Plan for Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project, West Jefferson Site” DD-97-02, Rev. 0 (here-
inafter DD-97-02), as reflecting the requirements of draft NUREG 5849. Surveys were performed throughout the decommission-
ing and remediation activities performed at the WJN and documented in Final Status Survey Reports (FSSR). Throughout the proj-
ect, the CCP activity engaged the oversight of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), and the
Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The
ESSAP of the ORISE fulfilled the Independent Verification Contractor (IVC) role for the CCP under contract to the Oak Ridge
Office of the DOE. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also performed independent review of the in-process final sta-
tus surveys. The FSSR, in conjunction with the IVC Letter Reports and the NRC inspection reports, document that the endpoint
criteria objectives of the NRC-approved Decommissioning Plan have been met for WJN site as covered by the CCP.




                                                                                                                                      73
Session 17-18                                                                                                                   Abstracts

                8) LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS AFFECTED BY AN
                     ACCIDENT DURING OPERATION. THE CASE OF A1 NPP IN SLOVAKIA-7298
            Vladimir Daniska, Deconta, a.s. (Slovak Republic); Jan Timulak, DECOM Slovakia, Ltd. (Slovak Republic);
                    Anton Pekar, VUJE, a.s. (Slovak Republic); Vojtech Niznansky, Javys, a.s. (Slovak Republic);
                                            Ladislav Konecny, UJD SR (Slovak Republic)
     Decommissioning of NPP’s with standard shutdown is currently well known process. The A1 NPP in Slovakia was shutdown
in 1977 after the accident in the core which caused the damage of the fuel and contamination of systems. Long period from 1977
to 2008 was needed to manage issues resulting from affecting the systems and structures of A1 NPP and the environment by the
accident. Management of the damaged spent fuel, decontamination of the primary circuit and other processes generated large
amounts of alpha bearing waste, mostly liquid, having sludge phases with specific physical-chemical and radiological properties.
Up to 1994, the approach for eliminating the consequences of the accident was based on safety priorities. The systematic approach,
which includes also the rehabilitation of the affected environment, was implemented in the period 1994-2008. The process includes
also establishing of the decommissioning infrastructure, legislative and funding system with the aim to implement the standard
decommissioning procedures after 2008. However, the specific aspects, especially the level and radio-nuclide composition of con-
tamination of systems and structures will remain. For final decommissioning 2008-2033, the approach was selected which foresees
four licensed phases. This approach enables proper planning and performing of individual decommissioning phases.

                        SESSION 18 - EXPERIENCES IN ER CLEAN-UP ACTIONS AND LEGACY
             1) CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT AT SELLAFIELD; A LARGE
           OPERATIONAL SITE WITH SIGNIFICANT LEGACY CONTAMINATED LAND CHALLENGES-7051
                               Phil Reeve, Katherine Eilbeck, British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (UK)
      Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940’s for the production, and reprocessing fissile materials.
Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to
20 million m3.
      Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo.
Over the past three decades there has been a program of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The lat-
est phase of characterization is a £10million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models.
      The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British
nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To
address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been estab-
lished.
      Setting and measuring performance against, challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognisant of
the long timescales (80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success.
It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains.
      It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using
international experts.
                               2) UK CONTRACTORS’ EXPERIENCE OF MANAGEMENT OF
                                 TRITIUM DURING DECOMMISSIONING PROJECTS-7153
              Tommy Green, Keith Stevens, John Heaney, NUKEM Limited (UK); Alan Murray, Tetronics Limited (UK);
                       Phil Warwick, Ian Croudace, GAU-Radioalytical, National Oceanography Centre (UK)
     This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting
organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was
gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been
used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analy-
sis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The
improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and
preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling tech-
niques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an
improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future man-
agement of tritiated waste.
                    3) FERNALD CLOSURE PROJECT - LESSONS LEARNED IN THE EXECUTION
                          OF THIS SUCCESSFUL PROJECT, COMPLETED OCTOBER 2006-7314
                  Cornelius Murphy, Fluor Hanford (USA); Johnny Reising, Department of Energy (DOE) (USA)
     This paper explores the history and lessons learned on the United States’ Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Fernald Closure Pro-
ject - from the completion of the uranium-production mission to the implementation of the Records of Decision defining the cleanup
standards and the remedies that were achieved. Cleaning up Fernald and returning it to the people of Ohio was a $4.4 billion dol-
lar mega environmental-remediation project that was completed in October 2006. During a period of nearly 37 years, Fernald pro-
duced 250,000 tons of high-purity, low-enriched uranium for the U.S. defense program, generating more than six million tons of
liquid and solid waste as it carried out its Cold War mission. The facility was shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992, when
Fluor won the contract to clean up the site. The project comprised four phases:
     1. Determining the extent of damage to the environment and groundwater at, and adjacent to, the production facilities
     2. Selecting cleanup criteria - final end states that had to be met to protect human health and the environment
     3. Selecting and implementing the remedial actions that would meet the cleanup goals
     4. Doing the work safely, compliantly and cost-effectively.

74
Abstracts                                                                                                               Session 18-19

     In the project’s early stages, there were strained relationships and total distrust between the local community and the DOE as
a result of aquifer contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents….
    4) PHASED IMPLEMENTATION OF IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION FOR A LARGE TCE DNAPL SOURCE
                             AREA AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT-7200
                                             Paul Cross, Del Baird, CDM Federal (USA)
     This paper describes the In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) remediation being implemented for the X-701B groundwater
plume at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Modified Fenton’s reagent is the prin-
cipal oxidant for the remedy, and Direct Push Technology (DPT) is being used for delivery of the oxidant. Trichloroethene (TCE)
is the primary contaminant of concern and is present within the unit as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). A phased
approach is being implemented to optimize the type, location, and mass of the oxidant injections. During Phase I, a unique near-
real time monitoring approach was utilized to observe the transient effects of the oxidant injections on the formation. As a result of
the positive results from Phase I, Ohio EPA has approved the final work plan for the remedy, and the approach is now being applied
to the source area of the plume. The results from Phase I and the layout for the first series of Phase II injections are presented in
this paper.
     Previous testing at the site has shown that the shallow, water-bearing formation is primarily composed of silty gravel and clay,
and is both heterogeneous and anisotropic. These factors have significantly compromised earlier attempts to remediate the unit. A
patented ISCO process from In-Situ Oxidative Technologies, Inc. (ISOTEC) was selected for the remediation of the plume. Phase
I results indicate that oxidant delivery via DPT is feasible for the unit. Contaminant reduction to date has been minimal due to the
small quantity of oxidant injected during Phase I. Contaminant rebound in the aqueous phase remains a concern and will be mon-
itored closely during the remedy.

                  POSTER SESSION 19 - LOW/INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE MANAGEMENT – I
            1) RESEARCH ON THERMAL STABILITY OF SORBENTS ON THE BASIS OF MICROSPHERES
                    MODIFIED WITH FERROCYANIDES OF TRANSIENT AND HEAVY METALS-7374
      Valery Drozhzhin, Lev Danilin, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russia Research
                                              Institute of Experimental Physics (Russia)
     The mass-spectrometer method was used to investigate the compositions of gas phases formed at thermal decomposition of
inorganic sorbents on the basis of alumosilicate microspheres modified with ferrocyanides of copper, iron, cobalt, tungsten and
vanadium. The research was carried out in a static mode in vacuum, at temperatures 180-500°C. The chemical composition of mod-
ifiers corresponded to formulas: K2Cu[Fe(CN)6]; K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2; Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3; KFe[Fe(CN)6]; Co2[Fe(CN)6]; xH4Fe(N)6
yWO3 zH2O; xH4Fe(CN)6 yV2O5 zH2O. The basic components of gas phases after thermal effect on the given structures are hydro-
gen, water, carbon dioxide and monoxide, nitrogen, cyanic hydrogen. With the temperature growth the intensity of gas evolution
increases, the ratio between the components vary, limiting and non-limiting hydrocarbons appear (ethane, acetylene, propane). The
content of methane varies within ~0.2-2 % vol. in weak correlation with the experimental conditions. The increase of a carbon diox-
ide share in the gas phases with the temperature growth first of all is related to the intensification of decomposition of the carbon
component of microspheres. The composition of the gas phases produced during thermal effect on the modified microspheres is a
superposition of physical and chemical processes connected with the influence of the matrix itself that produces various volatile
compounds, with individual heat resistance of the modifiers and products of their decomposition, as well as with that circumstance,
that products of reactions can interact with each other and catalytically speed up the decomposition of each other. The presence of
water in gas phases is related to its presence in the gas cavity of microspheres, and zeolite water in the channels of ferrocyanide
grid. Dehydration of such salts takes place as a rule in the range of 100-250°…
     2) MODIFIED MICROSPHERES FOR CLEANING LIQUID WASTES FROM RADIOACTIVE NUCLIDES-7373
       Valery Drozhzhin, Lev Danilin, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russia Research
                                               Institute of Experimental Physics (Russia)
      An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to cleaning technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and
radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only taking radioactive nuclides, but also of provid-
ing their subsequent preservation under conditions of long storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be
the use of hollow alumosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral impurities during coal burning in fur-
naces of boiler units of power stations.
      Inorganic ion-exchange materials (ferrocyanides, phosphates, hyteropolyacids etc.) have a considerably higher radioactive sta-
bility as compared to the traditional organic sorbents, up to 1010 rad.
      To improve kinetic characteristics the inorganic modifiers using any known way can be applied onto an inert matrix - the car-
rier, for example, on the surface of microspheres that contain chemically active groups.
      Despite some reduction of exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics due to the
advanced and accessible surface of microspheres-sorbents, and that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process, both in stat-
ic and in dynamic modes.
      In the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF lately there have been developed sorbents on the basis of microspheres that
have ferrocyanides of transient metals (      , Fe, Co, Ni, Zn etc.), as well as phosphates and tungstanates of zirconium and other
compounds as modifiers. Their ion-exchange properties as related to a number of fission products (l37Cs, 155Eu, 144Ce, 60Co) were
studied, as well as to the uranium isotopes and transuranium elements (237Np, 233Pa, americium isotopes etc.)…




                                                                                                                                   75
Session 19                                                                                                                      Abstracts

                          3) RETENTION CAPACITY OF BIOFILMS FORMED ON THE SURFACE
                                          OF NUCLEAR AND BASALTIC GLASSES-7337
                                                 Jean Louis Crovisier, EOST (France)
      The role of the bacteria in the various compartments of a repository site was still not extensively studied. It is likely that most
known bacteria cannot develop on the surface of radioactive materials but one must consider that 10% only of the bacteria species
are known. As an example, a research group has recently discovered an isolated community of bacteria nearly two miles under-
ground that derives all of its energy from the decay of radioactive rocks (LIN et al., 2006). It is generally accepted that alterations
of rocks and anthropogenic products are not exclusively driven by the interaction with water or mineral aqueous solutions. Organ-
ic compounds as well as microorganisms are important in mineral degradation processes, and secondary mineralization. However,
the exact role of biofilms in these processes remains unclear. The study of (AOUAD, 2006) will be presented as an example. Two
materials were tested : the reference French nuclear glass SON68 17 LIDC2A2Z1 and a tholeiitic basaltic glass (natural analogue).
Experiments were carried out for 19 weeks at 25°C. A specific growth medium were developed which allows both the growth of
Pseudomonas bacterium and a precise measurement, using ICP-MS, of trace elements solubilized from both glasses (AOUAD et
al., 2005) The thickness of biofilms, analyzed by confocal laser microscopy was 40 µm for both materials. These biofilms are able
to efficiently trap most of the glass constituents. They also form a protective barrier at the solid/solution interface…
 4) COST AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION IN HEPA FILTER TRAINS BY EFFECTIVE PRE-FILTRATION-7003
                                Chris Chadwick, Microfiltrex, part of the Porvair Filtration Group (UK)
      Data published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre
HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year
between 1987 and 1990) $50million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal - although the life cycle
costs are themselves based on estimates dating from 1987-1990.
      The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per
year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using
the same parameters that suggested the previously stated $55 million for the larger quantity.
      Within that cost estimate, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly,
if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy bur-
den of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures.
      The work up to now has focused on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable) direct replacement of the traditional
filter train, but this paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding
the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them…
                            5) EFFECTS OF LUMP CHARACTERISTICS ON PLUTONIUM SELF
                                        ABSORPTION CORRECTION METHODS-7308
                                Debbie Curtis, Malcolm Wormald, AREVA - Canberra UK Ltd. (UK);
                                      Stephen Croft, AREVA - Canberra Industries Inc. (USA)
     An evaluation study has been undertaken to assess the robustness of several published Pu self-absorption correction methods
against variation in size, shape, density etc. for use in the gamma assay of nuclear waste. The correction methods studied are a
numerical plutonium self absorption correction (PuSAC) technique, the Fleissner 2-line, Fleissner 3-line and Infinite Energy
Extrapolation methods with both linear and polynomial extrapolation to 1/E=0. The performance of these methods has been com-
pared for a limited set of measured encapsulated PuO2 sources plus a range of modeled unencapsulated Pu lumps.
     An indication of the magnitude of the uncertainties of the numerical PuSAC method has been determined for cases of blind
assays where the Pu material, shape and distribution are unknown with the aim of ultimately applying it to real waste. The impor-
tance of the range of Pu lumps used in the baseline modeled dataset has been examined. Data are presented to illustrate how the
uncertainties in the method are affected by the shape, composition, density, number and mass distribution of Pu particles in a sam-
ple for a given modeled base dataset.
            6) NON RADIOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE TREATMENT OF LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTES-7107
         Jeroen Welbergen, Ewoud Verhoef, Anton Eijke, Alex de Best, Jan Hengst, Hans Codée, COVRA N.V. (Netherlands)
     In the Netherlands there are some 200 producers of radioactive waste. Most of them generate only small volumes of low and
medium level waste. These small volumes however cover a wide range of waste forms: solids, liquids of all nature, slurries, etc.
Because of the resulting wide spectrum of radiological and chemical contaminations, a certain amount of flexibility is required in
both solid and liquid waste treatment. In addition, the Nuclear Energy Act license requires a five yearly evaluation of the waste pro-
cessing installation with respect to the Best Practicable Technologies.
     The bulk of the solid waste are compacted, conditioned as cemented packages and stored for at least hundred years (1). The
low-level liquid waste is treated batch-wise as the volumes of liquid waste are too small to operate a continuous system. Moreover,
batch-wise processing enables more flexibility. Discharge of treated water is bounded by concentration limits of chemicals and total
activity per nuclide.
     Evaluation of the installation showed that the radiological constraints provide a larger degree of freedom to discharge, and the
waste water treatment can effectively meet the required limits. The limits of concentration of chemicals are more restrictive. The
liquid waste often has more chemical contamination than radiological. This paper describes the evaluation of the waste water treat-
ment.




76
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 19

                        7) DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE BY LOW
                                  TEMPERATURE VITRIFICATION WITH BIPBO2I-7142
      Atsushi Mukunoki, Tamotsu Chiba, Yasuhiro Suzuki, JGC Corporation, Technology Development Department (Japan);
       Seiichiro Uehara, Kyushu University, Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences (Japan); Tsutomu Nishimura, Hidekazu
                           Asano, Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (Japan)
     This paper describes low temperature vitrification process with BiPbO2I (BPI) as a promising immobilization technique in
which Iodine-129 reacts with BiPbO2NO3 (BPN) to form BPI, which is then solidified into a lead-boron-zinc glass matrix (PbO-
B2O3-ZnO) using a low temperature vitrification process.
     Studies with EPMA, STEM-EDS and XRD found that iodine, lead and zinc were homogeneously dispersed in the waste form,
and that there were no residual crystalline minerals in the amorphous glass matrix.
     Leaching tests conducted under typical geological disposal conditions show that iodine dissolves congruently with the BPI
glass matrix in simulated seawater, whereas it dissolves incongruently in alkaline Ca(OH)2 solutions. This is due to retention with-
in an altered surface layer.
    8) DOWNSELECT ION SPECIFIC MEDIA (ISM) UTILIZATION IN UPSET AND OUTAGE CONDITIONS-7187
      Dr. Mark Denton, NUKEM Corporation (USA); Dr. William Bostick, Materials and Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (USA)
     The presence of iron (iron oxide from carbon steel piping) buildup in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) circuits and wastewaters
is decades old. In, perhaps the last decade, the advent of pre-coatless filters for condensate blow down has compounded this prob-
lem due to the lack of a solid substrate (e.g., powdex resin pre-coat) to help drop the iron out of solution. The presence and buildup
of this iron in condensate phase separators (CPS) further confounds the problem when the tank is decanted back to the plant. Iron
carryover here is unavoidable without further treatment steps. The form of iron in these tanks, which partially settles and is pumped
to a de-waterable high integrity container (HIC), is particularly difficult and time consuming to dewater (low shear strength, high
water content). The addition upstream from the condensate phase separator (CPS) of chemicals, such as polymers, to carry out the
iron, only produces an iron form even more difficult to filter and dewater ( even less shear strength, higher water content, and a
gel/slime consistency).
     Typical, untreated colloidal material contains both sub-micron particles up to, let’s say 100 micron. It is believed that the sub-
micron particles penetrate filters, or sheet filters, thus plugging the pores for what should have been the successful filtration of the
larger micron particles.
     Like BWR iron wastewaters, fuel pools/storage basins (especially in the decon. phase)often contain colloids which make clar-
ity and the resulting visibility nearly impossible. Likewise, miscellaneous, often high conductivity, wastestreams at various plants
contain such colloids, iron, salts (sometimes seawater intrusion and referred to as Salt Water Collection Tanks), dirt/clay, surfac-
tants, waxes, chelants, etc…
                  9) STORAGE AND TREATMENT OF SNF OF ALFA CLASS NUCLEAR SUBMARINES:
                                          CURRENT STATUS AND PROBLEMS-7382
                                Sviatoslav Ignatiev, Alexey Zabudko, Dmitry Pankratov, Ivan Somov,
                              Gennady Suvorov, Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russia)
     The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)
of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be
realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the
international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allo-
cated in the North-West region of Russia.
                                10) CALCULATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE ACCEPTANCE
                                     QUANTITIES FOR NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL-7378
                                         Narmine Mahmoud, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)
     The inventory of wastes to be disposed can contain a large number of radionuclides. Only some of these radionuclides are sig-
nificant to radiation dose to individuals and need to be considered in a detailed analysis. A screening analysis was performed to
remove the inconsequential radionuclides from the detailed performance assessment of a disposal site. Different methods and mod-
els are used for the screening analysis based on specified Trigger Level. The Trigger Level is the criteria specified by the compe-
tent authority to form the basis of the safety assessment methodology of the disposal site. A very conservative model of the ground
water pathway based on one mSv/y as the maximum annual dose is used as the Trigger Level.
     The screening method, used for waste inventory calculations, was assessed by the comparison of its results with those pub-
lished in a draft report by the IAEA. The draft report was concerned with waste acceptance criteria for near surface disposal. These
criteria are based on the inverse calculation of safety assessment methodologies. In a previous study, these criteria were assessed
through a generic safety study of the disposal site.
     Owing to the uncertainty reported by the waste generators for the identification and activity of each radionuclide, it is safer to
determine the waste inventory, which can be disposed in a specific site. In the present work, Trigger level was used for the calcu-
lation of waste inventory for near surface disposal. The results showed different values for the radionuclides studied depending on
their half-life and on dose assessment after ingestion. The results obtained represent the maximum conservative inventory values.
     Keywords: Waste Disposal-Inventory, Trigger Level, Screening Model, IAEA Working Group, Safety Assessment Methodol-
ogy.




                                                                                                                                     77
Session 19                                                                                                                    Abstracts

            11) POSSIBLE APPROACH TO CLEANING “PROBLEMATIC” LRW WITH LARGE CONTENTS
                     OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES, OILS AND OTHER ORGANIC SUBSTANCES-7146
               Vadim Ilin, Yury Karlin, Alexey Laurson, Eugeny Volkov, Sergey Dmitriev, Moscow SIA Radon (Russia)
     A general structural scheme for cleaning “problematic” liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) containing a large amount of suspend-
ed particles, oils and other organic substances has been proposed. The technological scheme includes two main stages: 1) separa-
tion of suspended particles, oil product emulsions and the larger part of colloidal particles from LRW by filtration, 2) purification
of radioactive waters from radionuclides by membrane-sorption to the levels of radiation safety norms applied.
     The filtration stage is considered as a three-step process of “problematic” LRW treatment including: 1) “problematic” LRW
extraction from storage tanks with a robot type device intended for washing out the bottom sediment (slurry), 2) separation of sus-
pended particles, oil product emulsions and larger part of colloidal particles from LRW by filtration through porous or gauze
diaphragms of 0.1 to 10 µm pores (cells) in size, 3) concentration of separated slurry up to 100-200 g/l.
     Two main options of the membrane-sorption technologies, AQUA-EXPRESS and Reverse Osmosis, for LRW purification
have been considered.
     Two possible options of porous or gauze diaphragms productivity and lifetime increase between their surface regenerations
have been shown: 1) possibility of an oxidizer introduction into initial LRW, 2) possibility to rotate a filtering element (disk or
cylinder type).
   12) SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION IN A PACKED
              BED AND STUDYING THE EFFECT OF OPERATING PARAMETERS ON ABSORPTION-7007
          Farzad Yazdanbakhsh, Ata’ollah Soltani Goharrizi, Hassan Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Kerman University (Iran)
     In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated.
At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained.
Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating param-
eters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorp-
tion and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated
                     13) CURING TIME EFFECT ON THE FRACTION OF 137CS FROM CEMENT-ION
                                EXCHANGE RESINS-BENTONITE CLAY COMPOSITION-7013
                      Ilija Plecas, Slavko Dimovic, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia and Montenegro)
      To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides
137Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a
method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important
in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether
it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn(cm/d) of 137Cs from cement-
ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results
obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Ser-
bian radioactive waste storing center. Key words : Cement, Radioactive Waste, Radionuclide, Leaching, concrete
               14) REMOVAL OF CO-60 FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ALFALFA BIOSORBENT-7020
                           H. A. Omar, Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Center (Egypt);
                  M. Abdel Geleel, A. A. Tawfik, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (Egypt)
     A need to develop environmentally friendly technologies to retrieve precious metals has arisen due to the current mining meth-
ods which involve the use of harsh chemicals that endanger the community’s health. Alfalfa biomass has a substantial ability to
bind metal from aqueous solution. Removal of cobalt-60 from a solution was investigated to evaluate cation exchange capacity of
alfalfa. The effect of solution pH, shaking time, mass of adsorbent, initial metal concentration and thermodynamics parameters were
studied. The optimal pH range for cobalt removal was 7 and maximum percentage removal was 98%. Studies show that the adsorp-
tion decreases with increase the concentration. Adsorption isotherms were employed to describe the metal uptake; Freundlich and
Langmuir types were found to fit the experimental data. Thermodynamics parameters, ∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S° have also been calculat-
ed for the system.
                    15) CURING TIME EFFECT ON THE FRACTION OF 137CS FROM IMMOBILIZED
                                 RADIOACTIVE EVAPORATOR SLUDGE BY CEMENT-7016
                     Slavko Dimovic, Ilija Plecas, Vinca Institute for Nuclear Sciences (Serbia and Montenegro)
     Traditional methods of processing evaporator concentrates from NPP are evaporation and cementation. These methods allow
to transform a liquid radioactive waste into the rather inert form, suitable for a final disposal. To assess the safety for disposal of
radioactive mortar-waste composition, the leaching of 137Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator concentrate into a surround-
ing fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions
and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the
cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby
reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn(cm/d) of 137Cs from evaporator concentrates after 180 days were measured. The
results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design
of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. Key words: Cement, Radioactive Waste,
Radionuclide, Leaching, concrete




78
Abstracts                                                                                                                 Session 20-23

                          SESSION 20 - PANEL: GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP SUPPORTING
                   RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND NONPROLIFERATION
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                         SESSION 21 - PANEL: GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS SUPPORTING
                   RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND NONPROLIFERATION
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

            SESSION 22 - PANEL: THE NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON HLW MANAGEMENT
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

        SESSION 23 - RISK-PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RELATED TO SNF, TRU OR HLW DISPOSAL – II
             1) USING POPULATION RISK ASSESSMENT AS A BASIS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS
                              RELATED TO STORAGE OF IRRADIATED NUCLEAR FUEL-7189
       James G. Droppo, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA); V.A. Eremenko, International Knowledge Bridge LLC
          (Russia); J. Linde, Association on Computer Technology and Informational Systems (ACTIS) (Russia); E. Shilova,
                                    Moscow Institute of International Economic Relations (Russia)
     Optimization of safety related decisions by local authorities could be improved using information on potential risks to a region-
al population. A joint Russia-US effort in 2001-2002 modeled potential population health risks for a proposed nuclear waste stor-
age facility in northern Russia. Conducting such an assessment in addition to the standard PRA is proposed as an innovation in Rus-
sia aimed at better meeting the needs of local decision makers. This case-study analysis was conducted for the proposed facility to
provide insights into potential population health risks. In the case study results, the background population risks from radiation acci-
dent exposures were very low compared to risks from chemical background exposures - an unexpected outcome for those that per-
ceive any nuclear facility as very hazardous to the local population. The paper notes that rather than requiring a proposed low-risk
facility for hazardous materials be made even safer, these results give the local authority the option of proposing a trade-off of hav-
ing a major unrelated regional risks mitigated. The results show the value of conducting a population risk assessment in addition
to a facility-oriented PRA as a means of better defining the potential impacts.
                        2) APPLICATION OF TOTAL UNCERTAINTY THEORY IN RADIOACTIVE
                                WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES SAFETY ASSESSMENT-7266
        Francisco De Lemos, National Nuclear Energy Commission CNEN/CDTN (Brazil); Timothy Ross, University of New
                             Mexico (USA); Terrence Sullivan, Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA)
     Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines in order to model the environmental phenomena
necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process the identification and quantification of both types
of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building.
     In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty, (Ross 2006), is proposed. By combining both types of uncer-
tainty, aleatoric and epistemic, in the same framework, this approach ultimately aims to assess the confidence one can pose in the
safety assessment decisions.
                               3) THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN PERFORMANCE
                                   ASSESSMENT AND SAFETY CASE DEVELOPMENT-7329
                  Daniel Galson, Galson Sciences Limited (UK); Amjad Khursheed, Galson Sciences Limited (UK)
     This paper presents the results of an initial review of the treatment of uncertainty in performance assessment (PA) and safety
case development, carried out as part of the European Commission (EC) project PAMINA (Performance Assessment Methodolo-
gies IN Application to Guide the Development of the Safety Case).
     Information on management of uncertainties was gathered from PAMINA participants and several other organisations using a
questionnaire, and via a limited wider review of the literature. The questionnaire responses obtained represent 16 disposal programs
in 13 countries, including all of the countries with advanced programs to implement deep geological disposal, allowing the review
to give wide coverage of global activity.
     Of 16 programs, five are at the conceptual development or feasibility stage, six are at the site selection or site characterisation
stage, two are at the licensing stage, one is at the construction stage, and two have operational repositories. There was also wide
variation in the development of regulation concerning the management of uncertainty for deep geological disposal of radioactive
waste, with several countries having no specific regulation.
     The review indicates there is a high level of consensus with respect to the nature of uncertainties in PA and how they should
be classified, although this is sometimes masked by variations in terminology and differences in how uncertainties are treated in
programs. A system of classification is set out, with reference to the nature of uncertainties.




                                                                                                                                     79
Session 24                                                                                                                  Abstracts

              SESSION 24 - TRANSPORTATION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, FISSILE, TRU, AND HLW
                            1) SYNTHESIS OF YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA MATRICES FOR
                      IMMOBILISATION OF ACTINIDES BY INTERNAL GELATION METHOD-7360
                        Gael Benay, Giuseppe Modolo, Rheinard Odoj, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)
     In the scope of co-conversion of actinides solutions obtained from partitioning of spent nuclear fuel, the internal gelation of
ceria-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia was investigated. This dust-free method to fabricate kernels, which can be used as fuels or
pressed into pellets, is technically easy to implement and compatible with remote handling. The effects of the quantity of reactants
used on the properties of the material were studied. Gels, kernels and pellets were analyzed by thermal analysis, electron
microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the initial broth composition played an important role in the structure of ker-
nels and the formation of cracks during thermal treatment. Pellets obtained with a repressing method were found to present densi-
ties up to 86%TD.
          2) SAFETY ANALYSIS OF IRRADIATED NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSPORTATION CONTAINER-7184
                          Eugenijus Uspuras, Sigitas Rimkevicius, Lithuanian Energy Institute (Lithuania)
     Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut
down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation
container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site trans-
portation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed
set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport
spent fuel assemblies from Unit 1 on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calcula-
tions are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed
nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements
and assure the required safety level.
                   3) DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE MELTING IN COLD CRUCIBLE MELTER AND
                       PRODUCTION OF GRANULES FROM THE MELT FOR USE IN CASKS FOR
                                 SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND RADIOACTIVE WASTES-7259
                 Vitaly Gotovchikov, V. A. Seredenko, V. V. Shatalov, B. S. Mironov, V. N. Kaplenkov, A.V. Seredenko,
             V. K. Saranchin, A. S. Shulgin, All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT) (Russia);
                   M. J. Haire, C. W. Forsberg, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (USA); Danila Kalmakov,
                             All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT), (Russia)
     This paper describes the results of joint research program of Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology and Oak
Ridge National Laboratory to develop new materials for build spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage, transport, and disposal casks using
shielding made with depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) in a DUO2-steel cermet or a DUCRETE with DUAGG (DUO2 aggregate)
with selective additives in cement matrix. The preparation of DUO2 particles and aggregates for shielding could be produced from
technologies that are extrapolated from the costly multi-step nuclear fuel pellet technologies. Melting the DUO2 and allowing it to
freeze will produce a product near 100% theoretical density and assure that the product produces no volatile materials upon subse-
quent heating. Melting is a one step process that provides an opportunity to include additives in the DUO2 to modify its chemical
or nuclear properties. The proposed work is directed to develop cold-wall induction heated melters (ICCM) for this specific appli-
cation. Experiments on melting DUO2 were carried out in high frequency ICCM with cold crucible. It was experimentally proved
an opportunity to produce molten DUO2 from mixed oxides (DU3O8) by reducing melting in ICCM. This will allow using DU3O8
generated in direct conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride as source material for melted and granulated DUO2 production.
Experiments on the addition of alloying components - gadolinium oxide and others into DUO2 melt while in crucible to improve
neutron and gamma radiation-shielding and operation properties of the final solids were carried out…
        4) ADVANCES IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISSION PRODUCT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE
                  SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL-7077
           Jack Law, David Meikrantz, Dean Peterman, Catherine Riddle, Terry Todd, Idaho National Laboratory (USA)
     The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy
Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium and strontium from spent LWR fuel. Separation of the
Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository and, when combined with the separation of Am and Cm,
could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two high-
ly-specific extractants: 4,42,(52)-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-
crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for
cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors is detailed.
Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed
along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.
             5) THE CARBON MATRICES MADE OF PYROLISED BIS-PHTHALOCYANINES AS A BASE
                        FOR ENCAPSULATION OF THE LONG - LIVED NUCLIDES OF IODINE,
                                        TECHNETIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES-7084
              Valeri Tikhonov, Pavel Moskalev, Valerian Kapustin, S.- Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russia)
     The creation and careful investigation of suitable materials and forms for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive waste
(RW) is mainly in the starting stage. A new carbon material formed as a result of pyrolisis of bis-phtalocyanine, Pc2Me, gives a
chance to solve this goal successfully. The pyrolisis takes place under Ar atmosphere at the temperature of 700-800°C. The release
of atoms encapsulated inside this carbon matrix occurs only at temperatures above 1200°C, and a correlation between the effician-
80
Abstracts                                                                                                                 Session 24-25

cy of the atoms release and their atomic radius has been revealed. It is caused with creation of closed microcavities in the carbon
skeleton during pyrolysis of MeC2. Due to inert features and high thermostability of carbon, an inculcation of the long-lived
radionuclides in these microcavities by means of their phtalocyanines pyrolisis gives unique opportunities both for their transmu-
tation and storage. The first results on encapsulation within such kind matrixes of radionuclides of Eu, Tc, I and ‘minor actinides’
are presented. The efficiancy of encapsulation is close to 100% for all studied elements excluding iodine, for the last one it is near
85-90%. The results on thermochemical stability, leaching and other tests of these matrixes are presented.

                       SESSION 25 - D&D OF POWER REACTORS AND RESEARCH REACTORS
                          1) DECOMMISSIONING OF THE SECONDARY CONTAINMENT OF THE
                      STEAM GENERATING HEAVY WATER REACTOR AT UKAEA WINFRITH-7068
      Keith Miller, Rowland Cornell, Steve Parkinson, NUKEM Limited (UK); Kevin McIntyre, Andy Staples, United Kingdom
                                               Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) (UK)
     The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy
Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a
multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-contain-
ment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of
the building and all remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract
was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005.
     The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of
multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its con-
tact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made
from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and
establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure.
     Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has
required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height ISO contain-
ers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a com-
mentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently…
                         2) PROVEN CONCEPTS FOR LLW-TREATMENT OF LARGE COMPONENTS
                                           FOR FREE-RELEASE AND RECYCLING-7218
          Lena Bergstrom, Maria Lindberg, Anders Lindström, Bo Wirendal, Joachim Lorenzen, Studsvik Nuclear (Sweden)
     This paper describes Studsvik’s technical concept of LLW-treatment of large, retired components from nuclear installations in
operation or in decommissioning.
     Many turbines, heat exchangers and other LLW components have been treated in Studsvik during the last 20 years. This also
includes development of techniques and tools, especially our latest experience gained under the pilot project for treatment of one
full size PWR steam generator from Ringhals NPP, Sweden. The ambition of this pilot project was to minimize the waste volumes
for disposal and to maximize the material recycling. Another objective, respecting ALARA, was the successful minimization of the
dose exposure to the personnel.
     The treatment concept for large, retired components comprises the whole sequence of preparations from road and sea trans-
ports and the management of the metallic LLW by segmentation, decontamination and sorting using specially devised tools and
shielded treatment cell, to the decision criteria for recycling of the metals, radiological analyses and conditioning of the residual
waste into the final packages suitable for customer-related disposal.
     For e.g. turbine rotors with their huge number of blades the crucial moments are segmentation techniques, thus cold segmen-
tation is a preferred method to keep focus on minimization of volumes for secondary waste. Also a variety of decontamination tech-
niques using blasting cabinet or blasting tumbling machines keeps secondary waste production to a minimum.
     The technical challenge of the treatment of more complicated components like steam generators also begins with the segmen-
tation. A first step is the separation of the steam dome in order to dock the rest of the steam generator to a specially built treatment
cell. Thereafter, the decontamination of the tube bundle is performed using a remotely controlled manipulator. After decontamina-
tion is concluded the cutting of the tubes as well as of the shell is performed in the same cell with remotely controlled tools…
                 3) DECOMMISSIONING OF THE BR3 REACTOR: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES-7128
                            Ingrid Verstraeten, NIRAS/ONDRAF (Belgium); Luc Noynaert, SCK (Belgium)
     The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had
a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was oper-
ated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large com-
mercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989,
SCK-CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pres-
sure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the
decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and
costs and strategy are regularly reassessed.
     The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994,
1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes con-
cern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management.




                                                                                                                                     81
Session 25                                                                                                                     Abstracts

    The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise per-
formed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dis-
mantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive
waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this “radioactive” grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g.
conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained…
                             4) DECOMMISSIONING STRATEGY OPTIONS FOR MR REACTOR
                                      AT THE KURCHATOV INSTITUTE, MOSCOW-7191
              Martin Cross, NUKEM Ltd. (UK); Neil Harman, Dafydd Charles, Alex Harper, Serco Assurance Ltd. (UK);
                             Boris Bylkin, Yuri Gorlinskij, Vyacheslav Kolyadin, V A Kutkov, V I Pavlenko.
                 Yuri Sivintsev, RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russia); Yuri Lobach, INR NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)
     The principal decommissioning goal for the nuclear installations of the Kurchatov Institute is the removal of spent fuel, reac-
tor facilities and radioactive waste from the Institute’s site. As the result of decommissioning, the buildings, constructions and areas
should be cleaned to residual contamination levels acceptable to the stake-holders. These levels are determined in view of possible
options for the rehabilitation of the Institute’s areas under conditions of compliance with acting legislation for safety provisions for
staff, population noting the proximity of the site to the local urban environment.
     Research reactor MR was commissioned in 1963 for reactor materials testing and finally shutdown in 1993. The reactor power
with the experimental loops was 50 MWt. Several features were identified for the development of a decommissioning strategy for
this reactor, namely: - the strategy should consider many factors in a broad approach with international, inter-industry and long-
term perspectives; - the current situation for decommissioning is uncertain and must account for the views of a variety of stake-
holders on possible final conditions and further use of the site and the route to achieve these; and - a lack of sufficiency in the
national legislation base for execution of the work and the possible options for its completion.
     On the basis of worldwide experience, the strategy for decommissioning of reactor MR was determined as follows: - determi-
nation of the options for the final rehabilitation of the Institute’s areas; - determination of the stakeholders and their priority con-
cerns; - determination of the strategy options for achievement of the final status; - determination of the main factors influencing the
se-lection of the decommissioning strategy; - selection of the most acceptable strategies on the basis of a multi-attribute analysis;
- determination of the main stages and principles of implementation of the selected strategy; and - development of the decommis-
sioning activities considering the work that will be required…
                   5) THE AVR (HTGR) DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT WITH NEW STRATEGY-7040
                                        Hakan Sterner, Dieter Rittscher, AVR GmbH (Germany)
     The 15-MWel prototype pilot reactor AVR is a pebble bed HTGR. It was designed in the late 50s and was con-nected to the
grid end of 1967. After 21 years of successful operation the reactor was shut down end of 1988. In 1994 the first decommissioning
license was granted and work with defueling, dismantling and preparation of a Safe Enclosure started. The primary system is con-
taminated with the fission products Sr90 and Cs137and the activation products are Co60, C14 and H3. Due to the large amounts of Sr
and Cs bound to graphite dust, the dismantling of systems connected to the pressure vessel is very tedious. In 2003 the AVR com-
pany was restructured and the strategy of the decommissioning was changed from safe enclosure to green field, i.e. the complete
direct dismantling of all facilities and clean up of the site. The highlight during the dismantling is the removal of the reactor vessel
(diameter ca. 7.6m and length ca. 26m) in one piece. Before handling the reactor vessel it will be filled with low density cellular
concrete. Subsequently the reactor building will be cut open and the reactor vessel (total weight ca. 2100Mg) lifted out and trans-
ported to an interim store.
         6) CLOSURE OF THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PLANS-7279
                      Christopher Lesperance, Fluor Hanford (USA); Steven Doebler, Fluor Hanford (USA);
                                                 Thomas Burke, Fluor Hanford (USA)
     The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400 MWt sodium-cooled fast reactor situated on the U.S. Department of Energy’s
(DOE) Hanford Site in the southeastern portion of Washington State. DOE issued the final order to shut down the facility in 2001,
when it was concluded that there was no longer a need for FFTF. Deactivation activities are in progress to remove or stabilize major
hazards and deactivate systems to achieve end points documented in the project baseline. The reactor has been defueled, and
approximately 97% of the fuel has been removed from the facility. Approximately 97% of the sodium has been drained from the
plant’s systems and placed into an on-site Sodium Storage Facility. The residual sodium will be kept frozen under a blanket of inert
gas until it is removed later as part of the facility’s decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Plant systems have been shut
down and placed in a low-risk state to minimize requirements for surveillance and maintenance. D&D work cannot begin until an
Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared to evaluate various end state options and to provide a basis for selecting one
of the options. The Environmental Impact Statement is expected to be issued in 2009.
                          7) SEGMENTATION AND REMOVAL OF THE CAROLINA-VIRGINIAS
                                    TUBE REACTOR (CVTR) MODERATOR TANK-7154
                                           Michael Anderson, MOTA Corporation (USA)
     Special tooling has been deployed to segment the Moderator Tank (MT) at the Carolinas-Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) Parr
site near Jenkinsville, South Carolina. The MT or reactor vessel, the most activated component remaining on site which included
over 1,000 Ci of activation products, has been segmented into sections to fit within three hardware liners and three custom boxes.
This work has been completed in approximately 12 months from tool conception to final packaging with no spread of contamina-
tion, no generation of secondary wastes and minimizing personnel radiological exposure. With contact dose readings in excess of
90 R/hr, segmentation of the MT had to be performed remotely and with the assurance that the spread of contamination to other-
wise clean areas of the reactor building did not occur. Additionally, since the MT was entombed within a bioshield not capable of
containing water, cutting had to be performed dry without benefit of shielding typically provided by the water of a spent fuel pool.
In addition, the component removal scope included the removal, packaging and disposal of other activated components including

82
Abstracts                                                                                                                 Session 25-26

thermal shields and the steel liner from the internal face of the bioshield. Concept engineering began in January 2006. Tools were
tested and delivered in May 2006. Segmentation was completed in December 2006, followed by the removal of the thermal shields
and bioshield liner. The component removal work was completed without the spread of contamination, no generation of secondary
waste and an exposure total of 17 person rem.
               8) THE RADIOACTIVITY ANALYSIS OF 14C IN THE GRAPHITE SAMPLES FROM THE
               DISMANTLED KRR-1&2 SITES BY A HIGH TEMPERATURE FURNACE AND A LSC-7145
                  Hee Reyoung Kim, Moon Ja Kang, Geun Sik Choi, Chang Woo Lee, Dong Kyu Lee, Wanno Lee,
             Kun Ho Chung, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Environment Research Division (Korea)
     The radioactivity of 14C of the graphite samples from the dismantled Korea Research Reactor 1&2 (the KRR-1&2) site was
analyzed and proposed to be disposed of as a low level radioactive waste rather than self-disposed of. The graphite wastes, with a
weight of seven tons, have been generated during the dismantling of a research reactor with a capacity of one MW from 1995 to
2006. The graphite was used as a moderator for the research reactor and so has been radioactivated by thermal neutron. It was
thought that the graphite wastes mainly included a radioisotope of stable carbon, 14C, a pure beta emitter with a half life of 5,730
years and with a maximum decay energy of 156 keV. Therefore, it has been requested to see whether the dismantled graphite
radioactive wastes including 14C can be self-disposed of or not. In the present study, the radioactivity of 14C in the graphite sam-
ple used in the research reactor was analyzed by using a commercialized high temperature furnace and a Liquid Scintillation
Counter (LSC). The combustion temperature of the furnace was five hundred degrees centigrade and especially the temperature in
the catalyst region was eight hundred degrees centigrade. The recovery from the furnace was 95% for 14C and the LSC had a
quenching efficiency of approximately 66%. Carbosorb was used as a trapping solution for 14C. The radioactivity of 14C was
measured by a LSC through the procedure of a pre-treatment such as the combustion of a sample in the temperature range of 500-
800 degrees centigrade by a high temperature furnace, …

               SESSION 26 - SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH L/ILW MANAGEMENT
           1) RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF WASTE IN INTERIM STORAGE BUILDINGS-7234
                           Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands);
                                                Jeroen Welbergen, COVRA (Netherlands)
      At COVRA spatial dose rate distribution measurements were performed in December 2004 and December 2006 in the interim
L/ILW storage building (LOG). This storage facility is a large hall (height * width * depth; 7m * 40m * 70m) with a volume of
about 20000 m3.
      The scope of this study is to investigate the benefits of the waste storage strategy and procedures for minimization of the dose
to the workers and the public.
      The main aim of the measurements in 2004 was:
      • to validate the applied L/ILW storage strategy
      • to examine, if spatial collected data can be used
      • to detect unforeseen differences in radiation level.
      The results of these measurements of spatial dose showed a number of unforeseen hotspots at different locations, so that it
could be concluded that the applied storage strategy and procedures has to be improved. Further the dose rate at the height of 6 m,
mainly responsible for the sky-line dose rate, being an important part of the dose rate to the public at the dividing line of the facil-
ity, has to be reduced by more shielding.
      In December 2006 a second serial of spatial radiological and non-radiological data have been collected. The applied non-
destructive INDSS-R (INDoor Survey System-Radiation) method has been improved, so that the following 3-dimensional data
could be collected between 0.5 m and 5.5 m: …
    2) SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITY DESIGN FOR MANAGING CANDU® 600 MW
               NUCLEAR GENERATING STATION RETUBE/REFURBISHMENT WASTE STREAMS-7283
                      Nikos Pontikakis, Dave Scott, Vijay Bajaj, Larry Nosella, Jamie Hopkins, AECL (Canada)
     The main design features of the retube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy
of Canada Limited (AECL®) and implemented in support of the retube/refurbishment activities for CANDU 600 MW nuclear gen-
erating stations are described in this paper. The retube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles,
which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined.
                  3) CENTRIFUGE MODELING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MIGRATION THROUGH
                                BACKFILL IN A NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY-7032
                          Chandraskharan Gurumoorthy, Kusakabe Osamu, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
                                    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Japan)
     Investigations on the performance of backfill barrier in Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) for radioactive wastes are
important to ensure the long term safety of such disposal option. Favorable condition to delay migration of radionuclides from dis-
posed waste to far fields is diffusion process. However, advective dispersion/diffusion mechanism plays an important role due to
changes in backfill over a period of time. In order to understand these mechanisms, detailed laboratory experiments are usually con-
ducted for developing mathematical models to assess the behaviour of backfill. However, these experiments are time consuming
and suffer with the limitations due to material complexity. Also, there are constraints associated with validation of theoretical pre-
dictions due to intricacy of boundary conditions as well as the time scale is quite different as compared to the time required for
completion of the processes in the field. Keeping in view these aspects, centrifuge modeling technique has been adopted by vari-
ous researchers to model and understand various geoenvironment problems in order to provide a link between the real life situation


                                                                                                                                     83
Session 26                                                                                                                      Abstracts

termed as the “Prototype” and its model, which is exposed to a higher gravitational field. An attempt has been made in this paper
to investigate the feasibility of this technique to model advective dispersion/diffusion mechanism of radionuclides through saturat-
ed Bentonite-Sand (B:S) backfill. Various stages of centrifuge modeling are highlighted. Column tests were conducted in the cen-
trifuge to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity of B:S mixture under prototype NSDF stress conditions…
           4) UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF THE RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIOACTIVE
                      WASTE USING A METHOD BASED ON LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS-7285
                                Yves Gigase, European Commission AIDCO Nuclear Safety (Belgium)
     The uncertainty on characteristics of radioactive LILW waste packages is difficult to determine and often very large. This
results from a lack of knowledge of the constitution of the waste package and of the composition of the radioactive sources inside.
To calculate a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty on a characteristic of a waste package one has to combine these various uncer-
tainties. This paper discusses an approach to this problem, based on the use of the log-normal distribution, which is both elegant
and easy to use. It can provide as example quantitative estimates of uncertainty intervals that “make sense”. The purpose is to devel-
op a pragmatic approach that can be integrated into existing characterization methods. In this paper we show how our method can
be applied to the scaling factor method. We also explain how it can be used when estimating other more complex characteristics
such as the total uncertainty of a collection of waste packages. This method could have applications in radioactive waste manage-
ment, more in particular in those decision processes where the uncertainty on the amount of activity is considered to be important
such as in probability risk assessment or the definition of criteria for acceptance or categorization.
                        5) STUDY OF LOADING/AIR BACKPULSE CLEANING CYCLES ON THE
                                 PERFORMANCE OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE FILTERS-7076
                            Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Michael Parsons, Kristina Hogoncamp,
                                          Steven Alderman, Mississippi State University (USA)
      The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of
filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more
vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these
regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem
ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was
done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassi-
um chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle
to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured.
                          6) HEPA FILTER PERFORMANCE UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS-7074
                             Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Michael Parsons, Kristina Hogancamp,
                               Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology (USA)
     This study involved challenging Nuclear Grade HEPA filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Ener-
gy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled (inorganic PM < 30 mg/m3) and uncontrolled challenge (smoke > 30
mg/m3), and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by
traditional (differential pressure) techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream
PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceed-
ed their usable lifetime. Significant findings form this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter hous-
ing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting
of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the
point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of fil-
ters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from
approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl.
         7) EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF MEDIA VELOCITY ON HEPA FILTER PERFORMANCE-7075
                             Charles Waggoner, Steven Alderman, Kristina Hogoncamp, Michael Parsons,
                               Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology (USA)
      Section FC of the ASME AG-1 Code addresses glass fiber HEPA filters and restricts the media velocity to a maximum of 2.54
cm/s (5 ft/min). Advances in filter media technology allow glass fiber HEPA filters to function at significantly higher velocities and
still achieve HEPA performance. However, diffusional capture of particles < 100 nm is reduced at higher media velocities due to
shorter residence times within the media matrix. Therefore, it is unlikely that higher media velocities for HEPA filters will be
allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of particles in the smaller size classes. In order to
address this issue, static testing has been conducted to generate performance related data and a range of dynamic testing has pro-
vided data regarding filter lifetimes, loading characteristics, changes in filter efficiency and the most penetrating particle size over
time. Testing was conducted using 31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm deep pleat HEPA filters supplied from two manufacturers. Testing was
conducted at media velocities ranging from 2.0-4.5 cm/s with a solid aerosol challenge composed of potassium chloride. Two set
of media velocity data were obtained for each filter type. In one set of evaluations, the maximum aerosol challenge particle size
was limited to 3 ¼m, while particles above 3 ¼m were not constrained in the second set. This provided for considerable variabili-
ty in the challenge mass mean diameter and overall mass loading rate. Results of this testing will be provided to the ASME AG 1
FC Committee for consideration in future versions of the HEPA standard. In general, the initial filter efficiency decreased with
increasing media velocity. However, initial filter efficiencies were generally good in all cases. Filter efficiency values averaged over
the first ten minute of the loading cycle ranged from 99.970 to 99.996 %. Additionally, the most penetrating particle size was
observed to decrease with increasing media velocity, with initial values ranging from 194 to 134 nm.



84
Abstracts                                                                                                              Session 26-27

               8) RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS TOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT
                          IN THE FRAMEWORK OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM-7220
                              Mercedes Salgado, Juan Carlos Benitez, Rene Pernas, Niurka Gonzalez,
                                        Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (Cuba)
     The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the institution responsible for the management of radioactive
wastes generated from nuclear applications in medicine, industry and research in Cuba. Radioactive Waste Management Service is
provided at a national level and it includes the collection and transportation of radioactive wastes to the Centralized Waste Man-
agement Facilities, where they are characterized, segregated, treated, conditioned and stored.
     A Quality Management System, according to the ISO 9001 Standard has been implemented for the RWM Service at CPHR.
The Management System includes the radiation safety requirements established for RWM in national regulations and in the
License’s conditions. The role of the Regulatory Body and the Radiation Protection Officer in the Quality Management System, the
authorization of practices, training and personal qualification, record keeping, inspections of the Regulatory Body and internal
inspection of the Radiation Protection Officer, among other aspects, are described in this paper.
     The Quality Management System has shown to be an efficient tool to demonstrate that adequate measures are in place to ensure
the safety in radioactive waste management activities and their continual improvement.
               9) GAMMA AND X-RAY SHIELDING COMPOSITIONS UTILIZING BAUXITE - RED MUD
                          REGIONAL RESEARCH LABORATORY(CSIR),BHOPAL, INDIA-7048
          Avneesh Anshul, Sudhir Sitaram Amritphale, Navin Chandra, N. Ramakrishnan, Regional Research Laboratory,
                                       Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)
     The application spectrum of X-ray and Gamma radiation is increasing exponentially in the area of diagnostic, nuclear medi-
cine, food preservation, nuclear power plants and strategic utilities. To prevent the harmful effects of these radiations, shielding
materials based on lead metal and its compounds are being used historically, which are toxic in nature. To protect environment it
has become necessary to develop non-toxic lead free shielding materials. The use of titanium metal and its compounds as synthet-
ic rock i.e. SYNROC are reported to be very effective non-toxic shielding materials for various applications. Red mud waste gen-
erated in aluminum producing industries possesses a unique mineralogical compositions containing fairly high quantity of titanium
oxide and iron oxide useful for making non toxic shielding compositions and therefore red mud has been utilized for the first time
in the world for making radiation shielding materials.
     The red mud based compositions developed have been characterized for their various physico-mechanical properties name-
ly compressive strength, impact strength, density and X-ray and gamma radiation shielding capacity in terms of shielding thick-
ness i.e. HVT. Based on the characterization results it is found that the red mud based materials can be used for the construction
of X-ray diagnostic and CT-Scanner room and as a substitute shielding material for concrete in the nuclear reactors and other radi-
ation based applications. Studies on the identification of shielding phases and their morphology present, in the red mud based
shielding compositions has been carried out using X-ray diffraction and SEM technique. The results of these studies are present-
ed in this paper.

              SESSION 27 - L/ILW WASTE CHARACTERIZATION, ASSAY, AND TRACKING SYSTEMS
                  1) CURRENT TRENDS FOR PACKAGING TRANSURANIC WASTE AT LOS ALAMOS
                                      NATIONAL LABORATORY (LA-UR-07-0359)-7312
                                Kapil Goyal, Los Alamos National Laboratory, (USA); Peter Carson,
                          Los Alamos National Laboratory, Environmental Program Waste Services (USA);
                   Alejandro Enriquez, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pu-238 Science and Technology (USA)
     Transuranic (TRU) waste leaving the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is packaged using
LANL’s waste acceptance criteria for onsite storage. Before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New
Mexico, each payload container is subject to rigorous characterization to ensure compliance with WIPP waste acceptance criteria
and Department of Transportation regulations. Techniques used for waste characterization include nondestructive examination by
WIPP-certified real-time radiography (RTR) and nondestructive assay (NDA) of containers, as well as headspace gas sampling to
ensure hydrogen and other flammable gases remain at safe levels during transport. These techniques are performed under a rigor-
ous quality assurance program to confirm that results are accurate and reproducible. If containers are deemed problematic, correc-
tive action is taken before shipment to WIPP. Currently this activity is possible only at the Laboratory’s Waste Characterization,
Reduction, and Repackaging Facility.
     To minimize additional waste requiring remediation, WIPP waste acceptance criteria must be applied at the point of waste gen-
eration. Additional criteria stem from limitations of RTR or NDA instruments or lack of appropriate sampling and analysis.
     This paper presents the changes that have been implemented at the Plutonium Facility and gives readers a preview of what
LANL expects to accomplish to expeditiously certify and dispose of newly generated TRU waste.
      2) THREE DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ACTIVITY PROFILES IN 220 LITRES RADIOACTIVE
                    WASTE PACKAGES CONTAINING SUPER COMPACTED 100 LTR DRUMS-7247
                    Leo van Velzen, Jos Maes, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands)
     Abstract In 2001 the R&D project 3DRedact (acronym for 3 Dimensional Reconstruction of Density and Activity) was initi-
ated with as main aim to develop a new non-destructive assay (NDA) method that can be applied in routine for free release meas-
urements of decayed radioactive waste so that this waste can be recycled. These conditioned waste packages can be immobilized
dense waste with the aid of bitumen or concrete or 220 litres drums containing several 100 litres super compacted waste with or
without an inactive shielding. As second aim the NDA method has to be able to be applied for historic conditioned waste and as
last for raw waste.


                                                                                                                                  85
Session 27                                                                                                                   Abstracts

     The initiative to start this R&D project was due to the fact that no commercial NDA system is available that fulfils the main
pre-defined requirements (e.g. the radioactive content of a nuclear waste drum has to be assayed with an accuracy better then 10%
and the NDA system has to prove that assayed drums does not content hot-spots above governmental limits and NDA system has
to have a drum throughput of 2 drums per hour). So that an assayed waste drum that passes, can be subjected to a recycle process
or undergo the correct processing…
    3) SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT BELGOPROCESS-7267
                                        Huys Thomas, Gielen Paul, Belgoprocess, (Belgium)
     Belgoprocess is capable of processing almost every type of low and medium level radioactive waste and thereby covering a
large segment from the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Waste from numerous producers is treated and conditioned into a stable
end product. Such processes lead inevitably to the generation of a large number of different waste streams. Each of these streams
is uniquely defined by its radiological and physicochemical characteristics. From regulatory point of view and in order to select
appropriate processing and conditioning techniques it is essential to characterize each of these waste streams. Because of the labour-
intensive nature of the work and to keep a trustworthy traceability, Belgoprocess has decided to automate this task as far as possi-
ble. Therefore it has developed a system that seamlessly integrates waste-accounting and radiological characterization into one sys-
tem. The use of generic methodologies, isotope vectors and a measurement database makes it possible to characterize most waste
packages without elaborate knowledge of radiological characterization. A nuclear engineer develops generic methodologies and
defines isotope vectors and appropriate measurements. These combinations are documented in procedures and used by the waste-
accounting team to characterize the waste packages. The whole system is designed and programmed in such a way that it offers
maximum flexibility and traceability. For example, changes in characterization of the previously processed and conditioned waste
will propagate through the system until the changes reach the end product. This kind of systematic approach to radioactive waste
characterization is found to be very fruitful.
                  4) ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING OF CEMENTITIOUS WASTEFORMS-7049
                              Lyubka Spasova, Michael Ojovan, Immobilisation Science Laboratory,
                         University of Sheffield, (UK); Martin Hayes, Hugh Godfray, Nexia Solutions (UK)
     The long term performance of cementitious structures immobilising radioactive waste can be affected by physical and chemi-
cal processes within the encapsulating materials such as formation of new phases (e.g. vaterite, brucite), degradation of cement
phases (e.g. CSH gel, portlandite), degradation of some waste components (e.g. organics), corrosion of metallic constituents (Al,
Mg), gas emission, further hydration etc. The corrosion of metals in the high pH cementitious environment is of especial concern
as it can potentially cause wasteform cracking. One of the perspective non-destructive methods used to monitor and assess the
mechanical properties of materials and structures is based on an acoustic emission (AE) technique. In this study an AE non-destruc-
tive method was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious structures with encapsulated metallic waste such as
aluminium. AE signals generated as a result of Al corrosion in a small-size blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement
(OPC) sample were recorded and analysed. A procedure for AE data analysis including conventional parameter-based AE approach
and signal-based analysis was applied and demonstrated to provide information on the Al corrosion process and its impact on the
mechanical performance of the encapsulating cement matrix.
       5) ISO STANDARDIZATION OF SCALING FACTOR METHOD FOR LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
                      RADIOACTIVE WASTES GENERATED AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS-7015
                Makoto Kashiwagi, JGC (Japan); Hideki Masui, TEPCO (Japan); Yasutaka Denda TEPCO (Japan);
          David James, DW James Consulting (USA); Bertrand Lantès EDF (France); Wolfgang Müller, ISTec (Germany);
         Mike Garamszeghy, OPG (Canada); Jose Luis Leganes, ENRESA (Spain); Harald Maxeiner, NAGRA (Switzerland)
     Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L-ILW) generated at nuclear power plants are disposed in various countries.
In the disposal of such wastes, it is required that the radioactivity concentrations of waste packages should be declared with respect
to difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63 and ±-emitting nuclides, which are often limited to maximum
values in disposal licenses, safety cases and/or regulations for maximum radioactive concentrations. To fulfill this requirement, the
Scaling Factor method (SF method) has been applied in various countries as a principal nuclide evaluation method for determining
the concentrations of DTM nuclides.
     In the SF method, the concentrations of DTM nuclides are determined by multiplying the concentrations of certain key nuclides
by SF values (the determined ratios of radioactive concentration between DTM nuclides and those key nuclides). The SF values
used as conversion factors are determined from the correlation between DTM nuclides such as Ni-63 and key nuclides such as Co-
60. The concentrations of key nuclides are determined by γ-measurements which can be made comparatively easily from outside
the waste package.
     The SF values are calculated based on the data obtained from the radiochemical analysis of waste samples. The use of Scaling
Factors, which are empirically based on analytical data, has become established as a widely recognized “de facto standard”…
                        6) DERIVATION OF THE KOREAN RADWASTE SCALING FACTOR-7297
                        Kwang Yong Jee, Hong Joo Ahn, Se Chul Sohn, Sun Ho Han, Korea Atomic Energy
                    Research Institute (Korea); Ki Seop Choi, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (Korea)
     The concentrations of several radionuclides in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) drums have to be deter-
mined before shipping to disposal facilities. A notice, by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Korean Govern-
ment, related to the disposal of LILW drums came into effect at the beginning of 2005, with regards to a radionuclide regulation
inside a waste drum. MOST allows for an indirect radionuclide assay using a scaling factor to measure the inventories due to the
difficulty of nondestructively measuring the essential α and β-emitting nuclides inside a drum. That is, a scaling factor calculated
through a correlation of the α or β-emitting nuclide (DTM, Difficult-To-Measure) with a γ-emitting nuclide (ETM, Easy-To-Mea-
sure) which has systematically similar properties with DTM nuclides. In this study, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry


86
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 27-28

active waste which were generated at different sites of a PWR and a site of a PHWR type Korean NPP, were partially sampled and
analyzed for regulated radionuclides by using radiochemical methods. According to a reactor type and a waste form, the analysis
results of each radionuclide were classified. Korean radwaste scaling factor was derived from database of radionuclide concentra-
tions.
          7) SITE CHARACTERISATION AND MONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION-7058
                             Ian Adsley, Michael Davies, Robert Murley, Ian Pearman, Nicholas Harman,
                                  Lorna Proctor, Jack Armitage, Helen Beddow, NUKEM Ltd. (UK)
     Radioactive contamination of nuclear and mineral processing sites can be very varied. Early work in the extraction of urani-
um and thorium led to the disposal of large amounts of waste containing a variety of daughter radioisotopes. Later, the develop-
ment of nuclear weapon programs led to large scale processing of uranium and thorium ores, physical separation of isotopes, and
the initiation of nuclear fission with the resulting production of fission product radionuclides and activated metals. Weapons test-
ing and reprocessing of reactor fuel again led to the release of fission and activation products, together with radioelements from the
chemistry of fuel extraction. Finally the recovery of oil and gas reserves have once again led to renewed interest in NORM (natu-
rally occurring radioactive materials) in the form of Pb-210/Po-210 scales in gas pipelines and Ra-226/Ra-228 in oil pipelines.
     Methods of monitoring for the contamination generated from all of these processes are considered together with recommend-
ed monitoring options for contamination products using gamma, beta and alpha measuring techniques. Specific examples of sev-
eral site characterisation and monitoring projects are given - covering site investigation through to in-situ and on-site monitoring
during the actual remediation.
     Many of the projects described are of a large scale, typically involving many thousands of tons of waste material. The rapid
identification and sentencing into the relevant waste categories is essential in support of on-site civil engineering processes. Con-
sideration of tailoring the monitoring process to achieve such high throughput rates is given.
                        8) USE OF A SHIELDED LOW RESOLUTION GAMMA SPECTROMETER FOR
                             SEGREGATION OF FREE RELEASE AND LOW LEVEL WASTE-7163
                             Colin Wilkins, James Cocks, Eloisa Alvarez, AREVA - Canberra UK Ltd. (UK)
      In the UK, low level radioactive waste (LLW) is sent to the national LLW repository at Drigg. Strict rules limit the specific
activity of waste that is sent to Drigg and waste producers and consignors have to demonstrate that the waste they send to Drigg
meets the Drigg conditions for acceptance. However, the limited capacity of the Drigg repository means that it is just as important
for waste consigners to ensure that inactive ‘free release’ or ‘exempt’ waste is not inadvertently sent to Drigg. Incorrect segrega-
tion of waste in a decommissioning activity can mean that large amounts of the waste produced is below the exemption limit and
could therefore be disposed of in conventional landfill. British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. are using a pair of Canberra WM2750
Clearance Monitors to assay the waste produced in some of their decommissioning activities at Sellafield. The WM2750 uses low
resolution gamma spectrometry (LRGS) to determine the radionuclide content of packages or drums of LLW up to 100 litre capac-
ity. It uses a lead shielded measurement chamber to reduce the local radiation background along with high efficiency sodium iodide
(NaI) detectors in order to obtain the measurement sensitivity required to be able to distinguish between LLW and exempt waste in
a measurement time of less than 1 minute per package. This paper describes the waste monitoring process and the design of the
clearance monitor - in particular how it was calibrated and the performance testing that was carried out to ensure that waste items
identified by the monitors as being exempt waste are suitable for disposal to a conventional landfill site.
                          9) EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVITY
                               FOR THE 15UD PELLETRON ACCELERATOR FACILITY.-7114
                                   Rajendra Sonkawade, Inter University Accelerator Centre (India)
     For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activa-
tion of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During accelera-
tion of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Pro-
file Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder etc. Com-
bine study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used
in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper
presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure.

       SESSION 28 - SOLID WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION, TREATMENT, AND PACKAGING EXPERIENCE
    1) THE HRA/SOLARIUM PROJECT: PROCESSING OF HISTORICAL WASTE ON THE BEGOPROCESS SITE
       (BELGIUM): PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND LESSONS LEARNED AFTER 3 YEARS OPERATIONS-7026
         Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgatom (Belgium); Paul Luycx, Marcel Willem, Belgoprocess (Belgium); André De Goeyse,
                    Marnix Braeckeveldt, ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Marc Wathion, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
     At the end of the 80’s, the Belgian State ordered an inventory of the liabilities of the Belgian nuclear program, to be fully or
partially financed by them.
     ONDRAF/NIRAS (National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials) was entrusted with the manage-
ment of the waste and the development of a program for the clearance of the identified liabilities. One of these liabilities is the treat-
ment and conditioning of some 200 m³ of widely varying high- and medium level waste. The gross volume of primary and second-
ary packages amounts to 2600 m³.
     As the waste is stored in vaults or in concrete shielding containers and no appropriate treating and conditioning facilities are
in operation, the HRA/SOLARIUM project was launched.




                                                                                                                                       87
Session 28                                                                                                                    Abstracts

    The bulk of these wastes, of which 95% are solids, the remainder consisting of mainly solidified liquids, have been produced
between 1967 and 1988. They originate from various research programs and reactor operation at the Belgian nuclear energy
research centre SCK-CEN, isotope production, decontamination and dismantling operations. About 10.000 containers of various
types are concerned and must be treated (standard steel barrels, special containers, shielded overpacks, ……); they contain medi-
um-active wastes (solid or liquid), radium bearing or not, β/γ or a/β/γ, and special wastes (Al, spent resins, Na/Nak, ….). The new
HRA/SOLARIUM facilities, located on site 2 of Belgoprocess in Mol, have been commissioned in the 2nd semester 2003.
    The paper describes the project itself and focuses on the lessons learned from first operation years.
  2) DEVELOPMENT OF A PROCESSING AND TREATMENT SOLUTION FOR A THORIA WASTE STREAM-7204
          Jon Jenkins, Andy Anderson, Richard Simmons, Charles Mitchell, Waste Management Technology Limited (UK)
    Waste Management Technology Ltd (WMT) has developed the optimal process for immobilizing a solid waste contaminated
with thorium dioxide (thoria). The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste present challenges to producing a wasteform
acceptable for disposal. Also, high-energy radiation from thorium s decay progeny requires a treatment plant with shielding and
remote handling facilities.
    Key points of the paper are as follows.
    • Treatment options were investigated and the best practicable means identified as intimate mixing of the waste with cemen-
         titious grout.
    • Samples were analysed for particle size and organic contamination.
    • Small-scale active mixes resulted in a single treatment formulation for all the waste. Leach tests confirmed that the organ-
         ic material is adequately retained within the immobilised waste provided activated carbon is included in the formulation.
    • Active mixes at the two litre scale confirmed that the formulation is mixable and the product acceptable and consistent
         with expectations from the earlier work.
    • WMT is constructing a treatment plant at its Winfrith site, based on remote grouting in a 200 litre drum with a sacrificial
         mixer. Inactive full-scale trials with such 200 litre drums were carried out after selection of simulants with the appropri-
         ate physical properties.
        3) PROVISION OF A SLUDGE CONDITIONING AND HANDLING PLANT AT UKAEA WINFRITH-7252
                                        Keith Johnson, Madoc Hagan, NUKEM Limited (UK);
                                 Steve Mott, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) (UK)
     The decommissioning of the former Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by the
nuclear site licence holder United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the Unit-
ed Kingdom’s Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up
program but UKAEA retain responsibility for the direction and control of the work and all safety matters.
     In July 2000, following a competitive tender process, NUKEM Limited was contracted to design, build and commission a
sludge conditioning and treatment plant to deal with the active sludges currently stored in the External Active Sludge Tanks (EAST)
at Winfrith. The sludges were generated during the operational lifetime of the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, also locat-
ed on the Winfrith site and currently in the early stages of final decommissioning.
     The purpose of the plant is to treat the radioactive sludges by encapsulation into a cement matrix, inside 500 litre steel drums.
The drum design incorporates a lost paddle mixer used to maintain homogeneity of the sludge as well as mixing the sludge with
the stabilising powders.
     The sludges in the EAST tanks are prepared for recovery by a process of homogonisations using in-tank mixers. Following
demonstration of homogeneity the material is transferred to the Winfrith EAST Treatment Plant (WETP) using a peristaltic pump.
WETP is a purpose-built treatment plant, consisting of a process area and a shielded cell line. The transferred material is then held
in stainless steel tanks in the process area prior to being transferred by metered pump to a 500 litre stainless steel drum in the cell
line…
                           4) OPTIMISING WASTE MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE - THE KEY
                                        TO SUCCESSFUL DECOMMISSIONING-7367
                                                 Matthew Keep, Entec UK Ltd (UK)
     On the 1st of April 2005 the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task
of decommissioning the UK’s civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper
and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste man-
agement practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA’s business. In addition, the
implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental ben-
efits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program.
     There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue
that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities
should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning
of the UK’s civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where
the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised…
        5) RADIOACTIVE SEPNT RESINS CONDITIONING BY THE HOT SUPER-COMPACTION PROCESS:
            PRINCIPLE FUNCTION, EXPERIENCE FROM MORE THAN 20 YEARS OPERATION IN NPP
                          PHILIPPSBURG AND NEW APPLICATION FOR NPP TIHANGE-7310
                                 Andreas Roth, Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH (Belgium);
                   Alain Lemmens, Electrabel S.A.(Belgium); Baudouin Centner, Suez-Tractebel S.A.(Belgium)
     Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste.


88
Abstracts                                                                                                                 Session 28-29

     Spent ion exchanger media are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases requires special approaches and precau-
tions during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. They represent a special type of radioactive waste and
pose unique problems in the selection of their treatment options. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange mate-
rials often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. In the past these materi-
als were often disposed in drums or boxes or as disposable ion exchange columns without treatment. In some operations the resins
were sluiced from columns and stored in underground tanks as a bed settled in water, pending future treatment, conditioning and
disposal.
     With the evolution of performance based disposal facility acceptance criteria, it is now required that spent ion exchange mate-
rials meet specific quality requirements prior to disposal. Where final disposal facilities exist, waste acceptance criteria define,
among others, the quality of waste forms for disposal, and therefore will sometimes define appropriate treatment options; for exam-
ple, disposal facilities normally define acceptable levels of free liquids and requirements for waste form stability as part of their
waste acceptance criteria. These waste acceptance criteria will determine if spent ion exchange materials must be dewatered, sta-
bilized or treated in some other manner prior to disposal. In countries in which no final disposal facilities exist, these materials are
often stored pending the identification and/or development of an appropriate treatment, while awaiting the development of a dis-
posal capability or until the decay of the short lived radionuclides contained in the ion exchange material is completed…

                             SESSION 29 - NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ER PROGRAM
     1) REMEDIATING WHILE PRESERVING WETLAND HABITAT AT AN LLR WASTE SITE IN CANADA-7088
                               Heather Kleb, Robert (Bob) Zelmer, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited,
                                     Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (Canada)
     The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office was established in 1982 to carry out the federal government’s respon-
sibilities for low-level radioactive (LLR) waste management in Canada. The Office operates programs to characterize, delineate,
decontaminate and consolidate historic LLR waste for interim and long-term storage. The Office is currently considering the reme-
diation of 9,000 cubic metres of contaminated sediment in a coastal marsh in the context of a major remediation project involving
multiple urban sites. The marsh is situated between the Lake Ontario shoreline and the urban fringe of the town of Port Hope. The
marsh is designated a Cattail Mineral Shallow Marsh under the Ecological Land Classification system for Southern Ontario and
was recently named the A.K. Sculthorpe Marsh in memory of a local community member. The marsh remediation will therefore
require trade offs between the disruption of a sensitive wetland and the removal of contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the
issues and trade-offs relating to the waste characterization, environmental assessment and regulatory findings and thus the remedi-
ation objectives for the marsh. Considerations include the spatial distribution of contaminated sediment, the bioavailability of con-
taminants, the current condition of the wetland and the predicted effects of remediation. Also considered is the significance of the
wetland from provincial and municipal regulatory perspectives and the resulting directives for marsh remediation.
                     2) EUROPEAN NETWORK ON THE DETERMINATION OF SITE END POINTS
                                    FOR RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED LAND-7105
                                           Peter Booth, Chris Lennon, Nexia Solutions (UK)
     Nexia Solutions are currently running a small European network entitled “European Network on the Determination of Site End
Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land (ENDSEP)”. Other network members include NRG (Netherlands), UKAEA (UK),
CEA (France), SOGIN (Italy), Wismut (Germany), Saxon State Agency of Environment and Geology (Germany). The network is
focused on the technical and socio-economical issues associated with the determination of end points for sites potentially, or actu-
ally, impacted by radiological contamination. Such issues will cover:
     • Those associated with the run up to establishing a site end point
     • Those associated with verifying that the end points have been met; and
     • Those associated with post closure.
     The network’s current high level objectives can be summarized as follows:
     • Share experience and best practice in the key issues running up to determining site end points
     • Gain a better understanding of the potential effects of recent and forthcoming EU legislation
     • Assess consistency between approaches
     • Highlight potential gaps within the remit of site end point determination and management; and
     • Consider the formulation of research projects with a view to sharing time and expense
     The program of work revolves around the following key tasks:
     • Share information, experience and existing good practice
     • Look to determine sustainable approaches to contaminated land site end point management
     Through site visits, gain first hand experience of determining an appropriate end point strategy, and identifying and resolving
end point issues …
             3) INNOVATIVE INTEGRATION OF DECOMMISSIONING AND DEACTIVATION PROGRAM
                  WITH SOIL-GROUNDWATER CLOSURE PROJECTS HAS POSITIVE RESULTS ON
                                       BUDGET AND SCHEDULE: A CASE STUDY-7199
                                      Bruce Schappell, Bechtel Savannah River Company (USA)
     An innovative approach to integrate the Decommissioning and Deactivation Program (D&D) with the Soil-Groundwater Clo-
sure Projects (SGCP) has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy’s Savannah
River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including the
removal of excess facilities totaling 534,000 square feet of floor area plus the remediation of 11 waste units in two areas while elim-
inating 4 years of performance time.


                                                                                                                                     89
Session 29-30                                                                                                               Abstracts

     Historically, neither program focused D&D or SGCP activities on an area-wide basis, but approached each facility and waste
unit individually with many regulatory documents being generated and higher costs. The new integrated area-wide approach uti-
lizes a systematic approach to address large groupings of waste units and facilities within a pre-defined geographic operating area.
The new approach allows the SRS to coordinate D&D activities with soil and groundwater cleanup response actions simultaneous-
ly. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide “end states” can be formulated and be consistent with Site cleanup goals
and federal regulations. Additionally, economies of scale for environmental sampling, facility deactivation, remediation, and regu-
latory documentation can be optimized.
     A cornerstone of the new process supports close interaction with both state and federal regulatory agencies. Both regulatory
agencies and US DOE are members of the core team and actually meet with the project team on a regular basis to negotiate and
incorporate regulatory input in project execution. The core team meets with the project team throughout the life cycle of the proj-
ect ensuring consistency and compliance with the relevant rules and regulations. The core team process is also employed by SGCP
in its normal role outside of the D&D program in area-wide closures…
      4) REMEDIATION OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING ACTIVITIES IN CENTRAL ASIA-7207
                                                    Peter Waggitt, IAEA (Austria)
      Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry
from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing
in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any
remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remedi-
ation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that
may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the
mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution
and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number
of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and
assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA
is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper
describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so
far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the “cold war” era.

SESSION 30 - ENVIRONMENTAL REMESIATION SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS, MONITORING, AND CLEAN-UP
                           1) MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS IN THE AREA OF LAND REMEDIATION
                                          AND SOIL SEGREGATION ACTIVITIES-7011
                          Gerold G. Simon, Marina Sokcic-Kostic, Ingolf Auler, Ludger Eickelpasch, NUKEM
                                    Technologies GmbH (Germany); Jonathan Betts, NUKEM(UK)
     The remediation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing sector in the area of decommissioning of nuclear
facilities. This also includes the material from buildings after demolition.
     Contamination comprises in general alpha and beta activities and emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The measure-
ment is in practice restricted to the measurement of gamma emission, because of the high penetration of material by gamma rays.
All isotopes, which do not emit gammas are estimated on the basis of given relation between alpha and beta emitters without gamma
radiation and emitters with gamma radiation. This method is called “key nuclide method”.
     Whilst many studies have been completed, others still continue in the processing of large volumes of concrete, steel and soil.
An important conclusion from these and similar research programs is that a significant proportion of the waste contains only low
concentrations of radioactive nuclides. Therefore, much of the material from the remediation can be considered for “free release”.
It was often not possible to attain adequate specific information on these materials, so a measurement system is needed for their
classification and characterization.
     NUKEM Technologies has practical experience in characterising and remediating of nuclear sites. Recently, it has pioneered
the use of innovative in-situ and ex-situ characterisation and waste segregation technologies, which enhance the efficiency of reme-
dial actions and provide assurance to customers, regulators and the public that all significant contamination has been removed and
sites can be used for new purposes.
                   2) REMEDIATION OF A URANIUM-CONTAMINATION IN GROUND-WATER-7270
                           Joerg Woerner, Sonja Margraf, Walter Hackel, RD Hanau GmbH (Germany)
     Screening of the ground water on the area of a former research and production site for fuel elements used in nuclear power sta-
tions indicated that remediation of the water was mandatory. Concentrations of the contaminants Uranium and CHC (Chlorinated
Hydro-Carbons) both related to former activities (UF6 conversion process) were above control values. Main reasons for a wide-
spread Uranium-and Thorium contamination of the soil were scruffy sewer system and water pipes.
     After decommissioning the plant for manufacturing fuel elements by using Uranium and Thorium the contaminated soil was
remediated to a clearance level for both nuclides U-235 and Th-232. This clearance level was evaluated according to the 10 µSv-
concept as the superior radiological safety objective. It was checked by the authority’s consultants that only Uranium nuclides were
dose-relevant by the ground water transport. A well in the neighbourhood of the industrial site was detected as receiving the high-
est effective dose by ground water usage [1]. The result of the used scenario resulted in a clearance level of 0,1 BqU-234/g soil of
the unsaturated zone which was met with the exception of the main contamination centre. In this paper results of activity measure-
ments of Uranium-activity of the ground water are reported. The actual alpha-activities of the waters of the remediation wells show
values of 3 to 6 Bq/l which are dominated by 70 to 90 % U-234 activity. The mass-share of total Uranium for this nuclide amounts
to 0,05% on average. By infiltration into deeper zones of the saturated soil Uranium is much more mobile than Thorium and there-
fore only Uranium is dissolved and detected analytically in the ground water…

90
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 31

          3) PALEOCHANNEL DEPOSITION OF NATURAL URANIUM AT A US AIR FORCE LANDFILL-7028
                            Carl Young, Joseph Weismann, Daniel Caputo, Cabrera Services, Inc. (USA)
     The US Air Force sought to identify the source of radionuclides that were detected in groundwater surrounding a closed solid-
waste landfill at the former Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado, USA. Gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium levels in
groundwater were thought to exceed US drinking water standards and downgradient concentrations exceeded upgradient concen-
trations. Our study has concluded that the elevated radionuclide concentrations are due to naturally-occurring uranium in the region-
al watershed and that the uranium is being released from paleochannel sediments beneath the site.
     Groundwater samples were collected from monitor wells, surface water and sediments over four consecutive quarters. A list of
23 radionuclides was developed for analysis based on historical landfill records. Concentrations of major ions and metals and stan-
dard geochemical parameters were analyzed. The only radionuclide found to be above regulatory standards was uranium. A search
of regional records shows that uranium is abundant in the upstream drainage basin. Analysis of uranium isotopic ratios shows that
the uranium has not been processed for enrichment nor is it depleted uranium. There is however slight enrichment in the U-234:U-
238 activity ratio, which is consistent with uranium that has undergone aqueous transport. Comparison of upgradient versus down-
gradient uranium concentrations in groundwater confirms that higher uranium concentrations are found in the downgradient wells.
The US drinking water standard of 30 µg/L for uranium was exceeded in some of the upgradient wells and in most of the down-
gradient wells. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium occurring in streams has been preferentially deposited in
paleochannel sediments beneath the site, and that the paleochannel deposits are causing the increased uranium concentrations in
downgradient groundwater compared to upgradient groundwater…
                   4) PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCE OF DETECTING PARTICLES ON THE BEACHES
                                IN THE VICINITY OF THE DOUNREAY NUCLEAR SITE-7253
                              Ian Adsley, NUKEM Limited, (UK); Mike Davies, NUKEM Limited, (UK);
                          George McCulloch, NUKEM Limited, (UK); Alan Gerrard, NUKEM Limited, (UK)
     There are several instances where radioactive material has been released from nuclear sites and is now found in particulate
form in the environment. Contamination in this form was identified on the beaches close to the Dounreay Nuclear site in the 1990s
and since that time NUKEM Limited has provided a measurement service to the UKAEA to find and recover these particles. There
are specific difficulties associated with detecting particles - as distinct from distributed activity - and this paper discusses some of
the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring for such particles. The viability and performance of sev-
eral types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected,
given their response to buried particles. Practical solutions to these measurement problems are described. Three generations of vehi-
cle mounted sensing systems are discussed - each including improvements to specific measurement problems. The reliability and
failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed.
     Alongside the radiation technology has been the use of GPS and GIS technologies to provide area mapping at high spatial
resolution.
     The other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements;
constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles.
     The results of all the particle finds to date will be presented and compared to the anticipated detection limits, derived from
computer modeling and experimental studies.
                 5) STUDY OF THE OXIDATION STATE OF ARSENIC AND URANIUM IN INDIVIDUAL
                             PARTICLES FROM URANIUM MINE TAILINGS, HUNGARY-7354
          Anita Alsecz, Osán János, Török Szabina, MTA KFKI AEKI (Hungary); Máthé Zoltán, Mecsek Ore Environment,
                  (Hungary); Falkenberg Gerald, Desy,(Germany); Pálfalvi József, MTA KFKI AEKI, (Hungary);
                          Sajó István, Chemical Research Centre (Hungary); Simon Rolf, ANK (Germany)
     Uranium ore mining and milling have been terminated in the Mecsek Mountains (southwest Hungary) in 1997. Mine tailings
ponds are located between two important water bases, which are resources of the drinking water of the city of Pécs and the neigh-
bouring villages. The average U concentration of the tailings material is 71.73 ¼ µg/g, but it is inhomogeneous. Some microscop-
ic particles contain orders of magnitude more U than the rest of the tailings material. Other potentially toxic elements are As and
Pb of which chemical state is important to estimate mobility, because in mobile form they can risk the water basis and the public
health. Individual U-rich particles were selected with solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and after localisation the particles
were investigated by synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques. The distribution of elements over the particles was
studied by micro beam X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and the oxidation state of uranium and arsenic was determined by micro X-ray
absorption near edge structure (¼-XANES) spectroscopy. Some of the measured U-rich particles were chosen for studying the het-
erogeneity with µ-XRF tomography. Arsenic was present mainly in As(V) and uranium in U(VI) form in the original uranium ore
particles, but in the mine tailings samples uranium was present mainly in the less mobile U(IV) form. Correlation was found
between the oxidation state of As and U in the same analyzed particles. These results suggest that dissolution of uranium is not
expected in short term period.
         6) EXPERIENCE OF GAMMA-LOCATOR SYSTEM USING FOR RADIATION MONITORING DURING
  REHABILITATION WORKS AT TEMPORAL RADWASTE STORAGE AREA OF KURCHATOV INSTITUTE-7056
                           Oleg Ivanov, Victor Potapov, Sergei Ignatov, Sergey Smirnov, Viacheslav Stepanov,
                                   Anatolii Volkovich, Victor Volkov, RRC Kurchatov Institute (Russia)
     Remote monitoring of radiological conditions on large areas is important task during large-scale activity with radioactive con-
tamination/materials. We present results of application of an automatic system for remote measurements of radiological conditions
at territory of rehabilitation activity. The system is scanning collimated spectrometric detector, its construction and main perform-
ance characteristics are shortly described. System, including two different measurement heads was used during three years for radi-
ological monitoring of area rehabilitation works at temporal radwaste storage area of RRC Kurchatov Institute. The results of its
application for exposure dose rate monitoring at particular control points from separate strong sources located in the territory of
                                                                                                                                     91
Session 31                                                                                                                         Abstracts

activity are presented and special cases are studies in details. The method of EDR calculation in 3-D space around territory of activ-
ity and analysis of relative input of main gamma-sources into EDR are presented. The results of application of the system during
rehabilitation activity at territory of temporal storage of radioactive wastes of RRC Kurchatov Institute have shown high efficien-
cy of this system for such operations.

                    SESSION 31 - LOW/INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE MANAGEMENT POSTERS
                          1) PROFICIENCY TEST FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSAY OF 220 LITRES
                                        WASTE DRUMS BY GAMMA ASSAY SYSTEMS-7236
                           Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), (Netherlands);
                            Michel Bruggeman, SCK-CEN, (Belgium); John Botte, Belgoprocess, (Belgium)
     The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (acronym ENTRAP) took
the initiative to start a feasibility study with the aim to investigate under which conditions a “proficiency test for non-destructive
assay of 220 liters radioactive waste drums by gamma assay” at regular time intervals of 2 or 3 year could be organized in the Euro-
pean Union.
     This feasibility study had to take into account all aspects of a common proficiency test, but also the special aspect of interna-
tional transports of radioactive reference sources. Further, it had been recognized that succeeding in organizing of such a proficien-
cy test depends not only on the technical specifications of the reference drums, but also on the costs involved for participants. There-
fore a questionnaire was setup, sends around and filled in questionnaires analyzed. Based on this analyze a design of a reference
drum (European Calibration drum -ECDrum-) could be established including layout, applied inactive materials, manufacturing, a
set of calibrated sources for the first proficiency test, international transports and all against reasonable costs. The participation costs
to the first proficiency test are mainly determined (about 50%) by the manufacturing of the ECDrum and are due to the stringent
requirements for reproducibility. In this way it can be guaranteed that all ECDrums will be equal.
             2) INNOVATIVE IN-SITU DETERMINATION OF UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES
                             IN DEEP LOESS SEDIMENTS IN NORTH-WEST BULGARIA-7202
        Dirk Mallants, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK (Belgium); Doncho Karastanev, Antonov Dimitar, Geological
       Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Janez Perko, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK (Belgium)
     In the framework of selecting a suitable site for final disposal of low- and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste
(LILW-SL) in Bulgaria, site characterization is ongoing at the Marichin Valog site, North-West Bulgaria. The site is characterized by
a complex sequence of loess, clayey gravel, and clay layers, of which the first 30-40 m are unsaturated. Proper knowledge about
unsaturated water flow and concomittant radionuclide transport is key input to safety assessment calculations. Constant-head infil-
trometer tests were carried out at several meters below ground surface to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of silty loess,
clayey loess, and clayey gravel layers. Individual infiltrometers were equipped with 0.5-m-long filter sections; the shallowest filter
was from 2 to 2.5 m depth, whereas the deepest was from 9.5 to 10 m depth. Infiltration tests provided data on cumulative infiltra-
tion and progression of the wetting front in the initially unsaturated sediments surrounding the infiltrometer. A cylindrical time-
domain reflectometry TRIME probe was used to measure water content variations with time during progression of the wetting front.
Access tubes for the TRIME probe were installed at 0.3 to 0.5 m from the infiltrometer tubes. By means of an inverse optimization
routine implemented in the finite element code HYDRUS-2D, field-scale soil hydraulic parameters were derived for all layers.
Results show a great consistency in the optimized parameter values, although the test sites were several meters apart. Apparently the
size of the affected volume of soil was large enough to reduce the effect of spatial variability and to produce average field-scale
hydraulic parameters that are relevant for large-scale predictions of flow patterns and radionuclide migration pathways.
                     3) MODELING MULTI-PHASE FLOW PHENOMENA IN CONCRETE BARRIERS
                           USED FOR GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE-7203
                   Dirk Mallants, Jacques Diederik, Janez Perko, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK (Belgium)
     Gas generation and gas transport phenomena occur in geological repositories of radioactive waste. This has been extensively
studied over the past ten years, usually within the framework of international projects (MEGAS, PROGRESS, etc.). These studies
indicate that the production of hydrogen by anaerobic corrosion of metals is the most important source for gas generation. Labora-
tory and in situ experiments carried out at SCK-CEN indicate that, in the presence of Boom Clay (the reference geologic forma-
tion for deep disposal studies in Belgium), carbon steel suffers generalised corrosion estimated conservatively at 1 µm y-1. Simu-
lations with the finite difference multi-phase flow code TOUGH2 were carried out in an attempt to quantify the effects of hydro-
gen gas generation on desaturation of initially saturated concrete components of the disposal gallery and the concomitant expulsion
of cementitious pore-water into the surrounding host formation. Several simulation cases were considered and addressed differ-
ences in initial water saturation degree of concrete, hydrogen gas generation rate, and material porosity. Several conceptual mod-
els have been developed to better understand the phenomena at work in the transport of gas in the cementitious engineered barri-
ers and Boom Clay. Multi-phase flow modeling was found to be helpful to get insight into the phenomenology of coupled water-
gas flow in the cementitious engineered barriers. However, modeling the discontinuous variation in the conductivity of the clay rel-
ative to the gas (creation of preferential pathways) requires incorporation of geomechanical processes in conventional models based
on the laws of two-phase flow.
        4) DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM DATA POINTS FOR SCALING FACTOR DETERMINATION-7230
      Michael Dennis Fernandez, Sang Chul Lee, Kun Jai Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea)
     Scaling factors are calculated based on a database from radiochemical analyses of representative waste samples. Several data
points are needed to derive a reliable scaling factor. The more the number of data points, the better is the correlation, but more cost-
ly because of number of needed radiochemical analyses. Therefore, optimization of data points should be considered to minimize
the cost without compromising reliability and prediction of the scaling factor. Scaling factors for Ni-63, Sr-90, and C-14 were cal-
culated using Co-60 and Cs-137 as Key nuclides based on the published data in EPRI-4037. Correlation coefficient, percent error
92
Abstracts                                                                                                                      Session 31

and relative standard deviation were plotted against the number of data points used in the estimation of scaling factor. The optimum
number of data points was obtained to where there was no significant improvement in the statistical uncertainties by using addi-
tional samples. Even though non-segregated (all data points) has greater effect in calculating scaling factor because of its more data
points, this study showed that even segregated data points can also give good DTM characterization.
                              5) DEVELOPMENT OF THE SAMPLING AND NUCLIDE ANALYSIS
                                      METHODS FOR SPENT HEPA FILTER WASTES-7245
                                    Young-Yong Ji, Dae-Seok Hong, Il-Sik Kang, Bum-Kyoung Seo,
                                    Jong-Sik Shon, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
      Spent filter wastes of about 2,160 units have been stored in the waste storage facility of the Korea Atomic Energy Research
Institute since its operation. These spent filters have generally consisted of a HEPA filter after its filtering of all the contaminants
in the gas stream generated during the operation of the HANARO research reactor and the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. At the
moment, to secure enough storage space, it is necessary to make a volume reduction of the stored radioactive wastes through a com-
pression treatment or a regulatory clearance.
      There have been many studies on a treatment and a clearance of the low level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear facil-
ities. These methods are considered in view of a reduction of a management cost and disposal cost and the security of free space
for a waste storage facility approaching saturation.
      In order to dispose of the spent filters, it is first necessary to conduct a radionuclide assessment of them. To do that, a sampling
procedure should be prepared to obtain a representative sample from a spent filter. As for conducting a nuclide analysis for this rep-
resentative sample, a corresponding spent filter can be determined as either a regulatory clearance waste or a radioactive waste.
                          6) REMOVAL OF ALKALINE-EARTH ELEMENTS BY A CARBONATE
                                  PRECIPITATION IN A CHLORIDE MOLTEN SALT-7288
                          Yung-Zun Cho, Hee-Chul Yang, Hee-Chul Eun, Hwan-Seo Park, Eung-Ho Kim,
                                   In-Tae Kim, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides(Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutec-
tic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K2(or Li2)CO3/Sr(or Ba)Cl2]) and the tempera-
ture(450-750°) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbon-
ate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments,
the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten
salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba0.5Sr0.3CO3.
And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO3. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreas-
ing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K2CO3 injection than that of Li2CO3. Based on this experiment, it is
postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and
LiCl molten salts.
                        7) DETERMINATION OF 125I AND 131I IN RADIOISOTOPE WASTES-7290
                          Sang Hoon Kang, Ke Chon Choi, Heung N. Lee, Sun Ho Han, Kwang Yong Jee,
                                         Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     In order to measure a low activity of 125I and 131I in radioisotope wastes, we took into consideration various sample prepara-
tion and separation methods, such as an acid decomposition, an acid leaching and a combustion method. In a previous study, the
maximum chemical yield of iodine by an acid leaching was found to be 78.0 %. However, in this study, the maximum chemical
yield of the acid decomposition method and the combustion method with a radioiodine reference solution was found to be 99.1 %
and 84.5 %, respectively. We selected the acid decomposition method for the analysis of radioisotope waste samples due to its high
chemical yield and short preparation and separation time. The chemical yield of the acid decomposition method depends on the
reaction time at each experimental stage, added amount of H3PO3 and H2O2, and the pH of the condensed solution and the condi-
tion of the AgI precipitation. The important point for the highest recovery rate from a acid decomposition method is to maintain
enough reaction time and pour 10 mL of 30 % H3PO3 before a distillation, and drop 1 mL of H2O2 when the condensed solution is
trapped in the Florence flask. Through a study of the acid decomposition method we found an optimal preparation and separation
method of 125I and 131I in radioisotope wastes due to the merits of a short reaction time and high recovery rate, and a counting sys-
tem was applied to LEPS for the 125I and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometer for 131I.
                 8) DETERMINATION OF 35S IN RADIOISOTOPE WASTES BY A WET OXIDATION-7291
                       Heung Nae Lee, Sang-Hoon Kang, Hong Joo Ahn, Wook Hyun Sohn, Kwang Yong Jee,
                                      Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) (Korea)
     The oxidation studies of a sulfur to a sulfate ion by various oxyhalide oxidants in organic (thiourea, methionine) and inorgan-
ic (sulfate, thiophosphate) compounds were carried out in an acidic solution. The optimized result of the oxidation reaction was
obtained when a bromate compound (BrO3-) as an oxidant and a 3 M HNO3 solvent. The chemical yield for the oxidation of the
organic and inorganic sulfur compounds to a sulfate ion was monitored as 80% for thiophosphate, 87% for methionine, and 100%
for thiourea and sulfate within 5% RSD. The oxidation of thiourea required at least 1.6 equivalents of the bromate in an acidic solu-
tion. In the case of the oxidation of methionine and thiophosphate, the oxidation yield was above 80% if the bromate was used at
20 times that of the substrates. The chemical yield in the paper sample (WypAll) exceeded 100% because of its background sulfur
contents (910 ppm). The sulfate ion was quantitatively measured by using GPC and/or LSC counting of 35S followed by precipi-
tates of BaSO4. The interfering nuclides (14C, 32P) were removed in an acidic condition. The minimum detectable activity (MDA)
of 35S was found to be 0.1 Bq/g.




                                                                                                                                       93
Session 31                                                                                                                    Abstracts

                             9) DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CEMENTATION 0F OIL
                                     CONTAINING LRW USING POROUS CONCRETE-7292
                    Andrei Varlakov, Aleksandr Germanov, Olga Gorbunova, Sergei Dmitriev, Aleksandr Barinov,
                Moscow State-Owned Research and Production Company (Russia); Dmitry Vasendin, J.S.C. (Russia)
     A new technology of oil containing liquid radioactive waste conditioning has been developed at SIA “Radon”. A porous con-
crete matrix is placed into special containers and impregnated with oil containing liquid radioactive waste. The waste is effective-
ly fixed in the porous cement matrix. The final product has all the regulated properties. The content of oils in the cement compound
can be up to 40 %wt. The technology excludes negative influence of oils on hydration of cement which usually occurs at co-cemen-
tation of oils with salt liquid radioactive waste.
                           10) DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CEMENTATION OF OIL
                                    CONTAINING LRW USING POROUS CONCRETE-7295
                      Andrei Varlakov, Olga Gorbunova, Sergei Dmitriev, Aleksandr Barinov, Artur Arustamov,
                                  Moscow State-Owned Research and Production Company (Russia)
      It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a
cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and
filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of
mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones
of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg,
Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving
cities’ issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning.
Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective.
      At SIA “Radon”, experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste.
                 11) A STUDY ON THE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING SURVEY FOR THE INSPECTION
                           OF THE CLEARANCE LEVEL FOR THE RADIOISOTOPE WASTE-7296
                             Hong Joo Ahn, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea); Ju Yeol Kim,
                  FNC Technology Co. Ltd. (Korea); In Koo Lee, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (Korea);
                            Se Chul Sohn, Kwang Yong Jee, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     Utilization facilities for radioisotope (RI) are increasing annually in South Korea, and the total number was 2,723, as of Decem-
ber 31, 2005. The inspection of a clearance level is a very important problem in order to ensure a social reliance for releasing
radioactive materials to the environment. Korean regulations for such a clearance are described in Notice No. 2001-30 of the Min-
istry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Notice No. 2002-67 of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE).
Most unsealed sources in RI waste drums at a storage facility are low-level beta-emitters with short half-lives, so it is impossible
to measure their inventories by a nondestructive analysis. Furthermore, RI wastes generated from hospital, educational and research
institutes and industry have a heterogeneous, multiple, irregular, and a small quantity of a waste stream. This study addresses a rep-
resentative (master) sampling survey and analysis plan for RI wastes because a complete enumeration of waste drums is impossi-
ble and not desirable in terms of a cost and efficiency. The existing approaches to a representative sampling include a judgmental,
simple random, stratified random, systematic grid, systematic random, composite, and adaptive sampling. A representative sam-
pling plan may combine two or more of the above sampling approaches depending on the type and distribution of a waste stream.
Stratified random sampling (constrained randomization) is proven to be adequate for a sampling design of a RI waste regarding a
half-life, surface dose, undertaking time to a storage facility, and type of waste. The developed sampling protocol includes estimat-
ing the number of drums within a waste stream, estimating the number of samples, and a confirmation of the required number of
samples. The statistical process control for a quality assurance plan includes control charts and an upper control limit (UCL) of 95%
to determine whether a clearance level is met or not.
          12) ELECTROLYTIC RECYCLING OF A USED CARBONATE SOLUTION IN A PROCESS WITH A
              DISSOLUTION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN A ALKALINE CARBONATE MEDIUM-7327
                        Kwang-Wook Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Yeon-Hwa Kim, Eil-Hee Lee, Kwang-Yong Jee,
                                           Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     A removal of only uranium from spent nuclear fuel with the concepts of a high proliferation-resistance and a minimal genera-
tion of waste could be helpful for a spent fuel management in view of a volume reduction of the high level radioactive waste gen-
erated from the spent fuel treatment. That could be accomplished by a process using an oxidative dissolution of the spent fuel in a
strong alkaline carbonate solution. In this work, an electrolytic method for a decarbonation and a recovery of CO2 for recycling the
used carbonate solution contaminated with some impurity metal ions generated in such a process with a concept of zero-release of
waste solution was studied. A carbonate solution generated from such a system was confirmed to be completely recycled within the
system, while the impurity ions being separated from the carbonate solution.
                           13) CHARACTERIZATION OF TE-NORM WASTES IN TURKEY-7262
       Ahmet Erdal Osmanlioglu, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (Turkey)
     Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in concentrated forms arises both in industry and in nature where natural
radioisotopes accumulate at particular sites. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TE-NORM) often
occurs in an acidic environment where precipitates containing radionuclides plate out onto pipe walls, filters, tank linings, etc.
Because of the radionuclides are selectively deposited at these sites, radioactivity concentration is extremely higher than the natu-
ral concentration. This paper presents characterization and related considerations of TE-NORM wastes in Turkey. Generally, accu-
mulation conditions tend to favour the build-up of radium. As radium is highly radiotoxic, handling, treatment, storage and dispos-
al of such material requires careful management. Turkey has the only low level waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) in

94
Abstracts                                                                                                                 Session 31

Istanbul. This facility has interim storage buildings and storage area for storage of packaged radioactive waste which are contain-
ing artificial radioisotopes, but there is an increasing demand for the storage to accept bulk concentrated TE-NORM wastes from
iron-steel and related industries. Most of these wastes generated from scrap metal piles which are imported from other countries.
These wastes generally contain radium.
                  14) RADIOACTIVE BERYLLIUM WASTE FROM RESEARCH NUCLEAR REACTORS:
                                         PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF SOLUTION-7278
                            M. L. Lubchenko, B. I. Levakov, Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russia)
     Now beryllium is widely used as neutron reflector and moderator of research nuclear reactors. For example, the SM and MIR
research reactors are operated in the RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia. In the SM reactor neutron reflector blocks which are placed on
perimeter of core and neutron trap blocks (moderator) which are placed in the central position of core were made from beryllium.
In the MIR reactor the laying of core is consist of beryllium hexagonal blocks. During operation in a reactor beryllium is exposed
to high dose neutron irradiation therefore high induced radioactivity arises in a material. After unloading from a reactor irradiat-
ed beryllium blocks are subject to storage in storage facilities for high level radioactive solid waste. Volume of storage facilities
is limited. At present amount of irradiated beryllium as massive blocks which have fulfilled in a reactor is great enough, and it
continues to increase. These circumstances lead to necessity of carrying out of investigations to basement of decontamination
processes, disposal and storage of radioactive beryllium waste. Now useful storage capacities are not used in the best way since
the irradiated blocks located there have large dimensions and complicated geometrical form. As a result optimization of radioac-
tive beryllium waste disposal process will include transformation of massive blocks to more compact form with low level of
radioactivity. It is considered now to use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactor. In the DEMO reactor beryllium will be used
as neutron multiplier for blanket. In this case amount of irradiated beryllium will be more significant, and problems of its storage
will be analogous.…
              15) GRADUAL DEGRADATION OF CONCRETE FIBER CONTAINERS AND PRELIMINARY
                      SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE SLOVAK NEAR-SURFACE REPOSITORY-7311
                                         Juraj Duran, VUJE, Inc. Trnava (Slovak Republic)
     National Radioactive Waste Repository will be used for safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in
Mochovce, Slovak Republic. The Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has developed a conceptual model that strongly over-
estimated radiological exposures for the Normal Evolution Scenario (NES). Radioactive waste management required additional
measures for safe disposal of radioactive waste to minimize the potential consequence to the workers and the public.
     Use of Fiber Reinforced Containers (FRC) is proposed to enhance the performance of the potential repository for safe dispos-
al of radioactive waste and reduce the probability of exposure. This paper contains the description of models, methods, results from
experimental measurements and input data, which were used for probabilistic calculations of the lifetime FRC. The Cumulative
Distribution Function (CDF) for the FRC lifetime was used to modify the conceptual model for NES. The model assumed gradual
degradation of the FRC and gradual intrusion of water to the repository volume. These assumptions are in contrary to the ones in
the PSAR that assumed instantaneous degradation of the FRC and instantaneous fill-up of the repository volume. The model
showed that the new assumptions resulted in less radiological consequences, which allows for final design modifications of the
repository.
                         16) IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE AND HAZARDOUS WASTES
                           IN A DEVELOPED SULFUR POLYMER CEMENT (SPC) MATRIX-7213
                         M. Wagdy, Abdel Azim, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Ahmed Husain, National
                            Research Center (Egypt); Belal El-Gammal, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)
     A process has been developed for the immobilization Cs, Sr, Ce, Pb, and Cr in forms that is non-dispersible and could be safe-
ly immobilized. The simulated radioactive wastes of Cs, Sr, and Ce, and the hazardous wastes of Cr, and Pb were immobilized in
the stable form of sulfur polymer cement (SPC). In this process, the contaminants (in a single form) were added to the sulfur mix-
ture of sulfur and aromatic /or aliphatic hydrocarbons that used as polymerizing agents for sulfur (95% S, and 5% organic polymer
by weight). Durability of the fabricated SPC matrices was assessed in terms of their water of immersion, porosity, and compressive
strength. The water immersion, and open porosity were found to be less than 2.5% for all the prepared matrices, whereas the com-
pressive strength was in the range between 62.4 and 142.3 Kg.cm-2, depending on the composition of the prepared matrix. The pre-
pared SPC matrices that characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the different added contaminants were stabilized
during the solidification process during their reaction with sulfur and the organic polymer to form the corresponding metal sulfides.
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the IAEA standard method have assessed the lechability of the prepared
waste matrices. The TCLP results showed that most the concentration of the contaminants released were under their detection limit.
The leach index for the investigated metals from the prepared SPC matrices was in the range of 9-11. The order of release of the
investigated metals was Sr>Cs>Pb>Cr>Ce for the aliphatic polymer, and Sr>Cr>Pb>Cs>Ce for the aromatic one. The results
obtained revealed a high performance for the prepared SPC matrices, as they are of low cost effect, highly available materials, and
possessed good mechanical and leaching properties. Key Words: SPC/ Matrices/ Immobilization/ Wastes/ Leachability.




                                                                                                                                   95
Session 32-35                                                                                                                 Abstracts

                              SESSION 32 - PANEL: THE UK OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY
                                 FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ITS NUCLEAR LEGACY
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                             SESSION 33 - PANEL: THE UK NDA FUNDING, CONTRACTING,
                             AND SUBCONTRACTING SELECTION AND ARRANGEMENTS
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                             SESSION 35 - D&D OF NON-REACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES
                   1) DISMANTLING OF ALPHA CONTAMINATED OBSOLETE INSTALLATIONS AND
                              GLOVE BOXES ON THE IRMM SITE IN GEEL (BELGIUM)-7134
                        Lenie Koen, Pieter Cretskens, Tecnubel (Belgium); Melis Gustaaf, I.R.M.M. (Belgium)
     At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a disman-
tling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been executed in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal.
Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioac-
tive contamination risk in the future.
     The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontaminating if necessary.
For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. Here it was necessary to document all the stages of the dismantling process.
     A demarcated area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust
and dirt. This was only possible for the “minor” contaminated installations.
     The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out in two types of tents depending on the contamination inside the
glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates. For
glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second “glove box tent” inside.
     The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future
radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations
   2) REMEDIATION OF THE SITE OF A FORMER ACTIVE HANDLING BUILDING AT UKAEA WINFRITH-7066
                               Jack Armitage, Nick Brown, Rowland Cornell, NUKEM Limited, (UK);
                              Gareth Jessop, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) (UK)
     Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59
at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy
Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination
of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building dem-
olition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave
line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remedi-
ation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control.
     Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole
liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m3 of surrounding concrete. In
order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including
a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recov-
ery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be nec-
essary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor
the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity…
                    3) RELEASE AND DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS DURING DECOMMISSIONING OF
                        SIEMENS MOX FUEL FABRICATION PLANT AT HANAU, GERMANY-7205
                           Werner Koenig, TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH & Co. KG (Germany);
                                Roland Baumann, Siemens PG Decommissioning Projects (Germany)
     In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed.
The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were
emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately
8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximate-
ly 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed
of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German
final disposal site “Schachtanlage Konrad”. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and
melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during opera-
tion and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that
were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (§
29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site.




96
Abstracts                                                                                                                Session 35

          4) OPEN-AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM-7318
                Earl Lloyd, P.E., PMP, Fluor Hanford (USA); Michael Lackey, P.E., Fluor Government Group (USA);
                        Michael Stevens, Fluor Government Group (USA); Lloyd Zinsli, Fluor Hanford (USA)
     The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontami-
nating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn’t, howev-
er, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By
removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces;
open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster.
     Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities
on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed
hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be cre-
ative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of
the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the build-
ings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dis-
persion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the pro-
posed methods.
     Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established
for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using
heavy equipment rather than “hands on” techniques.
                         5) STRATEGY FOR DECOMMISSIONING OF THE GLOVE-BOXES IN THE
                            BELGONUCLEAIRE DESSEL MOX FUEL FABRICATION PLANT-7023
                                 Alain Vandergheynst, Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgonucleaire (Belgium)
     BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80’s at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric
tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors.
In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to
BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP
plant (UK).
     As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for
dismantling.
     In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of ±-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the
different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process,
α-containment, mechanization & radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed.
     The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques & manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and
packaging α-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning & intermediate disposal.
                                  6) CLEAN-UP OF NUCLEAR LICENSED FACILITY 57-7061
                             Michel Jeanjacques, Marie Pierre Bremond, Carole Marchand, Cécile Poyau,
                      Cécile Viallefont, Laurent Gautier, Frederic Masure, CEA, DANS-DRSN-SAFAR (France)
     In the early sixties a radiochemistry laboratory dedicated to Research and Development was built at the French Atomic Ener-
gy Commission’s centre at Fontenay aux Roses (CEA-FAR); it was named Building 18. More buildings were added during the
decade: Building 54, storehouses and offices and Building 91, a hall and laboratories for chemical engineering research into natu-
ral and depleted uranium. These three buildings together constitute NLF57. Construction work took place between 1959 and 1962
and the buildings entered operation in 1961. The research and development programs performed in NLF57 involved spent fuel
reprocessing studies, waste treatment processes and studies and production of transuranic elements with the related analytical meth-
ods development. The research and development program ended on 30 June 1995. The NLF57 clean-up program was launched to
reduce the nuclear and conventional hazards and minimise HLW and MLW production during the dismantling work. The clean-up
work was divided into categories by type to facilitate its organisation: treatment and removal of nuclear material, removal of
radioactive sources, treatment and removal of organic and aqueous effluents, treatment and removal of solid waste, pumping out of
the PETRUS tank, flushing and decontamination of the tanks and clean-up of buildings.
     7) ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF DECOMMISSIONING RADIOISOTOPE
                     THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (RTG’S) IN NORTHWEST RUSSIA-7059
                                   Ali Hosseini, William Standring, Mark Dowdall, Justin Brown,
                               Ingar Amundsen, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)
    This article presents findings from assessment work that has been conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to
decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in Northwest Russia. Accident scenarios, based on the decommission-
ing process for RTG’s, are assessed to study possible radiation effects to man and the environment. Doses to man and biota under
the worst-case scenario studied were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature.




                                                                                                                                  97
Session 36                                                                                                                      Abstracts

               SESSION 36 - REPOSITORY PROGRAMS: SITE SELECTION & CHARACTERIZATION,
                 UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABS, ENGINEERING & GEOLOGICAL BARRIERS
          1) RESULTS OF A MULTI-YEAR STUDY AIMED AT THE RESOLUTION OF REGULATORY ISSUES
             RELATED TO THE STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF HIGH-BURNUP SPENT FUEL-7244
                                    Joseph Rashid, ANATECH (USA); Albert Machiels, EPRI (USA)
     Finding timely resolutions of current regulatory issues related to spent fuel storage and transportation is one of the most impor-
tant priorities for both industry and regulators. Spent fuel pools at many US power plants have either reached or are rapidly
approaching full capacity, a condition made worse by the longer cooling time required for high burnup (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel
compared to lower burnup fuel for which most spent fuel pools were designed to accommodate. Consequently, the need for the
transfer of spent fuel to dry storage, with eventual transportation to off-site interim storage facilities or to a permanent repository,
has brought with it the need to cope with a number of regulatory issues that require significant lead time to resolve. In anticipation
of this need, EPRI has, over the past several years, implemented a number of research programs, which include: (a) assessing the
criticality risks during transportation; (b) evaluating the option of moderator exclusion; (c) participating in data gathering for imple-
mentation of full burnup credit; (d) evaluating the potential for fuel reconfiguration during transportation accidents; and (e) assess-
ing the impact of fuel reconfiguration on spent fuel reactivity levels. The criteria by which the results of this program may be eval-
uated are the regulations contained in 10 CFR Parts 71 and 72 as well as in Standard Review Plans and Interim Staff Guidance
(ISG) documents such as ISG-11, ISG-8 and ISG-19. Of these research programs, the fuel reconfiguration issue is the most com-
plex because it requires long lead-time to develop the necessary material behavior models and analysis methods. To this end, the
paper describes the results of EPRI’s multi-year research program, with emphasis on the various phenomena that govern cladding
thermo-mechanical behavior from the onset of placing spent fuel in dry storage casks to the consequences of hypothetical accidents
on cladding failure and fuel reconfiguration…
    2) RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GERMANY: NO SITE DECISION - KEEPING COMPETENCE-7222
          Bernhard Kienzler, Horst Geckeis, Klaus Gompper, Reinhard Klenze, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)
     The research program of the Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elab-
orate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the
relevant hostrock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE’s research program was not biased after enactment of the
Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R&D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case
of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programs.
                  3) THE STRATEGY OF THE BELGIAN NUCLEAR RESEARCH CENTRE IN THE AREA
                             OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORM COMPATIBILITY RESEARCH-7232
                                    Karel Lemmens, Christelle Cachoir, Elie Valcke, Karine Ferrand,
                                       Marc Aertsens, Thierry Mennecart (SCK-CEN) (Belgium)
      The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) has a long-standing expertise in research concerning the compatibility of
waste forms with the final disposal environment. For high level waste, most attention goes to two waste forms that are relevant for
Belgium, namely (1) vitrified waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel, and (2) spent fuel as such, referring to the direct disposal
scenario. The expertise lies especially in the study of the chemical interactions between the waste forms and the disposal environ-
ment. This is done by laboratory experiments, supported by modeling. The experiments vary from traditional leach tests, to more
specific tests for the determination of particular parameters, and highly realistic experiments. This results in a description of the
phenomena that are expected upon disposal of the waste forms, and in quantitative data that allow a conservative long-term predic-
tion of the in situ life time of the waste form. The predictions are validated by in situ experiments in the underground research lab-
oratory HADES. The final objective of these studies, is to estimate the contribution of the waste form to the overall safety of the
disposal system, as part of the Safety and Feasibility Case, planned by the national agency ONDRAF/NIRAS.
      The recent change of the Belgian disposal concept from an engineered barrier system based on the use of bentonite clay to
a system based on concrete has caused a reorientation of the research program. The expertise in the area of clay-waste interac-
tion will however be maintained, to develop experimental methodologies in collaboration with other countries, and as a poten-
tial support to the decision making in those countries where a clay based near field is still the reference. The paper explains the
current R&D approach, and highlights some recent experimental set-ups available at SCK-CEN for this purpose, with some
illustrating results.
          4) GRIMSEL TEST SITE - PHASE VI: REVIEW OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND NEXT STEPS-7239
                                    Stratis Vomvoris, Nagra (Switzerland); Wolfgang Kickmaier,
                              University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (Switzerland)
     The Grimsel Test Site owned and operated by Nagra is located in the Swiss Alps (www.grimsel.com). The sixth Phase of inves-
tigations was started in 2003 with a ten-year planning horizon. With the investigations and projects of Phase VI the focus is shift-
ed more towards projects assessing perturbation effects of repository implementation and projects evaluating and demonstrating
engineering and operational aspects of the repository system. More than 17 international partners participate in the various proj-
ects, which form the basic organisational ‘elements’ of Phase VI, each one further structured in field-testing, laboratory studies,
design and modelling tasks, as appropriate. Each project phase is planned with a duration of 3 to 5 years, to facilitate all practical
and administrative aspects, ensuring flexibility for updating the overall plan with the recent findings. Scientific and engineering
interaction among the different projects is ensured via the annual international meeting and ad-hoc meetings, as appropriate.
     As Phase VI approaches its mid-term point, a review of the accomplishments to date is performed to provide a sound basis for
the detailed planning of the next steps. The accomplishments to date are described and assessed below; the opportunities with the
on-going projects as well as new projects - currently under discussion - are also presented and discussed…


98
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 36

                       5) THE FP6 INTEGRATED PROJECT NF-PRO: RECENT ADVANCEMENTS
                            IN EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON THE NEAR-FIELD SYSTEM-7269
             Alain Sneyers, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Pedro Hernan, ENRESA (Spain);
         Bernd Grambow, ARMINES (France); Hans-Joachim Alheid, Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften (Germany);
                      Jean-François Aranyossy, ANDRA (France); Lawrence Johnson, NAGRA (Switzerland)
    The Integrated Project NF-PRO (Sixth Framework Program by the European Commission) investigates key-processes in the
near-field of a geological repository for the disposal of high-level vitrified waste and spent fuel. The paper discusses the project
scope and content and gives a summary overview of advancements made by NF-PRO.
                6) DEVELOPMENT OF A REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR TECHNICAL
                  DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES IN THE GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL PROJECT-7221
        Hiroyoshi Ueda, Katsuhiko Ishiguro, Kazumi Kitayama, Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO)
                 (Japan); Kiyoshi Oyamada, JGC Corporation (Japan); Shoko Sato, Obayashi Corporation (Japan)
      NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has a responsibility for implementing geological disposal of vit-
rified HLW (High-Level radioactive Waste) in the Japanese nuclear waste management program. Its staged siting procedure was
initiated in 2002 by an open call for volunteer sites. Careful management strategy and methodology for the technical decision-mak-
ing at every milestone are required to prepare for the volunteer site application and the site investigation stages after that. The for-
mal Requirement Management System (RMS) is planned to support the computerized implementation of the specific management
methodology, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA).
      This planned RMS will help for comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal proj-
ect, change management towards the anticipated project deviations, efficient project driving such as well-programmed R&D etc.
and structured record-keeping regarding the past decisions, which leads to soundness of the project in terms of the long-term con-
tinuity. The system should have handling/management functions for the database including the decisions/requirements in the proj-
ect in consideration, their associated information and the structures composed of them in every decision-making process. The infor-
mation relating to the premises, boundary conditions and time plan of the project should also be prepared in the system. Effective
user interface and efficient operation on the in-house network are necessary. As a living system for the long-term formal use, flex-
ibility to updating is indispensable…
                 7) FLOW AND RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT FROM ROCK TO SURFACE SYSTEMS:
         CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELLING OF POTENTIAL REPOSITORY SITES IN SWEDEN-7300
                                           Kent Werner, Golder Associates AB (Sweden);
                     Emma Bosson, Sten Berglund, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)
     The safety assessments of potential geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden are supported by modeling of
groundwater flow in rock to predict locations (exit points) where radionuclides from the deep repository may enter the surface sys-
tem. This modeling includes detailed rock descriptions, but simplifies the upper part of the flow domain, including representations
of meteorological processes and interactions with hydrological objects at the surface. Using the Laxemar candidate site as exam-
ple, this paper investigates some potentially important consequences of these simplifications. Specifically, it compares particle
tracking results obtained by a deep-rock groundwater flow model (CONNECTFLOW) and by a model (MIKE SHE-MIKE 11) con-
taining detailed descriptions of near-surface/surface water flow. The results show that the models overall predict similar exit point
patterns, occurring as clusters along streams in valleys, at a lake, and in sea bays. However, on a detailed level there are some pre-
diction differences, which may be of importance for biosphere-focused safety assessments. Specifically, CONNECTFLOW predicts
flow paths through the repository that follow fractures and deformation zones, outcropping in valleys. In comparison, MIKE SHE-
MIKE 11 provides more detailed information on near-surface water flow paths, including the associated exit points and inputs to
assessments of radionuclide retention.
                 8) A HEATING EXPERIMENT IN THE ARGILLITES IN THE MEUSE/HAUTE-MARNE
                                    UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY-7276
                         Yannick Wileveau, Su Kun, ANDRA (France); Mhedi Ghoreychi, INERIS (France)
     A heating experiment named TER is being conducted with the objectives to identify the thermal properties, as well as to
enhance the knowledge on THM processes in the Callovo- Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Lab-
oratory (France). The in situ experiment has being switched on from early 2006. The heater, 3 m length, is designed to inject the
power in the undisturbed zone at 6 m from the gallery wall. A heater packer is inflated in a metallic tubing.
     During the experiment, numerous sensors are emplaced in the surrounding rock and are experienced to monitor the evolution
in temperature, pore-water pressure and deformation. The models and numerical codes applied should be validated by comparing
the modeling results with the measurements. In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given
with two different scales (cm up to meter scale).
     In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the sur-
rounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the
several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes (as linear ther-
mal expansion coefficient and permeability) will be discussed. Keywords : clay; thermal experiment; THM; heating; measurement
                     9) THE PRACLAY DEMONSTRATION & CONFIRMATION EXPERIMENTS-7251
                                       Bernier Frédéric, Demarche Marc, EURIDICE (Belgium)
     The PRACLAY Demonstration & Confirmation Experiments are a contribution to the Belgian Research, Development and
Demonstration program, managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS (the National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materi-
als), to assess the safety and feasibility of geological disposal of HLW (High Level and Long Lived Radioactive Waste) in Boom
Clay. The in situ part of the program focuses on the confirmation of the THM(C) behaviour of the host rock in the vicinity of the
disposal facility. Most of the issues investigated in the PRACLAY IN SITU program is therefore generic for all repository design
                                                                                                                                     99
Session 37                                                                                                                     Abstracts

for HLW (respecting the temperature criteria: Tmax around the overpack <100°C). The large scale Heater Experiment is the core
experiment of this program. It aims mainly to study the large scale THM(C) response of the Boom Clay to the excavation of a dis-
posal gallery and to a large scale thermal load. The interactions between the Boom Clay and the lining are also investigated. The
Heater Experiment is break down in three tests: the Gallery & Crossing Test, the Heater Test and the Seal Test. The Heater Exper-
iment will reproduce, in a conservative way, the most penalising conditions in the Boom Clay that could occur in a real repository.
The paper provides a discussion on the choices made for the design of this experiment and details the progress of the project.

                       SESSION 37 - LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS AND EXPERIENCE
          1) OPTIMIZING LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT PROCESSING IN PWRS: FOCUS ON MODELLING
                OF THE VARIATION OF ION-EXCHANGE RESINS SELECTIVITY COEFFICIENTS-7116
        Frédéric Gressier, EDF R&D (France); Jan Van Der Lee, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris (France);
                               Hélène Schneider, Martin Bachet, Hubert Catalette, EDF R&D (France)
     A bibliographic survey has highlighted the essential role of selectivity on resin efficiency, especially the variation of selectiv-
ity coefficients in function of the resin saturation state and the operating conditions. This phenomenon has been experimentally con-
firmed but is not yet implemented into an ion-exchange model specific for resins. This paper reviews the state of the art in predict-
ing sorption capacity of ion-exchange resins. Different models accounting for ions activities inside the resin phase, which is an
essential property, are available. Moreover, a comparison between the values found in the literature and our results has been done.
The results of sorption experiments of cobalt chloride on a strong cationic gel type resin used in French PWRs are presented. The
graph describing the variation of selectivity coefficient with respect to cobalt equivalent fraction is drawn. The parameters deter-
mined by the analysis of this graph are injected in a new physico-chemical law. Implementation of this model in the chemical spe-
ciation simulation code CHESS enables to study the overall effect of this approach for the sorption in a batch.
                    2) DESTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR ORGANIC WASTE BY SUPERCRITICAL WATER
                                        OXIDATION SCALE-UP OF THE PROCESS-7170
                       Sandrine Moussiere, Anne Roubaud, Christophe Joussot-Dubien, Hubert-Alexandre Turc,
                                                  Bruno Fournel, CEA Valrhô (France)
     In order to design and then define appropriate dimensions for a supercritical oxidation reactor, a 2D and 3D simulation of the
fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the oxidation process has been performed. The solver used is a commercial code, Fluent
6.2. The turbulent flow field in the reactor, created by the stirrer is taken into account with a k-omega model and a swirl imposed
to the fluid. In the 3D case the rotation of the stirrer can be modeled thanks to the sliding mesh model. The reactivity of the system
is taken into account with a classical combustion model EDC. Comparisons with experimental temperature measurements validate
the ability of the CFD modeling to simulate the supercritical water oxidation process. Simulation results provide us a view inside
the reactor on the flow, temperature fields and the oxidation localization and development. Results indicate that the flow can be
considered as piston-like, heat transfers are strongly enhanced by the stirring. Hence the scaling up of the reactor volume, to reach
a treatment capacity of 1 Kg/h of pure organics, can be done regarding the necessary residence times and temperature distribution
needed for a complete destruction of the organic matter.
                          3) REDUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE SECONDARY WASTE WITH STEAM
                              REFORMING IN TREATMENT OF WASTE TBP/DODECANE-7144
                       Tomoyuki Sone, Toshiki Sasaki, Hiromi Yamaguchi, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)
     Waste tributyl phosphate (TBP) and normal dodecane generated from R&D activities on recycle of nuclear fuel has been stored
in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). If it is incinerated, a large quantity of contaminated phosphorous compounds will be gen-
erated as radioactive secondary wastes. The objective of this study is to reduce the generation of the radioactive secondary wastes
by the treatment of the waste TBP/dodecane using steam reforming system. We constructed the demonstration scale steam reform-
ing system which consists of a gasification chamber for vaporization of wastes, a metal mesh filter for removal of radioactive
nuclides from gasified wastes, a combustion chamber, and scrubbers for removal of phosphorous oxides. We conducted process
demonstration tests using waste TBP/dodecane with 0.07 g/L of uranium. We studied the temperature dependence of the gasifica-
tion ratio of inorganic phosphorus compounds formed by pyrolysis of TBP in the gasification chamber and removal of uranium by
the filter. As the results, more than 90% of phosphorus compounds were gasified from the gasification chamber at temperature of
600° or more, and the uranium concentration in the waste water generated from the off-gas treatment system is under the detection
limits. The waste water containing the separated phosphorus compounds can be discharged into the river or the sea as the liquid
wastes in which uranium concentration is under the regulatory level. These results show the steam reforming system is effective in
the reduction of radioactive secondary waste in the treatment of TBP/dodecane.
                   4) THE MOCHOVCE FINAL TREATMENT CENTER FOR LIQUID RADIOACTIVE
                               WASTE INTRODUCED TO ACTIVE TRIAL OPERATION-7301
                   Tibor Krajc, Marián Stubna, Kamil Kravárik, Milan Zatkulák, VUJE, a.s. (Slovak Republic);
                                  Martin Slezák, Vladimír Remiás, JAVYS, a.s. (Slovak Republic)
     The Final Treatment Centre (FTC) for Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been designed for treatment and final con-
ditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced by named NPP equipped with Russian VVER-440 type of reactors. Treat-
ed wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of
radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC.




100
Abstracts                                                                                                                Session 37-38

     During the realisation of project the future operator of Centre required the contractor to solve the treatment of wastes produced
in the process of NPP A-1 decommissioning. On the basis of this requirement the project was modified in order to enable manipu-
lations with waste products from A-1 NPP transported to Centre in steel drums. The initial project was prepared in 2003. The design
and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC civil works started in August 2004. Initial non-
radioactive testing of the system parts were carried out from April to September 2006, then the tests of systems started with model
concentrates and non-radioactive resins. After the processes evaluation the radioactive test performed from February 2007. A one-
year trial operation of facility is planned for completion during 2007 and 2008.
     The company JAVYS, Inc. is responsible for radioactive waste and spent fuel treatment in the Slovak republic and will oper-
ate the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. This Company has also significant experience with operation of
Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre…
                        5) WASTE TREATMENT BY SELECTIVE MINERAL ION EXCHANGER-7340
                                    Aurelie Polito, AREVA Business Unit Clean Up/STMI, (France)
     STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D&D business, has been continuously innovating
and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing
spectrum of media.
     In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN).
These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN,
OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Dif-
ferent implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI’s offers consist in building global solution and
preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration).
     Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France….) but also in other
fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste
treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste.
     The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back col-
lected by STMI.
            6) BIOREMEDIATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN A RADIOACTIVE WASTEWATER-7014
                               Bilainu Oboirien, Evans Chirwa, University of Pretoria (South Africa)
     Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this
study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process
wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater.
Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation
pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This
suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile con-
trols. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by spe-
cialised microbial cultures.

                          POSTER SESSION 38 - DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING
             1) PERFORMANCE AND REVIEW OF SAFETY ASSESSMENT FOR DECOMMISSIONING-7372
                      K. Percival, Consultant (Austria); S. Thierfeldt, Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (Germany);
         A. Joubert, National Nuclear Regulator (South Africa); J. Kaulard, Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit
             GmbH (Germany); P. Manson, British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (UK); R. Ferch, Consultant (Canada);
                                    B. Batandjieva, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)
     Safety assessment is required by national and international safety standards to be performed for all stages of lifecycle of facil-
ities that are using radioactive material. It is required to be performed by operators and reviewed by regulators in support of a
decommissioning plan for every facility before decommissioning commences. With the growing amount of decommissioning
activities world-wide, the need for assistance to Member States in development and review of such assessments was highlighted
in the Berlin Conference in 2002 and reflected in the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities,
approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors in 2004. In order to respond to this need, the
IAEA initiated an international project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
(DeSa Project) in the same year. More than fifty experts from over thirty Member States have been working over the last three
years on (i) the establishment of a harmonized safety assessment methodology for decommissioning; (ii) development of recom-
mendations for a regulatory approach and procedure for review of such assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on
the application of the graded approach to development and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodolo-
gy, the regulatory review procedure and graded approach recommendations to three test cases - safety assessment for decommis-
sioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP), a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory. This paper presents the current status of the
DeSa project work, the consensus achieved, the main preliminary outcomes and lessons learned. The project results are envisaged
to be presented and discussed at the 4th Joint DeSa meeting in October 2007 in Vienna, where the scope and objectives of a fol-
low-up project will be also discussed.




                                                                                                                                   101
Session 38                                                                                                                     Abstracts

                2) ON-SITE CHARACTERISATION, RE-PACKAGING AND TRANSPORT OF LUMINISED,
                                         FORMER AIRCRAFT ESCAPE HATCHES.-7289
                 Nigel Reeves, AMEC NNC (UK); Colette Grundy, Alex Sutherland, The Environment Agency (UK);
                          Gordon John, AMEC NNC (UK); Catherine Shaw, The Environment Agency (UK);
                              Lisa Green, The Environment Agency (UK) Ian Beadle, AMEC NNC (UK)
      This paper describes the stabilisation, on-site characterisation, re-packaging and transport to enable safe storage (pending final
disposal) of waste aircraft escape hatches coated with Radium-226 luminising paint.
      AMEC NNC, under contract to the UK Environment Agency, recovered a number of redundant aircraft hatches from an inse-
cure location in North Wales. The Environment Agency instigated emergency action under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993
(RSA93) to recover the hatches. Section 30(1) of RSA93, Ref 1, gives the Environment Agency powers to dispose of radioactive
waste where it is unlikely the waste will be lawfully disposed of.
      The Environment Agency worked closely with partner regulatory organisations including the Health and Safety Executive
(HSE), the Department for Transport (DfT) and the Local Authority to ensure the safe packaging, removal and transport of the mate-
rial to a part shielded store pending a review of waste management options. The final option selected for management of the air-
craft escape hatches was recycling.
      Accurate characterisation of the radiological nature of the material was a crucial objective within the project. This was in order
to ensure that appropriate information was available to make arrangements for transport in accordance with regulatory require-
ments, and to enable assessment of waste management options.
                      3) DECOMMISSIONING OF THE IRAQ FORMER NUCLEAR COMPLEX-7280
                   Mohammed Abbas, Ministry of Science and Technology (Iraq); Tuama Helou, Bushra Ahmead,
                               Ministry of Environment (Iraq); Mousa Al-Atia, Mowaffak Al-Mubarak,
               Iraqi Radiation Sources Regulatory Authority (Iraq); Jeffrey Danneels, John Cochran, Ken Sorenson,
                 Sandia National Laboratories (USA); Roger Coates, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)
     A number of sites in Iraq have some degree of radiological contamination and require decommissioning and remediation in order
to ensure radiological safety. Many of these sites in Iraq are located at the nuclear research centre at Al Tuwaitha. The International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors has approved a project to assist the Government of Iraq in the evaluation and
decommissioning of former facilities that used radioactive materials. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1: collect and
analyze all available data and conduct training of the Iraqi staff, Phase 2: develop a decommissioning and remediation plan, and Phase
3: implement field activities relating to decommissioning, remediation and site selection suitable for final disposal of waste.
     Four working groups have been established to complete the Phase 1 work and significant progress has been made in drafting
a new nuclear law which will provide the legal basis for the licensing of the decommissioning of the former nuclear complex. Work
is also underway to collect and analysis existing date, to prioritize future activities and to develop a waste management strategy.
This will be a long–term and costly project.
                4) MAKING THE OPTIMAL DECSION IN SELECTING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING-7135
                                           J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison (USA)
     Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of
employee dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make
the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work
on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered, including
     • Protection
     • Personnel Contamination
     • Cost
     • Radwaste
     • Comfort
     • Convenience
     • Logistics/Rad Material Considerations
     • Reject Rate of Laundered Clothing
     • Durability
     • Security
     • Personnel Safety including Heat Stress
     • Disposition of Gloves and Booties
     In addition, over the last several years there has been a trend of nuclear power plants either running trials or switching to Sin-
gle Use Protective Clothing (SUPC) from traditional protective clothing. In some cases, after trial usage of SUPC, plants have cho-
sen not to switch. In other cases after switching to SUPC for a period of time, some plants have chosen to switch back to launder-
ing. Based on these observations, this paper reviews the “real” drivers, issues, and interrelating factors regarding the selection and
use of protective clothing throughout the nuclear industry.
                                5) EIA PROCESS OF V1 NPP DECOMMISSIONING-7299
      Igor Matejovic, Deconta, a.s., Trnava (Slovak Republic); Vincent Polak, STM-POWER, a.s. Trnava (Slovak Republic)
    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units
1 and 2 of Jaslovské Bohunice V1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively.




102
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 38

     Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the V1 NPP
Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of V1 NPP Decommissioning
were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of
V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents.
     The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail
in this paper.
            6) COST CALCULATIONS AT EARLY STAGES OF NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITIES IN THE
           NORDIC COUNTRIES BY ANNA CATO(1), STAFFAN LINDSKOG(1) AND ROLF SJÖBLOM(2) (1)
                       THE SWEDISH NUCLEAR POWER INSPECTORATE, (2) TEKEDO AB-7168
       Anna Cato, Staffan Lindskog, The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Rolf Sjöblom, Tekedo AB (Sweden);
             Klaus Iversen, Dansk Dekommissionering (Denmark); Seppo Salmenhaara, VTT FiR 1 Reactor (Finland);
                   Steinar Backe, Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Clas Callander, Henrik Efraimsson,
                 Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden); Inga Andersson, Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)
     The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and
development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have
been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from
imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warrant-
ed and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over
time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with funda-
mental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones.
     Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflect-
ed in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now
to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities.
     Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they
differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in
the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early
stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the
required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for
cost calculations…
              7) THE UNIT COST FACTORS AND CALCULATION METHODS FOR DECOMMISSIONING
                              COST ESTIMATION OF NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITIES-7125
      Kwan-Seong Jeong, Dong-Gyu Lee, Chong-Hun Jung, Kune-Woo Lee, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends
on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning
costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed subtasks and resources by the tasks of decom-
missioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs
of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear
research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with
the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning
costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the
calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in
decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The
working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these fac-
tors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real
decommissioning works.
               8) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE VOLUME REDUCTION OF IRRADIATED
                         GRAPHITE ARISING FROM THE DECOMMISSIONING OF KRR-2-7138
                          Dong-Gyu Lee, Hee Chul Yang, Kune Woo Lee, Chong Hun Jung, Yong Jun Cho,
                                          Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
      Graphite has been used as a moderator and reflector of neutrons in more than 100 nuclear power plants as well as many exper-
imental reactors and plutonium production reactors in various countries. Most of the older graphite moderated reactors are already
shut down and are awaiting decommissioning planning and preparation. The graphite waste has different characteristics than other
decommissioning waste due to its physical and chemical properties and also because of the presence of tritium and carbon-14.
Therefore radioactive graphite dismantling, handling, conditioning and disposal are a common part of the decommissioning activ-
ities. A volume reduction of the waste is needed to reduce disposal cost of radioactive waste. However the existing processing tech-
nologies are based mostly on the isolation of radioactive graphite from the environment, they are not able to provide for a signifi-
cant volume reduction. For this reason, the high-temperature thermal treatment process such as an incineration or a pyrolysis is con-
sidered as promising technologies, since it provides a substantial volume reduction. Currently, the fluidized bed incineration is con-
sidered as efficient technology for the treatment of radioactive graphite waste. In this study, the fluidized bed incineration condi-
tion and the radioisotopes behavior were experimentally investigated by using irradiated graphite waste which has arisen from the
decommissioning of Korean Research Reactor 2 (KRR- of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes from various pollution levels.




                                                                                                                                    103
Session 38                                                                                                                   Abstracts

                          9) MELTING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STAINLESS STEEL WASTES
                              GENERATED FROM THE URANIUM CONVERSION PLANT-7159
        Wangkyu Choi, Song, Byungyoun Min, Wonzin Oh, Chonghun Jung, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
     The partition ratio of cerium (Ce) and uranium (U) in the ingot, slag and dust phases has been investigated for the effect of the
slag type, slag concentration and basicity in an electric arc melting process. An electric arc furnace (EAF) was used to melt the
stainless steel wastes, simulated by uranium oxide and the real wastes from the uranium conversion plant in Korea Atomic Energy
Research Institute(KAERI). The composition of the slag former used to capture the contaminants such as uranium, cerium, and
cesium during the melt decontamination process generally consisted of silica (SiO2), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide
(Al2O3). Also, Calcium fluoride (CaF2), nickel oxide (NiO), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) were added to provide an increase in the slag
fluidity and oxidative potential. Cerium was used as a surrogate for the uranium because the thermochemical and physical proper-
ties of cerium are very similar to those of uranium. Cerium was removed from the ingot phase to slag phase by up to 99% in this
study. The absorption ratio of cerium was increased with an increase of the amount of the slag former. And the maximum removal
of cerium occurred when the basicity index of the slag former was 0.82. The natural uranium (UO2) was partitioned from the ingot
phase to the slag phase by up to 95%. The absorption of the natural uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity index of
the slag former and the composition of the slag former. The optimum condition for the removal of the uranium was about 1.5 for
the basicity index and 15wt% of the slag former. According to the increase of the amount of slag former, the absorption of urani-
um oxide in the slag phase was linearly increased due to an increase of its capacity to capture uranium oxide within the slag phase…
       10) INNOVATIVE DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGY BY ABRASION IN VIBRATORY VESSELS-7223
                           Silvio Fabbri, Sergio Ilarri, Atomic Energy National Commission (Argentina)
     The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the
development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontam-
ination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technol-
ogy was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the man-
ufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel.
Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, gen-
erally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The
design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminat-
ed aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the
external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 min-
utes of the cleaning time.
    11) DECONTAMINATION OF THE SHAFT NO.1 AND CLEANING CONTAINER OF 2. BLOCK NPP PAKS-7286
                 Jan Bolcha, Zuzana Mala, VUJE, a.s. (Slovak Republic); Peter Tilky, NPP Paks PA Zrt. (Hungary)
     Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by con-
tamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container.
     As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to
withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1.
     Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documenta-
tion according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1
in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination
and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decon-
tamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory exper-
iments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time
of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on
cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were
tested, and most effectives practices were selected.
     Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and
chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft…
                   12) ANALYSIS ON URANIUM ISOTOPE IN THE FACILITIES OF NUCLEAR FUEL
                                      MATERIALS USING DEPLETED URANIUM-7160
               Jong Seon Jeon, Ki Chul Jung, Sang Gyu Park, Tae Hyun Kim, Jae Min Lee, Enesys Co. Ltd. (Korea)
     This study checked the degree of contamination of depleted uranium used as a chemical catalyst in the manufacturing
process within the facilities of nuclear fuel materials to analyze the environmental sample for abandoning their industrial facto-
ry sites and investigated how many times of contamination were made compared to (natural) abundance of isotopes if contam-
ination was made within the facilities. In order to analyze the degree of uranium contamination, the researcher of this study
divided the upper and lower parts of 20 points from the surface of the earth within the factory site made of concrete and extract-
ed 40 samples from the surface of the earth and 15 samples for checking air and surface water contamination. The study checked
the concentration of uranium existing in small quantity in the samples by liquefying a large amount of samples (5 - 10 g) using
pre-treatable acid percolation.




104
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 38

                          POSTER SESSION 38 - ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION POSTERS
             13) AGRICULTURE IN AN AREA IMPACTED BY PAST URANIUM MINING ACTIVITIES-7370
     Fernando P. Carvalho, Joâo M. Oliveira, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (Portugal); Orquídia Neves, Maria M. Abreu,
             Dept Ciências do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (Portugal);
                     Elsa M. Vicente, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquímica, Instituto Superior Técnico (Portugal)
    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Con-
centration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced
concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and
another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of
land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with
water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dis-
solved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples.
Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, especially in the field plots with higher radionuclide con-
centrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides
from soils. Key words: radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer, uranium mining waste, contaminated soil, uranium, radium, polonium.
     14) IMMOBILIZATION OF URANIUM IN CONTAMINATED SOIL BY NATURAL APATITE ADDITION-7362
                    Jelena Mrdakovic Popic, Mirjana Stojanovic, Sinisa Milosevic, Deana Iles, Snezana Zildzovic,
                    Institute for Technology of Nuclear and other Mineral Raw Materials (Serbia and Montenegro)
     The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the
migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite
upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P2O5 in apatite, solid/liquid
ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site “Kalna”, by
sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after
apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant
level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P2O5 in apatite and process of mechanochemical activation
led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5
and reaction period 60days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available
soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmen-
tal aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very ade-
quate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit
“Lisina” Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination.
                15) CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION OF THE RESIDUAL HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM
                                              (RHRS) OF FLAMANVILLE 1-7349
            Claude Steinkuhler, Tecnubel/DDR Consult, (Belgium); Reginald Coomans, Koen Lenie, Tecnubel (Belgium)
     The purpose of the decontamination of the RHRS at Flamanville 1 was the reduction of the general dosimetry and the elimi-
nation of hot spots. This was done to allow the maintenance on the RHRS equipment. The main challenge of this project was the
execution of a complicated operation on the critical path of a shutdown.
     The redox attack of the oxides at the surface of the circuit in Flamanville, was performed by an EDF qualified process of the
EMMAC family.
     The functions required by the decontamination system were very diverse and therefore an existing decontamination loop,
which was previously developed for the decontamination of small system volumes, was re-developed and adapted for bigger
circuits.
     Due to different reasons, an important delay on the planning happened. Therefore, only one cycle EMMAg was performed,
totaling 2 hours of decontamination. Despite this, a DRRF (dose rate reduction factor) of 3,7 average was reached.
     The re-designed equipment and a shortened process were validated during this project. An acceptable DRRF was reached
with no delay on the critical path. The capability of maintenance on the RHRS equipment is recovered with a gain of factor 5 on
dosimetry.
            16) DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF A SOIL WASHING EQUIPMENT
                                 FOR SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIONUCLIDE-7198
                Gye-Nam Kim, Jei-Kwon Moon, Chong-Hun Jung, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)
    The purpose of this study is to develop a soil washing system and to define the most suitable experimental conditions for the
individual elemental equipment in a soil washing system for decontaminating the radioactive soil from around a TRIGA (Training,
Research, Isotope, General Atomic) reactor in Korea. Analysis results have shown that the main radionuclides were Cs137 and
Co60, the soil particle size ranges from 0.063 mm to 1.0 mm and the radioactive concentration was the strongest in a soil particle
smaller than 0.063 mm as predicted. Meanwhile, an oxalic acid was found to be the most efficient chemical agent for washing,
especially of cobalt. The scrubbing time of four hours was an optimum time to obtain a removal efficiency of more than 75% for
137Cs and 60Co. A mixing ratio of the soil weight to the volume of the oxalic acid solution, 1:10, was observed to be the best for
a washing and it was estimated to be reasonable for 2 cycles of a scrubbing with 1.0M of oxalic acid to avoid a generation of an
excessive waste-solution.




                                                                                                                                    105
Session 38                                                                                                                     Abstracts

                   17) STRATEGY ON REHABILITATION OF THE FORMER URANIUM FACILITIES
                           AT THE “PRIDNEPROVSKY CHEMICAL PLANT” IN UKRAINE-7196
                   Oleg Voitsekhovitch, Centre for Monitoring Studies and Environment Technologies (Ukraine)
     This paper describes current status of the former Uranium Facilities at the Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine, which
are currently under development of action plan for its territory rehabilitation. The monitoring data carried out during recent sever-
al years show its impact to the Environment and gives a basis for justification of the number of measures aiming to reduce radio-
logical and ecological risks of the Uranium tailings situated at the territory of PChP. The monitoring data and strategy for its reme-
diation are considered in the presentation.
                      18) FINAL COVERING OF THE RONNEBURG URANIUM MINING SITE-7190
                                              Uwe Hoepfner, LAGB Halle (Germany)
     The rehabilitation of WISMUT’s former Ronneburg uranium mining site involves backfilling of waste rock to the Lichtenberg
open pit. The relocation project comprises about 110 million m3 of sulphide-bearing and AMD-generating waste rock which makes
it the most important and most cost-intensive single surface restoration project conducted by WISMUT at the Ronneburg site. The
backfilled waste rock has to be covered on an area of about 220 ha to control water infiltration and gas diffusion. Design planning
for the final cover placement which began in 2004 had to be based on a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis as well on field tests
of alternative cover options which are in compliance with legal requirements. An intensive testing program concerning the vadose
zone of soil covers has therefore been started in 2000. The paper presents an overview of the monitoring program and the results
of the vadose zone measurements. The water of soil covers have to be predicted for extended evaluation periods. Therefore water
balance simulations of single layer covers (storage and evaporation concept) taking current and future soil and climate conditions
into account are performed with the HYDRUS_2D code.
                          19) EVALUATION OF AMERICIUM-241 TOXICITY INFLUENCE ON THE
                                      MICROBIAL GROWTH OF ORGANIC WASTES-7100
                 Júlio Takehiro Marumo, Rafael Vicente de Pádua Ferreira, Vera Lúcia Keiko Isiki, Hissae Miyamoto,
                                 Aline Sayuri Takara, Solange Kazumi Sakata, Maria Helena Bellini,
               Luis Filipe Cardoso Pedroso de Lima, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)
     Since the licenses for using radioactive sources in radioactive lightning rods were lifted by the Brazilian national nuclear
authority, in 1989, the radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type and collected as radioactive waste. However, only
20 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission. This situation causes
concern, due to, first, the possibility of the rods being disposed as domestic waste, and second, the americium, the most common-
ly employed radionuclide, is classified as a high-toxicity element. In the present study, Am-241 migration experiments were per-
formed by a lysimeter system, in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a com-
mon solid waste. Besides the risk evaluation, it is important to know the mechanism of the Am-241 release or retention in waste as
well as its influence in the waste decomposition processes. Many factors are involved, but microorganisms present in the waste play
an important role in its degradation, which control the physical and chemical processes. The objective of this work was to evaluate
the Am-241 influence on the microbial population by counting number of cells in lysimeters leachate. Preliminary results suggest
that americium may influence significantly the bacteria growth in organic waste, evidenced by culture under aerobiosis and anaer-
obiosis and the antimicrobial resistance test.
                       20) INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON 137CS AND
                                    HEAVY METALS UPTAKE BY BARLEY PLANT-7031
             Stanislav Kruglov, Alexander Filipas, Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russia)
     When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective
means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) con-
tent in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agrolandscapes and with the regard for different factors influ-
encing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biolog-
ically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on 137Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent
on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants
development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in 137Cs activity in harvest (40-
50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced 137Cs trans-
fer to barley plants by 30-60% (p<0,05) and Zircon application further reduced its concentration. Ambiol and El also reduced 137Cs
uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phytotoxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of
137Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phytotoxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of 137Cs on
the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with
the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The presowing seed treat-
ment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%…




106
Abstracts                                                                                                                  Session 39-41

                    SESSION 39 - CONTACT EXPERT GROUP (CEG) MEETING – MEMBERS ONLY
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

            SESSION 40 - PANEL: ACHIEVING LEGITIMACY IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                            SESSION 41 - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ER TECHNOLOGIES
           1) THE STATE OF PERANGANATE WITH RELATION TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION-7002
                                    Brenda Veronda, Matthew Dingens, Carus Corporation (USA)
     In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have
been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols,
explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration
of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxida-
tive properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of
treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in-
situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection
limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Perman-
ganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general
overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations
of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies.
                   2) GREEN REMEDIATION: ENHANCED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION USING
                           RECYCLED RINSEWATER AS BIOREMEDIATION SUBSTRATE-7090
                                   Tom McKeon, Gaynor Dawson, CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (USA)
     Enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) has rapidly become a remedy of choice for use on chlorinated solvent contamina-
tion when site conditions allow. With this approach, solutions of an organic substrate are injected into the affected aquifer to stim-
ulate biological growth and the resultant production of reducing conditions in the target zone. Under the reducing conditions, hydro-
gen is produced and ultimately replaces chlorine atoms on the contaminant molecule causing sequential dechlorination. Under suit-
able conditions the process continues until the parent hydrocarbon precursor is produced, such as the complete dechlorination of
trichloroethylene (TCE) to ethene. The process is optimized by use of a substrate that maximizes hydrogen production per unit cost.
When natural biota are not present to promote the desired degradation, inoculates can be added with the substrate. The in-situ
method both reduces cost and accelerates cleanup. Successful applications have been extended from the most common chlorinated
compounds perchloroethylene (PCE) and TCE and related products of degradation, to perchlorate, and even explosives such as
RDX and trinitrotoluene on which nitrates are attacked in lieu of chloride. In recent work, the process has been further improved
through use of beverage industry wastewaters that are available at little or no cost. With material cost removed from the equation,
applications can maximize the substrate loading without significantly increasing total cost. The extra substrate loading both accel-
erates reaction rates and extends the period of time over which reducing conditions are maintained. In some cases, the presence of
other organic matter in addition to simple sugars provides for longer performance times of individual injections, thereby working
in a fashion similar to emulsified vegetable oil…
            3) ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF IN SITU ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING-7136
                             Gregory Smith, Gregory Beyke, Thermal Remediation Services, Inc. (USA)
     Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) is an aggressive in situ thermal remediation technology that was developed by the U.S.
Department of Energy from the original oil production technology to enhance vapor extraction remediation technologies in low per-
meability soils. Soil and groundwater are heated by the passage of electrical current through saturated and unsaturated soil between
electrodes, not by the electrodes themselves. It is the resistance to the flow of electrical current that results in increased subsurface
temperatures, and this is typically applied to the boiling point of water. It is estimated that more than 75 ERH applications have
been performed. Capacity to perform these projects has increased over the years, and as many as 15 to 20 of these applications now
being performed at any given time, mainly in North America, with some European applications. While the main focus has been to
vaporize volatile organic compounds, as one would expect other semi-volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have also been
encountered, resulting in observations of chemical and physical reactions that have not been normally incorporated into environ-
mental restoration projects. One such reaction is hydrolysis, which is slow under normal groundwater temperatures, becomes very
rapid under temperatures that can easily be achieved using ERH. As a result, these chemical and physical reactions are increasing
the applicability of ERH in environmental restoration projects, treating a wider variety of compounds and utilizing biotic and abi-
otic mechanisms to reduce energy costs…
              4) UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES-7369
             Wade Whitaker, Department of Energy (USA); Chris Bergren, Bechtel Savannah River Company (USA);
                                   Mary Flora, Washington Savannah River Company (USA)
    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located
along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals
and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in
unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have
migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environ-
mental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup
                                                                                                                                     107
Session 41                                                                                                                  Abstracts

program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal)
that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding
while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed,
SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve spe-
cific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, under-
ground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating,
soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs…
                              5) ENHANCED PHYTOEXTRACTION NOT A FEASIBLE OPTION
                                    TO CLEAN UP URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL-7281
                   Hildegarde Vandenhove, Lise Duquène, SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (Belgium);
                  Tack Filip, Ghent University (Belgium); Joke Baeten, Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen (Belgium);
                                 Jean Wannijn, SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (Belgium)
     A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the potential of enhanced phytoextraction to clean up U contaminated soils.
One soil had a naturally high U concentration and the other soil was impacted by effluents from the former radium extraction indus-
try. Enhancement of U solubility and uptake by plants (ryegrass and Indian mustard) was monitored after addition of 5 chemical
amendments (5 mmol kg-1 soil dry weight): citric acid, ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture, oxalic acid, EDDS and NTA. Ura-
nium solubilization and uptake were highly influenced by the amendment applied and soil-plant combinations. Citric acid was most
effective in increasing U solubility (up to 18-fold increase). Citric acid and the ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture were most
effective in increasing U uptake by ryegrass (up to 6-fold). For Indian mustard, EDDS and citric acid were most effective (up to 9-
fold). In the optimal scenario only 0.16 % of the total uranium present in the soil could be extracted with one harvest and it would
take more than 200 years to reduce the initial uranium content with 10 %. Based on these results, we must conclude that phytoex-
traction is not a feasible technique to decrease the uranium concentration of historically contaminated soils.
     6) REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ETS-4 MICROPOROUS TITANOSILICATE:
       EFFECT OF CONTACT TIME, TITANOSILICATE MASS AND INITIAL METAL CONCENTRATION-7201
             Cláudia Lopes, Marta Otero, Zhi Lin, Maria Eduarda Pereira, João Rocha, Armando Duarte, Carlos Silva,
                          CICECO & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal (Portugal)
      Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment and therefore is extremely important develop new,
simple and reliable techniques for its removal from aqueous solutions. A recent line of research within this context is the applica-
tion of microporous materials. The use of these materials for removing heavy metals from solutions may become a potential clean-
up technology in the field of wastewater treatment. In this work it is reported the application of microporous titanosilicate ETS-4
as ion exchanger to remove Hg2+ from aqueous solution. Under batch conditions, we studied the effect of contact time, titanosili-
cate mass and initial Hg2+ concentration. Only 5 mg of ETS-4 are required to purify 2 litres of water with 50 µg L-1 of metal. Under
the experimental conditions, the initial Hg2+ concentration and ETS-4 mass have strong influence on the sorption process, and it is
proved that 24 h are almost always sufficient to attain ion exchange equilibrium. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to
fit equilibrium experimental results. The kinetics of mercury removal was reliably described by a pseudo second-order model. On
the whole, ETS-4 shows considerable potential to remove Hg2+ from wastewaters.
         7) BIOAVAILABILITY AND STABILITY OF MERCURY SULFIDE IN ARMUCHEE (USA) SOILS-7122
      David L. Monts, Fengxiang Han, Safwan Shiyab, Yi Su, Charles A. Waggoner, ICET, Mississippi State University (USA);
                        Frank Matta, Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University (USA)
     Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost
effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mer-
cury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mer-
cury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability
of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sul-
fide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavail-
able to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sul-
fide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by
EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solu-
bility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil.
                 8) ACCUMULATION OF MERCURY IN SELECTED PLANT SPECIES GROWN IN SOILS
                           CONTAMINATED WITH DIFFERENT MERCURY COMPOUNDS-7123
                                            Yi Su, Safwan Shiyab, Jian Chen, David L. Monts,
                          Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University (USA)
     The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated
soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mer-
cury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to
obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phytoremediation is a tech-
nology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phytoex-
traction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are gen-
erally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phytoextraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some
of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyperaccumulating properties has yet been
identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury
removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl2, and Hg(NO3)2, were used as contaminant sources. Differ-

108
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 42-44

ent types of soil were examined and chosen for phytoremediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance
spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phytoremediation processes of mercury uptake, translo-
cation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that
certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots
(<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg)…

      SESSION 42 - PANEL: URANIUM MINING AND MILLING EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) MEETING - II
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                        SESSION 43 - PANEL/ROUNDTABLE: URANIUM MINING REMEDIATION
                                 EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) - III - OPEN TO ALL
                                                  ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

            SESSION 44 - HLW, FISSILE, TRU AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHORT AND LONG-TERM ISSUES
                       1) TURBULENT IMPINGING FLOW SIMULATION FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE
                                        STORAGE AND PROCESSING APPLICATIONS-7009
                                       Simon Rhea, Michael Fairweather, University of Leeds (UK)
      The efficient storage and processing of high-level nuclear waste could be improved by a better understanding of the behaviour
of the particle-laden fluid flows involved. This work reports a mathematical modeling study of impinging single and two-phase tur-
bulent jets that is of relevance to the flows used industrially to prevent the settling of solid particles in storage tanks, and to re-sus-
pend particles that form a bed. A computational fluid dynamic model, that embodies a Lagrangian particle tracking technique, is
applied to the prediction of these flows. Predictions in the free flow and wall regions, and along the stagnation line, of the single-
phase flow are in reasonable accord with data, although the addition of particles results in less satisfactory agreement between pre-
dictions and measurements. The influence of particles is, however, reproduced qualitatively by the mathematical model, with quan-
titative differences attributable to a lack of particle drag in the simulations. Uncertainties in experimental parameters may be respon-
sible for some of the differences between predictions and data, and examination of the data used casts doubts on its reliability. Fur-
ther work is required in terms of the use of more advanced turbulence modeling techniques, and the provision of detailed and reli-
able data sets.
                  2) DOSE RATE EFFECTS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF RADIATION DAMAGE-7322
                     Vincenzo Rondinella, Thierry Wiss, Jean-Pol Hiernaut, Dragos Staicu, JRC-ITU (Germany)
     Spent nuclear fuel and other high level nuclear wasteforms are subjected to radiation damage. In the case of spent fuel, fission
damage accumulated during in-pile irradiation amounts to thousand of displacements per atom (dpa). Both spent fuel and other
waste forms also accumulate alpha-decay damage (and He) during storage. The dose rates and the temperatures experienced by the
waste in this case are lower than for in-pile operation, and depend on the composition, history and activity of the waste form: how-
ever, the duration of the storage is much longer (of the order of up to a few hundred years if extended interim storage concepts are
considered); if final disposal in the repository is considered, the time interval in which radiation damage accumulates is open-ended.
In order to simulate within reasonable timescale (i.e. within timeframes suitable for laboratory experiments) long-term accumula-
tion of alpha-decay damage, the so-called alpha-doped materials can be used, i.e. matrices loaded with short-lived alpha-emitters
(like e.g. Pu-238, U-233, etc.). The question is often posed if the accelerated accumulation of decay damage and He obtained using
alpha-doped materials does present some artifact caused by the rate of accumulation rather than by the integrated dose.
     This work presents evidence that, at least within the range of alpha-activities considered, which cover the interval 106 - 1010
Bq/g, there is no dose rate effect. By comparing property evolution as a function of accumulated dpa for alpha-doped materials with
activities spanning over several orders of magnitude, the same trends and levels of alteration are observed…
                 3) DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTING
                     HEAT TRANSFER IN MULTIPHASE LIQUID-PARTICLE FLOW SYSTEMS-7025
                                Kevin F. Malone, AWE Plc (UK); Bao H. Xu, Michael Fairweather,
                              Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds (UK)
     Many of the highly active wastes that result from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel consist of particulate solids of var-
ious materials suspended in a liquid medium. Operations for safe processing, handling and intermediate storage of these wastes
often pose significant technical challenges due to the need for effective cooling systems to remove the heat generated by the
radioactive solids.
     The multiscale complexity of liquid-particle flow systems is such that investigation and prediction of their heat transfer char-
acteristics based on experimental studies is a difficult task. Fortunately, the increasing availability of cheap computing power means
that predictive simulation tools may be able to provide a means to investigate these systems without the need for expensive pilot
studies. In this work we describe the development of a Combined Continuum and Discrete Model (CCDM) for predicting the heat
transfer behaviour of systems of particles suspended in liquids.




                                                                                                                                       109
Session 44                                                                                                                      Abstracts

                   4) IMMOBILIZATION OF LONG-LIVED RADIONUCLIDES IN CARBON MATRICES
                                PRODUCED WITH THE USE OF POLYIMIDE BINDERS-7127
           Murat Abdulakhatov, Sergey Bartenev, Nikolai Firsin, Mikhail Zykov, Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) (Russia);
            Mikhail Goikhman, Alexander Gribanov, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS (IMC RAS) (Russia);
           Valery Novikov, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS (Russia); John Krasznail, Kinectrics Inc. (Canada)
     Conditions for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides 99Tc, 129I and 241Am in carbon matrices were investigated by using
their chemical analogs. Stable isotopes of rhenium, iodine and europium were used as chemical analogs of 99Tc, 129I and 241Am,
respectively. It is shown that the carbon matrices incorporating the above elements can be produced by carbonization of compos-
ites with ITA-31 polyimide binder of the following composition: equal molar ratio between dianhydride of 3,3/,4,4/-benzophenone-
tetracarboxylic acid and tetraacetyl derivative of 4,4/-diaminodiphenyl ester, radionuclide being investigated or its chemical analog
and carbon fabric as reinforcing component. The elements under investigation were used both in the form of salts or oxides and in
the form of their complexes with ion-exchange resins. The produced composites were carbonized in inert gas (argon) or in vacu-
um. The physical-chemical properties of the samples were studied. It was revealed that the resultant matrices meet the requirements
imposed on waste storage and final disposal.
       5) INTERIM STORAGE TECHNOLOGY OF SPENT FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE IN GERMANY-7211
                       Dr. Heinz Geiser, Jens Schröder, GNS Gesellschaft f. Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)
      The idea of using casks for interim storage of spent fuel arose at GNS after a very controversy political discussion in 1978,
when total passive safety features (including aircraft crash conditions) were required for an above ground spent fuel storage facil-
ity. In the meantime, GNS has loaded more than 1000 casks at 25 different storage sites in Germany. GNS cask technology is used
in 13 countries. Spent fuel assemblies of PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high level waste con-
tainers are stored in full metal casks of the CASTOR® type. Also MOX fuel of PWR and BWR has been stored. More than two
decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements (safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropri-
ate heat transfer) have been fulfilled in any case - during normal operation and in case of severe accidents, incl. aircraft crash. There
is no indication of problems arising in the future. Of course, the experience of more than 20 years has resulted in improvements of
the cask design.
      The CASTOR® casks have been thoroughly investigated by many experiments. There have been approx. 50 full and half scale
drop tests and a significant number of fire tests, simulations of aircraft crash, investigations with anti tank weapons, and an explo-
sion of a railway tank with liquid gas neighbouring a loaded CASTOR® cask…
         6) A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: ESTABLISHING AND IMPLEMENTING A CHARACTERIZATION
                    PROGRAM IN THE U.S. FOR REMOTE-HANDLED TRANSURANIC WASTE-7129
                           Roger Nelson, Alton D. Harris III, United States Department of Energy (USA)
    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for waste management from nuclear weapons production, and operates
the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste, as authorized by Congress
in 1979(1). Radioactive waste in the US has historically been managed in one of two ways depending on its penetrating radiation
dose rate. Waste with surface dose rates above 200 millirem/hour (0.002 sievert/hour) has been managed remotely (Remote-Han-
dled).
    In 1992, Congress passed the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act(2), which created the regulatory framework under which DOE was
to operate the facility, and authorized disposal of waste up to 1000 rems/hour (10 Sievert/hour). Subsequently, DOE submitted
applications to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), at the Federal level, for certification to operate WIPP(3), and to the
New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), at the State level, for a hazardous waste permit. Both applications described the
characterization methods that DOE proposed to use to ensure only compliant waste was shipped to WIPP. No distinction was
employed in these methods concerning the surface dose rate from the waste…
                   7) APPLICATION OF THE SPENT FUEL CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING
                                STUDIES FOR VALIDATING ALTERATION MODELS-7243
                          Javier Quiñones, Ciemat (Spain); Joaquin Cobos Sabate, ITU-JRC (Germany);
            Eduardo Iglesias, Nieves Rodriguez Villagra, CIEMAT (Spain); Aurora Martínez Esparza, ENRESA (Spain)
    From Spanish point of view, one of the key issues related to the HLW performance assessment is knowing and predicting, or
modeling, the behaviour of the spent fuel under geological storing conditions. Taking into account this objective, several experi-
ments have been performed in order to split and determine the influence of different variables on the final stability of the spent fuel
matrix in the geological repository.
    This paper presents some of the leaching results obtained with spent fuel and chemical analogues (UO2, alpha doped - UO2,
SIMFUEL,…) their application for extrapolate the corrosion behaviour for a long period of time and compare with those data
obtained using the models. This procedure allows pointing out some of the uncertainties necessaries to clarify the dudes nowadays
present in the models useful for performance assessment studies.
                      8) INDUCTIVE COLD CRUCIBLE MELTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
                          URANIUM- AND THORIUM-BEARING MURATAITE CERAMICS-7126
                 Oleg Knyazev, Alexander Ptashkin, Sergey Stefanovsky, Maria Zen’kovskaya, SIA Radon (Russia);
                   Sergey Yudintsev, Boris Nikonov, IGEM RAS, (Russia); Olga Stefanovsky, SIA Radon (Russia)
     Murataite-based ceramics containing 10 wt.% either UO2 or ThO2 were produced by inductive cold crucible melting (ICCM)
at operating frequencies of 1.76 MHz and 5.28 MHz and examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron
microscopy. High specific productivity was achieved. Average melting ratio was 8.3 kW´h/kg. We identified three distinct murataite
polytypes in the U-bearing ceramics: a five- (5C), eight- (8C), and three-fold (3C) fluorite unit cell composing respectively the core,
intermediate and rim zones of the grains. In contrast, in the Th-bearing ceramic one of the polytypes with eight-fold (8C) fluorite
unit cell was found to be prevailing over two others (5C and 3C). Computer simulation of the major reflection due to the murataite
110
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 45

phase in the Th-bearing sample also exhibits superposition of peaks due to three distinct polytypes but one of them (8C) is predom-
inant. The core zone of the murataite in the U-bearing specimens is characterized by UO2 concentrations as high as 12.1 wt%, which
successively diminishes in concentration through the intermediate zone to the rim, the latter of which contains 5.2 wt% UO2. Tho-
rium distribution within the murataite crystals is more uniform. The other phases found in the ceramics are crichtonite, rutile and
traces of perovskite, Fe/Mn titanate ilmenite/pyrophanite, zirconolite, and vitreous phase. The difference in phase composition and
actinide partitioning in the ceramics is influenced by synthesis conditions. Thus, application of large-scale cold crucibles is a
prospective route for the development of industrial-scale process and technology for ceramization of actinide-bearing HLW. The
advantage of this method is production of zoned crystals with the highest concentrations of actinides and rare earth elements in the
core, effectively isolating these elements from potential leach solutions.

                      SESSION 45 - DECOMMISSIONING STRATEGIES AND FACILITY RELEASE
              1) PRE-DECOMMISSIONING RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF CONCRETE-7044
                        Sven Boden, Eric Cantrel, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) (Belgium)
     The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the building structures are being
decontaminated and either denuclearized for possible reuse or demolished. Apart from the presence of naturally occurring radionu-
clides in building materials, other radionuclides might be present due to contamination or activation. The overall process of the BR3
building structure D&D (Decontamination & Decommissioning) consists of the following steps:
     • make a complete inventory and preliminary categorize all elements based on historical data;
     • characterize and determine the contamination or activation depth;
     • determine the decontamination method;
     • perform the decontamination and clean up;
     • a possible intermediate characterization followed by an additional decontamination step; and
     • characterize for clearance.
     A good knowledge of the contamination and activation depth (second step) is fundamental in view of cost minimization. Cur-
rently, the method commonly used for the determination of the depth is based on core drilling and destructive analysis. Recently,
we have introduced a complementary non destructive assay based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy. Field tests at BR3, both for con-
tamination and activation, showed promising results.
            2) LOWER BOUND OF OPTIMIZATION IN RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION SYSTEM TAKING
                         ACCOUNT OF PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEARANCE-7042
                                                 Takatoshi Hattori, CRIEPI (Japan)
     The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Stan-
dard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is
important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the
practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct
gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measure-
ment should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in
clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate
safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y
should be complied with the 97.5th percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and esti-
mation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the
representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is repre-
sentative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the rep-
resentative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person ran-
domly selected from the population receiving a high dose…
                            3) INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PLANNING THE REMEDIATION OF
                                       SITES UNDERGOING DECOMMISSIONING-7335
        Horst Monken Fernandes, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); James L. Regens, College of Public Health
      University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (USA); W. Eberhard Falck, Nuclear Safety Unit - Institute for Energy -
     CEC-JRC (Netherlands); Marc Audet, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada); Frank Dennis, Golder Consultants - UK
                                (UK); Dejanira Lauria, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil)
     Decommissioning and remediation activities are subject to some common driving forces that influence the ability of decom-
missioning and remediation programs to achieve end-states that correspond to planned or anticipated (future) end-uses (i.e., facili-
ty or site re-use). In addition, decommissioning and remediation programs have common resources needs that, when identified and
fully utilized in an integrated framework, can result in optimizing the use of available resources to achieve risk-based results faster
and at lower costs. To achieve this, it is necessary that the goals of individual decommissioning and remediation activities are
aligned and not conflict with each other while costs are minimized and net health, safety, security and environmental benefits are
maximized. Managing the decommissioning and remediation activities in an integrated program can result in enhanced environ-
mental conditions, and/or reduced requirements for additional remediation work, both of which impact the effort to achieve the ulti-
mate site remediation objectives. The most important step in this process is the establishment of the site remediation objectives,
which principally involves selecting the best re-use option for the site. Different technological approaches and different sequences
of decommissioning and remediation tasks can be taken to transform the site to achieve its intended end-state. This paper presents
a framework in which decommissioning and remediation activities developed altogether (i.e., in an integrated manner) will enhance
the outcomes of both tasks.


                                                                                                                                   111
Session 45                                                                                                                      Abstracts

            4) FINAL CLEANUP OF BUILDINGS WITHIN IN LEGACY FRENCH RESEARCH FACILITIES:
                                     STRATEGY, TOOLS AND LESSONS LEARNED-7132
                  Christophe Le Goaller, Marianne Berton, Olivier Doucet, Carole Doutreluingne, CEA (France)
     ABSTRACT This paper describes the methodology followed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to decom-
mission the buildings of former research facilities for demolition or possible reuse. It is a well known fact that the French nuclear
safety authority has decided not to define any general release level for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, thus effectively
prohibiting radiological measurement-driven decommissioning. The decommissioning procedure therefore requires an intensive
in-depth examination of each nuclear plant. This requires a good knowledge of the past history of the plant, and should be initi-
ated as early as possible. The paper first describes the regulatory framework recently unveiled by the French Safety Authority,
then, reviews its application to ongoing decommissioning projects. The cornerstone of the strategy is the definition of waste zon-
ing in the buildings to segregate areas producing conventional waste from those generating nuclear waste. After dismantling, suit-
able measurements are carried out to confirm the conventional state of the remaining walls. This requires low-level measurement
methods providing a suitable detection limit within an acceptable measuring time. Although this generally involves particle count-
ing and in-situ low level gamma spectrometry, the paper focuses on γ spectrometry. Finally, the lessons learned from ongoing proj-
ects are discussed.
          5) CONCRETE CRUSHING AND SAMPLING, A METHODOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE
             UNCONDITIONAL RELEASE OF CONCRETE MATERIAL FROM DECOMMISSIONING-7237
                                        Robert Walthéry, René Gilis, Bart Ooms, Nancy Reusen,
                                  Wim Van Laer, Patrick Lewandowski, Belgoprocess NV (Belgium)
     Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant
in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to
verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques
and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the
remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored.
     Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are execut-
ed on an industrial scale. In view of the final demolition of the building, foreseen to start in the middle of 2008, a clearance method-
ology for the concrete from the cells into the Eurochemic building has been developed. It considers at least one complete measure-
ment of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radionuclides. This monitoring sequence is followed by a
controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crush-
ing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sam-
pling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent
to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology.
                           6) OVERCOMING DECOMMISSIONING CHALLENGES THROUGH
                                        CLIENT/LABORATORY CO-OPERATION-7332
                                              Mike Wharton, Lesley Gray, AMEC (UK)
     Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK,
involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The proj-
ect management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working
relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program
(IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sam-
ple and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual
sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common ana-
lytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However,
accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a chal-
lenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capen-
hurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional
checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or
two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes…
        7) IN-HOUSE DEVELOPED METHODOLOGIES & TOOLS OR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECTS-7350
                                Michel Detilleux, Baudouin Centner, Tractebel Engineering (Belgium)
     The paper describes different methodologies and tools developed in-house to facilitate the engineering works to be carried out
especially in the frame of decommissioning projects. Three examples of tools with their corresponding results are presented. The
LLWAA-DECOM code, a software developed for the radiological characterization of contaminated systems and equipment. The
code constitutes a specific module of a more general software that was originally developed to characterize radioactive waste
streams in order to be able to declare the radiological inventory of critical nuclides, in particular difficult-to-measure radionuclides,
to the Authorities. In the case of LLWAA-DECOM, deposited activities inside contaminated equipment (piping, tanks, heat
exchangers …) and scaling factors between nuclides, at any given time of the decommissioning time schedule, are calculated on
the basis of physical characteristics of the systems and of operational parameters of the nuclear power plant. This methodology was
applied to assess decommissioning costs of Belgian NPPs, to characterize the primary system of Trino NPP in Italy and to calcu-
late remaining dose rates around equipment in the frame of the preparation of decommissioning activities. The VISIMODELLER
tool, a user friendly CAD interface developed by Tractebel Engineering to ease the introduction of lay-out areas in a software named
VISIPLAN. VISIPLAN is a 3D dose rate assessment tool for ALARA work planning, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research
Center SCK-CEN. Both softwares were used for projects such as the steam generators replacements in Belgian NPPs or the prepa-
ration of the decommissioning of units 1 & 2 of Kozloduy NPP. The DBS software, a software developed to manage the different
kinds of activities that are part of the general time schedule of a decommissioning project…
112
Abstracts                                                                                                                Session 45-46

                            8) STUDY FOR RADIONUCLIDE TRANSFER RATIO OF AEROSOLS
                                          GENERATED DURING HEAT CUTTING-7139
               Yukihiro Iguchi, Tsutomu Baba, Hiroto Kawakami, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan);
                                      Takashi Kitahara, Atsushi Watanabe, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan);
                               Mitsuhiro Kodama, Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. (Japan)
     The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at disman-
tling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to
investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test
was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collect-
ed by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reac-
tor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of
aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionu-
clide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of
Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high
vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that
the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionu-
clides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements.

                           SESSION 46 - ADVANCED L/ILW CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGIES
             1) OIL IMMOBILIZATION PROGRAM AT SELLAFIELD: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH-7065
                                                 Helen Cassidy, Sellafield Ltd. (UK)
     Non-standard wastes - those defined as being both hazardous waste under the United Kingdom Hazardous Waste Regulations
2005 [1] and radioactive under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 [2] - pose particular, unique challenges for radioactive waste
management organizations [3]. Treatment and disposal routes for such wastes are limited, in some cases non existent, and general-
ly not cost effective. A non-standard waste of particular concern in the United Kingdom, and indeed on the Sellafield site, is that
of radiologically contaminated waste oil.
     The optioning process for treatment of bulk contaminated waste oil on the Sellafield site has assessed a range of options includ-
ing incineration, chemical decontamination, physical decontamination and immobilization. Immobilization has proved to be a
potentially useful option for oil wastestreams that fail to meet waste acceptance criteria for incineration facilities. Experimental
development work has been undertaken at Sellafield during 2006 to test the suitability of an innovative technology for the solidi-
fication of waste oil with a cross section of wastestreams from the site. These trials have demonstrated that this polymer system is
able to successfully immobilize a range of aged, chemically and physically diverse contaminated oil wastestreams and thus provide
a potential solution to the disposal problem posed by this wastestream.
                       2) THE ZWILAG INTERIM STORAGE PLASMA PLANT TECHNOLOGY TO
                             HANDLE OPERATIONAL WASTE FROM NUCLEAR PLANTS-7242
                                    Walter Heep, ZWILAG Interim Storage Facility (Switzerland)
     The first processing of low level radioactive wastes from Swiss nuclear power plants marks the successful completion of com-
missioning in March 2004 of a treatment facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, which is operated with the help
of plasma technology.
     The theoretical principles of this metallurgy-derived process technology are based on plasma technology, which has already
been used for a considerable period outside of nuclear technology for the production of highly pure metal alloys and for the plas-
ma synthesis of acetylene.
     The commercial operation of the Plasma Plant owned by Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) has also enabled this
technology to be used successfully for the first time in the nuclear field, especially in compliance with radiation protection aspects.
     In addition to a brief presentation of the technology used in the plant, the melting process under operating conditions will be
explained in more detail. The separation factors attained and volume reductions achieved open interesting perspectives for the fur-
ther optimisation of the entire process in the future.
                    3) THE ROLE OF TETRONICS PLASMA VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE
                             MANAGEMENT AND CONDITIONING OF NUCLEAR WASTE-7271
                            David Deegan, Tetronics Limited, (UK); Charlie Scales, Nexia Solutions (UK)
     Tetronics Limited, a UK based company specialising in the application of DC Plasma Arc Technology and Nexia Solutions
Ltd, a provider of R&D services to the nuclear industry are collaborating in the recent application of plasma based vitrification tech-
nology aimed at the immobilisation of radioactive waste arising from operations on UK licensed sites.
     In the context of waste management, the core technological solution involves converting a waste stream into a form which is
capable of being fed into a sealed furnace where it is heated in a controlled environment using a plasma arc created by a single or
multiple plasma torches. A significant volume reduction and stabilisation of the waste is achieved through the process with mini-
mal material additions. It is the combined effect of waste volume reduction and packaged product stability which make the process
particularly attractive for nuclear management.
     Tetronics plasma technology is characterised as an Advanced Conversion Technique (ACT) with Best Available Technique
(BAT) attributes. In the hazardous waste management market, its adoption is driven by the increasing stringency of environmental
regulations, the requirement for efficient resource utilisation and the call for a more considered approach to waste management.
Building on its success in the waste management field it is believed that the technology could widely applied in the treatment of
nuclear wastes as it offers the following advantages: …


                                                                                                                                   113
Session 46                                                                                                                       Abstracts

                4) THE INFLUENCE OF ZETA POTENTIAL AND YIELD STRESS ON THE FILTRATION
                         CHARACTERISTICS OF A MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE SIMULANT-7071
          Simon Biggs, Rafiq Nabi, Colin Poole, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds (UK);
                                              Ashok Patel, British Nuclear Group (UK)
     In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to min-
imise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond
water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline con-
ditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid inter-
actions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treat-
ment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration
characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a
range of pH conditions with electroacoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume
fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment
cake. Keywords: zeta potential; isoelectric point (iep); cake resistance and shear yield stress.
   5) NEW INNOVATIVE ELECTROCOAGULATION (EC) TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR BWR COLLOIDAL
           IRON UTILIZING THE SEEDING AND FILTRATION ELECTRONICALLY (SAFE”) SYSTEM-7186
                         Dr. Mark Denton, NUKEM Corporation (USA; Dr. William D. Bostick, MCL (USA)
     The presence of iron (iron oxide from carbon steel piping) buildup in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) circuits and wastewaters
is decades old. In, perhaps the last decade, the advent of pre-coatless filters for condensate blow down has compounded this prob-
lem due to the lack of a solid substrate (e.g., powdex resin pre-coat) to help drop the iron out of solution. The presence and buildup
of this iron in condensate phase separators (CPS) further confounds the problem when the tank is decanted back to the plant. Iron
carryover here is unavoidable without further treatment steps. The form of iron in these tanks, which partially settles and is pumped
to a dewaterable high integrity container (HIC), is particularly difficult and time consuming to dewater (low shear strength, high
water content). The addition upstream from the condensate phase separator (CPS) of chemicals, such as polymers, to carry out the
iron, only produces an iron form even more difficult to filter and dewater ( even less shear strength, higher water content, and a
gel/slime consistency). Typical, untreated colloidal material contains both sub-micron particles up to, let’s say 100 micron. It is
believed that the submicron particles penetrate filters, or sheet filters, thus plugging the pores for what should have been the suc-
cessful filtration of the larger micron particles. Like BWR iron wastewaters, fuel pools/storage basins (especially in the decon.
phase) often contain colloids which make clarity and the resulting visibility nearly impossible. Likewise, miscellaneous, often high
conductivity, wastesteams at various plants contain such colloids, iron, salts (sometimes seawater intrusion and referred to as Salt
Water Collection Tanks), dirt/clay, surfactants, waxes, chelants, etc…
                       6) THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE-PARTICLE INTERACTION FORCES ON THE
                                       FLOW PROPERTIES OF SILICA SLURRIES-7104
            David Harbottle, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (UK); Dominic Rhodes, Nexia Solutions (UK);
                                Mike Fairweather, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (UK);
                                   Simon Biggs, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (UK)
     Preliminary work has been completed to investigate the effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of
silica slurries. Classically Hydrotransport studies have focused on the flow of coarse granular material in Newtonian fluids. How-
ever, with current economical and environmental pressures, the need to increase solid loadings in pipe flow has lead to studies that
examine non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The flow characteristics of non-Newtonian slurries can be greatly influenced through con-
trolling the solution chemistry. Here we present data on an “ideal” slurry where the particle size and shape is controlled together
with the solution chemistry.
     We have investigated the effect of adsorbed cations on the stability of a suspension, the packing nature of a sediment and the
frictional forces to be overcome during reslurrying. A significant change in the criteria assessed was observed as the electrolyte con-
centration was increased from 0.1mM to 1M. In relation to industrial processes, such delicate control of the slurry chemistry can
greatly influence the optimum operating conditions of non-Newtonian pipe flows.
                              7) INVESTIGATION OF PARTICLE-LADEN FLOW IN A STRAIGHT
                                        DUCT USING LARGE EDDY SIMULATION-7029
                                       Michael Fairweather, Jun Yao, University of Leeds (UK)
     A particle-laden turbulent flow in a square duct is predicted using large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation is performed
for a Reynolds number of 35,500, and correctly predicts the existence of secondary flows and their effects on the mean flow. The
results are also in good qualitative agreement with experimental data obtained at different Reynolds numbers. One-way coupling
is assumed between solid particles and the fluid, and a particle equation of motion, including Stokes drag, lift, buoyancy and grav-
ity force terms, solved using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique. Three sizes of particle (1, 50 and 100 µm) are considered,
and results demonstrate that size has a significant effect on particle dispersion and deposition in the duct flow. As particle size
increases, therefore, they tend to settle on the floor of the duct, with less dispersion in the fluid phase. The study demonstrates the
usefulness of LES for nuclear waste processing applications since secondary flows occur in many practically-relevant flows, and
since it is desirable that the two-phase waste mixture is kept as homogeneous as possible to prevent, or at least discourage, the set-
tling out of solid particles to form a bed which can promote pipe blockages.




114
Abstracts                                                                                                               Session 46-47

 8) NOVEL TECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF NPP EVAPORATOR CONCENTRATES-7093
                   Valentin Avramenko Vitaly Dobrzhansky, Dmitry Marinin, Valentin Sergienko, Sergey Shmatko,
                         Institute of Chemistry, Far East Department, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)
     A novel technology was developed for treatment of evaporator concentrates produced as a result of operation of evaporation
devices comprising the main component of special water purification systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). The developed tech-
nology includes a hydrothermal (T=250-300°C and P=80-120 bar) processing of evaporator concentrates in oxidation medium in
order to destruct stable organic complexes of cobalt radionuclides and remove these radionuclides by oxide materials formed dur-
ing such a processing. The cesium radionuclides contained in evaporator concentrates are removed by a conventional method -
through application of one of the developed composite sorbents with ferrocyanides of transition metals used as active agents. Exten-
sive laboratory studies of the processes occurring in evaporator concentrates under hydrothermal conditions were performed. It was
shown that hydrothermal oxidation of evaporator concentrates has a number of advantages as compared to traditional oxidation
methods (ozonation, photocatalytic, electrochemical and plasma oxidation).
     A laboratory installation was built for the flow-type hydrothermal oxidation of NPP evaporator concentrates. The obtained exper-
imental results showed good prospects for the developed method application. On the basis of the results obtained, a pilot installation
of productivity up to 15 l/hour was developed and built in order to work out the technology of evaporator concentrates hydrothermal
treatment. The pilot tests of the hydrothermal technology for evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment were performed for 6
months in 2006 at the 1st reactor unit of the Novovoronezhskaya NPP (Voronezh Region, Russia). Optimal technological regimes
were determined, and estimations of the economic soundness of the technology were made. The advantages of the presented tech-
nology in terms of management of concentrated liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at nuclear cycle facilities, as compared to other
methods applicable for this type of LRW, were demonstrated. Application of the hydrothermal technology in the system of NPP LRW
management enables one to reduce substantially the volume of solid radioactive waste sent for final disposal.
                9) TECHNOLOGY FOR NPP DECANTATE TREATMENT REALIZED AT KOLA NPP.-7383
         Michael Stakhiv, Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Russia); Alexander Savkin, Denis Fedorov, Sergei Dmitriev, SUE SIA
                  (Russia); Slava Avezniyazov, Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Russia); Vladimir Kornev, JSC (Russia)
     At Moscow SIA “Radon” jointly with JSC “Alliance Gamma”, the technology for NPP Decanatate Treatment was developed,
tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization,
separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The non active salt solution
goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for “exempt waste” products by IAEA clas-
sification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m3 of decantates long
time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates’ tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and
with high volume reduction factor.

 SESSION 47 - DISPOSAL SITE AND WASTE FORM CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
                      1) MODELING APPROACH TO LILW-SL REPOSITORY SAFETY EVALUATION
                                      FOR DIFFERENT WASTE PACKING OPTIONS-7069
                 Janez Perko, Dirk Mallants, Geert Volckaert, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium);
        Mike Egan, George Towler, Quintessa Limited (UK); Sandi Virsek, Slovenian Radioactive Waste Management Agency
                        ARAO (Slovenia); Bojan Hertl, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Slovenia)
     The key objective of the work described here was to support the identification of a preferred disposal concept and packaging
option for low and short-lived intermediate level waste (LILW-SL). The emphasis of the assessment, conducted on behalf of the
Slovenian radioactive waste management agency (ARAO), was the consideration of several waste treatment and packaging options
in an attempt to identify optimised containment characteristics that would result in safe disposal, taking into account the cost-ben-
efit of alternative safety measures. Waste streams for which alternative treatment and packaging solutions were developed and eval-
uated include decommissioning waste and NPP operational wastes, including drums with unconditioned ion exchange resins in
overpacked tube type containers (TTCs). For decommissioning wastes, the disposal options under consideration were either direct
disposal of loose pieces grouted into a vault or use of high integrity containers (HIC). In relation to operational wastes, three main
options were foreseen. The first is overpacking of resin containing TTCs grouted into high integrity containers, the second option
is complete treatment with hydration, neutralization, and cementation of the dry resins into drums grouted into high integrity con-
tainers and the third is direct disposal of TTCs into high integrity containers without additional treatment.
     The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories is usually demonstrated with the support of a safety assessment. This
normally includes modeling of radionuclide release from a multi-barrier near-surface or deep repository to the geosphere and bios-
phere…
        2) ALPHA-CONTAMINATED SOLID WASTE SORTING AND CONDITIONINING AT BELGOPROCESS
                 (BELGIUM): LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE FIRST THREE YEARS OPERATION-7219
                 Jean-Marie Cuchet, Jean-Pierre Lahaye, Paul Luycx, Erwin Van Nueten, Belgonucleaire (Belgium);
                                          André De Goeyse, ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium)
     The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R&D + Reprocessing
and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE s MOX fuel fabrication plant.
     After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the
support of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T & C and interim-storage facili-
ties for this alpha waste.
     The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material must be sorted and
characterized. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated alpha waste will be compacted and the pellets will be
embedded in a cement matrix in a 400-l drum.

                                                                                                                                  115
Session 47-48                                                                                                                  Abstracts

     The commissioning of the sorting unit which includes glove boxes was completed at BP, at the beginning of year 2005; the
sorting campaign of 30-l cans has been achieved in March 2007.
     The paper describes the project environment and gives a short description of the used facilities; the lessons learned from the
sorting campaign and from the first T/C period, will be presented, as well.
                 3) SET-UP AND ORGANISATION OF A NDA-SYSTEM PROCUREMENT PROJECT-7274
                                         John Botte, Paul Gielen, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
     Belgoprocess is momentarily in the process of purchasing its fifth NDA-system. Measurement systems are, although based on
general designs, not from the shelf items but tailor-made sophisticated and highly automated devices. It is obvious that such a proj-
ect cannot be carried out by solely a NDA team, but needs a multifunctional team. This team combines NDA expertise with experts
in civil works, electrical and mechanical engineering, procurement, IT, safety and legal administration. From less positive experi-
ences in the past, Belgoprocess learned a lot and has now a systematic in place. This systematic structures the project from defini-
tion of requirements to operation, a two to three year process. This paper defines the phases of a NDA project and gives for each
phase some do’s and don’ts. A second subject is the writing and handling of the vast but needed and required documentation. It
gives a brief overview of the over thirty documents and files needed. The described, integrated and formal approach reduces the
risk of failing projects, systems not meeting the expectations or denied qualification. It puts clear agreements in place, smoothen-
ing the relationship between company, supplier and authorities.
                      4) PRELIMINARY SAFETY ANALYSIS OF THE BAITA BIHOR RADIOACTIVE
                                             WASTE REPOSITORY, ROMANIA-7095
      Richard Little, Quintessa Limited, (UK); Felicia Dragolici, IFIN-HH, (Romania); Alex Bond, Quintessa Limited, (UK);
                  Ludovic Matyasi, Geo Prospect SRL (Romania); Sandor Matyasi, Geo Prospect SRL (Romania);
               Mihaela Naum, Ortenzia Niculae, SITON (Romania); Mike Thorne, Mike Thorne and Associates (UK);
                                                Sarah Watson, Quintessa Limited (UK)
     A project funded under the European Commission’s Phare Program 2002 has undertaken an in-depth analysis of the operational
and post-closure safety of the Baita Bihor repository. The repository has accepted low- and some intermediate-level radioactive
waste from industry, medical establishments and research activities since 1985 and the current estimate is that disposals might con-
tinue for around another 20 to 35 years. The analysis of the operational and post-closure safety of the Baita Bihor repository was
carried out in two iterations, with the second iteration resulting in reduced uncertainties, largely as a result taking into account new
information on the hydrology and hydrogeology of the area, collected as part of the project. Impacts were evaluated for the maxi-
mum potential inventory that might be available for disposal to Baita Bihor for a number of operational and post-closure scenarios
and associated conceptual models. The results showed that calculated impacts were below the relevant regulatory criteria. In light
of the assessment, a number of recommendations relating to repository operation, optimisation of repository engineering and waste
disposals, and environmental monitoring were made.

       SESSION 48 - RADIOACTIVE WASTE FROM RESEARCH INSTITUTES AND GENERAL INDUSTRIES
                    1) ACCELERATOR WASTE - A NEW CHALLENGE FOR RADIOANALYTICS-7008
                 Michael Wohlmuther, Jörg Neuhausen, Dorothea Schumann, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)
     Radioactive waste from particle accelerators played a minor role in the past. In few facilities dedicated mainly to scientific pur-
poses only small amounts of nuclear waste stemming from targets and shielding material had to be considered. This situation
changed essentially with the design of new large facilities, for instance compact cyclotrons for the production of medical-used iso-
topes, spallation neutron sources and the build-up of huge radioactive ion beam setups in the recent years. This number will addi-
tionally increase in the future due to the efforts funded by the EC to investigate the possibilities of so-called Accelerator-Driven-
Systems (ADS) for transmutation of radioactive waste. The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) operates one of the most powerful accel-
erators in Europe, the 590 MeV ring cyclotron with a beam current of more than 1.5 mA. The activated parts from this facility,
which are dismounted during maintenance or reconstruction, thus might cause radioactive waste problems. With respect to final
disposal, determination of the radionuclide inventory in accelerator waste is considered as an urgent problem in Switzerland.
Radionuclide analytics should provide data sufficient for the needs of the safety of the repository during the operational (filling)
phase and for the safety analysis for the period after closure as defined by the Swiss authorities (e.g. NAGRA). Before giving per-
mission for conditioning the waste parts for intermediate or final disposal, a declaration of the radionuclide inventories is request-
ed. These inventories are essentially different from those already known from nuclear power plants…
                   2) RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NUCLEAR WASTE STREAMS
                            OF THE BELGIAN NUCLEAR RESEARCH CENTRE SCK*CEN-7249
                                 Patrick Maris, René Cornelissen, Michel Bruggeman, SCK (Belgium)
     The radiological characterization of nuclear wastes of a research centre is difficult seen the many different processes that gen-
erate waste. Since these wastes may contain radionuclides relevant for the disposal option, the nuclide content and activity have to
be known. Considering the fact that some wastes are generated only in minor quantities, complex approaches, involving sampling
and successive analysis are not justified. Basic physical models can generally be applied to estimate activity ratios from which the
radionuclide inventory can be determined by non-destructive assay on waste-packages. This article discusses waste streams at the
Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK*CEN and explains how nuclide inventories and activity are determined. The physical mod-
els, used to derive activity ratios, and other simple approaches are discussed.




116
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 48

                3) UPGRADING OF SERGIEV POSAD DEPARTMENT OF MOSCOW NPO RADON-7027
                    Pierre Debieve, Belgatom (Belgium); Grégory Delecaut, Daniel Vanleeuw, I.R.E. (Belgium)
     BELGATOM and IRE Consortium has been awarded by the European Commission end of 2005 to conduct a project enti-
tled “Upgrading of Sergiev Posad Department of Moscow NPO Radon and the assessment of the radiological impact in the
area nearby”.
     The main aims to achieve in the frame of this Europeaid Project are:
     • Improvement of the performance and the safety level of the present radwaste management system, taking into account the
         additional waste expected from the Kurchatov Institute rehabilitation and from the forecast decommissioning of Research
         Reactors on the territory of Moscow.
     • Basic design and assistance for the procurement of upgrading equipment related to: - radwaste sorting and pretreatment -
         replacement of the hydraulic system of the existing supercompactor - characterisation system for radwaste “ Support for
         preparing the PSAR and PEIAR for new licensing “ Assessment of the radiological impact in an area of 50 km radius
         around Sergiev Posad Department
     • The initial duration of this Project is 3 years, starting beginning of 2006.
     This paper describes the difficulties encountered to start and implement the Project and its status at the half of the planned time
schedule.
                   4) RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENT
                                    AUTHORS: DUAAN KRÁSNY, JÁN HORVÁTH-7359
                    Jan Hörvath, Dusan Krásny, JAVYS, Nuclear Decommissioning Company (Slovak Republic)
     Radioactive waste treatment technologies e.g. cementation, bitumenization, incineration, super compaction, concentration,
metal pieces fragmentation and decontamination operated by JAVYS (Slovakia) are described and their imapact on environment is
evaluated. Liquid and aerosol discharges monitoring results to environment from this technology during last five years of opera-
tion are presented in graphical form. Comparison of discharge levels with approved limits is done. Conclusions for future opera-
tion regarding to environment are presented.
                                 5) PROCESSING OF HISTORIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE-7268
             Leo van Velzen, Renate de Vos-Keulemans, Lars Roobol, NRG (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group)
                   (Netherlands); Ruud IJpelaan, ECN (Netherlands); Remco van Tongeren, ECN (Netherlands)
     Abstract At the premises of ECN-NRG at Petten, a temporary storage facility of high-level waste (HLW) is in operation. This
storage facility contains more than 1000 forty litres non-conditioned HLW waste drums. However, due to the fact that COVRA’s
new built HLW interim storage facility HABOG is operational since 2003, the temporary facility in Petten has to be emptied. This
means that all stored historic HLW has to be transported to COVRA.
     From earlier performed visual inspections and radiological characterisations it was found out that a large number of drums con-
tain only some hot-spots that cause these drums to be classified as HLW. Therefore it was decided to separate the content into high-
and intermediate level waste (ILW) to minimize the amount of HLW.
     Because COVRA’s HABOG facility only accepts one type of B(U) container (the CASTOR ® MTR-2 built by GNS in Ger-
many), it is economical to over pack the content of all drums into a HLW canister fitting into the MTR-2 container.
     To be able to handle the large, top-loading container, a new facility has to be built. This also creates more processing capaci-
ty for HLW. The heart of this facility is formed by the two centred hot-cells. The raw forty litres non-conditioned HLW drums will
be brought into the first hot-cell, emptied at a special sorting table, radiological characterised and sorted into ILW and HLW….
               6) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF REAL TIME RADISOSCOPIC
           CHARACTERIZATION OF REMOTE HANDLED WASTE AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE,
                                     USING X-RAY IMAGING AT MEV ENERGIES.-7385
                                             Stephen Halliwell, V.J.Technologies (USA)
     Real time radioscopy (RTR) using x-ray energies of up to 450keV, is used extensively in the characterization of nuclear waste.
The majority of LLW and some ILW in drums and boxes can be penetrated, for successful imaging, by x-rays with energies of up
to 450keV. However, the shielding of many waste packages, and the range of higher density waste matrices, require x-rays at MeV
energies, for x-ray imaging to achieve the performance criteria. A broad imaging performance is required to enable the identifica-
tion of a range of prohibited items, including the ability to see a moving liquid meniscus which indicates the presence of free liq-
uid, in a high density or a waste matrix with substantial containment shielding. Enhanced, high energy x-ray imaging technology
to meet the future characterization demands of the nuclear industry required the design and build of a high energy facility, and the
implementation of a program of research and development. The initial phase of development has confirmed that digital images
meeting the required performance criteria can be made using high energy x-rays. The evaluation of real time imaging and the opti-
mization of imaging with high energy x-rays is currently in progress.
                          7) MANAGEMENT OF SMALL PRODUCERS WASTE IN SLOVENIA-7067
                               Marija Fabjan, Joze Rojc, Agency for Radwaste Management (Slovenia)
     Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research.
For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was autho-
rised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small pro-
ducers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public
Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public serv-
ice includes: “ collection of the waste from small producers at the producers’ premises and its transportation to the storage facility
for treatment, storing and disposal, “ acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of


                                                                                                                                    117
Session 48-50                                                                                                                 Abstracts

transport accidents or some other accidents, “ acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown, “ manage-
ment (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste, “ treat-
ment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal, and “ operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste
from small producers.
     After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modern-
ization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the
stored waste…

                  POSTER SESSION 49 - PROJECTS IN PROGRESS: NON-PAPER POSTER SESSION
                                                 ABSTRACTS NOT REQUIRED

                                             SESSION 50 - D&D TECHNOLOGIES
   1) RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A VITRIFICATION FACILITY FOR DECOMMISSIONING-7070
            Marielle Arou, CEA, (France); Chrsitophe Legoaller, CEA, (France); Franck Martin, AREVA NC, (France)
     Cleanup operations in the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) will start in 2007 [ref 1].
     This plant includes 20 highly irradiating storage tanks for high-level liquid waste before vitrification. The objective of the
cleanup phase is to significantly decrease the amount of highly radioactive waste resulting from dismantling. A comprehensive radi-
ological survey of the plant was initiated in 2000. Most of the tanks were characterized using advanced technologies: gamma imag-
ing, CdZnTe gamma spectroscopy, dose rate measurements and 3D calculations codes. At the same time, inspections were conduct-
ed to develop 3D geometrical models of the tanks. The techniques used and the main results obtained are described as well as les-
sons learned from these operations. The rinsing program was defined in 2006. Decontamination operations are expected to begin
in 2007, and radiological surveys will be followed up to monitor the efficiency of the decontamination process. Specific rinsing of
all tanks and equipment will be carried out from 2007 to 2009. Concentrated liquid solutions will be vitrified between 2008 and
2010; the decommissioning of AVM will be delayed until the end of 2010. This strategy aims at producing less than 5% “B” type
(long-lived intermediate-level) waste from the decommissioning operations, as well as reducing the dose rate and risks by simpli-
fied remote dismantling. The paper reviews the main options selected for decontamination, as well as the radiological characteri-
zation strategy. Some cost-related aspects will also be analyzed.
                             2) RECENT PROGRESS IN LOW-LEVEL GAMMA IMAGING-7046
                      Charly Mahe, Philippe Girones,; Fabrice Lamadie, Christophe Le Goaller, CEA (France)
     The CEA’s Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during
decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological
information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning
scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with
shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessi-
ble to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ
measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommis-
sioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned
gamma emitters with γ energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by addi-
tional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques asso-
ciated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific
assessment of waste packages and glove boxes.
          3) AN OPTIMISED STRATEGY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPENT STEAM GENERATORS-7330
         Eric Cantrel, SCK-CEN (The Belgian Nuclear Research Center) (Belgium); Luc Denissen, SCK-CEN (Belgium);
             Henri Davain, TRACTEBEL Engineering (Belgium); Jean-Phillipe Leveau, Husqvarna Belgium (Belgium);
                                    Johan Lauwers, Thierry Gillet, Husqvarna Belgium (Belgium)
     The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase. The electro-mechanical dismantling is almost
completed and the program related to the decontamination of the building structures has been initiated. The issue of the evacuation
of the primary circuit large components, and more specifically of the Steam Generator (SG), has been dealt successfully, applying
innovative technologies to lead to remarkable results in terms of waste volume minimization and occupational radiation exposure.
     The strategy applied for the evacuation of the BR3 SG resulted from the elaboration and comparison of the following sce-
narios :
     • Closed loop chemical decontamination prior to dismantling, cutting and unconditional release or release after melting,
     • Cutting of the components without decontamination and evacuation of the materials in their respective waste categories,
     • Cutting, decontamination of the SG secondary side and evacuation of the full SG primary side to the melting facility for
          recycling.
     While the availability of the in-house developed MEDOC® process made the clearance of the SG bundle technically feasible,
nuclear safety requirements and financial aspects were also in favour of the closed loop decontamination: minimization of contam-
ination spreading and staff exposure during all subsequent manipulations, minimization of radwaste costs.
     For the segmentation of this component, different techniques have been considered :
     • An abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting tool,
     • A prototype diamond wire developed for this application.




118
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 50

        4) EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM PIT CORROSION IN OAK RIDGE RESEARCH REACTOR POOL BY
                          QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING-7121
            David L. Monts, Ping-Rey Jang, Rangaswami Arunkumar, Jeffrey S. Lindner, Zhiling Long, Melissa A. Mott,
       Walter P. Okhuysen, Yi Su, David L. Monts, Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University
          (USA); Paula G. Kirk, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA); John Ettien, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (USA)
     The Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORRR) was operated as an isotope production and irradiation facility from March 1958 until
March 1987. The US Department of Energy permanently shut down and removed the fuel from the ORRR in 1987. The water level
must be maintained in the ORRR pool as shielding for radioactive components still located in the pool. The U.S. Department of
Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) needs to decontaminate and demolish the ORRR as part of the Oak
Ridge cleanup program. In February 2004, increased pit corrosion was noted in the pool’s 6-mm (¼”)-thick aluminum liner in the
section nearest where the radioactive components are stored. If pit corrosion has significantly penetrated the aluminum liner, then
DOE EM must accelerate its decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) efforts or look for alternatives for shielding the irradi-
ated components. The goal of Mississippi State University’s Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) was to provide a deter-
mination of the extent and depth of corrosion and to conduct thermodynamic modeling to determine how further corrosion can be
inhibited. Results from the work will facilitate ORNL in making reliable disposition decisions.
     ICET’s inspection approach was to quantitatively estimate the amount of corrosion by using Fourier-transform profilometry
(FTP). FTP is a non-contact 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing
its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, the system is capable of determining the height (depth) dis-
tribution of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately. ICET has previously demonstrated that its FTP
system can quantitatively estimate the volume and depth of removed and residual material to high accuracy. The results of our suc-
cessful initial deployment of a submergible FTP system into the ORRR pool are reported here as are initial thermodynamic mod-
eling results.
                5) ABRASIVE BLASTING, A TECHNIQUE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL DECONTAMINATION
                  OF METAL COMPONENTS AND CONCRETE BLOCKS FROM DECOMMISSIONING
                                       TO UNCONDITIONAL RELEASE LEVELS-7235
                                 Robert Walthéry, Wim Van Laer, Patrick Lewandowski, Bart Ooms,
                                       René Gilis, Nancy Reusen, Belgoprocess NV (Belgium)
     When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts
of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while
in a controlled area marks them as “suspected material”. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and dis-
posal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and uncondition-
al release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to
limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the
management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources
of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration program, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to
decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for deconta-
mination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an
industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure.
     At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete
blocks.
     The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the
decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete contain-
ers by abrasive blasting.
                     6) THE PROTOTYPE FAST REACTOR AT DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND. PROCESS
                          AND ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT FOR SODIUM REMOVAL-7250
                          Allan Mann, William Husband, James Gunn, UKAEA (Scotland; Brian Fletcher,
                                 Mike Smith, AMEC NNC (UK); Robin Herrick, UKAEA (Scotland)
     Dounreay was home to commercial fast reactor development in the UK. Following the construction and operation of the Doun-
reay Fast Reactor, a sodium-cooled Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), was constructed. PFR started operating in 1974, closed in 1994
and is presently being decommissioned.
     To date the bulk of the sodium has been removed and treated. Due to the design of the existing extraction system however, a
sodium pool will remain in the heel of the reactor. To remove this sodium, a pump/camera system was developed, tested and
deployed.
     The Water Vapour Nitrogen (WVN) process has been selected to allow removal of the final sodium residues from the reactor.
Due to the design of the reactor and potential for structural damage should Normal WVN (which produces hydrated sodium hydrox-
ide) be used, Low Concentration WVN (LC WVN) has been developed. Pilot scale testing has shown that it is possible treat the
reactor within 18 months at a WVN concentration of up to 4% v/v and temperature of 120ºC. At present the equipment that will be
used to apply LC WVN to the reactor is being developed at the detail design stage. and is expected to be deployed within the next
few years.




                                                                                                                                   119
Session 50-51                                                                                                                Abstracts

                        7) RELATIVE PERFORMANCE OF A TGS FOR THE ASSAY OF DRUMMED
                                 WASTE AS FUNCTION OF COLLIMATOR OPENING-7174
           Susan C. Kane, Stephen Croft, R. Venkataraman, M.F. Villani, P. McClay, AREVA - Canberra Industries (USA)
     Improving the safety, accuracy and overall cost effectiveness of the processes and methods used to characterize and handle
radioactive waste is an on-going mission for the nuclear industry. An important contributor to this goal is the development of supe-
rior non-destructive assay instruments. The Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) is a case in point. The TGS applies low spatial
resolution experimental computed tomograghy (CT) linear attenuation coefficient maps with three-dimensional high-energy reso-
lution single photon emission reconstructions. The results are presented as quantitative matrix attenuation corrected images and
assay values for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Depending on a number of operational factors, this extends the diversity of waste
forms that can be assayed, to a given accuracy, to items containing more heterogeneous matrix distributions and less uniform emis-
sion activity distributions. Recent advances have significantly extended the capability to a broader range of matrix density and to
a wider dynamic range of surface dose rate. Automated systems sense the operational conditions, including the container type, and
configure themselves accordingly. The TGS also provides a flexible data acquisition platform and can be used to perform far-field
style measurements, classical segmented gamma scanner measurements, or to implement hybrid methods, such as reconstructions
that use a priori knowledge to constrain the image reconstruction or the underlying energy dependence of the attenuation. A single,
yet flexible, general purpose instrument of this kind adds several tiers of strategic and tactical value to facilities challenged by a
diverse and difficult to assay waste streams…
                      8) APPLICATION OF CLEARANCE AUTOMATIC LASER INSPECTION SYSTEM
                              TO CLEARANCE MEASUREMENT OF CONCRETE WASTE-7119
                                Michiya Sasaki, Haruyuki Ogino, Takatoshi Hattori, CRIEPI (Japan)
     Recently, the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed for clearance measurement of metal
scraps. It utilizes three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, gamma-ray measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, and its outstand-
ing detection ability has been clarified. In the case of clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of background (BG)
gamma rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and
U-238, should be compensated to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for
gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between count rates of natural radionuclides and contamina-
tion on the basis of the gamma-ray energy information. In order to apply CLALIS to clearance measurement of concrete segments,
the original activity evaluation method was improved by adding a new compensation procedure. In this procedure, the BG count
rate due to natural radionuclides is estimated by another Monte Carlo calculation with pre-analyzed data of a representative sam-
ple of the measurement target. It is well known that the concentration of natural radionuclides in concrete differs markedly depend-
ing on the production location of its components, such as cement and aggregate. In this study, using six mock concrete waste sam-
ples, which were made of cement and aggregates from various production locations, the accuracy of the BG compensation was
experimentally estimated. In addition, the accuracy of the calibration for concrete waste was also estimated using a number of mock
concrete segments of small and large triangular prisms…

                      SESSION 51 - CONTAMINANT MIGRATION AND TRANSFER ASSESSMENT
                           1) NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ORIGIN OF DEEP SALINITY
                                  IN A LOW PERMEABILITY FRACTURED MEDIUM-7363
            Eduardo Ruiz, Miguel Luna, David Arcos, Salvador Jordana, Enviros-Spain, SL (Spain); Hiromitsu Saegusa,
        Teruki Iwatsuki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Jordi Guimera, Cristina Domenech, Enviros Span SL (Spain)
     Many possible origins have been proposed for the saline groundwater observed in many deep geological environments. In par-
ticular, samples obtained from deep boreholes located in granite at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Central
Japan show total dissolved solids increasing to 50 mmol/L at depths below 800 m. Different hypothesis have been formulated to
explain the observed fluid composition, among them, long-term water-rock interaction, mixing with residual fluids of magmatic
origin and relict seawater dating from Miocene times. A review of the hydrochemical and isotopic data suggests that the three above
hypotheses may be valid, at least to different degrees, or that processes acting over more recent geological times may be involved.
     The origin of the salinity was assessed by simulating land emersion by means of changing the upper recharge boundary. In this
manner the Miocene seawater was modeled as being continually mixed with fresh water until the present time. The effects of dif-
ferent retardation processes were considered by varying factors such as matrix diffusion and fracture conductivity. Finally, geo-
chemical reactions reproduced trends in major ions and master variables.
     This study shows that the salinity observed in the boreholes can be explained qualitatively as residual Miocene age seawater
subjected to alteration due to long-term contact with the host material and continuous mixing with meteoric groundwater.
   2) ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A
       MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL-7150
                                   Gregory Rucker, Washington Savannah River Company (USA)
     Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater
beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water
wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a con-
taminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migra-
tion analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables includ-
ing: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior.




120
Abstracts                                                                                                                    Session 51

     The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be deter-
mined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such mod-
eling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to
achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium par-
titioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.
        3) REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELLING OF THE INTERACTION OF FISSION PRODUCT GROUND
                    CONTAMINATION WITH ALKALINE AND CEMENTITIOUS LEACHATES-7334
                                           Simon Kwong, Joe Small, Nexia Solutions Ltd. (UK)
     The fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90 are amongst the most common radionuclides occurring in ground contamination at the
UK civil nuclear sites. Such contamination is often associated with alkaline liquids and the mobility of these fission products may
be affected by these chemical conditions. Similar geochemical effects may also result from cementitious leachate associated with
building foundations and the use of grouts to remediate ground contamination. The behaviour of fission products in these scenar-
ios is a complex interaction of hydrogeological and geochemical processes. A suite of modelling tools have been developed to
investigate the behaviour of a radioactive plume containing Cs and Sr. Firstly the effects of sorption due to cementitious ground-
water is modeled using PHREEQC. This chemical model is then incorporated into PHAST for the 3-D reactive solute transport
modeling. Results are presented for a generic scenario including features and processes that are likely to be relevant to a number
of civil UK nuclear sites. Initial results show that modelling can be a very cost-effective means to study the complex hydrogeolog-
ical and geochemical processes involved. Modelling can help predict the mobility of contaminants in a range of site end point sce-
narios, and in assessing the consequences of decommissioning activities.
            4) CUMULATIVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: INTEGRATED APPROACHES FOR MULTIPLE
                                    CONTAMINANTS, EXPOSURES, AND EFFECTS – 7325
       Glenn Rice, U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment (USA); Margaret MacDonel, (Argonne National
       Laboratory(USA); Linda Teuschler, U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment (USA); Rick Hertzberg,
      Emory University (USA); Lynne Harou, Environ (USA);Jim Butler, Molly Finster, Argonne National Laboratory (USA)
     As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects
of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurri-
cane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, includ-
ing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account
for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common
emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types
of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases – e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges;
(2) contaminant levels – in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease – e.g., asthma or cancer. The
specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being
developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined
effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks.
           5) MODELLING OF CONTAMINANT RELEASE FROM A URANIUM MINE TAILINGS SITE-7302
       René Kahnt, G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Germany); Thomas Metschies, Wismut GmbH (Germany)
     Uranium mining and milling continuing from the early 1960’s until 1990 close to the town of Seelingstädt in Eastern Germany
resulted in 4 tailings impoundments with a total tailings volume of about 105 Mio. m³. Leakage from these tailings impoundments
enters the underlying aquifers and is discharged into surface water streams. High concentration of salts, uranium and several heavy
metals are released from the tailings. At present the tailings impoundments are reshaped and covered. For the identification of suit-
able remediation options predictions of the contaminant release for different remediation scenarios have to be made.
     A compartment model representing the tailings impoundments and the surrounding aquifers for the calculation of contaminant
release and transport was set up using the software GOLDSIM. This compartment model describes the time dependent hydraulic
conditions within the tailings and the surrounding aquifers taking into account hydraulic and geotechnical processes influencing the
hydraulic properties of the tailings material. A simple geochemical approach taking into account sorption processes as well as retar-
dation by applying a kd-approach was implemented to describe the contaminant release and transport within the hydraulic system.
For uranium as the relevant contaminant the simple approach takes into account additional geochemical conditions influencing the
mobility. Alternatively the model approach allows to include the results of detailed geochemical modelling of the individual tail-
ings zones which is than used as source term for the modelling of the contaminant transport in the aquifer and to the receiving
streams…
   6) APPLICATION OF WATER FLOW AND GEOCHEMICAL MODELS TO SUPPORT THE REMEDIATION OF
       ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM THE URANIUM MINING SITE OF POÇOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL-7346
     Mariza Franklin, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (Brazil); Horst Fernandes, International Atomic Energy Agency
       (Austria); Martinus Th. van Genuchten, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS (USA); Eurípedes Vargas Jr., Catholic
             University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); José Paulo Azevedo, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
    This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and rele-
vant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of
appropriate remediation strategies. The long time scale required for the oxidation of sulfidic wastes (at least 600 years) implies the
need to implement permanent remediation actions. The best remediation scheme should depend on the water flow regime inside
the waste pile and on the geochemical processes that occur as a result of the interactions between water and the waste (especially
oxidative dissolution of pyrite). Accurate modeling of the waste site, which contains a wide range of grain and rock sizes at differ-



                                                                                                                                    121
Session 51-52                                                                                                                 Abstracts

ent degrees of water saturation and is subject to reactive multicomponent transport, entails considerable physical, mathematical and
numerical challenges. This paper describes the approach used to obtain a detailed representation of the system involving both unsat-
urated/saturated flow (most of the physical properties of the waste were estimated from measured data) and the geochemical net-
work reactions (including equilibrium and kinetics reactions).
                    7) ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY ASSESSMENT AROUND OLD URANIUM
                               MINING SITES NEAR MANGUALDE (VISEU), PORTUGAL-7366
                     Fernando Carvel, João Oliveira, Lubélia Torres, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (Portugal)
     Uranium ore was extracted in the surroundings of Mangualde city, North of Portugal, in the mines of Cunha Baixa, Quinta do
Bispo and Espinho until a few years ago. Mining waste, milling tailings and acid mine waters are the on site remains of this extrac-
tive activity. Environmental radioactivity measurements were performed in and around these sites in order to assess the dispersal
of radionuclides from uranium mining waste and the spread of acidic waters resulting from the in situ uranium leaching with sul-
phuric acid. Results show migration of acid waters into groundwater around the Cunha Baixa mine. This groundwater is tapped by
irrigation wells in the agriculture area near the Cunha Baixa village. Water from wells displayed uranium (238U) concentrations up
to 19x103 mBq L-1 and sulphate ion concentrations up to 1070 mg L-1. These enhanced concentrations are positively correlated
with low water pH, pointing to a common origin for radioactivity, dissolved sulphate, and acidity in underground mining works.
Radionuclide concentrations were determined in horticulture and farm products from this area also and results suggest low soil to
plant transfer of radionuclides and low food chain transfer of radionuclides to man. Analysis of aerosols in surface air showed re
suspension of dust from mining and milling waste heaps. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain mine water treatment and to
plan remediation of these mine sites in order to prevent waste dispersal in the environment. Key Words: Uranium mines, radionu-
clide dispersion, acid mine waters, soil to plant transfer.
              8) INTEGRATED FATE AND TOXICITY ASSESSMENT FOR SITE CONTAMINANTS - 7323
                     Margaret MacDonell, John Peterson, Molly Finster, Argonne National Laboratory (USA);
                                             R. Douglas Hildebrand, U.S. DOE (USA)
     Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions.
Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some
sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contami-
nants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity
information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and
when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illus-
trated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules.
Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for
chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks
and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the
common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide
the performance targets.

                      SESSION 52 - GLOBAL PARTNERING FOR WORLD SAFETY & SECURITY
 1) BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS IN SUPPORT OF THREAT REDUCTION-7254
                      George L. Cajigal, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Threat Reduction Support Center (USA)
     The effectiveness of any multinational effort in support of threat reduction depends on the relationship developed between the
nation receiving the assistance and the donor nations. The effectiveness of this relationship must be based on a solid legal and coop-
erative framework that establishes the ground rules for the interaction between all parties involved. The author proposes in this
paper to outline major considerations by the donor nation and the nation receiving the assistance as they establish an effective
approach to threat-reduction efforts.
     The legal framework needs to be founded on a well-developed, country-to-country agreement that establishes general ground
rules and officially recognizes the collaborative effort in an internationally binding document between signatories. This document
normally addresses such issues as liability, tax exemptions, import duties, contracts, applicable environmental regulations, etc. Also,
of utmost importance is the establishment of a collaborative framework. The basis for such a collaborative framework must be the
buy-in into a common objective, the willingness to share concerns and work toward resolutions, and continuous communications.
     Only when a proper legal framework and a collaborative approach are established can effective relationships be built to
enhance threat-reduction efforts.
        2) LONG-TERM STORAGE FACILITY FOR REACTOR COMPARTMENTS IN SAYDA BAY - GERMAN
                     SUPPORT FOR UTILIZATION OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINES IN RUSSIA —7083
         Dietmar Wolff, Holger Völzke, Wolfgang Weber, Volker Noack, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing
               (BAM) (Germany); Günther Bäuerle, Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi) (Germany)
     The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Mate-
rials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor
compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of
about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities
of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also
includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of
other shipwrecks of the Russian navy.


122
Abstracts                                                                                                               Session 52-53

     On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry
of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term
interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dis-
mantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the
German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research
and Testing (BAM).
     This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine dispos-
al in other countries…
                  3) GLOBAL PARTNERING RELATED TO NUCLEAR MATERIALS SAFEGUARDS AND
               SECURITY A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS WORK-7261
                                 Dennis Stanford, Monty Morris, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (USA)
     This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards
and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduc-
tion Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approach-
es that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus
is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure
the work is performed safely and successfully.

      SESSION 53 - SITING, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATION OF L/ILW DISPOSAL FACILITIES
                     1) PLANNING FOR THE RECREATIONAL END USE OF A FUTURE LLR WASTE
                             MOUND IN CANADA - LEAVING AN HONOURABLE LEGACY-7087
                                Heather Kleb, Robert (Bob) Zelmer, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited,
                                      Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (Canada)
     The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office was established in 1982 to carry out the federal government’s respon-
sibilities for low-level radioactive (LLR) waste management in Canada. In this capacity, the Office operates programs to character-
ize, delineate, decontaminate and consolidate historic LLR waste for interim and long-term storage. The Office is currently the pro-
ponent of the Port Hope Area Initiative; a program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, local long-term man-
agement solution for historic LLR waste in the Port Hope area. A legal agreement between the Government of Canada and the host
community provides the framework for the implementation of the Port Hope Project. Specifically, the agreement requires that the
surface of the long-term LLR waste management facility be “conducive to passive and active recreational uses such as soccer fields
and baseball diamonds.” However, there are currently no examples of licensed LLR waste management facilities in Canada, which
permit recreational use. Also, such an end use presents challenges with respect to engineering and design, health and safety and
landscape planning. This paper presents the cover system design, the environmental effects assessment and the landscape planning
processes that were undertaken in support of the recreational end use of the Port Hope long-term LLR waste management facility.
   2) THE KOREAN FINAL REPOSITORY FOR LOW-AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE-7130
          Kim Young Ki, Choi Gi Won, Lee Byung Sik, Ko Kwang Hun, Lee Sang Sun, Korea Power Engineering Company
      (Korea); Park Bok Ok, Kwon Heon Woo, Lee Hyeong Nam, Yoo Jun Sang, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (Korea)
      The underground waste repository site is located at Gyeongju and is selected for the disposal of all the Low- and Intermedi-
ate- Level Radioactive Waste(LILW). Its operation is scheduled in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity
of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite bedrock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. The repository will be construct-
ed in phases to reach its final capacity of 800,000 drums. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to
dispose of 100,000 drums. The first phase of the repository design consists of an access shaft, a construction tunnel, an operating
tunnel, an unloading tunnel, and six(6) silos. The silos are located at 80 to 130 meters below Mean Sea Level (MSL), in bedrock.
Each silo is 24.8m in diameter and 52.4m in height. The silo will be reinforced with shotcrete, rockbolts and concrete lining for
rock supports, and the lining will also act as an engineered barrier to limit radioactive nuclide release after closure. After serving
its intended function the repository will be backfilled and sealed. The primary objective of backfilling and sealing is to prevent
ground-water flow into the silos through the tunnel system and to prevent inadvertent intrusion into the repository after closure.
        3) ENLARGEMENT OF THE BALDONE NEAR-SURFACE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY-7165
                                        Andrejs Dreimanis, Radiation Safety Centre (Latvia)
     A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the
interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This
enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent
sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin
of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decom-
missioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term
approach; - the enlargement concept -the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new
disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical stud-
ies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing informa-
tion on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations.
     These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public edu-
cation and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated.




                                                                                                                                  123
Session 53                                                                                                                       Abstracts

                  4) THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS NEEDS THE DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
                          TO THE SALIGNY I/LLW-REPOSITORY NEAR CERNAVODA NPP-7082
                                Gheorghe Barariu, National Authority for Nuclear Activity-Subsidiary
                                    of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (Romania)
     The paper presents the new perspectives on the development of the L/ILW Final Repository Project which will be built near
Cernavoda NPP. The Repository is designed to satisfy the main performance objectives in accordance to IAEA recommendation.
Starting in October 1996, Romania became a country with an operating nuclear power plant. Reactor 2 reached the criticality on
May 6th 2007 and it will be put in commercial operation in September 2007. The Ministry of Economy and Finance has decided
to proceed with the commissioning of Units 3 and 4 of Cernavoda NPP till 2014.
     The Strategy for radioactive waste management was elaborated by National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD), the
jurisdictional authority for definitive disposal and the coordination of nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste management (Order
844/2004) with attributions established by Governmental Decision (GO) 31/2006. The Strategy specifies the commissioning of the
Saligny L/IL Radwaste Repository near Cernavoda NPP in 2014.
     When designing the L/IL Radwaste Repository, the following prerequisites have been taken into account: 1) Cernavoda NPP
will be equipped with 4 CANDU 6 units. 2) National Legislation in radwaste management will be reviewed and/or completed to
harmonize with UE standards 3) The selected site is now in process of confirmation after a comprehensive set of interdisciplinary
investigations.
                 5) THE BELGIAN APPROACH TOWARDS THE STUDY OF THE COMPATIBILITY OF
                        EUROBITUM WITH THE GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENT-7284
                            Elie Valcke, SCK-CEN (Belgium); Robert Gens, ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium)
     In Belgium, EUROBITUM bituminized radioactive waste containing large amount of soluble salts (NaNO3) is to be disposed
of in a final repository in a clay formation. Since the emplacement of the waste will induce many interdependent processes that
could negatively affect the interesting radionuclide retarding properties of the clay, the study of the compatibility of EUROBITUM
is very complex. To better structure the research and to identify possible knowledge gaps, NIRAS/ONDRAF, the Belgian Radioac-
tive Waste Management Agency, developed the safety functions and safety statements approach. In this paper, we present the appli-
cation of this approach for the case of EUROBITUM. The approach is illustrated with new and old results on water uptake,
swelling, swelling pressure build-up, and ageing, obtained from tests performed in the laboratories of SCK”CEN, the Belgian
Nuclear Research Centre.
            6) APPLICATION OF FEPS ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY RESEARCH PRIORITIES RELEVANT TO
                    THE SAFETY CASE FOR AN AUSTRALIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE FACILITY-7064
                                           Andrejs Dreimanis, Radiation Safety Centre (Latvia)
     The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant
to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level
radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for
this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was under-
taken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on “Safety Assessment Methodologies for
Near Surface Disposal Facilities”(ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in signif-
icance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term ground-water
transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural dam-
age from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific
research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised
in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the
FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility.
     7) OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AT RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT, AFTER 15 YEARS-7158
                                 Azucena Sanhueza-Mir, Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclea (Chile)
     The experience of the radioactive waste treatment plant (PTDR) in Chile, which centralizes all activities related to pre-dispos-
al activities in the radioactive waste management, in the country is presented. It is the solely waste treatment plant in the country,
where radioactive waste are received from all nuclear and radioactive waste generators facilities located in the country. Radioac-
tive waste in Chile proceeds from radioisotope application at industrial, health, universities research, and from two nuclear research
centers. Lately, there have been included the radioactive wastes discovered in metal recycling facilities, which sometimes make big
amounts. Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant was planned in 1990; adoption of decision and started operation in 1992. At that time,
a facility to store waste packages as conditioned waste in cementitious matrices in standarized 200 l drums was built (43 m3 total
capacity) for a storage period estimated in 15 years. The methodology and procedures developed has been transferred to Latin
American and El Caribe professionals, through demonstration training courses held in this Waste Treatment Plant which recognized
as Demonstration facilities to prepare people in the processing of radioactive waste from nuclear applications, previous to dispos-
al. These procedures were the first one developed following international recommendations and complying requirements to immo-
bilize the radioactive material to avoid the external intrusion of thirds, and requirements of dose radiation according to transport
regulations for radioactive material…




124
Abstracts                                                                                                                      Session 54

            SESSION 54 - NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL,
                                  FISSILE, TRU, AND HLW MANAGEMENT
                      1) THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND SPENT FUEL:
                                          SAFETY AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS-7355
                                 John Rowat, Phil Metcalf, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)
      Storage is a necessary step in the overall management of radioactive waste. In recent years, due to the unavailability of dispos-
al facilities, storage facilities intended originally as temporary, have had their lifetimes extended and consideration has been given,
in some countries, to the use of long term storage (LTS) as a management option. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper
titled “The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and Sustainability”. The position paper, which written for a non-spe-
cialist audience, focused on seven key factors for safety and sustainability of LTS, namely: safety, maintenance/institutional con-
trol, retrieval, security, costs, community attitudes and retention of information.
      The Agency is preparing a follow-up report to the position paper that elaborates in a more technical manner upon the issues
raised in the position paper and issues important for implementation of LTS. It also provides some discussion of the reasons for
implementing a LTS option and contrasts LTS with aspects of other management options. The present paper provides an overview
of the draft follow-up report.
                   2) THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES, INC. PROGRAM TO SUPPORT DISPOSITION
                                   OF ENRICHED URANIUM-BEARING MATERIALS-7256
                                Steve Schutt, Norman Jacob, PhD, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (USA)
     The disposition of surplus nuclear materials has become one of the most pressing issues of our time [1, 2]. Numerous agencies
have invoked programs with the purpose of removing such materials from various international venues and dispositioning these mate-
rials in a manner that achieves non-proliferability. This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc (NFS) Nuclear Material Dispo-
sition Program, which to date has focused on a variety of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), in particular uranium of various enrich-
ments. The major components of this program are discussed, with emphasis on recycle and return of material to the nuclear fuel cycle.
                            3) EUROPEAN CONCEPTS FOR SHARED STORAGE AND DISPOSAL
                                         FACILITIES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTES?-7108
                                        Ewoud Verhoef, Hans Codee, COVRA N.V. (Netherlands);
                            Charles McCombie, Arius (Switzerland); Vladan Stefula, AMEC NNC Ltd. (UK)
      Geological disposal is an essential component of the long-term management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Imple-
mentation of a suitable deep repository may, however, be difficult or impossible in some (especially small) countries because of chal-
lenging geological conditions or restricted siting options, or because of the high costs involved. For these countries, shared regional or
international storage and disposal facilities are a necessity. The European Parliament and the EC have both expressed support for con-
cepts that could lead to regional shared facilities being implemented in the EU. The EC, therefore, funded two projects that form the
first two steps of a staged process towards the implementation of shared regional or international storage and disposal facilities.
      In the period 2003 to 2005, the EC funded SAPIERR I, a project devoted to pilot studies on the feasibility of shared regional
storage facilities and geological repositories, for use by European countries. The studies showed that shared regional repositories
are feasible, but also that, if they are to be implemented, even some decades ahead, efforts must already be increased now. The first
step would be to establish a structured framework for the work on regional repositories.
      This is the goal of SAPIERR II (2006-2008): to develop possible practical implementation strategies and organisational struc-
tures. These will enable a formalised, structured European Development Organisation (EDO) to be established in 2008 or after-
wards for working on shared EU radioactive waste storage and disposal activities. The EDO can work in parallel with national
waste programs. Participating EU Member States will be able to use the structures developed as, when and if needed for the fur-
therance of their individual national policies.
  4) EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ON REPOSITORY SNF PERFORMANCE-7111
                                                 Robert Quinn, EnergySolutions (USA)
     Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) destined for emplacement in a repository must be transported to the repository. Most worldwide expe-
rience with SNF transportation has been with low burnup SNF, Further, since much of the transported SNF was destined for repro-
cessing, the integrity of the fuel upon arrival was only a minimal concern. For repository emplacement, the long term performance
of many of the barriers is crucial to the analytical predictions of overall performance of the repository over the long time spans
which must be considered. As a result, the condition of the SNF after transportation is very important.
     This evaluation looks at the issues associated with SNF performance in a repository, specifically issues associated with high
burnup fuel and transportation effects on cladding conditions. The issues associated with high-burnup fuels include hydride forma-
tion and post-irradiation temperatures that can lead to hydrogen embrittlement and hydride reorientation which can affect cladding
integrity performance. Issues associated with effects of post-irradiation discharge wet and dry storage of SNF and effects on trans-
portation as they relate to the integrity of the SNF cladding materials include the effects of potential oxidation of the fuel, as well
as effects of transportation conditions due to vibration. The evaluation also considers how such issues, and the ability to address
them, may be affected by the USDOE canister-based repository design approach. Experience in licensing SNF for transportation
will be cited in developing suggestions for addressing these issues, and possible future activities which may be needed to further
to address these issues will be identified.




                                                                                                                                      125
Session 54-55                                                                                                                 Abstracts

              5) KEY ISSUES IDENTIFIED FROM PROJECT TRU-2 ON THE GENERIC CO-LOCATION
          CONCEPT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (HLW)
                                                 REPOSITORIES IN JAPAN-7231
      Andrew Martin, NAGRA (Switzerland); Shigeki Kuroda, Kansai Electric Power Company Inc. (Japan); Keiji Morimoto,
       Kansai Electric Power Company Inc. (Japan); Gento Kamei, Masao Shiotsuki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)
     The Federation of the Electric Power Companies of Japan (FEPC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been
collaborating with relevant organisations to promote the safe geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste following the already
established disposal policy for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan. A result of this intensive collaborative effort was the
production of a recent progress report (TRU-2) on the generic R&D for TRU-waste disposal in Japan. In order to improve feasibil-
ity and reduce costs and the burden on siting, the concept of co-locating TRU-waste and HLW repositories in a single complex was
assessed in detail and compared with the results from several other countries that have also looked at co-location disposal. Heat
from HLW, high pH plume(s) from the large amounts of cementitious materials used in the engineered barrier system (EBS) of TRU
waste, and nitrates and organic materials in certain types of TRU waste were identified as critical reciprocal influences that might
degrade the performance of the TRU/HLW co-location disposal system over the long-term. It was shown that these reciprocal influ-
ences could be avoided by establishing a separation distance between the two repositories of approximately 300 metres.

         SESSION 55 - HLW CHARACTERIZATION/RECENT ADVANCES IN HLW TREATMENT SYSTEMS
              1) WDC - ADVANCED SYSTEM FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF ALPHA-BEARING WASTE
                CONTAINED IN 200L AND 400L DRUMS : PERFORMANCES AND LESSONS LEARNED
                          FROM THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT CAMPAIGNS-7022
                     Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgonucleaire S.A. (Belgium); Marc Vandorpe, Tecnubel (Belgium);
                                                  Antoine Libens, Tecnubel (Belgium)
     The Waste Drum Characterization installation was originally developed for the assay of alpha-bearing waste in standard 200 l
(55 gallons) drums during the dismantling operations of the Siemens mixed-oxide (MOX) facility in Hanau (Germany). That instal-
lation was validated and qualified by the German authorities, its main performances being:
     • Counting efficiency for coincident neutrons: app. 1%;
     • Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD): 75 mg 240Pueq;
     • Pu content per drum: up to 100 g tot. (35 g 240Pueq)
     • Measurement duration: app. 20 minutes.
     The success of this system, a passive neutron coincidence counter combined with a high resolution gamma spectrometer, led
to the radiological characterization and qualification of about 1,700 drums during the period 2001 - 2004.
     In 2005, after completion of the dismantling operations of the Siemens MOX facility, Tecnubel took over the WDC installa-
tion which could be used in the frame of the future dismantling of the Belgonucleaire’s MOX plant in Dessel (Belgium), which can
be comparable to the Siemen’s one. This second (and new) life for the WDC means that it must be rigorously retested and validat-
ed against the Belgian authorities requirements. Furthermore, and additionally to the future use in the Belgonucleaire’s facility, Tec-
nubel was faced with new challenges, namely: - Assay of 400 l drums together with the 200 l packages; - Determination of the real
LLD taking into account the background in different Belgian nuclear facilities, the determination of a value of ~5 mg 240Pueq
being an objective; - Assay of mixed alpha/beta-gamma wastes; - Transportability of the WDC from one plant to another; - Assis-
tance to different nuclear operators for the licensing of the WDC for their own waste types…
     2) EVALUATION OF FOURIER TRANSFORM PROFILOMETRY PERFORMANCE: QUANTITATIVE WASTE
           VOLUME DETERMINATION UNDER SIMULATED HANFORD WASTE TANK CONDITIONS-7120
         David L. Monts, Ping-Rye Jang, Teresa Leone, Shilling Long, Melissa A. Mott, O. Perry Norton, Walter P. Knudsen,
                          Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University (USA)
      The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-
shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given
waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue.
      The objective of Mississippi State University’s Institute for Clean Energy Technology’s (ICET) efforts is to develop, fabricate,
and deploy inspection tools for the Hanford waste tanks that will (1) be remotely operable; (2) provide quantitative information on
the amount of wastes remaining; and (3) provide information on the spatial distribution of chemical and radioactive species of inter-
est. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the Hanford Site to develop probe-based inspection systems for deploy-
ment in the waste tanks.
      ICET is currently developing an in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-con-
tact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to
surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume
distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence
FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks….




126
Abstracts                                                                                                                  Session 55-56

              3) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) INITIATED PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS
                   TO THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP)
                                HIGH-LEVEL WASTE VITRIFICATION (HLW) SYSTEM-7352
             Bradley Bowan, EnergySolutions, LLC (USA); Kurt Gerdes, United States Department of Energy (USA);
                        Ian Pegg, The Vitreous State Laboratory of the Catholic University of America (USA);
                                   Langdon Holton, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA)
     The U.S Department of Energy is currently constructing, at the Hanford, Washington Site, a Waste Treatment and Immobiliza-
tion Plant (WTP) for the treatment and immobilization, by vitrification, of stored underground tank wastes. The WTP is comprised
of four major facilities: a Pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste
(LAW); a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction
and an analytical Laboratory to support the treatment facilities. DOE has strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the
WTP facilities, and waste forms, in order to reduce the overall schedule and cost for the treatment of the Hanford tank wastes. One
key part of this strategy is to maximize the loading of inorganic waste components in the final glass product (waste loading). For
the Hanford tank wastes, this is challenging because of the compositional diversity of the wastes generated over several decades.
This paper presents the results of an initial series of HLW waste loading enhancement tests, using diverse HLW compositions that
are projected for treatment at the WTP. Specifically, results of glass formulation development and melter testing with simulated
Hanford HLW containing high concentrations of troublesome components such as bismuth, aluminum, aluminum-sodium, and
chromium will be presented.
                  4) ESTIMATION OF CLEARANCE POTENTIAL INDEX AND HAZARD FACTORS OF
                 CANDU FUEL BUNDLE AND ITS VALIDATION BASED ON THE MEASUREMENTS OF
                      RADIOISOTOPES INVENTORIES FROM PICKERING REACTOR FUEL-7086
                           Alexandru Octavian Pavelescu, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania);
             Renato Tinti, ENEA FIS-NUC, Bologna (Italy); Dan Gabriel Cepraga, ENEA FIS-MET, Bologna (Italy);
                                     Konstantina Voukelatou, ENEA FIS-NUC, Bologna (Italy)
     This paper is related to the clearance potential levels, ingestion and inhalation hazard factors of the spent nuclear fuel and
radioactive wastes. This study required a complex activity that consisted of more phases such us: the acquisition, setting up, vali-
dation and application of procedures, codes and libraries. The paper reflects the validation phase of this study. Its objective was to
compare the measured inventories of selected actinide and fission products radionuclides in an element from the Pickering CANDU
reactor with inventories predicted using a recent version of the SCALE 5\ORIGEN-ARP code coupled with the time dependent
cross sections library for the CANDU 28 reactor, produced by the sequence SCALE4.4a\SAS2H and SCALE4.4a\ORIGEN-S. In
this way, the procedures, codes and libraries for the characterization of radioactive material in terms of radioactive inventories,
clearance, and biological hazard factors could be qualified and validated, in support for the safety management of the radioactive
wastes.
                             5) FLEXIBLE PROCESS OPTIONS FOR THE IMMOBILISATION OF
                                  RESIDUES AND WASTES CONTAINING PLUTONIUM-7246
                         Martin Stewart, Bruce Beg, Salvatore Moroccan, R. Arthur Day, ANSTO (Australia);
                                  Charles Scales, Wean Mandrel, Adam Eilbeck, Nexia Solutions (UK)
     Residues and waste streams containing plutonium present unique technical, safety, regulatory, security, and socio-political
challenges. In the UK these streams range from lightly plutonium contaminated materials (PCM) through to residues resulting
directly from plutonium processing operations. In addition, there are potentially stocks of plutonium oxide powders which while
currently considered an asset may in future be reassigned as waste due to their levels of contamination making their reuse uneco-
nomic, or to changes in nuclear policy. While waste management routes exist for PCM, an immobilisation process is required for
streams containing higher levels of plutonium. Such a process is being developed by Nexia Solutions and ANSTO to treat and
immobilise plutonium waste and residues currently stored on the Sellafield site. The characteristics of these Plutonium waste
streams are highly variable. The physical form of the plutonium waste ranges from liquids, sludges, powders/granules, to solid com-
ponents (e.g., test fuels), with the plutonium present as an ion in solution, as a salt, metal, oxide or other compound. The chemistry
of the plutonium waste streams also varies considerably with a variety of impurities present in many waste streams. Furthermore,
with fissile isotopes present, criticality is an issue during operations and in the store or repository. Safeguards and security concerns
must be assessed and controlled. The process under development, by using a combination of tailored waste form chemistry com-
bined with flexible process technology aims to develop a process line to handle a broad range of plutonium waste streams. It aims
to be capable of dealing with not only current arisings but those anticipated to arise as a result of future operations or policy
changes. In this paper we overview the waste form and process options aimed at for moderate to high plutonium content waste
streams and provide an update of progress on the plutonium residues work.

                          SESSION 56 - INFORMATION GATHERING AND DECISION MAKING
         1) EXPERIENCE OF THE NUCLEAR REACTORS (ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR
                DECOMMISSIONING) REGULATIONS 1999, AS AMENDED, IN GREAT BRITAIN-7212
               Sarah Brown, Elaine Mattress, Jo Nettleton, Nuclear Directorate, Health and Safety Executive (UK)
     In Great Britain, the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999 as amend-
ed 2006 (EIADR)[1] requires assessment of the potential environmental impacts of projects to decommission nuclear power sta-
tions and reactors. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the competent authority for EIADR.
     The EIADR implement European Council Directive 85/337/EEC (the EIA Directive)[2] as amended by Council Directive
97/11/EC[3] and Council Directive 2003/35/EC the (Public Participation Directive)[4].


                                                                                                                                     127
Session 56-57                                                                                                                    Abstracts

     The purpose of the EIADR is to assess environmental effects of nuclear reactor decommissioning projects, involve the public
through consultation, and make the decision-making process open and transparent. Under the regulations, any licensee wishing to
begin to decommission or dismantle a nuclear power station, or other civil nuclear reactor, must apply to HSE for consent to carry
out the decommissioning project, undertake an environmental impact assessment and prepare an environmental statement that sum-
marises the environmental effects of the project. HSE will consult on the environmental statement.
     So far under the EIADR there have been six consents granted for decommissioning projects for Magnox Power Stations. These
stations have been required as a condition of consent to submit an Environmental Management Plan on an annual basis. This allows
the project to be continually reviewed and assessed to ensure that the licensee can provide detail as agreed during the review of the
environmental statement and that any changes to mitigation measures are detailed. This paper summarises the EIADR process, giv-
ing particular emphasis to public participation and the decision making process, and discusses HSE’s experience of EIADR with
reference to specific environmental issues raised by stakeholders and current developments.
       2) THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM: A MODEL FOR STAKEHOLDER
                                 INVOLVEMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING-7180
                 William Hartwell, David Shafer, Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrological Sciences (USA)
     Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily oper-
ation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the
Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is
funded by the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research
Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in
the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongo-
ing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km2 area of Nevada,
Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring
gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorologi-
cal instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Sta-
tion sensors are wired to state-of-the-art dataloggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tan-
dem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technolo-
gies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI
operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…
                                   3) CLARK COUNTY MONITORING PROGRAM-7110
                  Sheila Conway, Urban Environmental Research (USA); Jeremy Auger, Applied Analysis (USA);
                           Irene Navies, Clark County Department of Comprehensive Planning (USA)
     Since 1988, Clark County has been one of the counties designated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as an
‘Affected Unit of Local Government’ (AULG). The AULG designation is an acknowledgement by the federal government that
could be negatively impacted to a considerable degree by activities associated with the Yucca Mountain High Level Nuclear Waste
Repository. These negative effects would have an impact on residents as individuals and the community as a whole. As an AULG,
Clark County is authorized to identify ‘any potential economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts’ of the
potential repository (42 USC Section 10135(C)(1)(B)(1)).
     Toward this end, Clark County has conducted numerous studies of potential impacts, many of which are summarized in the
Clark County’s Impact Assessment Report that was submitted by the DOE and the president of the United States in February 2002.
Given the unprecedented magnitude and duration of the DOE’s proposal, as well as the many unanswered questions about the num-
ber of shipments and the modal mix, the estimate of impacts described in these studies are preliminary. In order to refine these esti-
mates, Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department’s Nuclear Waste Division is continuing to assess potential impacts. In
addition, the County has implemented a Monitoring Program designed to capture changes to the social, environmental, and eco-
nomic well-being of its residents resulting from the Yucca Mountain project and other significant events within the County. The
Monitoring Program acts as an ‘early warning system’ that allows Clark County decision makers to proactive respond to impacts
from the Yucca Mountain Project.

         SESSION 57 - URANIUM MINING AND REMEDIATION EXCHANGE GROUP (UMREG) MEETING
               1) URANIUM MINE AND MILL TAILINGS - LIABILITIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION-7375
         Wolfgang Hilden, Simon Murphy, European Commission (Luxembourg); Jan Vrijen, KARUWEEG BV (Netherlands)
      Uranium mining and milling has taken place on large scale in the Member States of the European Union (EU) for some 60
years. Although, compared to mining, milling activities are normally concentrated in fewer locations, this can still result in a rela-
tively large number of disposal sites for the tailings, compared to other radioactive wastes. In addition these sites are also quite
large, in terms of both volume and surface area. Coupled with the residual uranium in the tailings together with other radionuclides,
heavy metals, chemicals etc this results in an environmental legacy continuing far into the future. Often during production no or
little provision has been made for the closure, remediation and future supervision of such sites.
      In 1996 the European Commission funded an inventory of uranium mining and milling liabilities in nine Central and Eastern
European Countries. Additionally, pilot projects were funded to carry out remediation activities at several sites.
      Almost ten years later the Commission has identified the need to address the situation of these large liabilities in all EU Member
States and to assess the progress made in remediation of the sites, especially in view of the closure of almost all mining activities in
Europe. The Commission study has identified the current tailings liabilities in Europe, their status, the future plans for these sites and
the hazards that continue to be associated with them. It is clear that although considerable progress has been made in recent years,
much work remains to be carried out in the areas of remediation, and ensuring the long-term safety of many of the identified objects.
      The paper presents the main findings of the study, as well as the challenges identified to ensure long-term safety of these
wastes.
128
Abstracts                                                                                                                   Session 57

                     2) DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF THE URANIUM MILL
                             AND PROCESSING PLANT AT SEELINGSTÄDT, GERMANY-7380
                             Ulf Barnekow, Matthias Bauroth, Michael Paul, Wismut GmbH (Germany)
     In Eastern Germany uranium mining lasted from 1946 till 1990 leading to a production of in total 216,345 t of uranium. The
Seelingstädt Uranium Mill and Processing Plant, located in Thuringia, Germany, was one of two large uranium mills operated by
Wismut. The mill was erected by 1960 and covered an area of 93 ha. From 1961 till 1991 a total of about 110 million t of differ-
ent types of uranium ores were milled and processed at the Seelingstädt mill. The mill produced ca. 110,000 t of uranium (as yel-
low cake). Demolition of the buildings and industrial facilities of the Seelingstädt mill and processing plant site are nearly complet-
ed. The site is being decommissioned with respect to after-use aiming at afforestation and grasslands allowing for a stable plant
succession. Decommissioning includes excavation and relocation of contaminated materials, reshaping of the site and construction
of ditches for granting a stable surface runoff as well construction of access and maintenance roads. About 85% of the demolition
and relocation works have been completed by mid 2007. Decommissioning works shall be completed by 2015. The paper presents
experiences made and progress achieved till to date.
                          3) RADIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF IN SITU URANIUM RECOVERY-7379
                                                     Steven Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
     In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been con-
sumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Urani-
um recovery and new mining/milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical
to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques,
involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as uranium-solution mining or in-situ leaching/in-situ recovery
(ISL/ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a sig-
nificant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial-size solution-mining production
facilities have operated IN THE U.S. since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing
and complexing agents into an ore body, leaching and solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the sur-
face where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange, precipitation, calcining and packaging operations.
This paper presents an overview of the solution-mining process and the health-physics monitoring programs developed at a num-
ber of commercial scale ISL/ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities ( mills) as a result of the radiological character of these
processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings
as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radi-
ological character of these by-products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which
are required due to the manner in which radon gas is evolved in the process and the unique aspects of controlling solution flow pat-
terns underground. An overview of the major aspects of the health physics compliance and monitoring programs that were devel-
oped at these facilities are discussed.
                   4) URANIUM MINING WASTES, GARDEN EXHIBITION AND HEALTH RISKS-7112
               Gerhard Schmidt, Oeko-Institute e.V (Germany); Peter Schmidt, Wilko Hinz, Wismut GmbH (Germany)
     For more than 40 years the Soviet-German stockholding company SDAG WISMUT mined and milled Uranium in the East of
Germany and became up to 1990 the world’s third largest Uranium producer. After reunification of Germany, the new found state-
own company Wismut GmbH was faced with the task of decommissioning and rehabilitation of the mining and milling sites. One
of the largest mining areas in the world, that had to be cleaned up, was located close to the municipality of Ronneburg near the City
of Gera in Thuringia. After closing the operations of the Ronneburg underground mine and at the 160 m deep open pit mine with
a free volume of 84 Mio.m³, the open pit and 7 large piles of mine waste, together 112 Mio.m³ of material, had to be cleaned up.
As a result of an optimisation procedure it was chosen to relocate the waste rock piles back into the open pit. After taking this deci-
sion and approval of the plan the disposal operation was started. Even though the transport task was done by large trucks, this took
16 years. The work will be finished in 2007, a cover consisting of 40 cm of uncontaminated material will be placed on top of the
material, and the re-vegetation of the former open pit area will be established. When in 2002 the City of Gera applied to host the
largest garden exhibition in Germany, Bundesgartenschau (BUGA), in 2007, Wismut GmbH supported this plan by offering parts
of the territory of the former mining site as an exhibition ground. Finally, it was decided by the BUGA organizers to arrange its
2007 exhibition on grounds in Gera and in the valley adjacent to the former open pit mine, with parts of the remediated area with-
in the fence of the exhibition…




                                                                                                                                   129
      Author Index
      Abbas, Mohammed - 38DD - 7280                 Biurrun, Enrique Biurrun - 6, 7391          Cornell, Rowland - 25-7068 35-7066
      Abdel Azim, M Wagdy - 31 - 7213               Blechschmidt, Ingo - 11 - 7233              Cournoyer, Michael - 7 - 7018
      Abdel Geleel, M. - 19 - 7020                  Boden, Sven - 45 - 7044                     Cretskens, Pieter - 35 - 7134
      Abdulakhatov, Murat - 44 - 7127               Boissonneau, Jean François - 4 - 7060       Crocker, Clay - 20 - 7255
      Abreu, Maria M. - 38ER - 7370                 Bolcha, Jan - 38DD - 7286                   Croft, Stephen - 11-7173 19-7308 50-7174
      Adomaitis, Erdvilas - 11 - 7248               Bond, Alex - 47 - 7095                      Cross, Martin - 25 - 7191
      Adsley, Ian - 7-7057 27-7058 30-7253          Booth, Peter - 29 - 7105                    Cross, Paul - 18 - 7200
      Aertsens, Marc - 36 - 7232                    Bosson, Emma - 36 - 7300                    Croudace, Ian - 18 - 7153
      Aguero, Jeremy - 56 - 7110                    Bostick, William - 19-7187 46-7156          Cuchet, Jean-Marie - 28-7026 35-7023
      Ahmead, Bushra - 38DD - 7280                  Botte, John - 47 - 7274                      47-7219 55-7022
      Ahn, Hong Joo - 27-7297 31-7291, 7296         Botte, John - 31 - 7236                     Cull, Michael - 20 - 7255
      Al-Atia, Mousa - 38DD - 7280                  Bowan, Bradley - 55 - 7352                  Curtis, Debbie - 19 - 7308
      Alderman, Steven - 26 - 7074, 7075, 7076      Braeckeveldt, Marnix - 6-7096 28-7026       Danilin, Lev - 19-7373, 7374
      Alexandru, Pavelescu - 11 - 7152              Brazauskaite, Asta - 11 - 7272              Daniska, Vladimir - 17 - 7298
      Alheid, Hans-Joachim - 36 - 7269              Bremond, Marie Pierre - 35 - 7061           Danneels, Jeffrey - 15-7282 38DD-7280
      AL-Hobaib, A. S. - 60 - 7384                  Brennecke, Peter - 4 - 7304                 Davain, Henri - 50 - 7330
      AL-Jaseem, Qusay Kh - 60 - 7384               Brown, Justin - 35 - 7059                   Davies, Michael - 27-7058 30-7253
      Al-Mubarak, Mowaffak - 38DD - 7280            Brown, Nick - 35 - 7066                     Dawson, Gaynor - 41 - 7090
      Alsecz, Anita - 30 - 7354                     Brown, Sarah - 56 - 7212                    Day, R. Arthur - 55 - 7246
      Alvarez, Eloisa - 27 - 7163                   Brown, Steven - 57 - 7379                   de Best, Alex - 19 - 7107
      Amritphale, Sudhir Sitaram - 26 - 7048        Bruggeman, Michel - 31-7236 48-7249         De Goeyse, André - 28-7026 47-7219
      Amundsen, Ingar - 20-7133 35 - 7059           Bruines, Patric - 11 - 7233                 De Lemos, Francisco - 11-7277 16-7072
      Amundsen, Ingar Bjørn - 15 - 7148             Bruno, Jordi - 10-7192 16-7109               23-7266
      Anderson, Andy - 28 - 7204                    Brydsten, Lars - 16 - 7115                  de Pablo, Joan - 11 - 7178
      Anderson, Keith - 17 - 7388                   Burakov, Boris - 11 - 7047                  de Pádua Ferreira, Rafael Vicente -
      Anderson, Michael - 25 - 7154                 Burke, Thomas - 25 - 7279                    38ER - 7100
      Andersson, Inga - 38DD - 7168                 Butler, Gregg - 15 - 7217                   De Pillecyn, Lut - 40 - 7293
      Andersson, Johan - 8 - 7062, 7131             Butler, Jim - 51 - 7325                     De Preter, Peter - 6 - 7096
      Ando, Kenichi - 11 - 7233                     Bylkin, Boris - 25 - 7191                   de Vos-Keulemans, Renate - 48 - 7268
      Anshul, Avneesh - 26 - 7048                   Cachoir, Christelle - 36 - 7232             Debieve, Pierre - 48 - 7027
      Arai, Takashi - 11 - 7141                     Cajigal, George L. - 52 - 7254              Deckers, Jan - 7 - 7333
      Aranyossy, Jean-François - 36 - 7269          Callander, Clas - 38DD - 7168               Deegan, David - 46 - 7271
      Arcos, David - 51 - 7363                      Cantrel, Eric - 45-7044 50-7330 -           Deguchi, Akira - 8 - 7131
      Armitage, Jack - 35 - 7058                    Caputo, Daniel - 30 - 7028                  Delecaut, Grégory - 48 - 7027
      Arou, Marielle - 50 - 7070                    Cardoso Pedroso de Lima, Luis Filipe -      Denda, Yasutaka - 27 - 7015
      Arunkumar, Rangaswami - 50 - 7121              38ER - 7100                                Denissen, Luc - 50 - 7330
      Arustamov, Artur - 13-7263 31-7295            Carson, Peter - 27 - 7312                   Dennis, Frank - 45 - 7335
      Asano, Hidekazu - 8-7124 11-7147 19-7142      Carvalho, Fernando P. - 38ER-7370 57-7366   Denton, Mark - 19-7187 46-7186
      Audet, Marc - 45 - 7335                       Cassidy, Helen - 46 - 7065                  Dervaux, Katleen - 40 - 7293
      Auler, Ingolf - 30 - 7011                     Catalette, Hubert - 37 - 7116               Devgun, Dr. Jas - 4 - 7214
      Avezniyazov, Slava - 46 - 7383                Catlow, Fred - 13 - 7209                    Dick, Øystein B. - 15 - 7148
      Avramenko, Valentin - 46 - 7093               Cato, Anna - 38DD - 7168                    Diederik, Jacques - 31 - 7203
      Azevedo, José Paulo - 51 - 7346               Centner, Baudouin - 28-7310 45-7350         Dies, Javier - 11 - 7178
      Baba, Tsutomu - 45 - 7139                     Cepraga, Dan Gabriel - 55 - 7086            Dimitar, Antonov - 31 - 7202
      Bachet, Martin - 37 - 7116                    Chadwick, Chris - 19 - 7003                 Dimovic, Slavko - 19-7013, 7016
      Backe, Steinar - 38DD - 7168                  Chandra, Navin - 26 - 7048                  Dingens, Matthew - 41 - 7002
      Baeten, Joke - 41 - 7281                      Chapman, Neil - 2-7208 8-7131 16-7217       Dmitriev, Sergey - 19-7146 13-7263 46-7383
      Baird, Del - 18 - 7200                        Charles, Dafydd - 25 - 7191                  31-7295, 7292
      Bajaj, Vijay - 26 - 7283                      Chen, Jian - 41 - 7123                      Dobrzhansky, Vitaly - 46 - 7093
      Barariu, Gheorghe - 53 - 7082                 Chenel-Ramos, Cesar - 44 - 7321             Doebler, Steven - 25 - 7279
      Barinov, Aleksandr - 31-7292, 7295            Chesser, Ronald - 15 - 7282                 Domenech, Cristina - 51 - 7363
      Barnekow, Ulf - 57 - 7380                     Chiba, Tamotsu - 19 - 7142                  Doucet, Olivier - 45 - 7132
      Barnes, Ella - 20 - 7389                      Chirwa, Evans - 7-7164 37-7014              Doutreluingne, Carole - 45 - 7132
      Bartenev, Sergey - 44 - 7127                  Cho, Yong Jun - 11-7303 38DD-7138           Dowdall, Mark - 35 - 7059
      Batandjieva, B. - 38 - 7372                   Cho, Yung-Zun - 31 - 7288                   Dragolici, Felicia - 47 - 7095
      Batyukhnova, Olga - 13 - 7263                 Choi, Geun Sik - 25 - 7145                  Dreimanis, Andrejs - 53 - 7165
      Bäuerle, Günther - 52 - 7083                  Choi, Gi-Won - 53 - 7130                    Droppo, James G. - 23 - 7189
      Baumann, Roland - 35 - 7205                   Choi, Ke Chon - 31 - 7290                   Drozhzhin, Valery - 19-7373, 7374
      Bauroth, Matthias - 57 - 7380                 Choi, Ki Seop - 27 - 7297                   Duarte, Armando - 41 - 7201
      Beadle, Ian - 38DD - 7289                     Choi, Wangkyu - 38DD - 7159                 DuBois, David - 9 - 7181
      Beddow, Helen - 27 - 7058                     Chren, Oto - 6 - 7391                       Duquène, Lise - 41 - 7281
      Begg, Bruce - 55 - 7246                       Chung, Kun Ho - 25 - 7145                   Duran, Juraj - 31 - 7311
      Bellini, Maria Helena - 38ER - 7100           Chunglo, Steve - 7 - 7018                   Duro, Lara - 10-7192 16-7109
      Benay, Gael - 24 - 7360                       Coates, Roger - 15-7282 38DD-7282           Dusek, P.E., Lansing - 17 - 7317
      Benitez, Juan Carlos - 26 - 7220              Cobos Sabate, Joaquin - 44 - 7243           Efraimsson, Henrik - 38DD - 7168
      Berglund, Sten - 36 - 7300                    Cochran, John - 15-7282 38DD-7282           Egan, Mike - 47 - 7069
      Bergren, Chris - 41 - 7369                    Cocks, James - 27 - 7163                    Eickelpasch, Ludger - 30 - 7011
      Bergstrom, Lena - 50 - 7218                   Codée, Hans - 19-7107 54-7108               Eijke, Anton - 19 - 7107
      Berry, Dennis - 20 - 7357                     Collins, Linda - 10 - 7240                  Eilbeck, Adam - 55 - 7246
      Berton, Marianne - 45 - 7132                  Connell, Judith - 10-7319 15-7342           Eilbeck, Katherine - 18 - 7051
      Betts, Jonathan - 30 - 7011                   Conway, Sheila - 56 - 7110                  Elena - Nineta, Ghizdeanu - 11 - 7152
      Beyke, Gregory - 41 - 7136                    Cooke, Roger - 9 - 7324                     El-Gammal, Belal - 31 - 7213
      Biggs, Simon - 7-7005 11-7010 46-7071, 7104   Coomans, Reginald - 38ER - 7349             Ellmark, Christoffer - 17 - 7265
      Binet, Cedric - 4 - 7060                      Cornelissen, Rene - 17-7155 48-7249         Enriquez, Alejandro - 27 - 7312
130
Author Index
Eremenko, V.A. - 23 - 7189              Greeves, John T. - 15 - 7326                 Jang, Ping-Rey - 50-7121 55-7120
Eriksson, Anders - 17 - 7265            Grenouillet, Jean-Jacques - 17 - 7106        János, Osán - 30 - 7354
Eshleman, Troy - 49, 7394               Grepstad, Gisle - 15 - 7148                  Jeanjacques, Michel - 4-7060 35-7061
Estivié, David - 4 - 7060               Gressier, Frédéric - 37 - 7116               Jee, Kwang Yong - 27-7297 31-7290, 7296,
Ettien, John - 50 - 7121                Gribanov, Alexander - 44 - 7127                7291, 7327
Etyemezian, Vic - 9 - 7181              Gribova, Victoria - 11 - 7047                Jenkins, Jon - 28 - 7204
Eun, Hee-Chul - 31 - 7288               Grundy, Colette - 38DD - 7289                Jeon, Jong Seon - 38DD - 7160
Ewing, Rodney - 11 - 7030               Guimera, Jordi - 51 - 7363                   Jeong, KwanSeong - 38DD - 7125
Fabbri, Silvio - 38DD - 7223            Gunn, James - 50 - 7250                      Jessop, Gareth - 35 - 7066
Fabjan, Marija - 48 - 7067              Gurumoorthy, Chandraskharan - 26 - 7032      Ji, Young-Yong - 31 - 7245
Fairweather, Michael - 46-7029, 7104    Guskov, Vladimir - 20 - 7389                 John, Gordon - 38DD - 7289
  44-7009, 7025                         Gustaaf, Melis - 35 - 7134                   Johnson, Keith - 28 - 7252
Falck, W. Eberhard - 45 - 7335          Hackel, Walter - 30 - 7270                   Johnson, Lawrence - 36 - 7269
Fedorov, Denis - 46 - 7383              Hagan, Madoc - 28 - 7252                     Johnson, Michael F. - 49 - 7394
Fedorov, Yury - 11 - 7039               Haire, M. J. - 24 - 7259                     Jordana, Salvador - 51 - 7363
Feinhals, Jörg - 7 - 7079               Halliwell, Stephen - 48 - 7385               Joubert, A. - 38 - 7372
Ferch, R. - 38 - 7372                   Han, Fengxiang - 41-7122, 7123               Joussot-Dubien, Christophe - 37 - 7170
Fernandes, Horst - 51 - 7346            Han, Sun Ho - 27-7297 31-7290                József, Pálfalvi - 30 - 7354
Fernandez, Michael Dennis - 31 - 7230   Harbottle, David - 46 - 7104                 Jung, Chong Hun - 38DD-7138, 7159, 7125
Ferrand, Karine - 36 - 7232             Harman, Neil - 25 - 7191                       38ER-7198
Filip, Tack - 41 - 7281                 Harman, Nicholas - 27 - 7058                 Jung, Ki Chul - 38DD - 7160
Filipas, Alexander - 38ER - 7031        Haroun, Lynne - 51 - 7325                    Kahnt, René - 51 - 7302
Finster, Molly - 51-7323, 7325          Harper, Alex - 25 - 7191                     Kalmakov, Danila - 24 - 7259
Firsin, Nikolai - 44 - 7127             Harris III, Alton D. - 44 - 7129             Kamei, Gento - 54 - 7231
Fisher, Alan - 7 - 7057                 Hartwell, William - 56 - 7180                Kane, Susan C. - 11-7173 50-7174
Fletcher, Brian - 50 - 7250             Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan - 19 - 7007   Kang, Il-Sik - 31 - 7245
Flora, Mary - 41 - 7369                 Hattori, Takatoshi - 45-7042 50-7119         Kang, Moon Ja - 25 - 7145
Forsberg, C. W. - 24 - 7259             Hayatt, Neil - 11 - 7047                     Kang, Sang Hoon - 31-7290, 7291
Fouquereau, Alain - 4 - 7060            Hayes, Martin - 27 - 7049                    Kani, Yuko - 11 - 7147
Fournel, Bruno - 37 - 7170              Heaney, John - 18 - 7153                     Kaplenkov, V. N. - 24 - 7259
Franklin, Mariza - 51 - 7346            Heep, Walter - 46 - 7242                     Kapustin, Valerian - 24 - 7084
Frédéric, Bernier - 36 - 7251           Hellmuth, Karl-Heinz - 11 - 7277             Karastanev, Doncho - 31 - 7202
Froment, Antoine - 2 - 7043             Helou, Tuama - 38DD - 7280                   Karlin, Yury - 19 - 7146
Funk, Greg - 15 - 7342                  Hengst, Jan - 19 - 7107                      Kashiwagi, Makoto - 27 - 7015
Gablin, Vassily - 9 - 7038              Hernan, Pedro - 36 - 7269                    Kaulard, J. - 38 - 7372
Galais, Nathalie - 9 - 7309             Herrick, Andrew - 20 - 7162                  Kautsky, Ulrik - 16 - 7115
Galson, Daniel - 23 - 7329              Herrick, Robin - 50 - 7250                   Kavouras, Ilias - 9 - 7181
Gaona, Xavier - 16 - 7109               Hertl, Bojan - 47 - 7069                     Kawakami, Hiroto - 45 - 7139
Garamszeghy, Mike - 27 - 7015           Hertzberg, Richard - 51 - 7325               Kawamura, Hideki - 8 - 7140
Garcia, Emilio - 6 - 7101               Heyes, Alan - 20 - 7099                      Kawasaki, Toru - 11 - 7147
Gautier, Laurent - 35 - 7061            Hiernaut, Jean-Pol - 44 - 7322               Keep, Matthew - 28 - 7367
Geckeis, Horst - 36 - 7222              Higgs, Helen - 13 - 7347                     Kelch, Alexander - 7 - 7079
Geiser, Dr. Heinz - 44 - 7211           Hildebrand, R. Douglas - 51 - 7323           Khursheed, Amjad - 23 - 7329
Gens, Robert - 53 - 7284                Hilden, Wolfgang - 57 - 7375                 Kickmaier, Wolfgang - 11-7233 36-7239
Georgievskiy, Vladimir - 9 - 7328       Hinz, Wilko - 57 - 7112                      Kienzler, Bernhard - 36 - 7222
Gerald, Falkenberg - 30 - 7354          Hoepfner, Uwe - 38ER - 7190                  Kim, Eung-Ho - 11-7303 31-7288
Gerchikov, Mark - 20 - 7255             Hogancamp, Kristina - 26-7074, 7076, 7075    Kim, Gye-Nam - 38ER - 7198
Gerdes, Kurt - 55 - 7352                Holden, Gerard - 6 - 7182                    Kim, Hee Reyoung - 25 - 7145
Germanov, Aleksandr - 31 - 7292         Holton, Langdon - 55 - 7352                  Kim, In-Tae - 11-7303 31-7288
Gerrard, Alan - 30 - 7253               Hong, Dae-Seok - 31 - 7245                   Kim, Ju Yeol - 31 - 7296
Ghoreychi, Mhedi - 36 - 7276            Hopkins, Jamie - 26 - 7283                   Kim, Kwang-Wook - 11-7303 31-7327
Gianutsos, Phil - 49 - 7394             Horsfall, Corhyn - 13 - 7353                 Kim, Seong-Min - 31 - 7327
Gielen, Paul - 47 - 7274                Horvath, Jan - 48 - 7359                     Kim, Tae hyun - 38DD - 7160
Gigase, Yves - 26 - 7285                Hosseini, Ali - 35 - 7059                    Kim, Yeon-Hwa - 31 - 7327
Gilis, René - 45 - 7237                 Husain, Ahmed - 31 - 7213                    Kim, Young-Ki - 53 - 7130
Gilis, René - 17-7210 50-7235           Husband, William - 50 - 7250                 Kirk, Paula G. - 50 - 7121
Gillet, Philippe - 2 - 7043             Hustveit, Styrkaar - 15 - 7148               Kitahara, Takashi - 45 - 7139
Gillet, Thierry - 50 - 7330             Iglesias, Eduardo - 44 - 7243                Kitayama, Kazumi - 8-7078, 7131 36-7221
Gilman, Janet - 9 - 7050                Ignatiev, Sviatoslav - 11-7381 18-7382       Kitsay, Alexander - 11 - 7047
Girones, Philippe - 50 - 7046           Ignatov, Sergei - 30 - 7056                  Kleb, Heather - 29-7088 53-7087
Gleason, Eugene - 6 - 7182              Iguchi, Yukihiro - 45 - 7139                 Klenze, Reinhard - 36 - 7222
Godfray, Hugh - 27 - 7049               IJpelaan, Ruud - 48 - 7268                   Kluth, Thomas - 7 - 7036
Goikhman, Mikhail - 44 - 7127           Ilarri, Sergio - 38DD - 7223                 Knollmeyer, Peter - 16 - 7316
Gompper, Klaus - 36 - 7222              Iles, Deana - 38ER - 7362                    Knyazev, Oleg - 44 - 7126
Gonzalez, Niurka - 26 - 7220            Ilin, Vadim - 19 - 7146                      Koch, Wolf - 4 - 7304
Gorbunova, Olga - 31-7292, 7295         Isaacs, Tom - 2 - 7208                       Kodama, Mitsuhiro - 45 - 7139
Gorlinskij, Yuri - 25 - 7191            Ishiguro, Katsuhiko - 36 - 7221              Koen, Lenie - 35 - 7134
Gotovchikov, Vitaly - 24 - 7259         Isiki, Vera Lúcia Keiko - 38ER - 7100        Koenig, Werner - 35 - 7205
Goyal, Kapil - 27 - 7312                István, Sajó - 30 - 7354                     Koh, Kwang-Hoon - 53 - 7130
Grambow, Bernd - 36 - 7269              Ivanov, Oleg - 30 - 7056                     Koike, Akihisa - 8-7140, 7156
Gray, Lesley - 45 - 7332                Iversen, Klaus - 38DD - 7168                 Kojo, Matti - 10 - 7094
Green, Lisa - 38DD - 7289               Iwatsuki, Teruki - 51 - 7363                 Kok, Kenneth - 20 - 7356
Green, Tommy - 7-7057 18-7153           Jacob, Norman - 54 - 7256                    Kolobov, Evgeniy - 11 - 7172
Greenwood, Sarah - 13 - 7347            James, David - 27 - 7015                     Kolyadin, Vyacheslav - 25 - 7191
                                                                                                                                131
      Author Index
      Konecny, Ladislav - 17 - 7298              Lopes, Cláudia - 41 - 7201                   Moon, Jei-Kwon - 38ER - 7198
      Kopetz, Irene - 10 - 7192                  Lorenzen, Joachim - 50 - 7218                Moricca, Salvatore - 55 - 7246
      Kornev, Vladimir - 46 - 7383               Lubchenko, M. L. - 31 - 7278                 Morimoto, Keiji - 54 - 7231
      Korotkov, Gennady - 20 - 7389              Lukinykh, Anatoly - 11 - 7030                Morris, Monty - 52 - 7261
      Kosko, Nancy - 9 - 7050                    Luna, Miguel - 51 - 7363                     Moskalev, Pavel - 24 - 7084
      Krajc, Tibor - 37 - 7301                   Luycx, Paul - 28-7026 47-7219                Mott, Melissa A. - 50-7121 55-7120
      Kralj, Metka - 6-7103 10-7102              MacDonell, Margaret - 9-7234 51-7323, 7325   Mott, Steve - 28 - 7252
      Krasny, Dusan - 48 - 7359                  Machiels, Albert - 36 - 7244                 Moussiere, Sandrine - 37 - 7170
      Krasznail, John - 44 - 7127                Maddrell, Ewan - 55 - 7246                   Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena - 38ER - 7362
      Kravárik, Kamil - 37 - 7301                Maes, Jos - 27 - 7247                        Mudra, Josef - 9 - 7175
      Kreh, Rainer - 7 - 7036                    Mahe, Charly - 50 - 7046                     Mukunoki, Atsushi - 19 - 7142
      Kruglov, Stanislav - 38ER - 7031           Mahmoud, Narmine - 19 - 7378                 Müller, Wolfgang - 27 - 7015
      Kugel, Karin - 4 - 7304                    Mala, Zuzana - 38DD - 7286                   Murley, Robert - 27 - 7058
      Kun, Su - 36 - 7276                        Mallants, Dirk - 31-7202, 7203 47-7069       Murphy, Cornelius - 18 - 7314
      Kunze, Volker - 7 - 7079                   Malone, Kevin F. - 44 - 7025                 Murphy, Simon - 57 - 7375
      Kuroda, Shigeki - 54 - 7231                Maltsev, Alexy - 20 - 7255                   Murray, Alan - 18 - 7153
      Kutkov, V A - 25 - 7191                    Mancillas, James - 16 - 7037                 Nabi, Rafiq - 46 - 7071
      Kwon, Heon-Woo - 53 - 7130                 Mandard, Lionel - 4 - 7060                   Naisse, Jean-Claude - 17 - 7351
      Kwong, Simon - 51 - 7334                   Mann, Allan - 50 - 7250                      Nattress, Elaine - 56 - 7212
      Lackey, Michael - 17-7317 35-7318          Manson, P. - 38 - 7372                       Naum, Mihaela - 47 - 7095
      Lahaye, Jean-Pierre - 47 - 7219            Marc, Demarche - 36 - 7251                   Navis, Irene - 56 - 7110
      Lamadie, Fabrice - 50 - 7046               Marchand, Carole - 35 - 7061                 Neerdael, Bernard - 10 - 7195
      Lang-Lenton, Jorge - 6 - 7101              Margraf, Sonja - 30 - 7270                   Nelson, Roger - 44 - 7129
      Lantès, Bertrand - 27 - 7015               Marinescu, Andrei - 36 - 7365                Nettleton, Jo - 56 - 7212
      Lauria, Dejanira - 45 - 7335               Marinin, Dmitry - 46 - 7093                  Neuhausen, Jörg - 48 - 7008
      Laurson, Alexey - 19 - 7146                Maris, Patrick - 48 - 7249                   Neves, Orquídia - 38ER - 7370
      Lauwers, Johan - 50 - 7330                 Martell, Meritxell - 10 - 7192               Nicolae, Rodica - 36 - 7365
      Law, Jack - 24 - 7077                      Martin, Andrew - 54 - 7231                   Niculae, Ortenzia - 47 - 7095
      Lawless, William - 10 - 7089               Martin, Franck - 50 - 7070                   Nikolich, George - 9 - 7181
      Le Goaller, Christophe - 45-7132 50-7046   Martínez Esparza, Aurora - 11-7178 16-7109   Nikonov, Boris - 44 - 7126
      Lee, Byung-Sik - 53 - 7130                  44-7243                                     Nilsson, Karl-Fredrik - 44 - 7321
      Lee, Chang Woo - 25 - 7145                 Marumo, Júlio Takehiro - 38ER - 7100         Nishimura, Tsutome - 11-7147 19-7142
      Lee, Dong Kyu - 25-7145 38DD-7125, 7138    Masui, Hideki - 27 - 7015                    Nishiyama, Satoshi - 11 - 7233
      Lee, Eil-Hee - 31 - 7327                   Masure, Frederic - 35 - 7061                 Niznansky, Vojtech - 17 - 7298
      Lee, Heung N. - 31-7290, 7291              Matejovic, Igor - 38DD - 7299                Noack, Volker - 52 - 7083
      Lee, Hyeong-Nam - 53 - 7130                Matsuki, Koji - 11 - 7141                    Noda, Masaru - 8 - 7156
      Lee, In Koo - 31 - 7296                    Matta, Frank - 41 - 7122                     Norton, O. Perry - 55 - 7120
      Lee, Jae Min - 38DD - 7160                 Matyasi, Ludovic - 47 - 7095                 Nosella, Larry - 26 - 7283
      Lee, Kun Jai - 31 - 7230                   Matyasi, Sandor - 47 - 7095                  Noshita, Kenji - 11 - 7147
      Lee, Kune Woo - 38DD-7138, 7125            Maxeiner, Harald - 27 - 7015                 Novikov, Valery - 44 - 7127
      Lee, Sang Chul - 31 - 7230                 Mayer, Stefan - 8 - 7034                     Noynaert, Luc - 17-7155 35-7128
      Lee, Sang-Sun - 53 - 7130                  McClay, P. - 50 - 7174                       Oboirien, Bilainu - 37 - 7014
      Lee, Wanno - 25 - 7145                     McCombie, Charles - 2-7208 15-7217 54-7108   Odoj, Rheinard - 24 - 7360
      Leganes, Jose Luis - 27 - 7015             McCulloch, George - 30 - 7253                Ogino, Haruyuki - 50 - 7119
      Legoaller, Chrsitophe - 50 - 7070          McElroy, R.D. - 11 - 7173                    Oh, Wonzin - 38DD - 7159
      Lemmens, Alain - 28 - 7310                 McGlinn, Peter - 53 - 7064                   Ohyama, Takuya - 11 - 7117
      Lemmens, Karel - 36 - 7232                 McGlynn, Grace - 15 - 7217                   Ojovan, Michael - 11-7047 13-7263 27-7049
      Lenie, Koen - 38ER - 7349                  McIntyre, Kevin - 25 - 7068                  Okhuysen, Walter P. - 50-7121 55-7120
      Lennon, Chris - 9-7309 39-7105             McKeon, Tom - 41 - 7090                      Okuma, Fumiko - 8 - 7124
      Leonchuk, Mikhail - 11 - 7381              Meden, Igor - 4 - 7060                       Oliveira, Joâo M. - 57-7366 38ER-7370
      Leone, Teresa - 55 - 7120                  Meikrantz, David - 24 - 7077                 Omar, H. A. - 19 - 7020
      Lesperance, Christopher - 25 - 7279        Mele, Irena - 6 - 7103                       Omokanye, Qanitalillahi - 7 - 7005
      Letuhaire, Nathalie - 4 - 7060             Mennecart, Thierry - 36 - 7232               Onishi, Yozo - 11 - 7233
      Levakov, B. I. - 31 - 7278                 Merino, Juan - 16 - 7109                     Onoe, Hironori - 11 - 7117
      Leveau, Jean-Phillipe - 50 - 7330          Metcalf, Phil - 54 - 7355                    Ooms, Bart - 17-7210 45-7237 50-7235
      Lewandowski, Patrick - 17-7210 45-7237     Metschies, Thomas - 51 - 7302                Organ, Nicholas - 20 - 7162
       50-7235                                   Michel, Detilleux - 45 - 7350                Orlov, Yury - 11 - 7381
      Libens, Antoine - 55 - 7022                Michiels, Jan - 6 - 7096                     Osamu, Kusakabe - 26 - 7032
      Lierberman, Jim - 15 - 7326                Miller, Julianne - 9 - 7181                  Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal - 31 - 7262
      Lin, Zhi - 41 - 7201                       Miller, Keith - 25 - 7068                    Otero, Marta - 41 - 7201
      Lindberg, Maria - 17-7265 50-7218          Milosevic, Sinisa - 38ER - 7362              Otton, Camille - 15 - 7336
      Lindborg, Tobias - 8-7062 16-7115          Min, Byungyoun - 38DD - 7159                 Ouzounian, Gérald - 8 - 7034
      Linde, J. - 23 - 7189                      Miralles, Lourdes - 11 - 7178                Oyamada, Kiyoshi - 36 - 7221
      Lindner, Jeffrey S. - 50 - 7121            Mironov, B. S. - 24 - 7259                   Pankratov, Dmitry - 11-7381 19-7382
      Lindskog, Staffan - 38DD - 7168            Mitchell, Charles - 28 - 7204                Park, Bok-Ok - 53 - 7130
      Lindström, Anders - 50 - 7218              Miyamoto, Hissae - 38ER - 7100               Park, Hwan-Seo - 11-7303 31-7288
      Little, Richard - 47 - 7095                Modolo, Giuseppe - 24 - 7360                 Park, Sang Gyu - 38DD - 7160
      Livshits, Tatiana - 11 - 7030              Möller, Kai - 6 - 7294                       Park, Seong-Won - 11 - 7303
      Lizin, Andrey - 11 - 7030                  Molokwane, Pulane - 7 - 7164                 Parkinson, Steve - 25 - 7068
      Lloyd, Zinsli - 35 - 7318                  Moloney, Barry - 49 - 7394                   Parsons, Michael - 26-7074, 7075, 7076
      Lloyd, Earl - 35 - 7318                    Mols, Ludo - 7 - 7333                        Patel, Ashok - 46 - 7071
      Lobach, Yuri - 25 - 7191                   Monken Fernandes, Horst - 45 - 7335          Paul, Gielen - 27 - 7267
      Long, Zhiling - 50-7121 55-7120            Monts, David L. - 41-7122, 7123 50-7121      Paul, Michael - 57 - 7380
      Longsworth, Paul - 15 - 7342                55-7120                                     Pavelescu, Alexandru Octavian - 55 - 7086
132
Author Index
Pavlenko, V I - 25 - 7191                    Salmenhaara, Seppo - 38DD - 7168          Stefanovsky, Sergey - 11-7030 44-7126
Payne, Timothy - 53 - 7064                   Salpas, Peter - 9 - 7063                  Stefula, Vladan - 54 - 7108
Pearman, Ian - 27 - 7058                     Salzer, Peter - 15 - 7217                 Steinkuhler, Claude - 38ER - 7349 49 - 7394
Pegg, Ian - 55 - 7352                        Sanchez Sudon, Juan - 6, 7391             Stennett, Martin - 11 - 7047
Pekar, Anton - 17 - 7298                     Sanhueza-Mir, Azucena - 53 - 7158         Stepanov, Viacheslav - 30 - 7056
Pensado, Osvaldo - 16 - 7037                 Saprikin, Vladimir - 11 - 7039            Sterner, Hakan - 25 - 7040
Pepin, Stéphane - 6 - 7096                   Saranchin, V. K. - 24 - 7259              Stevens, Keith - 18 - 7153
Percival, K. - 38 - 7372                     Sasaki, Michiya - 50 - 7119               Stevens, Michael - 35 - 7318
Pereira, Maria Eduarda - 41 - 7201           Sasaki, Toshiki - 37 - 7144               Stewart, Martin - 55 - 7246
Perko, Janez - 31-7202, 7203 47-7069         Sato, Shoko - 8-7140, 7156 36-7221        Stojanovic, Mirjana - 38ER - 7362
Pernas, Rene - 26 - 7220                     Savkin, Alexander - 46 - 7383             Stone, Mark - 9 - 7181
Peterman, Dean - 24 - 7077                   Scales, Charles - 46-7241 55-7246         Strelkov, Sergey - 11 - 7172
Peterson, John - 51 - 7323                   Schappell, Bruce - 29 - 7199              Ström, Anders - 8 - 7062
Phillips, Carlton - 15 - 7282                Schmidt, Gerhard - 57 - 7112              Stubna, Marián - 37 - 7301
Pichereau, Eric - 4 - 7060                   Schmidt, Peter - 57 - 7112                Su, Yi - 41-7122, 7123 50-7121
Piketty, Laurence - 4 - 7060                 Schneider, Hélène - 37 - 7116             Sullivan, Terrence - 11-7277 23-7266
Plecas, Ilija - 19-7013, 7016                Schneider, Jerry - 10 - 7319              Sullivan, Terry - 16 - 7072
Podlaha, Josef - 9 - 7175                    Schrauben, Manfred - 6 - 7096             Sutherland, Alex - 38DD - 7289
Pokhitonov, Yury - 11 - 7172                 Schreiber, Stephen - 7 - 7018             Suvorov, Gennady - 11-7381 19-7382
Polak, Vincent - 38DD - 7299                 Schröder, Jens - 44 - 7211                Suyama, Yasuhiro - 8 - 7092
Polito, Aurelie - 37 - 7340                  Schumann, Dorothea - 48 - 7008            Suzuki, Yasuhiro - 19 - 7142
Pontikakis, Nikos - 26 - 7283                Schutt, Steve - 54 - 7256                 Svoboda, Karel - 9 - 7175
Poole, Colin - 46 - 7071                     Scott, Dave - 26 - 7283                   Szabina, Török - 30 - 7354
Poskas, Povilas - 11-7248, 7272              Self, Kenny - 49 - 7394                   Takara, Aline Sayuri - 38ER - 7100
Potapov, Victor - 30 - 7056                  Seo, Bum-Kyoung - 31 - 7245               Takeuchi, Ryuji - 11-7117, 7141
Poyau, Cécile - 35 - 7061                    Seredenko, A.V. - 24 - 7259               Takeuchi, Shinji - 11-7117, 7141
Price, J. Mark - 7-7137 36DD-7135            Sergienko, Valentin - 46 - 7093           Tanaka, Tatsuya - 8 - 7131
Proctor, Lorna - 27 - 7058                   Sevilla, Manuel - 11 - 7178               Tawfik, A. A. - 19 - 7020
Ptashkin, Alexander - 44 - 7126              Sexton, Richard - 4 - 7157                Teuschler, Linda - 51 - 7325
Pueyo, Juan José - 11 - 7178                 Shafer, David - 9-7181 56-7180            Thierfeldt, S. - 38 - 7372
Puig, Francesc - 11 - 7178                   Shatalov, V. V. - 24 - 7259               Thomas, Huys - 27 - 7267
Quade, Ulrich - 7 - 7036                     Shaw, Catheirne - 38DD - 7289             Thorne, Mike - 47 - 7095
Quinn, Robert - 54 - 7111                    Shilova, E. - 23 - 7189                   Tikhonov, Valeri - 24 - 7084
Quiñones, Javier - 44 - 7243                 Shimura, Tomoyuki - 8 - 7124              Tilky, Peter - 38DD - 7286
Radu, Maria - 36 - 7365                      Shiotsuki, Masao - 54 - 7231              Timulak, Jan - 17 - 7298
Ragaisis, Valdas - 11 - 7248                 Shiyab, Safwan - 41-7122, 7123            Tindley, Amy - 11 - 7010
Ramakrishnan, N. - 26 - 7048                 Shmatko, Sergey - 46 - 7093               Tinti, Renato - 55 - 7086
Rashid, Joseph - 36 - 7244                   Shmidt, Olga - 11 - 7039                  Todd, Terry - 24 - 7077
Reeve, Phil - 18 - 7051                      Shon, Jong-Sik - 31 - 7245                Toida, Masaru - 8 - 7092
Reeves, George - 13 - 7209                   Shulgin, A. S. - 24 - 7259                Tomilin, Sergey - 11 - 7030
Reeves, Nigel - 38DD - 7289                  Sicard, Damien - 15 - 7336                Torres, Lubélia M. - 57 - 7366
Regens, James L. - 45 - 7335                 Silva, Carlos - 41 - 7201                 Toscano, Enrique - 44 - 7321
Reising, Johnny - 18 - 7314                  Simmons, Richard - 28 - 7204              Towler, George - 47 - 7069
Reistad, Ole - 15-7148 20-7133               Simon, Gerold G. - 30 - 7011              Trivedi, Divyesh - 9 - 7309
Remiás, Vladimír - 37 - 7301                 Sir, David - 9 - 7175                     Tsuchi, Hiroyuki - 8-7140, 7131, 7156
Reusen, Nancy - 17-7210 45-7237 50-7235      Sivintsev, Yuri - 25 - 7191               Turc, Hubert-Alexandre - 37 - 7170
Rhea, Simon - 44 - 7009                      Sjöblom, Rolf - 38DD - 7168               Ueda, Hiroyoshi - 36 - 7221
Rhodes, Dominic - 46 - 7104                  Skagius, Kristina - 8 - 7062              Ueda, Tadashi - 8 - 7156
Rice, Glenn - 51 - 7325                      Skinner, Kenneth - 9 - 7063               Uehara, Seiichiro - 19 - 7142
Richards, Warren - 13 - 7361                 Slezák, Martin - 37 - 7301                Usher, Sam - 10 - 7240
Riddle, Catherine - 24 - 7077                Small, Joe - 51 - 7334                    Uspuras, Eugenijus - 24 - 7184
Rimkevicius, Sigitas - 24 - 7184             Smirnov, Sergey - 30 - 7056               Valcke, Elie - 36-7232 53-7284
Rittscher, Dieter - 25 - 7040                Smith, Gregory - 41 - 7136                Van Der Lee, Jan - 37 - 7116
Rocha, João - 41 - 7201                      Smith, Mike - 50 - 7250                   van Genuchten, Martinus Th. - 51 - 7346
Rodriguez Villagra, Nieves - 44 - 7243       Sneyers, Alain - 36 - 7269                Van Laer, Wim - 17-7210 45-7237 50-7235 -
Rogers, Brenda - 15 - 7282                   Snipes, Randy - 20 - 7389                 Van Nueten, Erwin - 47 - 7219
Rojc, Joze - 48 - 7067                       Sohn, Se Chul - 27-7297 31-7296           van Tongeren, Remco - 48 - 7268
Rolf, Simon - 30 - 7354                      Sohn, Wook Hyun - 31 - 7291               van Velzen, Leo - 26-7234 27-7247 31-7236
Rondinella, Vincenzo - 44-7321, 7322         Sokcic-Kostic, Marina - 30 - 7011           48-7268
Roobol, Lars - 48 - 7268                     Soltani Goharrizi, Ataollah - 19 - 7007   Van Zaelen, Gunter - 6 - 7257
Ross, Timothy - 23 - 7266                    Somov, Ivan - 19 - 7382                   Vandenhove, Hildegarde - 41 - 7281
Roth, Andreas - 28 - 7310                    Sone, Tomoyuki - 37 - 7144                Vandergheynst, Alain - 35 - 7023
Roubaud, Anne - 37 - 7170                    Song, Pyungseob - 38DD - 7159             Vandorpe, Marc - 55 - 7022
Rowat, John - 54 - 7355                      Sonkawade, Rajendra - 27 - 7114           Vanleeuw, Daniel - 48 - 7027
Rucker, Gregory - 29-7199 51-7150            Sorenson, Ken - 38DD - 7280               Vargas Jr., Eurípedes - 51 - 7346
Ruiz, Eduardo - 51 - 7363                    Sørlie, Anita - 15 - 7148                 Varlakov, Andrei - 31-7292, 7295
Ryasantsev, Valery - 11 - 7039               Spasova, Lyubka - 27 - 7049               Vasendin, Dmitry - 31 - 7292
Sedliak, Dusan - 6, 7391                     Staicu, Dragos - 44 - 7322                Venkataraman, R. - 50 - 7174
Saegusa, Hiromitsu - 11-7117, 7141 51-7363   Stakhiv, Michael - 46 - 7383              Verheyen, Annick - 6 - 7257
Sakashita, Susumu - 11 - 7233                Standring, William - 35 - 7059            Verhoef, Ewoud - 19-7107 54-7108
Sakata, Solange Kazumi - 38ER - 7100         Stanford, Dennis - 52 - 7261              Veronda, Brenda - 41 - 7002
Sakuragi, Tomofumi - 11 - 7147               Staples, Andy - 25 - 7068                 Verstraeten, Ingrid - 25 - 7128
Salden, Walter - 11 - 7141                   Steenhuisen, Frits - 15 - 7148            Viallefont, Cécile - 35 - 7061
Salgado, Mercedes - 26 - 7220                Stefanovsky, Olga - 44 - 7126             Vicente, Elsa M. - 38ER - 7370
                                                                                                                                133
      Author Index
      Victoria, Balaceanu - 11 - 7152              Wathion, Marc - 28 - 7026                   Wormald, Malcolm - 19 - 7308
      Villani, M.F. - 50 - 7174                    Watson, Sarah - 47 - 7095                   Xu, Bao H. - 44 - 7025
      Virsek, Sandi - 47 - 7069                    Weber, Wolfgang - 52 - 7083                 Yamaguchi, Hiromi - 37 - 7144
      Voitsekhovitch, Oleg - 38ER - 7196           Wegen, Detlef - 44 - 7321                   Yamamoto, Shuichi - 8 - 7124
      Voizard, Patrice - 8 - 7034                  Weismann, Joseph - 30 - 7028                Yanagizawa, Koichi - 8 - 7092
      Volckaert, Geert - 47 - 7069                 Welbergen, Jeroen - 19-7107 26-7234         Yang, Hee-Chul - 31-7288 38DD-7138
      Volkov, Eugeny - 19 - 7146                   Wells, David - 20 - 7162                    Yao, Jun - 46 - 7029
      Volkov, Victor - 30 - 7056                   Werner, Kent - 36 - 7300                    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad - 19 - 7007
      Volkovich, Anatolii - 30 - 7056              Wertelaers, An - 6 - 7096                   Yoo, Jun-Sang - 53 - 7130
      Völzke, Holger - 52 - 7083                   Wharton, Mike - 45 - 7332                   Yoshimura, Kimitaka - 11 - 7233
      Vomvoris, Stratis - 8-7124 36-7239           Whitaker, Wade - 41 - 7369                  Young, Carl - 30 - 7028
      Voukelatou, Konstantina - 55 - 7086          White, Debbie - 9 - 7050                    Yudintsev, Sergey - 11-7030 44-7126
      Vrijen, Jan - 57 - 7375                      Whitton, John - 10 - 7089                   Zabudko, Alexey - 19 - 7382
      Waggitt, Peter - 29 - 7207                   Wileveau, Yannick - 36 - 7276               Zabudko, Alexey - 11 - 7381
      Waggoner, Charles - 26-7074, 7075, 7076      Wilkins, Colin - 27 - 7163                  Zatkulák, Milan - 37 - 7301
       41-7122                                     Willans, Mark - 9 - 7309                    Zeleznik, Nadja - 6-7103 10-7102
      Wagner, Jeffrey - 10 - 7319                  Willem, Marcel - 28 - 7026                  Zelmer, Robert (Bob) - 29-7088 53-7087
      Waisley, Sandra - 17 - 7317                  Winberg, Anders - 8 - 7062                  Zenkovskaya, Maria - 44 - 7126
      Walthéry, Robert - 17-7210 45-7237 50-7235   Wirendal, Bo - 50 - 7218                    Zilberman, Boris - 11 - 7039
      Wannijn, Jean - 41 - 7281                    Wiss, Thierry - 44 - 7322                   Zildzovic, Snezana - 38ER - 7362
      Warwick, Phil - 18 - 7153                    Woerner, Joerg - 30 - 7270                  Zoltán, Máthé - 30 - 7354
      Washer, Michael - 20 - 7255                  Wohlmuther, Michael - 48 - 7008             Zubarev, Jill - 20 - 7377
      Watanabe, Atsushi - 45 - 7139                Wolff, Dietmar - 52 - 7083                  Zykov, Mikhail - 44 - 7127


      Int’l Advisory Committee & Technical Program Organizers
      International Advisory Committee                                    Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)
         Albert Aloy, Khlopin Radium Institute (Russia)                      Jas Devgun, Sargent & Lundy (USA) –
         Ramesh Dayal, SENES Consulting (Canada)                             Email: jas.s.devgun@sargentlundy.com
         Emilio Garcia, ENRESA (Spain)                                       Iris Graffunder, Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe GmbH
         Miklos Garamszeghy, Ontario Power Generation (Canada)               (GERMANY) iris.graffunder@wak-gmbh.de
         Kun Jai Lee, KAIST (Korea)                                       Environmental Remediation (ER)
         Lumir Nachmilner, IAEA (Austria)                                   Steve Brown, SHB Inc. (USA)
         Karen North, Sellafield Ltd. (UK)                                  E-mail: shb12@msn.com
         Michael Ojovan, University of Sheffield (UK)                       Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consulting Group
         Claudio Pescatore, NEA/OECD (France)                               (Netherlands) E-mail: vanvelzen@nrg-nl.com
         Rik Vanbrabant, Belgoprocess (Belgium)
         Bernard Vigreux, SFEN (France)                                   Cross-Cutting Institutional and Stakeholder Issues in
         Peter Waggitt, IAEA (Australia)                                  Environmental Management (EM)
                                                                            Emmy Roos, The Shaw Group (USA)
      Track Co-Chairs                                                       E-mail: emmy.roos@shawgrp.com
      Low/Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste                              Anne Bergmans, The University of Antwerp (Belgium)
      (L/ILW) Management                                                    E-mail: anne.bergmans@ua.ac.be
         Angie Jones, AMEC (USA) E-mail: angie.jones@amec.com               Judith Connell, Fluor (USA)
         Hans Codee, CORVA (Netherlands)                                    E-mail: Judith.Connell@fluor.com
         E-mail: hans.codee@covra.nl                                      Global Partnering (GP) and Multi-National Programs
      Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), Fissile, Transuranic (TRU),                  Rod Strand, IAP Worldwide Services, Inc.
      and High-Level Waste (HLW) Management                                  Email: Rodney.h.Strand@iapws.com
        Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK CEN (Belgium)                                Rik Vanbrabant, Belgoprocess (UK)
        E-mail: pviseghe@sckcen.be                                           E-mail: rik.vanbrabant@belgoprocess.be
        Murthy Devarakonda, Washington Group International (USA)
        E-mail: murthy.devarakonda@wipp.ws




134
Int’l Advisory Committee & Technical Program Organizers
Session Organizers                                               Bill Swick , US Government Accountability Office
  Ed Alperin, The Shaw Group                                     Lucien Teunckens, Colenco Power Engineering Limited
  James Ballard, CSU-Northridge                                  Luis Valencia, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
  Gary Benda, Studsvik                                           Alain Van Cotthem, Tractebel Engineering
  Anne Bergmans, University of Antwerp                           Jan van der Steen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group
  Frederic Bernier, EURIDICE, SCK                                Pierre Van Iseghem, SCK CEN
  Jennifer Biedscheid, Washington Group International            Leo van Velzen, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group
  Steve Brown, SHB Inc.                                          Ingrid Verstraeten, NIRAS/ONDRAF
  Sean Bushart, EPRI                                             Stratis Vomvoris, NAGRA
  George Cajigal, TBE                                            Peter Waggitt, IAEA
  Neil Chapman, ITC School of Underground Waste Storage and      Robert Walthery, Belgoprocess
      Disposal                                                   Ernst Warnecke, IAEA
  Patrick Chard, UKAEA                                           Sarah Watson, Quintessa
  Judy Connell, Fluor                                            Stephen Wickham, Galson Sciences Ltd.
  Clay Crocker, TBE                                              Kurt Wigle, Bruce Power
  Jean-Marie Cuchet, Belgonucleaire
  Michael Cull, TBE                                           Conference Organizing Committee
  Robert Dyer, US EPA                                         Conference General Co-Chairs
  Thibaut Gain, AREVA                                           Anibal Taboas, USDOE (Retired)
  Mike Garamszeghy, Ontario Power Generation Inc.               Rik Vanbrabant, Belgoprocess
  Emilio Garcia Neri, ENRESA                                  Conference Manager
  Robert Gens, NIRAS/ONDRAF                                     Gary Benda, Studsvik, GBenda_use@hotmail.com
  Don Goebel, SEC
  Kapil Goyal, Los Alamos National Laboratory                 Technical Program Co-Chairs
  Tommy Green, NUKEM Ltd.                                        Jennifer Biedscheid, Washington Group International
  Paul Gretzky, SAIC                                             Hans Codee, COVRA
  Paul Haigh, The Paul Haigh Partnership                         Andre De Goeyse, NIRAS-ONDRAF
  Jonathan Haire, Oak Ridge National Laboratory                  Murthy Devarakonda, Washington Group International
  Evelyn Hooft, NIRAS/ONDRAF                                     Pierre Van Iseghem SCK-CEN
  Luc Janssen, SYNATOM                                        EU and Non-EU Exhibition Coordination
  Dick Kers, B.V. GKN                                           Michel Detilleux, Suez-Tractebel Engineering
  Ronald Keyser, ORTEC                                        Technical Tours
  Bernhard Kienzler, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe INE             Bart Thieren, Belgoprocess
  Jorgen Krone, DBE Technology GmbH
  Wayne Lewis, The Shaw Group                                 US Federal Liaisons
  Maria Lindberg, Studsvik                                      Anita Iacaruso, US DOE
  Paul Luycx, Belgoprocess                                      Robert Dyer, US EPA
  Meritxell Martell, Enviros, S.L.                            ASME ICEM’07 Conference Committee Liaisons
  Charles McCombie, ARIUS
                                                              ASME
  John McFee, The Shaw Group
                                                                John Bendo, (ASME), US, BendoJ@asme.org
  Linda McLean, Sellafield Ltd
  Jerry McNeish, Sandia National Laboratories                 ASME - Nuclear Engineering Division (NED)
  Monty Morris, Nuclear Fuel Services                           Kenneth Kok, (WSMS), US, ken069@msn.com
  Richard Mrowicki, NDA                                       ASME - Environmental Engineering Division (EED)
  Bernard Neerdael, IAEA                                        Gary Benda, (Studsvik), US, GBenda_use@hotmail.com
  Luc Noynaert, SCK-CEN
                                                              Technologisch Instituut (TI-KVIV)
  Michael Ojovan, University of Sheffield
                                                                 Rita Peys, (TI-K VIV), Belgium, rita.peys@ti.kviv.be
  P. J. O'Sullivan, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group
  Joe Perez, Washington Group International                   Belgian Nuclear Society (BNS)
  Chris Phillips, EnergySolutions                                Marcel Maris, (AVN), Belgium
  Javier Quinones Diez, Ciemat                                   International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
  Philip Rendell, NDA                                            Bernard Neerdael, (IAEA), Austria , B.Neerdael@iaea.org
  Vincenzo Rondinella, European Commission                    ICEM Technical Support Contractor
  Emmy Roos, The Shaw Group                                     Shari Brabham, US EXPO & Convention Services,
  Bruce Schappell, Savannah River Site                          ae@usxpo.com
  Detlef Schmidt, Nuclear Projects Consultancy
  Fred Sheil, Sellafield Ltd




                                                                                                                           135
      Schedule of Events

       Event                                 Time                 Location
                                            — SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 2, 2007 —
       Exhibitor Set up                       9:00 - 18:00      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Technical Training Course              9:30 - 17:00      Room 9
       Guest Tour #1 - Brussels Tour          9:30 - 16:30      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Registration                          17:00 - 19:00      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Speaker/Presenter Check-in            17:00 - 19:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Welcome Reception                     18:30 - 20:30      Brewery "De Halve Maan"
                                           — MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 2007 —
       Registration                           7:30 - 17:00      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Speaker/Presenter Check-in             7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Guest Welcome Reception                8:00 - 9:00       Room 9
       Exhibitor Set up (Only Exhibitors)     8:00 - 12:00      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Speakers Breakfast                      8:00 - 8:30      Room 4
       Speakers Ready Room                    7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Guest Tour #2 - Bruges Tour            9:00 - 16:30      Room 9
       Opening Session                        9:00 - 12:15      Royal City Theatre
       Coffee Break                          10:30 - 11:00      Royal City Theatre
       Exhibition Hours                      12:00 - 18:00      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Lunch                                 12:30 - 13:40      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Sessions 2-10                         13:45 - 18:00      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Poster Session 11                     12:30 - 17:30      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Coffee Break                          15:30 - 16:10      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Monday Reception                           18:30         Town Hall
       Monday Boat Trip                           19:00         Bruges Canals
                                           — TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 2007 —
       Registration                           7:30 - 17:00      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Speaker/Presenter Check-in             7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Speakers Breakfast                      7:30 - 8:00      Rooms 3 & 4
       Speakers Ready Room                    7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Guest Tour #3 - Antwerp Tour           8:30 - 16:30      Room 9
       Exhibition Hours                       8:00 - 19:30      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Sessions 12 - 18                       8:30 - 12:30      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Poster Session 19                      8:30 - 13:30      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Coffee Break                          10:15 - 10:40      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Lunch                                 12:30 - 13:40      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Sessions 20 - 30                      13:45 - 18:00      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Poster Session 31                     14:00 - 19:00      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Coffee Break                          15:30 - 16:10      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Tuesday Exhibit Reception             18:00 - 19:30      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
                                          — WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 2007 —
       Speaker/Presenter Check-in             7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Speakers Ready Room                    7:30 - 17:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Speakers Breakfast                      7:30 - 8:00      Rooms 3 & 4
       Registration                           7:30 - 17:00      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Exhibition Hours                       8:00 - 16:30      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Guest Tour #4 - Ghent Tour             8:30 - 16:00      Room 9
       Sessions 32 - 37                       8:30 - 12:30      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Poster Session 38                      8:30 - 13:30      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Coffee Break                          10:15 - 10:40      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Lunch                                 12:30 - 13:40      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Sessions 40 - 48                      13:45 - 18:00      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Poster Session 49                     14:00 - 18:00      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Coffee Break                          15:30 - 16:10      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Wednesday Banquet                          19:30         Holy Hart Church
                                          — THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 2007 —
       Registration                           7:30 - 12:00      Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center Foyer
       Speaker/Presenter Check-in             7:30 - 11:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Speakers Ready Room                    7:30 - 11:00      Between Rooms 1 & 2
       Speakers Breakfast                      7:30 - 8:00      Room 4
       Exhibitor Move out                     8:00 - 17:00      Both Exhibit Halls (White Rose & Ambassador)
       Poster Session 49 (con't)              8:30 - 10:40      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Sessions 50 - 57                       8:30 - 12:30      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center
       Guest Tour #5 - Damme Tour             9:30 - 12:30      Room 9
       Coffee Break                          10:15 - 10:40      Upper Exhibit Hall (Poster area )
       Lunch                                      12:30         On Your Own - Conference Ends
                                            — FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 2007 —
       Technical Tours (A & B)                8:30 - 20:00      Oud Saint-Jan Conference Center

136
Oud Sint-Jan Conference Center




                Room 4                                     Room 5




            Room 3                                     Room 6



                                         Garden




                                                                    Restaurant
         Room 2                                     Room 7




       Room 1                                     Room 8




            Bar          Upper Exhibit




          Registration
                             Lower Exhibit Room