Docstoc

ZAMBIA

Document Sample
ZAMBIA Powered By Docstoc
					   THE
   ZAMBIAN
   CASE



Dr. Simon K. Miti
                                         1
PERMANENT SECRETARY-MINISTRY OF HEALTH    NAC
                                         ZAMBIA
             INTRODUCTION
•   The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have for
    the past two decades continued to spread across all
    continents killing millions of adults in their prime,
    disrupting and impoverishing families, turning millions
    of children into orphans, weakening the workforce and
    threatening the social and economic fabric of the
    communities.
•   Furthermore households affected by HIV/AIDS are
    often driven into deeper poverty [Zambia: Poverty and
    Vulnerability Assessment, chapter 7, World Bank, June
    2005].

                                                          2
        NATIONAL CONTEXT
• The population of Zambia now stands at 10.3million
  people with an annual growth rate of 2.9 percent (CSO
  2000) with the HIV prevalence rate of about 16%.
• The GDP has been decreasing since independence and
  life expectance, knowledge and decent standard of living
  have remarkably declined.
• The Government in the last decades implemented
  macro-economic stabilization and adjustment
  programmes resulting in about 78% of Zambians living in
  poverty, consuming the equivalent of USD$1 a day.



                                                         3
HIV Prevalence rate=16% Ages 15 to 49 - 2002
  Male 13%,       Female 18%
                                                   Northern
  Urban 25%       Rural 13%                          8%
                                         Luapula
                                         11%




              North-Western   20%                    Eastern
                   9%       Copperbelt               14%
                               Central
                               15%
        Western
         13%                   Lusaka 22%
                    Southern
                     18%

                                                               4
                                                                NAC
                                                               ZAMBIA
    POVERTY AND HIV/AIDS
• The inter-relationship between HIV/AIDS and
  poverty is complex.
• HIV/AIDS precipitates families into poverty and
  even into destitution.
• HIV/AIDS lead to poverty by eliminating the
  productive sector of society, 15-49 year age
  group.
• Poverty have negative impacts at all levels of
  society namely Individual, household (homeless
  children, children at risk, single parent/child
  headed ), community and National

                                                    5
                                        Levels of Causation
  Unprotected sex
  With an HIV                                      Increases                          HIV positive
  infected Individual                              Risk of HIV
                                                   infection


                              Frequency and
                              number of partners                                         Level 3


Reproductive                       Forced Sex        Sex as a       Sex for ritual
                   Pleasure                                                          Experimentation
Purposes                           Rape & abuse      Commodity      purposes
                                                     For exchange

                                                                                          Level 2

                          Poverty, Social cultural, Economic, Legal
                                                                                          Level 1

                                  Economic Governance, Political Governance,                   6
                               HI/AIDS IMPACT


   COMMUNITY LEVEL            SOCIAL SERVICES         ECONOMIC SECTOR

INDIVIDUAL & HOUSEHOLD       (EDUCATION/ HEALTH)      (INDUSTRY, AGRIC, TOURISM)



LESS EDN & INFORM.
NO BREAD WINNER
                                MEDICAL CARE -                   ABSENTEEISM,
HIGH MEDICAL COSTS            DOUBLE TRAINING FOR              STAFF TURNOVER
                                  TEACHERS                      LOSS OF SKILLS



                                                           REDUCED PRODUCTIVITY
           INCREASED COSTS

                                  DECLINING PROFITS



                                    POVERTY                                      7
      IMPACTS OF HIV/AIDS
• Some of the social and economic reversals due
  to HIV/AIDS epidemic includes:
  – Decimating the active age group required for
    economic growth in the country and this leads to loss
    of productivity in all sectors.
  – Reduced life expectancy now at 37 years from 60
    years at birth projected without HIV/AIDS.
  – Increased number of orphans.
  – High burden of disease which has overwhelmed the
    Health Care delivery system .
  – HIV/AIDS have pervasive impact on virtually all
    aspect of development and society in Zambia.
                                                            8
Unique Poverty Manifestation
• Health Workers and other strike actions
   - Too few to cope with increased demand
          (current staff levels <50%)
   - Poor conditions of service BUT overworked
   - Peer pressure from colleagues who have
     emigrated through poaching
• Extended families failing to cope in caring for
  OVCs hence pre-disposing them to being
  street children, defiled and abused
                                                    9
     NATIONAL RESPONSE IN THE
    STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK/PLAN

VISION: A nation free of threats of HIV/AIDS
STRATEGY: Multi-sectoral Approach
GOALS:
    1) PREVENT/REDUCE TRANSMISSION
    2) REDUCTION OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY
    3) MITIGATE THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC




                                          10
 The Cyle of Governance in Multisectoral HIV and
     AIDS Service Delivery at the Local Level
                           MoLG                                     MoH

                                                                       NAC
CIVIL SOCIETY
                     Employ and
    Elected           Hold Staff        Council             Provincial Administration
                     Accountable         Staff                       PDCC
   Councillors
                                                                        PATF
                                                                       (PACA)
        Elect and                        To provide
  Hold Representatives                  among other
      Accountable.
                                          things.            District Administration
                                                                      DDCC

    People in                                                           DATF
                                        HIV and AIDS
   the District          Which are         Related
                                                                       (DACA)

   Infected or           Delivered to..   Services
     Affected                                                           CATF
                 CIVIL SOCIETY                      CIVIL SOCIETY               11
    NATIONAL RESPONSE TO
      REDUCE POVERTY
• Government identified Tourism, mining,
  industry and agriculture as target areas for
  economic growth. However gender issues
  and concerns in these sectors have not
  been articulated.
• Government has put in place the following
  programs administered through various
  ministries:

                                             12
      NATIONAL RESPONSE
• Public welfare assistance schemes.
• Peri-Urban Self Help (PUSH) programs.
• Program Against Malnutrition (PAM).
• Community based organization grants for
  income generating activities (targeted mainly on
  women).
• Subsidy on agricultural inputs (special focus on
  the vulnerable groups).
• Expansion of micro-credit scheme supported by
  GTZ/UNPD focusing on poor women for
  sustainable livelihoods.
                                                 13
      NATIONAL RESPONSE
• Establishment of National HIV/AIDS/TB/STI
  Council in 2002 to strengthen Multi-sectoral
  response to HIV/AIDS and needs of those living
  in poverty who are affected by the multiple
  impacts of the epidemic.
• A rapid scaling–up of PMTCT programmes to all
  pregnant women who are HIV positive, and this
  entails increased access to VCT and ART
  services. (follow-up to the declaration of
  commitment to HIV/AIDS- UNGASS ).
                                               14
     NATIONAL RESPONSE
• Integration of OVCs and street kids into
  Zambia National Service camps for
  rehabilitation and empowerment of lifelong
  skills and trades.
• Scale –up of Community schools for the
  vulnerable children.



                                           15
              CONCLUSION
• The Zambian Government has taken HIV/AIDS
  and Poverty issues very seriously as it relates to
  the Poverty Reduction Strategic Paper which
  was the cornerstone for Zambia reaching HIPC
  completion point.
• The impact HIV/AIDS has on social, economic
  and political Governance in any country Zambia
  inclusive cannot be ignored.


                                                   16
               CONCLUSION
• No social, economic and political independence can be
  achieved if the vicious cycle of HIV/AIDS is not
  addressed and therefore calls for the stakeholders to
  take the pandemic extremely serious in particular
  vulnerable groups such as women and children.

• Unless there is comprehensive investment to reduce
  poverty the HIV-Poverty vicious cycle will continue



              THANK YOU.

                                                          17

				
DOCUMENT INFO