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					                  Women’s dual shift
-women’s quality of life in dual-career marriages


                       Natasza Kosakowska
                     Institute of Psychology
                      University of Gdańsk

                         in cooperation with
          Aneta Chybicka, Maria Kaźmierczak, Paulina Petrus




              Is science inspirational? Is life inspirational?!?
                    Opportunities for work-life balance

                      Science Policies Meet Reality:
                    Gender, Women, Youth and Science
                      In Central and Eastern Europe
  GENDER ROLES – theoretical overview



                GENDER ROLES


significant element of knowledge
      concerning activities and
  behaviour attributed to women
              and men

  Bem, 2000; Mandal, 2000; Eagly, 1987; Eagly, Wood, 1999;
                  Deaux, Lewis, 1983,1984
     GENDER ROLES – theoretical overview

             GENDER ROLE STEREOTYPES

 Gender roles lead to stereotype formation and maintenance
                               (Eagly, 1987)



Women’s behaviour                  Men’s behaviour
    caregivers                          independence
    supporters                          leaders
    relationship                        competence masters
     builders

 (Deaux, Lewis, 1983, 1984; Eagly i Steffen, 1983; Eagly, 1987; Hoffman i Hurt,
                               1990;Tannen, 1999)
     GENDER ROLES – theoretical overview

  Egalitarian – traditional marriage model in Poland
(CBOS, 1996, 2006); model preferences: partnership
– 41%; traditional model – 32%, CBOS, 2006)
 Decreasing number of people who claim that it is
mainly women’s duty to take care of house and
children and the men’s to be the breadwinner–
40,8% in 1994, 26,5% in 2002 (PGSS 1992-2002)
 Increasing number of women occupy managerial
posts - 35% in 2002, 38% in 2003 (PIP reports 2002-
2003)

  58% of women declare they wouldn’t resign from
their career, regardless of their husbands’ high
earnings (CBOS, 2003)
      GENDER ROLES – theoretical overview

   SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS AS A STRONG
                   BEHAVIOUR MODIFIER
                                   POLAND
  Men as a subject of stronger stereotyping
(Hort, Beverly, Leinbach, 1990; Hudak, 1993)


 Polish Mother Ethos as a strong, normative model
of feminity
(Titkow, 1995; Strykowska, 1992)


  Women’s second shift – women as a subject of
stroneger stereotyping
(Titkow, Duch-Krzysztoszek, Budrowska, 2004; Kosakowska, 2005, 2006)
     GENDER ROLES – theoretical overview



     GENDER ROLES AND INDIVIDUAL’S
                         WELL-BEING

       Relationship between men’s and women’s
  involvement in gender roles and their subjective
            well-being and marital satisfaction

(Barnett, Baruch, 1985; Moore, 1995; Lu,2000; Barnett, Hyde, 2001; Plopa,
2003; Rostowska, Rostowski,2005)
        GENDER ROLE CONFLICT?
 SCARCITY PERSPECTIVE Edwards, Rothbard, 2000

               Moore (1995)




Strategy 1                   Strategy 2
     Strategy 1            Strategy 2

• Spend more time on       • Spend more time at
  household duties           work
• Domestic work more       • Professional work
  burdensome                 more burdensome
• Receive less support     • Have more support
  from the family            from the family
• Find family roles more   • Find professional
  important
                             roles more important
• Earn less
              GENDER ROLE CONFLICT?
      Expansionist Theory (Barnett, Hyde, 2001)

1.    Multiple roles are beneficial (reflected by mental health,
      physical health and relationship health

2.    There are important processes that increase the
      beneficial effect of multiple roles:

       buffering              expanded frame of reference
       added income           increased self-complexity
       social support         similarity of experiences
       opportunities to       gender-role ideology
     experience success

3. The benefits depend on the number of roles and their time
     demands (overload and distress, role quality vs role
     quantity)
4. Strong commitment to one role does not preclude strong
     commitment in the other
                     STUDY
• How women themselves view their quality of life
  with respect to the multiple roles they have to
  meet?

• Which of the roles they consider to be the most
  important ones?

• Do they themselves claim to suffer from gender role
  conflict? Or do they benefit from multiple roles?

• Do they adopt „either- or”, „more or less”
  strategies( Moore, 1995) to deal with any
  interference caused by multiple roles?
• Are there any differences within the above
  variables, depending on the women’s choice of
  career path?
               PARTICIPANTS

• 106 women from female-oriented working
  enviroment participants


• 65 women from male-oriented working
   enviroment participants


• 40 female university researchers
*all participants were married
and had at least one child
                     METHOD
1.   Satisfaction with life scales (women’s subjective
     appraisal of quality of life), concerning different aspects
     of life (questions concerning e.g. house chores share,
     relations with partner, with children etc.)

2.   Cantril's Self-Anchoring Ladder of Life Satisfaction
     (1965)

3.   Gender role conflict scale („work-family conflict”,
     „work-family benefits”) (Moore, 1995, Frone, 2003)

4.   Perception of home and work burden and time allotted
     to the roles’ requirements and life domains (family,
     work, leisure: actual vs ideal, conditions of self-
     realization)

5.   Women’s own assessment of priorities given to each of
     the roles fulfilled
RESULTS
         Satisfaction with different aspects of life
                         (scale 1-7)

      F= 10,28
  7   p < 0,001
6,5
  6                                                              F= 7,14
                                                                p < 0,001
5,5
            F= 3,5                                                          female setting
  5        p < 0,05
4,5                                                                         male setting
  4
                                                                            university
3,5
  3
2,5
  2
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                      Role priorities
                        (scale 1-7)

6,5

 6                                                   F= 9,36
                                                   p < 0,0001
5,5
                                                                 female
 5
                                                                 male
4,5
                                                                 university
 4

3,5

 3
      wife   mother   house   head of the breadwinner   career
                                family
                  Gender role conflict


7                               F= 6,09
6
                               p < 0,001

5
      F= 5,2                                female
4
    p < 0,001
                                            male
3
                                            university
2

1

0
       conflict                  benefits
• No difference between group 1 and 2 in the level
  of overall happiness (6,67/10) higher than the
  level of average Polish woman ( 4,69/10). Young
  female researchers felt happier than the other
  two groups (7,2/10)

• All three groups would like to work less and have
  more time for family and leisure (women from
  male-working environment declared more time
  spent at work than the other two groups,
  F=6,718, p <001 and had less time to spent with
  family, F=9,29, p < 0,001)
• All three groups are more satisfied with their
  family and work aspects than leisure time
  (interests, social life etc.)

• They don’t perceive domestic roles’ burden as
  high
What conditions need to be fulfilled for your full
                self-realization?


                                    higher earnings


                                    more support from the
          2% 2% 5%
    19%                             spouse
                                    change of lifestyle


                         72%        hiring a house helper


                                    no codition given
What conditions need to be fulfilled for your full
   self-realization? – university researchers




              8%                   higher earnings
       15%
                                   more support from the
                                   spouse
                                   hiring a housekeeper
                        77%
• The declared benefits of multiple roles outscore their costs
  in all three groups (p < 0,001)

• The costs are the lowest for the women from female-
  oriented environment and the benefits the highest for
  female researchers

• All three groups declared similar work demands and
  responsibilities, but the university researchers were the
  least willing to resign from it (F= 13,7, p < 0,001)

• All three groups consider domestic and family roles as more
  important than proffesional roles (stereotypically male)

• Young female researchers seem to value their work as more
  important than the other two groups and rank their
  professional roles higher than the other two groups
CONCLUSIONS
    Women do not declare gender role conflict
      regardless of the career path chosen?



     Strategy 1               Strategy 2

• Spend more time on
  household duties            • Spend more time at work
• Domestic work more          • Professional work more
  burdensome                    burdensome
• Receive less support from   • Have more support from
  the family
                                the family
• Find family roles more
  important                   • Find professional roles
• Earn less                     more important
        GENDER ROLES




„BACKLASH
  EFFECT”
• Self-presentation as potential
  modifier of the received results

• Opportunities for work-life balance
              Superwoman syndrome?

• University researchers – career very
  important
   Thank you!

psynk@univ.gda.pl

				
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