By Le Thi Dien
                       November 2008

               Supported by: Rufford Small Grants

We would like to express our sincere thank to:

- The Rufford Small Grants program in supporting us for conducting this research;

- Hue university of Agriculture and Forestry in supporting us with equipment, staffs and time for
those who participate in the research;

- Bach Ma National Park, People’s Committee of Loc Tri in cooperating with the research team;

- The community of Khe Su in participating in the models and providing information for the

- Students in conducting researches;

- My colleagues in providing information, supporting the research team in implementing research

                                                                 The author

                                                                 Le Thi Dien


Vietnam has a distinct geographic position, one part is closely related to the terrestrial part, the
other is closely attached to the ocean. It also lies in the tropic area with high variation of the typical
tropical climate from the low mountain from the South to the semi-tropical climate in the North.
Such diverse in geography and climate has created the abundance and diversity the fauna and flora
of Vietnam of which has the potential of medicinal plants. Following the data of the Medical
Institution published in 2002, Vietnam has 3.854 flora species that are used as medicinal sources.
This source is not only diverse in number of species but also diverse in the treatment capability.
However, until now, people knowledge of these species is limited, there are many more medicinal
plant species in nature that people do not know or just a small part of it applicability.

Medicinal part is an important part of the Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and is of special
importance to local people living in the rural and mountainous area of Vietnam where the social,
economic and infrastructure conditions are low and deficit. During their development, each people
have its own tradition, knowledge and experience in using the natural medicinal plants. However,
most of the indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants are only passed with a limited scope of
the communities and are not written down for the conservation. Thus, this precious knowledge is
easy to be neglected and forgotten. Moreover, overharvesting of forest resources, the degradation of
the vegetation due to the expansion of agriculture production and constructions … has put some of
the medicinal plants in scare status and even go extinction.

Loc tri is a commune lying in the buffer zone of Bach Ma National Park, which has a very diverse
flora status. Due to the difficulties in the transportation system to the other area, local people
usually treat the common diseases by the medicinal plants in the area. Through a long time, they
have accumulated precious experiences in using medicinal plants. However, these days when the
livelihoods of local people have been improved, the infrastructure as well as transportation system
to the villages have been upgraded and the clinic system are also installed to the lowest
administrative unit (village level) thus the usage of medicinal plants were gradually less concerned
due to the fact that local people started using medicines that have quick effects and easy usage.
Moreover, the overharvesting of medicinal plants in a long time and the urgent need of cultivation
land force local people to convert the forest land – where many medicinal plants live – so that many
of the species become scare or extinct.

In order to avoid the threat of being neglected of the indigenous knowledge as well as the run out of
the medicinal plants resources, the research of conservation of medicinal plants as well as ancient
medicinal plants script are of great importance and has the meaningful value.


2.1. Project areas

Loctri lies in the buffer zone of Bach Ma National Park which is quite close to the district center,
only 3.5 km away from the district to the North-west. The South and the East is faced with Bach
Ma Range; the East is adjacent to Loc Thuy commune (Phu Loc District); the North is adjacent to
the Cau Hai Lagoon (figure 01).


                               Figure 1: The map of research area

- The forest land of the commune is 3.143 ha occupying 49.94% of natural land, this is an
advantage for forestry production especially it is possible to integrate the restoration of natural
medicinal plants and intercropping of medicinal plants under the natural forest canopy.
- The hilly area that are unused is 1.351,8 occupying 21.48% of natural land, can be used for
planting medicinal plants.
- Most of the natural land of the area is hilly area which is suitable for farm model with
agro-forestry activities of which the integration of medicinal plants are possible.

- Local people have livelihoods that are depended on forest resource and they have good knowledge
of the medicinal plants thus forest products take important roles for the household income. This is a
very good condition for developing the medicinal plant resources.
- The Abundant labour forces that have a labourous tradition are another advantage.
- Belonging to the buffer zone of Bach Ma National Park thus local people have received a lot of
programs/projects from outside. Thus the agriculture and forestry development activities in the area
have many chances, of which there are potential for the medicinal plant development. Besides, the
medicinal plant resource is well protected by the forest rangers of the National Park.

2.2. Methodologies

- Typical transects would be established through different landscape such as home garden, swidden
field, plantation forest, natural forest. On each transect there would be at least 2 standard plots of
200m2 as the representatives of different landscape. On each plot, the medicinal plants will be
identified, speciments will be collected and photo is taken. There would be discussion with local
people and after that published documents will be used to determine the local name, scientific name
of the species and families.

- Participatory Rural Apraisal (PRA) method would be used with the specific tools such as: (1)
semi-structured interview for elder people who have experience in using medicinal plants, those
who usually go to the forest especially those who work as physician in the area; and (2)
Representative meeting of those who know a lot about medicinal plant in the area.


3.1. The diverse of medicinal plants in the study area:

Through the survey, we draftly identified 120 medicinal plants species belonging to 110 genus and
67 families which are harvested and used by local people in the study area (Appendix 01). Of those
120 species surveyed:

- Distribution: There are 90 species appears to be wild; 23 were planted; 07 species existed both in
nature and also planted in the household gardens.

- Possibility of seeing in nature: 28 species has highest possibility; 59 species has high potential; 31
species has low potential and 2 species has very low potential of being seen in nature.

- Frequency of usage: 3 are estremely largely used; 30 species are commonly used; 56 are little used
and 31 are rarely used.

The diversity of the medicinal plants species in the study area are presented as followed:

3.1.1. Classification of medicinal plants following biological taxonomy

Even though the above mentioned results are not yet fully describe the medicinal plant resources in
the study area but it shows that this is a rich area of the medicinal plant potential. However, the
components of each level are not equally distributed, in the 67 families collected, there are more
than 40 families (over 50%) only have one species. This is the typical characteristics of the tropical
diversity. The ratio of families of the flora phylum is presented in table 01:

                   Table 01: Taxonomies of medicinal plants in the flora phylum

    No                        Phylum                  Families     Genus      Species    % species

     1     Lycopodiophyta (Nganh Thong dat)               1           1          1           0,83

     2     Polypodiophyta (Nganh Duong xi)                4           4          4           3,34

     3     Pinophyta (Nganh Thong)                        1           1          1           0,83

     4     Magnoliophyta (Nganh Ngoc lan)                 61         104        114          95

           Total                                          67         110        120          100

     (Source: Data collected 2008).

It can be seen that the medicinal plants in Loc Tri mostly belonging to Magnoliophyta phylum
occupying 114 species, with the ratio of 95% total number of species. Comparing to the
Magnoliophyta phylum, numbers of species of other phylum has very low ratio: Polypodiophyta
has only 4 species, occupying only 3.34%; The two other phylums are Lycopodiophyta and
Pinophyta each only has one species occupying only 0.83%.

Analysing the genus, family indexes of the Magnoliophyta phylum of the flora in the study area we
had the following results:

     - Family index is 1,87 which means each family has in average 1,9 species;

     - Genus index is 1.1 which means each genus has in average 1.1 species;

     - On average, each family has 1.7 gennuses.

With the small scope of the area and the conditions of the study area have been affected by local
people, these indexes could to some extent reflect the diversity of medicinal plant species in the
flora of the study area.

The ratio of the Liliopsida species and Magnoliopsida is one of the index that are used to evaluate
the characteristic of the flora. This is a very important index for indentifying the diversity of the
flora. Following De Candolle, the closer to the equator, the higher the diversity of the lower the
ratio of liipopsida is. The analysing of the ratio of the Liliopsida species and Magnoliopsida are as

                        Figure 02: The ratio of Magnoliopsida and liliopsida

The Magnoliopsida phylum always has higher numbers of genus and species than Liliopsidaph
phylum. For the tropical flora, this ratio at species level is 3:1. In the study area, this ratio is 3.22:1
proving that the area has typical tropical characteristic. This ratio is even higher than in Cat Tien
(2.63:1) and is equivalent to Cuc Phuong (3.29:1).

3.1.2. Classification of medicinal plants following the living forms:

The classification of 120 medicinal plant species used by local people following the living forms of
those species area presented in table 02.

              Table 02: Classification of medicinal plant species in the study area

                   Living forms                      Number of species              % of the total
    Big tree (GOL)
                                                                 2                       1,67
    Average tree (GOT)                                           3                       2,50
    Small tree (GON)                                             8                       6,67
    Bush tree (BUI)                                              5                       4,17
    Small tree or bush tree (GNB)                               24                      20,00
    Woody climber (DLG)                                          5                       4,17
    Standing herbaceous (COD)                                   25                      20,82
    Climbing herbaceous (COL)                                   48                      40,00

         Total                                                120                         100

     (Source: survey data 2008)

Through the table 02, we can see that the medicinal plants of the study area have very highly
diverse forms of living. From the tree, bushes, woody to hebarcious living forms. In the total of 8
groups the Climbing herbaceous group has the highest number of species occuppying up to
40% of the total number of species, next is the Standing herbaceous occupying 20,82% the small
tree or bushes has 20%. This is understandable because this living form is very common and they
usually live near the house or in the swidden field that are convienient for harvesting, processing as
well as preserving thus they are widely used by local people. Usually, these are the species that
local people harvest for daily use such as: Diep ca, Co muc, Tia to, Rau ma, Rau can… which has
the capability of treatment and prevention of some disease for children and woman such as: fewer,
cough, headage… The group that has lowest using ratio is big and average tree 1.67% and 2.5%
respectively. These species are distributed in the high areas which are unfavourable for harvesting
as well as limited number of species. The big tree is only of concern for timber.

            La khoi                           Binh voi                    Thach xuong bo

Thus, the harvesting of medicinal plants in the study area does not affect much to the structure of
the forest because the species used are mainly hebarcious, climbers and bushes. However, if
harvested with high concentration of some species such as Bo bo, Thach xuong bo, Sa nhan… then
the threat of losing the diversity is very high.

3.1.3. Classification of medicinal plants following the part used:

Using medicinal plant should be taken into consideration of the parts used in order to increase the
effectiveness as well as avoid the unexpected result. Because with some species, this part is useful
for treating disease while other part are toxic for health of people.

The classification of the medicinal plants following the parts used are presented in the table 03:

            Table 03: classification of the medicinal plants following the parts used

                Parts used                 Number of species                    Ratio (%)

         Whole parts                                43                             35,83

         Stump, Branches                            27                             22,5

         Leaf                                       17                             14,17

         Bud, head                                   3                             2,50

         Rood, Tupe,                                20                            16,67

         Fruit, Seed                                6                              5,00

         Bark, latex, oil                           4                              3,33

         Total                                     120                             100

     (Source: survey data 2008)

It can be identified that local people in the study area use the whole part of the plants for the
medicine; the species used occupy 35.83% of the total 120 species. This is very favourable for the
conservation and preservation of medicinal plants because for those species that can be used all part
with the same usage, we can choose to harvest those parts that are easy to recover to meet the
regular demand such as: leaf, branch, bud… and restrict harvesting those part that are difficult to
recover and have great impact to the regeneration such as root, tupe, bark, flower, fruit, seed…
Moreover, those that are harvested whole plants are mainly bushes and hebarcious. These species
have really high capability of regenerate and are abundant in nature such as: Buom bạc, Chac chiu,
Ngay, Nhan tran, Ngai cuu… thus local people usually clear cut with only the root left, this also is a
cleaning mechanism of forest that bring about the forest product but not to make them scare.
However, with those that are difficult to regenerate such as Kim tuyen, Ba kich, Bach benh, Thach
xuong bo, Vang dang, O duoc... the clear harvesting affect to the existence and regeneration ability
of the plants ad it lead to the reduction in numbers if the management and harvesting activities area
not planned.

              O duoc                      Bach benh                       Vang dang
Each medicinal plant has different part for harvesting, the processing also produce different usage
medicine. Especially medicinal plants should be harvested in the right season to bring about active
effect. The medicinal plants sometime need to be integrated with each other, if used alone one
species can be toxic such as the chó đẻ has the ability to cool down the liver and reduce liver
complaint but if it is used alone, it can make the woman being infertility. Thus, we have to use the

right time, right species, and right disease in order to high effectiveness in the measurement and
treatment of disease for local people.

3.1.4. Classification of medicinal plant following the usage:

The diversity of medicinal plants in the area lead to the diversity of usage and value of those
species. Following the experience of local people, we classify the medicinal plants into 9 groups
presented in table 04:

                   Table 04: Classification of medicinal plant following the usage value
      No                                Usage                   Number of species   Ratio %
           1         Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint              28                23,34
           2         maleria, fewer, cough, cold                         12                10,00
           3         Tonic, tranquillizer, antidotal                     13                10,83
           4         Colic, typhoid                                      15                12,50
           5         Furuncle, sore                                      11                9,17
           6         Back pain, arthraegia, Sprain                       17                14,17
           7         Snake bite,                                          4                3,32
           8         For woman                                            8                6,67
           9         Other treatments                                    12                10,00
           Total                                                         120               100

    (Source: survey data 2008)

In the 9 groups, the highest group is treatment for Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint with
23,34%. This is a group of dangerous disease and costly for treatment thus local people actively
have the prevention and treatment by available medicinal plants in the area with low cost and high
effectiveness. Local people usually use leaf of Dong, Khoi to boil for drinking water, the tupe of
Bach can be soaked with wine or the tupe of Nghe den drilled and mixed with honey bee for daily
use to treat with stomatage. Those who have Colic, typhoid use re Tranh, Co cu, Ma de… to boil
and use that water for drinking. Those who have liver complaint usually use Cho de, Nhan tran,
Cuc chi thien… because these speciec can have the ability to release toxic for liver. The next group
is for treatment of Back pain, arthraegia, Sprain with 14,17%. Local people usually use Sam bong
bong to boil or soaked with wine to reduce weary. Day dau xuong, Day com nguoi, Kim cang for
boiling for Sprain treatment. The groups with lowest number of species used is for snake bite with
the ratio of 3,32%.

          Nhan tran                          La khoi                        Kim cang
3.1.5. Diversitification of medicinal plant following the habitat:

Through the surveys and interview local people and after that crosscheck the information through
groups discussion with knowledgable people of medicinal plants in the study area, we identified
habitat and distribution of the medicinal plants in the study area, the result is showed in table 05:

        Table 05: Medicinal plants classification in the study area following the habitats

   No          Habitat         No of species only      No of species    Ratio of no of species in
                                existed in each          in each       each habitat/total species
                                    habitat              habitat               surveyed

    1      Natural forest                27                  73                    60,83

    2      Plantation forest             0                   67                    55,83

    3      Home garden                   23                  67                    55,83

               Total species surveyed                       120

     (Source: survey data 2008)

Through table 05, we can see that natural forest is the habitat that have highest number of
medicinal plant species that local people use most (73 species) occupying 60,83% of the total
number of species surveyed. However, this ratio is not that different compared to other ratio of
species distributed in plantation forest and home garden (only 5% different). This means that the
medicinal plants species used by local people distribute quite balance in different habitats. This
does not mean that plantation forest and home garden has the diversity of medicinal plants as in the
natural forest but because due to the tradition of local people, they usually use those medicinal
plants that are close to the household that is easy for finding and harvesting. Thus, even though
natural forest has higher diversity of the medicinal plant species but due to difficult transportation
so local people has low access and knowledge to these diversed resources. Most of them are only
concerned to high value medicinal plant species that can only be found in natural forest such as Re

huong, Kim tuyen, Thach xuong bo… As in the survey, there are 27 species used by local people
only be found in the natural forest. In reality these species exist with low quantity due to the
overharvesting. Because of that, there need to have conservation measures to these species by
protecting, restoring in order to preserve the gene to help them recover.

In the home garden habitat, there are 23 species used as medicinal plants that are not distributed in
natural forest such as: Dao tien, Hoan ngọc, Huyet du, Dinh lang, Trinh nu hoang cung… these are
species that have been brought from other place to plant in the garden. This is an advantage in order
to develop the community-based conservation and development models of medicinal plants.

In the plantation habitat, even though there are 67 species used by local people has the distribution
in this habitat, but there are none of them could only be seen in plantation forest. This is due to the
fact that all the plantation forest in the area are originally from natural forest that have been
converted to plantation forest thus the vegetation of these area still have the natural forest’s
characteristics. Besides, there are some species that have original from home garden and do not
exist in plantation forest Nghe den, Nghe vang… but local people plant in these area to explore the
potential of space under the un-close plantation forest canopy. Thus local people usually plant
Thien nien kien, Re quat, Sa, Nghe, Gung, Sa nhan…under the plantation forest in order to increase
the income as well as conserve and develop the medicinal plant species in the area.

     Home garden habitat              Plantation habitat            Natural forest habitat

3.2. Knowledge in harvesting, using of medicinal plants of local people:

Being a community living near forest and within the buffer zone of Bach Ma National Park thus
local people of Loc Tri has the potential to access the diverse and abundant medicinal plant
resources. Thanks to this, even the clinic system is quite developed nowadays and the western
medicines are widely distributed, some local people still use the medicinal plants for disease
treatment because they consider the western medicines are dangerous, they can treat with one
disease but it contain the possibility of creating other. For them, traditional medicinal plants have
slow effect but less side-effect, available and no cost. However, as the physician, elder people in
the area, the demand of using traditional medicinal plants have reduced due to the development of
the western medicine, especially the young generation that keen on these products due to the

fashion of quick and effective of western medicines. This is one of the reasons that traditional
medicinal plants are being neglected especially when the elders pass away, most of the precious
medicinal plants are out of concerns of local people for disease treatment. Thus, from right now,
there should be researches in order to document the precious traditional local knowledge in
harvesting, utilizing the medicinal plant resources.

The traditional harvesting of local people mostly depending on the distribution of the species, as
Thach xuong bo usually lie along the stream, on the rock edge. Kim tuyen lie in the hole in the rock
which has high humus. Son thuc growths in the moist land that have thick layer of rotten leaves
under the forest canopy. Nap am usually growths in muddy area or along the farm. It is also
depended on the growth period of each species to have different harvesting time to ensure the
highest amount of active contamination. For example, harvesting of root, tupes of Gung, Nghe,
Binh voi… is implemented in the beginning of spring or starting of winter because in this hard
time, the tree is dried out and the active contamination concentrate into the root or tupe. For those
to harvest bud or leaf such as Hoan ngoc, Dua, Quay cho… are harvest in the spring-summer. For
those to harvest flowers is at the time of blooming season. For the fruits is to harvest when the fruit
is ripen such as Gac, Vong vang, Day trun. However, the harvesting of medicinal plants usually
takes place in the free day of agriculture leisure time or with the integration of other forest product
harvesting such as: hatch leave, Rattan, hunting…

Medicinal plants are mainly harvested for household usage; some are sold in the market but not that
much. There are some physicians in the area but they do not harvest with large amount for storage
but only go to harvest with the requirement from the patients. On average, the processing of these
products is primative such as dried in the sun or fire. The medicinal plants are used diversely with
different target. Some are soaked with wine for restorative medicine, back pain treatment such as
Ba kich, Sam bong bong, Thach xuong bo, O duoc.... Women usually use Huong nhu, Buom bac,
Ngai cuu, Co sua, Bum bup… to boil for drink after giving birth. For the kids, the green leaves are
boiled or grilled to treat with fewer such as Kop, Co nho noi, Re quat, La bong…

Those medicinal plants used by local people have different distribution and habitat: in the forest, in
the swidden field, some wildly growth along the roads, in the home garden. Besides, some
medicinal plants are planted in the home garden and used as vegetation, medicines and when
necessary can be sold to increase income such as Diep ca, Sa, La lot, Gung, Nghe den, Nghe vang...
The survey result of medicinal plants that are most planted in the home garden is presented in table

      Table 06: List of medicinal plants planted in the home gardens

No           Name                           Usage                      Mục đích

1    Bong bong         Restorative, detocicating                          +

2    Chuoi tieu        Treatment for diabetis                             +

3    Co dau            Urenic                                             +

4    Ma de             Urenic                                             +

5    Dao tien           Anorexia, insomnia                                +

6    Diep ca            Furuncle, sore                                    +

7    Dinh lang          Back pain, arthraegia, Sprain                     +

8    Dua                Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint            +

9    Dua can            maleria, fewer, cough, cold                       +

10   Gac                Pain relief                                       ++

11   Gung               maleria, fewer, cough, cold                       ++

12   Hoan ngoc          Colic, typhoid                                    +

13   Huyet du           For woman disease                                 +

14   Khe                Alergic                                           +

15   Kho sam            Colic, typhoid                                    +

16   La Mo              Colic, typhoid                                    +

17   Lo hoi             Colic, typhoid                                    +

18   Lot                Furuncle, sore                                    +

19   Ngai cuu           Pregnancy pain                                    +

20   Nghe den           Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint            ++

21   Nghe vang          Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint            ++

22   Oi                 Colic, typhoid                                    +
       23      Rau can              High blood pressure                                    +

       24      Re quat              Digestion system                                       +

       25      Sa                   Cold                                                  ++

       26      Sam dai hanh         Stop blood bleeching                                   +

       27      Tam phong            Red eyes                                               +

       28      Thuoc bong           fewer                                                  +

       29      Tia to               Cold, headage                                          +

       30      Vu sua               Stomatchage                                            +

     (Source: survey data and discussion 2008)

     Note: +: For household usage;             ++: For sale

                                     Meeting with local people

Of those species, as stated by local people, Nghe den has highest value, the price of 1kg of
pre-processed is 70-90,000 VND and usually in hot sale. This is not the original species from the
area, it was provided by Bach Ma National Park for the program of building up the medicinal home
garden in the Khe Su village, one of the many that lie in the buffer zone of the Park. From then,
people realized the economical value as well as the biological suitability of this species and they try
to find out the seedling to expand the model. Also in this program, the Park provided other
medicinal species such as Huyet du, Sam bong bong, La khoi, Re quat… but these species do not
have the market and have low economic potential thus they do not get the concern of local people.
From this point, we can see that, in order to develop the community-based medicinal development
model, it is needed to deal with the market for the products so that local people would be willing to

                                  Medicinal plants processing

Through time, local people experience with testing, practises, learning and accumulating
experiences in utilizing medicinal plant following precies treatment group. From the survey, the
research group has recognized 9 groups of treatments that are used by local people within the

- Group of treatment for Stomatage, Nephrolith, liver complaint including of species: Binh voi,
Nghe den, Nghe vang, Co cu, Thach xuong bo, O dưoc, Lau do, La dong, Cuc chi thien, Chac chiu,
Tiet de, Ma de, Ngay, Co muc, Cho de, Ha thu o do, Thanh nganh, Nhan tran, Co tranh, Rau can…

- Group of treatment for maleria, fewer, cough, cold including species: Tia to, Hanh, Cuc tan,
Gung, Cuc chi thien, Re quat, Nho noi, Rau sam, Thai lai tia, Sa, Oi, Ngai cuu, La bong…

- Group of treatment for Tonic, tranquillizer, antidotal: Ha thu o do, Ngay tia, Nhan tran, Buom
bac, Thach xuong bo, Bong bong, Ba kich…

- Group of treatment for Colic, typhoid: Co nho noi, Rau ma, Co sua, Rau sam, Oi, Sa, Quyt,

- Group of treatment for Furuncle, sore: Bo cong anh, Ke dau ngua, Tho phuc linh, vong vang…

- Group of treatment for Back pain, arthraegia, Sprain: Nhau, Ngai cứu, Buoi bung, Chia voi, Day
dau xuong, Cuc tan, Ngai cuu, La lot, Thien nien kien, Gac, Rau can…

- Group of treatment for snake bite: Nghe vang, Tia to, Bay la mot hoa, Lau…

- Group of treatment for woman disease: Co cu, Ngai cuu, Ngay, Che vang, Nhan tran, Buom bac,
Huyet du, Co nho noi, Re quat, Ich mau, Cu gau, Diep ca…

- Other treatment group: Rau ma, Dua, Khuc khac, To dieu, Sam dại hanh, Khe, Co hoi…

3.3. Threats to medicinal plant resources in the study area:

The medicinal plant resources in the area are really great. Even though there has many supports and
concerns from the local authorities, conservation groups and expecially from the Management
Board of Bach Ma National Park and the participation of local people in conserving the medicinal
plant resources in the area. However, the medicinal plant resources in the area are threatened by
many other reasons. Through group discussion and meetings with those who has good knowledge
of the medicinal plant resources, everybody agreed to lay down the different threats to the
medicinal plant resources that create the degradation of medicinal plants reosurces in the area
(Table 07).

                Table 07: Threats to the medicinal plant resources in the area

     No                            Threats                           Degree of affecting

        1     Degradation of the vegetation cover                           ++++

        2     Overharvesting                                                ++++

        3     Waste of medicinal plant recources                             ++

        4.    Increase of the usage demand                                    +

        5     Chang of crop composition                                     +++

        6     Swidden field, forest plantation                              +++

        7     Un-docummented of indegenous knowledge                        +++

        8     Development of western medicines                               ++

        9     People do not want to share their experiences                  ++

    (Source: survey data and discussion 2008)

Note:         ++++: Very serious             +++: Serious

              ++: Medium                     +: Low

- Degradation of the vegetation cover: Due to the pressure of the population growth, livelihoods
and development activities such as expansion of cultivation land, forest product harvesting, road
building, building of eco-tourism area expecially the clearing of natural forest to set up plantation
forest have cause serious degradation of the vegetation cover. The degradation of the vegetation
covers lead to the direct affect to the medicinal plant resource as well as destroys their living
harbitat. Moreover, the usage of pesticides in the home garden, plantation forest have make the
vegetation in genenral and medicinal plants in specific go extinct and meet with difficulties to

- Overharvesting: It means harvesting over the restoring capability of medicinal plants. This is
cause by population blooming and greater demand of medicinal plants not only for domestic use
but also for export. In reality, the harvesting of medicinal plants in the area is under great
interference of the market. Any medicinal plant has high economic value would be under great
threat of extraction by local people without planning and protection measurement. They do not care
at all to the existence of those species. Such plants as Vang dang, Ba Kich, Re huong, Thien nien
kien etc that have widely distributed in the area previously but up to this moment, they are really

- Waste of the medicinal plant resources: due to the lack of techniques and equipments for
processing and storaging. In the area, there are some physicians, they harvest the medicinal plant
resouces in large amount to sell and store for time that those medicinal plant species can not be
harvested such as Sa nhan, Kim tien thao… However, these medicinal plants were only dried under
the sun so if it rain after the harvest those harvested products would be useless. Moreover, if they
are used afterward, the quality of the products would be very low.

- Increase of the usage demand: People recognise the safety and easiness of usaged of medicines
from medicinal plants, they seem to turn back to use medicines and products that originally from
plants. Moreover, with the development of science especially in the physic, people discover new
medicine that can treat with new disease thus medicinal plants are being harvested with higher
speed and they are hardly to recover. Following elder people in the village, Vang dang was
abundant in the area but after being harvest to sell to medicinal companies and they are now very
scared; or Thạch xuong bo which used to growth along the streams nearby but now people have to
go very far into the forest to see them.

- Chang of crop composition: Many household and the community land that used to be plants with
traditional medicinal plants are now removed and converted into high yield crops for the economic
development purposes. Previously, the gardens of those people such as Le Ngoc Toan, ông Truong
Van Nguyen, Nguyen Chu in Khe Su village have many medicinal plant species and were tended
well especially the garden of Mr. Le Ngoc Toan which have been highly valued by local people and
have been visited by many groups coming to Bach Ma National Park. However, recently the
income from the gardens is not high so they were converted to plant the citrus tree group.

- The clearance of natural forest for swidden field and the plantation forest development project
have reduce the area of medicinal plants, which make many species difficult to develop and even
the loss of genetic such those species as Ba kich, Re quat, Son thuc…

- The local knowledge usages of medicinal plants have not been docummented. Most of the
knowledge of usage of medicinal plants of those communities are transferred by verbal expression
from generation to generation and are not recorded thus it is very easy to disappear, that lead to the
fact that the young generation do not concern about medicinal plants and of course they would not
concern of restoring these precious resources. Following the people of Khe Su village, the father of
Mr. Truong Van Nguyen knew many precious prescriptions and had treated for many people in the
village but when he got old, those prescriptions have not been transferred to anybody. This is a
waste of resources.

- The development of morden medicine and the look down upon the traditional experiences:
Nowadays, with the development of the transfering system of morden medicine as well as it fast
effect have made people toward using of morden medicine and do not concern about those
medicinal plants that have slow effects. This easily leads to the degradation of the traditional
knowledge of using medicinal plants.

- People do not want to share their knowldege of using medicinal plants: Many people have good
prescriptions but they do not want to let other know and they want to keep that for them and their
falily only, usually, they only transfer to people within the falily, clan so it can be easily lossed.
During the survey for the research, we also meet with difficulties because some people do not want
to share their knowledge, they do not answer the questionaire or only answer with general manner
and even when they are invited to the meeting or discussion of the medicinal plant, they also refuse
to participate.

In summary, the medicinal plant resources in the area have been and are threatened due to the fact
that natural habitat of them are reduced, most of the high economic value have been down in
number, some of the rare species would go extinct. Moreover, the current management strategies
are not really suitable, there have not been any clear regulation for the harvesting, utilizing of
medicinal plants; local people freely go harvesting without plans. The harvesting are not in
accordance with protecting, restoring or in other words, medicinal plants are not sustainably used.

The following table show threat level to some medicinal plants in the study area following the red
book of Vietnam (1996).

     Bảng 08: List of medicinal plants in the study area that are threatened by extinction due
                                     to overharvesting

   No                        Scientific name                      Local name       Threat levels

    1     Paris poyphylla Sm. Var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara.     Bay la mot hoa           R

    2     Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.               Kim tuyen                 E

    3     Ardisia silvestris Pit.                               La khoi                   V

    4     Nepenthes annamensis Macfarl.                         Nap am                    R

    5     Lindera myrrha (Lour) Merr.                           O dưoc                    V

    6     Cinnamomum parthenoxylon                              Re huong                  K

    7     Coscinium fenestratum (Gagn.) Colebr.                 Vang dang                 V

    8     Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.                      Day dau xuong             K

    9     Smilax glabra Roxb.                                   Tho phuc linh             V

    10    Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr. 1906              Ngu gia bi gai            T

     (Source: survey data 2008)


             (E): Endangered, threatened with extinction.

             (V): Vunerable can be extincted.

             (R): Rare, can be vunerable.
           (T): Threatened.

           (K): Listed in the list but with insufficient data.

             Ngu gia bi gai                         Tho phuc linh            Bay la mot hoa

Above are list of medicinal plants which have been ideintified in the area with the reduction in
amount seriously due to the overharvesting to provide the higher demand of users, their distribution
habitat are being reduced due to human activities. Thus the conservation and development of
medicinal plants in general and the above mentioned species are critical for the local authorities.

3.4. Choosing important medicinal plants for the propagation and conservation with the
participation of local people

From the criteria of: (+) High value of disease treatment; (+) Important to local community which
have been widely used; (+) Species which can be traded in the future; (+) Currently rare species,
hard to find, local people want to restore and develop; (+) Species that have the ability to live in dry
area, easy to plant. The research group worked with local people and find out a list of medicinal
plants species which have been suggested by local people:

            Table 09: medicinal plants species suggested for expansion by local people

    No                    Local name                               Scientific names

     1          Ba kich trang                       Morindada cochinchinensis DC.

     2          Kho sam                             Croton tonkinensis Gagnep.

     3          Lo hoi                              Aloe vera L.

     4          Re quat                             Belamcanda sinensis Lem.

     5         Sam bong bong                     Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook.

     6         Sam dai hanh (Toi Lao)            Eleutherine Subaphylla Gagnep

     7         Thach xuong bo                    Acorus tatarinowi Schott

     8         Tho phuc linh                     Smilax glabra

     9         Ha thu o do                       Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    10         La khoi                           Ardisia silvestris

    11         O duoc (Dau dang)                 Lindera myrrha (Lour) Merr.

    12         Vang dang                         Coscinium usitatum

    13         Ngu gia bi gai                    Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr. 1906

    14         Nghe den                          Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe.

      (Source: Group discussion and village meeting 2008)

The medicinal plants chosen by local people for restoring and expanding in the area includes 14
species. This is the demand and disire of local people, they wish their knowledge of utilizing
traditional medicinal plants could be restored and conserved as well as being expanded, especially
to transfer to their younger generation.

From this, local people also suggested some solutions for conserving, developing these species in
the area, they are presented in the table 10.

      Table 10: Some solutions for conserving, developing of medicinal plants raised by local

    No       Species            Method                Advantages                Disadvantages

     1     Ba kich        Plant in the home    - Suitable for the local       - Lack of seed
           trang          garden,              climate                        sources
                          intercroping under
                                               - High demand from the
                          plantation forest

     2     Kho sam        Plant by stump or    - Available seed source        - Low market
                          seed in the home                                    demand
                                               - Easy to plant, less labour
               garden in the         needed

3   Lo hoi     Plant in the home     - Naturally distrubute in      - Low market
               garden                the area.                      demand

                                     - Available seed sources.      - Hard to process
                                                                    and restore

4   Re quat    Intercroping under    - Suitable for the local       - Unformed market
               forsest canopy,       climate
                                                                    - Easy to die in
               under fruit trees I
                                     - Available seed sources.      flooding condition
               the home garden
                                     - Suitable for dry

5   Sam bong   Plant in the home     - Suitable for hot and dry     - Unformed market
    bong       garden or swidden     season
                                                                    - Lack of
               field by stump or
                                     - Available seed sources.      processing and
                                                                    restoring techniques

6   Sam dai    Plant in the home     - Available seed sources.      - Low market
    hanh       garden or swidden                                    demand
                                     - Easy to palnt, less labour
               field by stump or

7   Thach      Plant along the    - High value in the               - Difficult to find
    xuong bo   stream, moist area market.                           seed sources
               with running water
                                  - Under the concerns of           - Low experience in
                                  many people by its usage.         planting and

8   Tho phuc   - planting under      - Easy to palnt, less labour No seed sources in
    linh       forest canopy         cost                         the area

                                     - Huge market demand

9    Ha thu o do   - Plant in the        - High market demand.       - Lack of seed
                   home garden or                                    sources
                                         - High value.
                   under plantation
                   forest canopy.

10   La khoi       - Plant in the        - High market demand.       - Difficult to find
                   home garden or in                                 seed sources
                                         - Under the concerns of
                   the swidden field.
                                         many people by its usage    - Low experience in
                                         for stomatch treament.      planting and

11   O duoc        - Restoring in      - High market demand.         - Difficult to find
                   nature, plant under                               seed sources
                                       - Naturally distribute in
                   plantation forest
                                       the area.

12   Vang dang     - Restoring in        - High market demand.       - Difficult to find
                   nature, plant under                               seed sources
                                         - High value.
                   plantation forest,
                                                                     - Low experience in
                   swidden field or      - Naturally distribute in
                                                                     planting and
                   home garden           the area.

13   Ngu gia bi    - Restoring in        - High market demand.       - Hard to manage
     gai           nature,
                                         - Available seed sources.   - Low experience in
                   - plant under                                     planting and
                   plantation forest                                 tending

14   Nghe den      Plant in the home     - High value.               - Harvesting,
                   garden                                            processing and
                                         - Available seed sources,
                                                                     storing in primative
                                         suitable for local
                                                                     nature so it is very
                                                                     easy to be rotten,
                                         - Local people have         degraded.
                                         eexperience in planting,

      (Sources: Group discussion, 2008)

            Lo hoi                   Re quat                         Sam bong bong

3.5. The result of buiding up collection garden

        - Scale: 2 ha.

      - Vegetation treatment: treat the forest canopy in order to provide enough light for the
medicinal plants model below. Weeding, create favourable condition for planting.

     - Preparation of the holes: the size is depended on species: 20cmx20cmx30cm or

        - Distance: depending on the species.

        - Planting partern: intercroping under forest canopy into plots

        - Fertilizer: lay down the fertilizer before planting.

        - Time: From February to April 2008.

Hereafter are some techniques of planting some species in the collection model:

                     Table 11: Techniques of planting some medicinal plants
 No             Species                            Planting and tending technique
  1     Ba kich (Morinda          * Creating of seedlings:
        officinalis How.)         There are two way of producing seedlings: from the seeds and
                                  from the stump:
                                  - From the seed:
                                  + Collecting of fruit: only take the fruits from 3 years old mother
                                  plants, taking the red ones:
                                  After harvesting, put the fruits into a bag to keep for several days
                                  to let the skin ripe, take out to rub and clean with water, take the

seeds and put in the shading area to dry. After processing, it
should be bring to sow immediately.
+ Sowing: Using the nylon bag with 5-7cm diameter and height
of 12-15cm. The compositions of the bag include 78% soft soil
+ 20% decomposed manure + 2% Phosphorus. Bag packed are
folded in to bed. Use a stick to put a hole of 2cm and put 3-4
seeds in to each bag, cover with soil. Cover the bags and water
Time in the nursery garden until transplantation is 6-7 months,
the seedlings used for plantation is 20-25cm high.
- Creating seedlings from stumps:
+ Choosing and cutting of stump: take the stumps from 3 years
old mother plants; take the whole part from the main trunk
without the green tops. Chose the trunk or branches with > 3mm
diameter and has 1-3 internodes with 2-4 knots. Each stump is
25-35 cm long and cut all the leave. Stumps are raised
+ Time of rising: In the spring or autumn time. .
+ Raising technique: make floating bed with small slits 10 cm
depth on the bed, distance between slits is 30cm. Put the stumps
in the slit with the angle of 450, stump by stump 5cm then cover
with 2-3cm of soil and jam. Cover and watering sufficiently.
Standard stump for plantation is when the secondary shoots get
the height of 20-25cm, with 5-6 pair of leaves and the length of
root is about 5-7cm.
- Tending of the planted seedlings:
Watering sufficiently, in the first time water everyday in the
early morning or late afternoon. When the plant growth stably,
water sufficiently 2 – 3 day a time.
Break the soil cover 7-10 days to ensure the soil soft and
well-aired. When the plant has more than 3 pair of leaves,
fertilize with a composition of 70-80% decomposed manure +
20-30% phosphorus.
Seedlings from seeds in the nursery time use to be disease; the
measurement is to have good cleaning of the nursery, do not let
the water saturation and waste accumulation, do not use the

                       fresh manure. When the disease occurs, take out and set on fire
                       of diseased plants and spray of all the nursery with Boocdo 0.5%
                       with the amount of 1 litre/m2.
                       * Planting mode:
                       - Choosing and soil preparation:
                       + Choose a high, fertile and moisture place (not saturated area)
                       + Deeply dig the soil, let the soil exposed to air, and make beds
                       with 20-30cm high, 60 cm width (for one row) or 1 m (for two
                       + The hole is 20 cm depth, 30 cm width, 60 cm away from each
                       other. Decomposed manure is 500 g/hole.
                       - Planting:
                       + Season: from March to April
                       + The stump cut is planted right away after cutting, each hole
                       can be planted 2 - 3 stumps.
                       + Put the stump in, jam the soil and only out to the air 1-3cm.
                       + Cover with straw
                       * Tending:
                       - Regularly water to keep moisture.
                       - After 6-7 months make the frame for the plant to climb.
                       - Weeding and turning the soil 1-2 times/year.
                       - In the second year, apply about 3 kg of decomposed manure or
                       0,3 kg NPK fertilizer/plant.
2   Bach bo (Stemona   * Planting:
    tuberosa Lour.)    - Choose the moisture, drainage and humus soil.
                        - Seed source: from seeds or foot bud, foot bud is better.
                        - Planting:
                        + Season: in the spring when having rain, at the beginning of
                        rainy season, or in autumn time.
                        + Planting in holes or bed with 0,8-1 m width.
                        + Make the hole with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                        + Each hole is planted with 2-3 stumps.
                       + Put the stump inclined, only out to the air with 1-3cm.
                       + Covered with straw.
                       * Tending:

                          - Weeding and turning the soil around the foot of the plant with
                          the area of 0,5-0,8m.
                          - When the plant is 20 cm high, make the frame for it to clime.
                          - Adjusting the shading of 0,4-0,5.
3   Binh voi (Stephania   * Planting:
    rotunda Lour.)        - Choose the moisture, drained and low acid soil.
                          - Seed source: collect the mature fruits, put under the shade to
                          let it dry. Slightly rub it to open the cover and then bring to
                          - But the seeds into warm water (3 hot, 2 cold) in 15-30
                          minutes. Take out and let it to drain. Put in beds which are 5 - 6
                          cm depth, 20-25cm away from each others. Use the silky soil to
                          cover the seeds and water. Make the frame to let the shade
                          around 30-40%. Weeding and turning the soil regularly.
                          - Standard of Seedlings: 10-15cm height, has 3-4 leaves without
                          diseases and pets.
                          - Planting season: in the spring when having rain, at the
                          beginning of rainy season, or in autumn time.
                          - Planting in the holes or in beds 0,8-1m width.
                          - Hole with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                          - Plant by bare stumps but it should be covered by soil around
                          the root. Dig the hole then put the stump straight, cover with soil
                          then jam hard. Cover the area by straw.
                          * Tending:
                          - Weeding, turning the soil with the area of 0,5-0,8 m around the
                          foot of the plant.
                          - put the frame for the plants to climb.
                          - Adjust the shade from 0,4 to 0,5.
4   Bo beo (Gomphandra * Planting:
    tonkinensis Gagnep.) - Weeding, dig the hole 1 m away from each other, put the
                         decomposed fertilizer covered with soil.
                          - Use the seeds.
                          - Planting: sow directly the seeds into the hole.
                          * Tending:
                          Weeding, turning the soil, watching for pet and diseases to have
                          suitable preventive measurement.

5   Bong bong             * Planting:
    (Dracaena             - Choosing and preparing land:
    angustifolia Roxb.)   + Plough and turn the land, weeding, and making the beds.
                          + Dig holes with the depth of 25-30cm, put down basic
                          fertilizers (about 300g decomposed manure/hold) cover with
                          - Seedlings: Choose the moderate branches to cut into stumps of
                          25-30cm long or take the regenerated seedlings to plant.
                          - Planting:
                          + Season: Spring
                          + Put the stumps with the angle of 450, cover with soil 2/3 of the
                          stump and jam the soil, cover the foot with straw. Plant alternate
                          beds, each stump are 20-25cm long from each others.
                          + Sufficiently water. About 15-20 days, the stump will
                          * Tending:
                          - After the bud grow, in the sunny days, there need to have
                          sufficient watering.
                          - Through out the growth of the plants, check to pick out
                          pestilent insect.
7   Che vang (Jasminum    * Planting:
    subtriplinerve        - Choosing and preparing soil:
    Blume)                + Choose the clear place with fertile, soft, drained soil around
                          forest, hill or along the road, open area in forest.
                          + Make holes with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                          - Seedlings: Cut the stump with moderate trunks with the
                          diameter of 0,6-0,8cm, and the length of 20-25cm, raise in sand
                          about 15-20 days to take roots, take the stumps into bags with
                          the composition of 1/2 sandy soil and 1/2 silk soil. Three months
                          old plants with the length of the bud of 2 – 5 cm can be brought
                          to plant.
                          - Planting:
                          + Season: Spring or Autumn.
                          + Put the stumps straight, covered with soil, jam hard.
                          + Cover the foot of the plant with straw.

                            * Tending:
                            - Weeding and turning the soil around the foot.
                            - Make the frame for the plants to climb.
8   Dinh lang (Polyscias * Planting:
    fruticosa (L.) Harms.) - Choosing and preparing land: choose the fertile, high and dry,
                           soft soil. Weeding, dig holes 3 m away from each other with the
                           size of 30x30x30cm, put the basic fertilizer and cover with soil .

                            - Seedlings: raise from branches.
                            - Season: Spring or Autumn.
                            - Planting: Planting right away from cutting stumps, covered
                            with soil of 2/3 of the stump, jam and cover foot with straw.
                            * Tending:
                            Weeding and turning soil 1 – 2 times/year.
9   Gung (Zingiber          * Planting:
    officinale Rosc.)       - Can be planted all year round but best in Summer.
                            - Choose big and undamaged tubes for planting.
                            - The bed should be ensured to drain quickly. Make the bed with
                            the high of 20-25cm, and with the width of 60-70cm.
                            - On the bed, dig holes with distance of 30-40cm, in the hilly
                            area, no need to make the beds.
                            * Tending:
                            - After planting, it is needed to turn the soil, wedding and pile up
                            the foot of the plant until it form the tube.
                            - Put the straw, rice husk in the planting area. Fertilizer should
                            be applied to make the good growth of the plants.

10   Hoang dang           * Planting:
     (Fibraurea recisa    - Choose the moisture, drained and soft soil.
     Pierre)              - Seed sources:
                          + Stumps are taken from 2 – 5 years old mother plants. Stumps
                          are 20-30cm long, raise right after cutting.
                          + Stumps are fixed in ditches, water sufficiently. Straw is
                          removed when the stumps have buds. Shading should be
                          30-40%, watering and tending until the seedlings meet the
                          standard requirements.
                          - Planting:
                          + Season: Spring or Autumn
                          + Plant in holes or in ditches with the width of 0,8-1m.
                          + Dig holes with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                          + Put the seedlings straight, cover soil fully, jam. Cover with
                          + Make the frame for the plants to climb.
                          * Tending:
                          - Weeding and turning soil around the foot of plants. .
                          - Make the frame for the plants to climb.
                          - Adjusting the shade from 0,4-0,5.
11   Kim ngan (Lonicera   * Planting:
     japonica Thunb.)     - Raising by branches: best time is Spring or Autumn.
                          - Choose the moderate branches then cut with the length of
                          15-20cm. Round it up to make a circle and put in the holes, then
                          cover with soil. The buds will come out after 10-16 days.
                          When the plant grows, make the frame for the plant to climb.
                          * Tending:
                          - Apply fertilizer 2-3 times/year.
                          - In the Autumn, it is needed to repair the frame and prune the
                          aged branches to let the young ones grow.

12   Kim tien thao          - Choosing and preparing soil: not a soil selective plant except
     (Desmodium             for saturation or too much shading.
     styracifolium (Osb.)   - Seedling sources: can be plant by stump from trunk or
     Merr)                  branches but the best is from to sow directly from seeds because
                            of the availability of the seeds.
                            - The best time for sowing and planting is Spring or rainy
                            season. Put the seeds into hot water (3 hot + 2 Cold) in 4 – 5
                            hours, take out to mix with ash, sand then sow, cover with soil
                            of 2 – 3 cm and then straw. Take out the straw when the seeds
                            germinate. When the seedlings has 3-5 leaves then adjust the
                            density with the distance 0,8 x 0,8 m; when the seedlings has 6 -
                            10 pile up the foot, fertilize with decomposed manure or
                            chemical fertilizers.
13   La khoi (Ardisia       * Planting:
     sylvestris Pitard.)    - Choosing and preparing soil: moisture soil along stream, river
                            with high shading. Make and turn the soil around the foot of the
                            plant with the size of 20cm x 20cm x 20cm.
                            - Seedlings: From seeds or raising.
                            + Seeds harvested in December and sow right away from
                            harvesting in moisture sand. After 15 to 20 the seeds germinate.
                            Take out and put into the bag. The composition of the bag is 1/2
                            sand + 1/2 clay. Put the bags under shading, watering regularly.
                            After 3 months, the seedlings can be planted.
                            + Stump taken from the mother plants (choose the one that have
                            diameter from 1-1,5cm). Cut into section of 20-35cm. Put those
                            sections into moisture sand. After the stumps take root, take and
                            put into the bag (as from the seeds).
                            - Planting:
                            + Season: Spring or Autumn.
                            + Put the plants straight, cover with soil, and jam then cover
                            with straw.
                            + Make the frame to let the plant climb.
                            * Tending:
                            - Weeding and turning the soil.
                            - Adjusting the shading of 0,6-0,7.

14   Lo hoi (Aloe vera L.)   * Planting:
                             - Choosing and preparing soil: sloppy land, drained. Dig and
                             make the bed with 30-40cm height, with of 40-50cm, hole from
                             hole is 40-50cm, apply fertilizer, cover with soil of 3-5cm.
                             - Seedlings: small plants.
                             - Planting: put the seedlings straight, put the soil, jam.
                             - Water sufficiently.
                             * Tending:
                             - Water in hot and dry day.
                             - Weeding, piling foot when the plant grows.
15   Mia do (Costus          * Planting:
     speciosus (Koening)     - Choosing and preparing soil: deep soil, moisture, with the
     Smith)                  shading..
                             - Seedlings: there are some kind of making seedlings as
                             + From seeds: collect seed and sow to meet the requirements.
                             + Cut the buds near the trunk to raise.
                             + Cut the young trunk with some roots when harvesting to
                             - Planting: minimum distance between hold is 0,8m. Dig the
                             hole, put the seedlings straight, pile up the foots of the plants.
                             - Put basal fertilizer by decomposed manure.
                             * Tending:
                             Watering, keeping the moisture in the dry and hot season,
                             weeding, piling up the foot and apply fertilizer for the plants.
16   Nghe den (Curcuma       * Planting:
     zedoaria (Berg.)        - Soil preparation: soft and drained soil, make the bed with the
     Roscoe.)                width of 1-1,2m, with the height of 20-25cm. Apply phosphorus.
                             - Seedlings made from good tube roots, divided the root into
                             small part and put into the hole.
                             - Plant tube by tube with the distance of 20 – 25 cm and row by
                             row with 30 – 35 cm. Cover with soil and straw afterward.
                             * Tending:
                             - After the root germinate (5 – 7 days) remove the straw. .
                             - When the plants has 5-6 leaves, apply potassium and pile up
                             the foot.

17   Nghe vang (Curcuma        * Planting:
     domestica Valet.)         - Soil preparation: soft and drained soil, make the bed with the
                               width of 1-1,2m, with the height of 20-25cm. Apply phosphorus.
                               - Seedlings made from good tube roots, divided the root into
                               small part and put into the hole.
                               - Plant tube by tube with the distance of 20 – 25 cm and row by
                               row with 30 – 35 cm. Cover with soil and straw afterward.
                               * Tending:
                               - After the root germinate (5 – 7 days) remove the straw.
                               - When the plants has 5-6 leaves, apply potassium and pile up
                               the foot.
18   Ngu gia bi gai            * Planting:
     (Acanthopanax             - Soft and moisture soil along stream. Dig holes with the
     trifoliatus (L.) Merr.)   distance of 3 x 3 m with the size of 30x30x30cm, apply basal
                               fertilizer, cover with soil.
                               - Seedlings: sow seeds into bags, taking care until the seedlings
                               are 40-50cm high. We can also take the seedlings in natural
                               forest to put into the bag.
                               - Planting: Put the seedlings straight, cover with soil, jam,
                               * Tending:
                               As tending plants in plantation forest.
19   Sa (Cymbopogon            * Planting:
     citratus (DC.) Stapf)     - Season: Any time but best in Spring.
                               - Seedlings: take from the clustered bushes.
                               - Make the bed 20-30cm high, 45-50cm wide. Hole from hole 50
                               cm, fertilizer, soil covered.
                               - Put straight, watering regularly.
                               * Tending:
                               - Check and replace dead seedlings.
                               - Weeding, turning the soil, piling up foot, watering in hot and
                               dry day.

20   Sam bo chinh      * Planting:
     (Abenmoschus      - Choosing and preparing soil: soft, moisture with enough light.
     moschatus)        Total turning of the soil, making beds of 1.0 - 1.5m. Apply basal
                       fertilizer of decomposed manure mixed with 2% phosphorous
                       - Season: end of December, planting in the Spring.
                       - Seedlings: sowing seedlings from seeds or raising stumps in
                       October - November so that can plant in January and February.
                       Seeds is put into warm water for 10 hours, keep in bag for 2
                       days and then mix with ash and sand to put on the ditches
                       * Tending:
                       - Watering for the newly stage and on hot and dry time.
                       - Weeding, turning the soil, prevention of pests.
                       - Apply additional fertilizer by dissolved decomposed manure. If
                       do not have the need of seeds, cut the flower bud to make root
21   Thien nien kien   Cut the aged root to plant, 4 seedlings/1m2

22   Tho phuc linh     * Planting:
     (Smilax glabra    - Choosing and preparing soil:
     Roxb.)            + Need the soil depth over 1 m, low acid, silky or sandy soil
                       + Under the secondary forest with the shading of 0,4-0,5.
                       Plantation forest with unclosed canopy or have been done with
                       + Weeding around hole or patches.
                       + Holes with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                       - Seedlings: From seeds or stumps
                       + Seeds collected from 2 – 3 years olds mother plants. Choose
                       the mature seed, dry in shading area and bring to sow after
                       + Stumps taken from 2 – 3 years olds mother plants. Cuttings are

                          20-30cm long with 2-4 eyes,
                          + Seeds and stumps are fixed with patches with the distance of
                          10-15cm, and 5-6cm deep, cover seeds and stumps by soil.
                          Cover the patches by straw, water sufficiently. Keep the shading
                          - Planting:
                          + Season: Spring or autumn, choose the cool day with small
                          + Put the seedlings straight, covered with soil, jam. Pile up the
                          5-6cm, covered with straw.
                          + Make the frame for the plants to climb.
                          * Tending:
                          - Weeding and turning the soil.
                          - Adjusting the shade from 0,4-0,5.
23   Thuoc bong           * Planting:
     (Kalanchoe pinnata   - Choosing and preparing soil: Choose dry land, dig the soil with
     (Lam.) Pers.)        the size of: 20cm x 20cm x 20cm.
                          - Seedlings: From trunk stump: cuttings with the length of
                          20-25cm. After taking roots, take the seedlings to the bag which
                          is composed of 1/2 silk soil and 1/2 sandy soil. Watering
                          - Planting:
                          + Season: Spring or autumn.
                          + Put the seedlings straight, cover with soil, jam, covered with
                          * Tending:
                          - Weeding, turning the soil around the foot.
                          - Adjusting the shading of 0,3-0,4.

  24    Vang đang                * Planting:
        (Coscinium               - Choose soft, moisture, and drained soil
        fenestratum)             - Seedlings:
                                 + Stumps taken from 2-5 years old plants with the length of
                                 + Stumps are put in patches with the distance of 10-15cm,
                                 5-6cm deep,
                                 - Planting:
                                 + Season: Spring or
                                 + Plant in holes or in patches 0,8-1m.
                                 + Make the hole with the size of 30x30x30cm.
                                 + Put the seedlings straight, cover with soil, jam, covered with
                                 + Make the frame for the plant to climb.
                                 * Tending:
                                 - Weeding, turning the soil around the foot.
                                 - Adjusting the shading of 0,4-0,5.

Up to now, it is only 6 month after the establishment of the model. The result shows that those
species planted in the model growth quite well, high living ratio ranging from 60-90%. The
building of the collection model are highly valued and appreciated by local people and they
participate actively. The suggested techniques have been applied to the testing model of the

3.6. Training workshops for local communities, students and related stakeholders

The research have organized 4 trainings for local people, students, staff of Bach Ma National Park
and also young lecturers of Faculty of Forestry in Hue University of Agriculture and forestry with
the following content:

(i) Identification and specimens processing capability;

(ii) Propagating, planting, tending, harvesting, processing, storing and utilizing medicinal plants;

(iii) Managing the model, nurseries and the experiment plots in the field;

(iv) Participatory species conservation ability.
The training was taken right in the field where the models would be implemented. Learners of the
training would be those who build the models.

The training result shows that, participants are fully participated; they actively give ideas,
comments to improve the techniques. Participants learnt very quickly because they all have
experience in the daily activities. Participant evaluated the training themselves by 70% good and
30% at the average level.

                                      Training and workshop

3.7. Model propagating

The research has collected 30 dry speciment of 30 species, 10 posters for training and learning

The researl also held 3 field training for students to identify species composition and distribution of
medicinal plants as well as instruction for speciment collection and processing and drying for
teaching purposes.

                                       Training for students

Moreover, the research have provided 1,200 seedlings of ba kich; 2,000 of kim ngan; 300 of dinh
lang; 500 of la khoi; 600 of ha thu o do; 1,000 of sa nhan; 300 of kim tien thao; 2,000 of tiem mao
sam and many other species for the training farm of Hue Univertisy of Agriculture and Forestry as
well as adjacent communities.

     Seedling of Ba kich         Seedlings of Tiem mao sam           Seedlings of Kim ngan

     Seedling of Dinh lang            Seedlings of La khoi         Seedlings of Ha thu o do

 Seedling of Kim tien thao           Seedlings of Binh voi          The sources of Sa nhan

The research also published one paper on the related magazine. Up to now, there was one student
defensed and got excelent result (10/10) with the content of the research and two other groups of
student are finalizing their reports.


From reality, it can be said that the medicinal plant resouces in the study area are extremely
diversed. This diversity is presented by the distribution of taxonomies of flora phylum, living form,
part used, usages and habitat distribution.

In order to conserve and develop the medicinal plants resources in the study area, we recommend
following options:

- It is needed to keep on surveying the medicinal plants distributing in the area of the village, its
form and usages should be clearly studied.

- For those scare species that have high value, they should be propagated and expanded such as:
Kim tuyen, Ngu gia bi gai, Bay la mot hoa, Bach benh, La Khoi..., It is necessary to consider the
natural conditions, soild and suitable techniques for the conservation purposes.

- It is also needed to have experimental propagation of medicinal plants in the forest such as: Ba
kich trang, Thach xuong bo, Tho phuc linh, Ha thu o do, Day dau xuong... in order to determine
their adaptability in the artificial conditions as well as their ability in regenerate in nature to have
proper measurements.

- It is necessary to build up medicinal plant model in villages of the communes, to hold workshop,
training to raise the awareness of local people in conserving and developing natural resources.

   1. Agricultural extension of Vietnam, 2002. Ky thuat trong mot so cay an qua va cay dac san
      o vung nui thap. Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

   2. Department of Agriculture and Forestry expansion, 2003. Nhung dieu nong dan mien nui
      can biet. Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

   3. Do Tat Loi, 2001. Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc Vietnam. Publishing House of Medicine. Ha

   4. Giap Kieu Hung et al., 2004. Trong va so che cay lam thuoc. Publishing House of Thanh

   5. Huynh Van Keo, Tran Thien An (1996), Da dang sinh hoc cay thuoc vung nui Bach Ma,
      Publishing House of Thuan Hoa, Hue.

   6. Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1997. Bao ton nguon gen cay rung. Publishing House of Agriculture,
      Ha Noi.

   7. Nguyen Ngoc Binh, Pham Duc Tuan, 2002. Trong cay nong nghiep, duoc lieu va dac san
      duoi tan rung. Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

   8. Nguyen Ngoc Binh, Pham Duc Tuan, 2005. Ky thuat canh tac nong lam ket hop o Vietnam.
      Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

   9. Nguyen Xuan Quat, Pham Ngoc Thuong, Dang Van Thuyet, 2004. Mo hinh Lam nghiep xa
      hoi o Vietnam. Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

10. Phan Cong Chung et al., 2005. Hoi dap ve trong trot va trang trai. Publishing House of
    Thanh Hoa.

11. Medicinal Institute, 1990. Cay thuoc Vietnam. Publishing House of Science and Technique,
    Ha Noi.

12. Vo Dai Hai, Nguyen Xuan Quat, Hoang Chuong, 2003. Ky thuat nuoi trong mot so cay con
    duoi tan rung. Publishing House of Agriculture, Ha Noi.

13. Vo Van Chi, Tran Hop, 2002. Cay co co ich o Viet Nam. Publishing House of Education,
    Ha Noi.

14. Vo Van Chi, 1997. Cay rau lam thuoc. General Publishing House of Dong Thap, Dong

15. Vo Van Chi, 2000. Cay thuoc tri benh thong dung. Publishing House of Thanh Hoa.

         Appendix 01: Composition of medicinal plants distributed in study area

No      Vietnamese name                            Latin name
     Ngành Thông đất          A. LYCOPODIOPHYTA
     Họ Quyển bá              1. Selaginellaceae
1    Quyển bá                 Seganillea uncinata (Desv.) Spring
     Ngành Dương xỉ           B. POLYPODIOPHYTA
     Họ Tổ điểu               2. Aspleniaceae
2    Tổ điểu                  Asplenium nitidus L.
     Họ Bòng bong             3. Lygodiaceae
3    Bòng bong                Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.
     Họ Lưỡi rắn              4. Ophioglossaceae
4    Sâm bòng bong            Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook.
     Họ Dương xỉ              5. Polypodiaceae
5    Dương xỉ                 Microsorum steerei (Harr.)
     Nghành Thông             C. PINOPHYTA
     Họ Kim giao              6. Podocarpaceae
6    Thông tre                Podocarpus nerriifolius Don.
     Ngành Ngọc lan           E. MAGNOLIOPHYTA
     Họ Ô rô                  7. Acanthaceae
7    Hoàn ngọc                Pseuderanthemum reticulatum
8    Tam phòng                Justica gendarussa L.F.
     Họ Thích                 8. Aceraceae
9    Quấy chó                 Acer tonkinensis Lec. Subsp tonkinensis
     Họ Loa kèn đỏ            9. Amaryllidaceae
10   Trinh nữ hoàng cung      Crinum latifolium
     Họ Hoa tán               10. Apiaceae
11   Ngò tàu                  Eryngium foetidum L.
12   Rau cần                  Apium graveolens
13   Rau má            Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban.
     Họ Trúc đào       11. Apocynaceae
14   Dừa cạn           Catharanthus roseus
15   Kốp               Kopsia harmadiana Pierre. Ex Pit.
     Họ Ráy            12. Araceae
16   Ráy dại           Alocasia odora (Roxb.) C. Kock.
17   Thạch xương bồ    Acorus tatarinowi Schott
18   Thiên niên kiện   Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott
     Họ Nhân sâm       13. Araliaceae
19   Ngũ gia bì gai    Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr. 1906
20   Đinh lăng         Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms.
     Họ Thiên Lý       14. Asclepiadaceae
21   Hà thủ ô trắng    Streptocaulen griffithii Hook.f
     Họ Cúc            15. Asteraceae
22   Bồ công anh       Lactuca indica L.
23   Cỏ hôi            Ageratum conyzoides L.
24   Cỏ nhọ nồi        Eclipta prostrate
25   Cúc chỉ thiên     Elephantopus scarber L.
26   Đại bi            Blumea balsamifera
27   Ké đầu ngựa       Xanthium inaequilaterum DC.
28   Ngải cứu          Artemisia vulgaris L.
     Họ Núc nác        16. Bignoniaceae
29   Đào tiên          Crescentia cujeta
     Họ Dứa            17. Bromeliaceae
30   Dứa               Ananas comosus
     Họ Dây gối        18. Celastraceae
31   Chóc máu          Salacia chinensis L.
     Họ Bứa            19. Clusiaceae

32   Cỏ nọc sởi         Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Ex Murray
33   Thành nghạnh đẹp   Cratoxylon formosum
34   Thành nghạnh nam   Cratoxylon cochinchinensis Bl.
     Họ Bàng            20. Combretaceae
35   Dây giun           Quisqualis indica L.
     Họ Thài lài        21. Commelinaceae
36   Thài lài tía       Zebrina pendula Schnizl.
     Họ Bìm bìm         22. Convolvulaceae
37   Bìm bìm            Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet.
     Họ Thuốc bỏng      23. Crassulaceae
38   Thuốc bỏng         Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.
     Họ Bí              24. Cucurbitaceae
39   Gấc                Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.
40   Giảo cổ lam        Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb). Makino
     Họ Cói             25. Cyperaceae
41   Cỏ Cú              Cyperus rotundus L.
     Họ Sổ              26. Dillenniaceae
42   Chạc chìu          Tetracera scandens
     Họ Dầu             27. Dipterocapaceae
43   Sao đen            Hopea odorata
     Họ Phất dụ         28. Dracaenaceae
44   Bồng bồng          Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.
     Họ Thầu dầu        29. Euphorbiaceae
45   Chó đẻ             Phyllanthus amarus
46   Bùm bụp            Mallotus aspelata
47   Chó đẻ dáng đẹp    Phyllanthus pulcher Wall ex. Muell-Arg.
48   Cỏ dấu             Pedilanthus tithymaloides
49   Cỏ sữa             Euphorbia thymifolia

50   Khổ sâm          Croton tonkinensis Gagnep.
51   Xương rồng ông   Euphorbia antiquorum L.
     Họ Đậu           30. Fabaceae
52   Hàm xì           Flemingia macrophylla
53   Trinh nữ         Cassia mimosoides L.
54   Sắn dây          Pueraria montana var chinensis
     Họ La dơn        31. Iridaceae
55   Rẻ quạt          Belamcanda sinensis Lem.
56   Sâm đại hành     Eleutherine Subaphylla Gagnep
     Họ Hoa môi       32. Lamiaceae
57   Tía tô           Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
     Họ Re            33. Lauraceae
58   Ô dước           Lindera myrrha (Lour) Merr.
59   Re hương         Cinnamomum parthenoxylon
60   Tơ xanh          Cassytha filiformis L.
     Họ Loa kèn       34. Liliaceae
61   Bảy lá một hoa   Paris poyphylla Sm. Var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara)
62   Huyết dụ         Cordyline fruticosa
63   Lô hội           Aloe vera L.
     Họ Bòng bong     35. Lygodiaceae
64   Bòng bong        Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.
     Họ Bông          36. Malvaceae
65   Cối xay          Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet
66   Vông vang        Abelmoschus moschatus L.
     Họ Tiết dê       37. Menispermaceae
67   Bình vôi         Stephania rotunda Lour.
68   Dây cóc          Tinospora crispa Miers.
69   Dây đau xương    Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.

70   Dây tiết dê      Cissampelos pareira L.
71   Hoàng đằng       Fibraurea recisa Pierre
72   Vàng đắng        Coscinium fenestratum (Gagn.) Colebr.
73   Mán đỉa          Archidendron clypearia
     Họ Dâu tằm       38. Moraceae
74   Ngái             Ficus hispida L.
75   Vú bò            Ficus hirta
     Họ Chuối         39. Musaceae
76   Chuối tiêu       Musa paradisiacal
     Họ Đơn nem       40. Myrsinaceae
77   Cơm nguội        Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf.
78   Lá khôi          Ardisia silvestris
     Họ Sim           41. Myrtaceae
79   Ổi               Psidium guajava L.
80   Sim              Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Wight.
     Họ Nắp ấm        42. Nepenthaceae
81   Nắp ấm           Nepenthes annamensis Macfarl.
     Họ Nhài          43. Oleaceae
82   Chè vằng         Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume
     Họ Lưỡi rắn      44. Ophioglossaceae
83   Sâm bòng bong    Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook.
     Họ Phong lan     45. Orchidaceae
84   Kim tuyến        Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.
     Họ Chua me đất   46. Oxalidaceae
85   Khế              Averrhoa carambola L.
86   Me đất           Oxalis corniculata L.
     Họ Cánh bướm     47. Papilionaceae
87   Kim tiền thảo    Desmodium styracifolium (Osb.) Merr

     Họ Lạc tiên     48. Passifloraceae
88   Mắm nêm         Passiflora foetida
                     49. Pentaphramataceae
89   Rau tai nai     Pentaphragma sinense Helms. & Wils.
     Họ Tiêu         50. Piperaceae
90   Lốt             Piper lolot DC.
     Họ Mã đề        51. Plantaginaceae
91   Mã đề           Plantago major L.
     Họ Hòa thảo     52. Poaceae
92   Cỏ tranh        Imperata cylindrical p.var major (Ness) L.E.. Hubb
93   Sả              Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
     Họ Rau răm      53. Polygonaceae
94   Hà thủ ô đỏ     Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.
     Họ Chẹo thui    54. Proteaceae
95   Cây đông        Helicia petiolaris Been.
     Họ Hoa hồng     55. Rosaceae
96   Ngấy tía        Rubus parvifolius L.
     Họ Cà phê       56. Rubiaceae
97   Ba kích trắng   Morindada cochinchinensis DC.
98   Bướm bạc        Mussaenda pubescens Ait. f.
99   Lấu đỏ          Psychotria rubra (Lour.) Poir.
100 Nhàu núi         Morinda citrifolia L.
101 Trang tàu        Ixora chinensis Lamk.
     Họ Cam chanh    57. Rutaceae
102 Bưởi bung        Glycosmis citrifolia (Willd.)
     Họ Sến          58. Sapotaceae
103 Vú sữa           Chrysophyllum cainito L.
     Họ Lá giấp      59. Saururaceae

104 Diếp cá           Houttuynia cordata Thunb.
105 Hàm ếch           Saururus chinensis (Loureiro) Baillon
     Họ Hoa mõm sói   60. Scrophulariaceae
106 Bồ bồ             Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr.
     Họ Thanh thất    61. Simaroubaceae
107 Bách bệnh         Eurycoma longifolia Jack. subsp. longifolia
     Họ Kim cang      62. Smilacaceae
108 Kim cang          Smilax corbularia Kunth. Subsp synandra Koy.
109 Thổ phục linh     Smilax glabra Roxb.
     Họ Bách bộ       63. Stemonaceae
110 Bách bộ           Stemona sp.
     Họ Râu hùm       64. Taccaceae
111 Râu hùm           Tacca vietnamensis Thin et Hoat
     Họ Cỏ roi ngựa   65. Verbenaceae
112 Đuôi chuột        Stachitarphera jamaicensis
113 Xích đồng nam     Clerodendrum japonicum (Thumb.) Sweet.
     Họ Nho           66. Vitaceae
114 Dây chìa vôi      Cissus repens Lam
     Họ Gừng          67. Zingiberaceae
115 Gừng              Zingiber officinale Rosc.
116 Gừng gió          Zingiber zerumbet (L) Sm.
117 Nghệ đen          Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe.
118 Nghệ vàng         Curcuma domestica Valet.
119 Riềng mép ngắn    Catibium breviligulatum
120 Sa nhân           Amomum villosum Lour.

                                   BUDGET OF THE PROJECT

                                                                                                  form the
                                                                                     or obtained
                                                                          Total cost              Rufford
      Heading                              Details                                   from other
                                                                          (£Pound)                  Small
1. Research personnel
                        Research design, organizing to implement
                        project activities, monitoring the overall
 1.1. Principal         technical aspect of the project, surveying,
                                                                               630           0        630
 researcher             holding workshop, writing overall report of the
                        project, translating. Working time: one
                        week/month: £35/month x 18 month
                        Conducting survey, data collection, data
                        analyzing, tree identification and tagging,
 1.2. Other             implementing guiding and monitoring of
                                                                               540           0        540
 researchers            model, participate in workshop, working time:
                        1 week/month: £15/month x 18 month x 2
                        Participate in surveying, data collection,
                        monitoring of model, participate in workshop,
 1.3. Famers                                                                    90           0         90
                        working time: 1 week/month: £5/month x 18
 2. Research expenses
 2.1. Field work
                        Hiring car from Hue to study area: 1
 - Hiring car                                                                  540           0        540
                        time/month. Total 18 times x £30/time
 - Paying for
 villagers for
 providing              Every local people providing information get
                                                                                30           0         30
 information            2/day: 5 people x 3 day x £2/day
 (Interview key
                        Model design: 3 villagers x 2 days x £2/day;
                        boundary mapping: 3 villagers x 2 days x
 - Paying for local
                        £2/day; Clearance: 10 villagers x 6 days/ha x
 villagers for
                        2ha/model x £2/day; Digging holes: 10                  744           0        744
 participation in
                        villagers x 6 days/ha x 2ha/model x £2/day;
 building up model
                        Planting: 10 villagers x 6 days/ha x 2ha/model
                        x £2/day

- Paying for
                       Seedlings collection and tagging (10 students
students for
                       collect seedlings for 10 days): 10 students x 10   300       0     300
participation in
                       days x £3/day
building up model
2.2. Consumables
and materials
                       Name card/Tagging for 200 species: 2
- Card/Tag making                                                         100       0     100
                       cards/species x 200 species x £0.25/card
                       Seedling collection in natural habitat (15
                       households collect seedlings in 10 days): 15
- Seedlings            households x 10 days x £2/day; Purchase for        700       0     700
                       seedlings planted: 2,000 seedlings x
                       0,5kg micro-org. fertilizer/1 tree x 3.300
- Fertilizer                                                              330       0     330
                       trees/ha x 2ha x £0.1/kg
                       GPS, topographic maps, compass, hammocks,
- Equipment
                       boots, raincoats
                                                                          700   700(1)        0

2.3. Meetings/
- Perdiem for          2 workshops x 1 day x 30 persons/workshop x
                                                                           15       0      15
workshop               £0.25/person
- Hiring room and
equipment for          2 workshops x 1 day x £40/workshop                  80    80(2)        0
- Hiring car to meet
and see off workshop   1 shift x 2 workshops x 1 day x £30/shift           60       0      60
- Materials for        2 workshops x 1 day x 30 persons/workshop x
                                                                           24       0      24
meetings               £0.4/person
2.4. Training/
- Materials for
                       4 courses x 30 trainees/course x £0.7/trainee       84       0      84
- Paying for trainer   4 courses x 1 trainer/course x 2 days x £20/day    160       0     160
- Paying for
                       4 courses x 30 trainees/course x £2/trainee        240       0     240
- Paying for
student's field        3 shifts x £35/shift                               105       0     105
- Paying for tour
introducing model
                       1 shift x £35/shift                                 35       0      35
for neighbouring
3. Indirect costs                                                                             0

                       One part-time accountant will be hired to work
 3.1. Accounting
                       for the project, 2 days/month.: 2 days/month x    144       0     144
                       18 months x £4/day
 3.2. General office
                       Office stationary: £5/month x 18months             90    55(3)     35
3.3. Communications    Telephone, fax contacting with local area,
                       £5/month x 18 months
                                                                          90    55(4)     35
 3.4. Disseminating,
                       Printing, photocopying, picture taken, dry
 printing and
                                                                         200   150(5)     50
                              TOTAL                                     6031    1040    4991

(1) Budget is contributed by Faculty of Forestry in kinds GPS, topographic maps,
compass, hammocks, boots, raincoats.
(2) Budget for hiring room and equipment for workshop supported by local authority

(3,4,5) Budgets supported by research team members and students.


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