SOCIAL JUSTICE OR INJUSTICE IN EDUCATION SYSTEM IN 6

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					     SOCIAL JUSTICE OR
  INJUSTICE IN EDUCATION
           SYSTEM
IN 6 DIFFERENTS COUNTRIES,
       Access and quality

 Luis Fernando Aranguren
                  Why education?
1. “Everybody has right to education
2. Education shall be directed to the full
   development of human personality and to the
   strengthening of respect for human rights and
   fundamental freedoms
3. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and
   friendship among all nations, racial or religious
   groups, and shall further the activities of the
   United Nations for the maintenance of peace”
(art.26 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
                    BUT?
             ACCESS & QUALITY
 Access:
  – Gender issues
  – School available,
  – Free education
  – Public & private education
  – Library
  – Internet and other media
  – Availability of all possible majors
 Quality:
  – Not only literacy and numeracy
  – Making the teacher training consistent
  – Traditional system methods
  – Improve new methodologies
  – Comparison of different teaching system
  – Degree comparables with foreign
    universities
Colombia
                                   Colombia
•    Gender Issues: (Since +/- 30 years ago. The same right
•    School available:
      – Basic and middle school:
          • Public: free                 70%*
          • Private: expensive           30%*
      – Superior education
          • Public: cheap,               good quality     30% public universities *
          • Private: Expensive           good quality     70% private universities *
•    Literacy rate
          • Women:               92%**
          • Men:                 91%**
•    Library and Internet:
          Main cities:                   free access.
          small cities or villages:      Not access.

*         Source: Ministry of education. www.mineducacion.gov.co
**        Source: CIA                    www.cia.gov
                      Colombia
              Basic and media education

                          National coverage




                                                           Coverage rates
students




                                    Year


                         students          Coverage rate




           Source: Colombian education minister
                   Colombia
               Superior education
                          National coverage




                                                         Coverage rates
students




                                  Year


                           students      Coverage rate



           Source: Colombian education ministry
Social Justice in Thailand:
 Educational Access and
         Quality



     Wasan Chantong
        DVM, MSc
      (PhD student)
The Structure of the Thai
   Education System
   Pre-primary education
              (Three years)

     Primary education
                (Six years)

 Lower-secondary education
              (Three years)

 Upper-secondary education
              (Three years)

      Higher education
    (Four years for Bachelor’s degree)
 Educational System
    and Network
Central: Ministry of Education
Network: public and private
institutions
Neighboring countries: Lao PDR
and Cambodia




             School atmosphere
 Access 1: Educational Opportunity
• Gender issues
   – both Thai male and female
     are provided equal opportunity
     to access to life-long
     education and training
• Disabilities                        Girl-guides and crippled boy scouts stand
                                      hand in hand during their gathering.

   – Provide public education to
     the disabled, the handicapped
     and the under-privileged.
Access 2: Education Technology System
                    and Information Network
                                          • Increase and disperse
                                            the opportunities for
                                            education for all Thais in
                                            both urban and rural
                                            areas.
•H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn
has always paid special attention            – Tele-education (Thai-com
to education for young people.                 satellite)
                                             – Television set
                                             – Computer and internet
         Access 3: Availability
• Universities and Community
  Colleges
   – 65 public and private
     universities and colleges
   – 17 institutions are
     community colleges
• 150 other educational
  institutions
                                 •Classroom atmosphere
   – offering various
     vocational degrees
          Quality1: Literacy
• Currently according to UNDP, the literacy
  rate in Thailand is 92.6 per cent
  – male: 94.9%
  – female: 90.5%
    (www.cia.gov, retrieved July 26, 2006)
• Need to develop more
        Quality 2: Teachers
• High-quality teachers and educators
  – basic ethical requirements
  – 5-year-course Bachelor’s degree in Education
  – Professional certificate
  – High salary
• Inadequate number of quality teachers
  and financial supports
    Quality 3: Tradition and new
            methodology
• Traditional system methods
  – the integration of education, religion, culture
    and sports into the educational and training
    curriculum
• Improvement of new methodology
  – the integrative learning process
  – the "learner-centered approach“
  – self-education and life-long education
Quality 4: knowledge-based society
• On-going access; need time to measure
  the quality
  – Power of creativity
  – A love of reading
  – Sufficient community-based libraries, learning
    centers and educational media
Jorge Pintor
General Background
Primary and Secondary School


University


The Gitano Case
 Primary and Secondary School
 Most government-funded/Private institutions
 Usually good (though not excellent)
               University
 Fees (Usually Low)
 Good students with good marks don’t pay if
  they apply for government grants
            The Gitano Case (i)
 650.000 gitanos
 1.6% of the population
 According to Alfagueme
  y Martínez, (2004):
  650
  550
  450
                           Total NO. of
  350                      Students
  250                      Primary School
  150
                           Secondary
   50                      School
  -50
        2000-
        2001
          The Gitano Case (ii)

Idiosyncrasy of the
family




Society/Racism
The Gitano Case (iii)
           Fundación Secretariado General
           Gitano (1994):


           36% of the Gitano students
           do not attend lessons
   Social Justice in Brazil :

Educational Access and Quality

          Cristiano C. Nunes
Social Justice: Educational System in Brazil


    Primary
   Education
                          ?
  Secondary
  Education




    Higher
   Education


                    Access and/or Quality…
                      Access
• Gender issues

• Compulsory

• Schools available

• Free education

• Public and private
      Primary and Secondary School

• Important Characteristics

   – Public x Private


   – 1990’s
                              http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/BRAZILEXTN
                              /0,,menuPK:322351~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:322341,00.html



   – Meals

   – Library


• Higher Education
                        ?
                Higher Education

– General Characteristics

   • Expansion during 1990’s



   • Different organizations

       –   Federal
       –   State
       –   Municipal
       –   Private


– Federal University
 Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV


• Undergraduate Courses


• Graduate Courses


• Library



                          http://www.ufv.br/
                          http://www.ufv.br/proplan/ufvnumeros/numeros2005.pdf
Education and Social Justice
           in Iraq

      Dena K. Mohammad
     M.A. American Studies
        Access to Education
 Free Education
  – Free education from elementary to high
    school
  – Some state universities provide free
    education
  – Private universities are not free
 Availability of Majors
  – Certain fields of study are not available in
    universities
 Libraries
  – City libraries are free and available in the
    three major cities across Iraq
  – Access to library services is free in schools
    and universities
  – Sources and materials are generally old
    publications / lack of up-to-date materials
  – Access to internet and media services is strict
    and limited
          Quality of Education
 Access and quality do not go hand in hand
  – Serious deterioration in recent years
  – Private education do not promise quality
  – Absence of social justice in all educational institutes
 Role of Teachers and Professors
  – Education is strictly teacher-centered
  – Serious cases of corruption
  – Teaching methods are out-of-date
 Challenges to
  Education
  – Successive
    Wars/Aftermath
  – Stressful security
    situation
  – Financial
    difficulties/Drop-outs
                              Iraqi school girls talk to
                              USAID education advisors
                              in a classroom of the the
                              Agadir Secondary school in
                              the Saydiya neighborhood
                              of Baghdad. USAID is
                              looking at ways of updating
                              the Iraqi school curriculum


 Attempts at Recovery
  – Assistance and recovery programs
     USAID Assistance for Iraq
     UNESCO programs
  – Recovery requires community work to back
    these programs up
Islamic Republic

of Afghanistan
Education and Discrimination
   Before 1979, Russian Invasion
       Access to education was low
       Education centered only in big cities like
        Kabul, Kandahar, Heart, Mazar e Sharif
       Only the families related to the king had the
        right of education and higher education
       Students were mostly boys
       The quality of Education was good and was
        comparable to other countries
After Bonn conference in 2001
   Learning strategy
       Article 45 of Afghanistan constitution: states
        develop unified curriculum based on
          Islamic principle
          National culture

          Based on scientific methods

       Religious subjects based on branches of Islam
   Access to the education is very high and
    successful
       1500000 children went to school in 2004 as well
        as 2005
       All children will be at schools by 2015
   Equity education for girls and boys
       Schools are open for both girls and boys in urban
        and rural areas
       according to article 44 of Afghanistan
        Constitution the state is responsible to develop
        education all over the country for both girls and
        boys
   Quality has become a high priority
    because the quantity is on a regular and
    satisfactory progress
       The Quality is improving by:
          Curriculum development
          New textbooks in our national languages (farsi and
           pashtoo)
          Teacher education programs
   Content of education
       Development of culture of peace
       Respect for human rights
       National and international understanding
       Brotherhood
       Forgiveness
       Reconstruction of Afghanistan
       Safeguarding its territorial integrity and
        Independence
                            Literacy

100
 90
 80
 70
 60
 50                                                                       Total
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
      Colombia   Spain   Thailand   Brazil    Iraq   Afghanistan   peru



                         CIA - the World Fact Book
100
 90
 80
 70
 60
                                                                         Male
 50
 40                                                                      Female
 30
 20
 10
  0
      Colombia   Spain   Thailand   Brazil   Iraq   Peru   Afghanistan
           CONCLUSIONS
• WE HAVE SEEN differences and
  similarities among countries (multiples
  perspectives)

• WE CAN LEARN from each other’s
  experiences and educational systems

• WE MUST find ways to improve education
  all over the world
          Potential obstacles
• Political corruption

• Ambition and egoism

• Indifference

• War
           United Nations role

• Second UN Millennium Development Goal (to 2015):

      ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY
      EDUCATION: Ensure that all boys and girls
      complete a full course of primary schooling.

• NEXT STEP: REAL POLITICAL DECISION (NOT ONLY
  DECLARATIVE) AND, ABOVE ALL, $$$.
    … United Nations role
"We will have time to reach the Millennium Development
Goals – worldwide and in most, or even all, individual
countries – but only if we break with business as usual.
We cannot win overnight. Success will require sustained
action across the entire decade between now and the
deadline. It takes time to train the teachers, nurses and
engineers; to build the roads, schools and hospitals; to
grow the small and large businesses able to create the jobs
and income needed. So we must start now. And we must
more than double global development assistance over the
next few years. Nothing less will help to achieve
the Goals."

          United Nations Secretary-General
          Kofi A. Annan
               Fulbright role
• We, as Fulbright Fellows, are direct witness of
  the great work that Fulbright does to improve
  education around the world.
• Fulbright gives brilliant students from all over the
  world (LIKE US) the opportunity to complete the
  “last step” in our education process.
• Also, with its competitive system, Fulbright
  pushes young students to make a great career
  in order to be eligible in the future.
           Our role
“With great power come great
responsibilities”
          Spiderman (2002)

Please, note the quotation, so do not
accuse us of plagiarism.
              … Our role
• We can change that phrase and say “With
  great education comes great
  responsibilities” Alonso (2006) –please do
  not plagiarize the phrase-, and make the
  compromise to work in favor of our
  countries, as politicians, volunteers,
  educators, investigators, business man,
  etc.
            … Our role


• We have received this great
  opportunity, and we are in debt to
  the world.