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Emerging Trends in Probiotics Research For Human Health

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					Emerging Trends in Probiotics
 Research For Human Health




  Hariom Yadav and Shalini Jain

       Animal Biochemistry Division
      National Dairy Research Institute
      Karnal-132001 (Haryana)INDIA
             Probiotics concept

“Probiotics are living microorganisms which upon ingestion in

sufficient numbers, exert health benefits beyond basic nutrition.”




Intensive research area in the world……..
Probiotics health benefits
 Elimination of lactose intolerance


 Anti-diarrheal


 Immunomodulatory


 Antidiabetic


 Anticarcinogenic


 Hypocholesterolemic


 Antihypertensive
      Probiotics microorganisms
   Probitocs consist specific microbial cultures and/ or ingredients that
   stimulate gut micro flora capable of modifying the gastrointestinal
   environment which keeps the host healthy


• Lactic acid producing bacteria
             Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium
• Yeast
• Others
Commercially available products may contain
pure and combined cultures of:
• Lactobacillus
• Bifidobacterium
• Streptococcus
• Pedicococcus
• Aspergillus
• Bacillus
       Probiotics attributes
 Acid tolerance

 Bile tolerance

 Cell surface hydrophobicity

 Protoplast regeneration

 Antimicrobial activity

 Cholesterol removal and bile salt deconjugation

 Gut colonization

 Lactose removal

 Protease and aminopeptidase activity
Improvements for survival of probiotics
 Heat from pelleting and long storage of products may render the non
 viability of the product. For improving the survival of probiotic cultures
 following practices has been applied….

 Microincapsulation         :   Entrapment of micro-organisms with artificial/ biological membranes/

                                supports/ coverings



 Prebiotics                 :   Addition of prebiotics such as inulin, fructo-oligosacchrides etc.




 Other food supplements     :   Addition of other food additives such as fibres, vitamins etc.
                     Prebiotics


“Prebiotics are non-digestible but fermentable oligosaccharides

that are specifically designed to change the composition and

activity of the intestinal microbiota with prospect to promote

the health of the host.”
                   Synbiotics



“A synbiotics is a combination of one or more probiotics

and prebiotics.”
          Purported mechanisms of action
                                  Free amino acids
              Organic acids                             Neutralization of
                                                       dietary carcinogens
 β-Galactosidase activity



    Oligosaccharides                  Probiotics            Immunostimulatory



Cholesterol assimilation
                                                             Antioxidant
    Short chain fatty acids

                                                     Survival and adhesion
             Bioactive peptides
                                                       competitions with
                                   Bacteriocin
                                                      pathogenic bacteria
                                        Non-adhesive                                      Adhesive

M = M cells of intestinal epithelium                                                                                     Microorganisms
L = Lymphocytes
                                        Immune Response
APC = Antigen presenting cells
Th = T-helper cells                                                                                                      Intestinal Epithelium
                                                                                               M
IL = Interleukines
TGF = Tumour growth factor
                                                                                                         L
IFN = Interferon
                                                     L                                         L
TNF = Tumour necrosis factor
Ig = Immunoglobulin                                                 APC
                                                         L



                                                                                    Th0
                                                                                                                                        IgG ↑

                                                                Cell                       TGF-β↓    Antibody                B          IgM ↑
                                                                         IL-2 ↑
                                                             mediated                +     IL-4 ↓    mediated
                                                                         IFN- γ ↑          IL-10 ↓   response                           IgE ↓
                                                             response

                                                                                                                             B
                                                                                                      Th2
                                                                        Th1
                                                                                                                                            IgA
                                                         IL-2 ↑
                                                         IFN-γ ↑
                                                         TNF-α ↑
                                                         IFN-α ↑

                                                                                     Viruses                    Tumors
                                       Natural killer cells ↑
                                       Macrophages ↑
                                       Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes ↑
                  Current trends


 Anticarcinogenic: Colon, breast and others
 Antidiabetic
 Anti-allergic
 Anti-inflammatory Diseases: IBD, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn
                                disease, Pouchitis and Post-
                                operative complications
 Genetically modified probiotics
 Oral vaccine development
                         Future perspectives

 Elucidate the physiological role and mechanism of action probiotics
 Extent of influence of probiotics in human health using human feeding studies
 Studies on human populations for colon cancer or cancer recurrence
 Validate markers used for assessing probiotic function. Testing of predictions
   based on biomarker studies with actual results in human clinical evaluation is
   needed. Biomarker validated in the areas of immune system, cancer and gut
   microbiology is especially important. Once validated biomarkers will be useful
   tools to assess the dose dependence and strain specific responses.
 Assess effects of probiotics on populations and activity of gut microbes. The
   application of gene based methods holds much promise in this field.
 Improve reliability and ease of taxonomic classification of probiotic bacteria.
   Improve strain performance and activity.
Institutes Engaged for Probiotics Research in India



   Central Food Technology and Research Institute, Mysore


   National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal


   Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh


   National Dairy Development Board, Anand


   Nestle Pvt Ltd, Panipat
Eat Probiotics foods, live healthy life


                   So…..
    Eat the “good bugs” every day……….
           Invite them in………..
    You will find they make very friendly
                houseguests.

				
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posted:4/2/2008
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