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					EASYPRINT TRANSCRIPTS                                                                      13/11/07
Episode 32

Hello I'm Nathan Bazley. Welcome to Behind the News. On this week's show…

      Should cosmetic surgery be banned for kids

      Can humans live on Mars

      And mountain bike madness

Also on the program today, is the hospital system unhealthy? Those items later, but first to our top
story.

PAKISTAN
Sarah Larsen, reporter

INTRO: Like Australia - Pakistan has an election coming up. But while you might find politics a bit boring
here, over there it can be downright scary. There have been violent protests, arrests and even deadly
bombings. Now Pakistan's President has introduced something called a 'state of emergency', which has
upset lots of people around the world. Sarah's been finding out why.

Imran Khan is an international celebrity a cricket legend and a politician. But recently he was arrested
and forced to stay in his house. Now he's on the run.

ANNA: What did he do?

Well, that's going to take a bit of explaining.

SARAH LARSEN: It's all to do with what's over happening in his home Pakistan.

Pakistan's a mainly Muslim country just above India - it's home to more than 160 million people, that's
eight times the Australian population in an area the size of New South Wales.

It's a land of sandy beaches, mountains, and cricket lovers.

But it has also had a pretty unstable past and it can be violent. Pretty soon there's going to be an
election and that's stirring up more trouble.

You see Pakistan's a democracy, like Australia. But their elections don't always run like ours they can get
pretty wild.

Pollies have been arrested and there has even been a terrible bombing.

General Musharref is the President of Pakistan at the moment but he's also the head of the army, he
forced his way into power eight years ago.

His supporters say that was actually a pretty good thing because the economy improved and a few years
ago he was voted back in.

But now he's being criticised for misusing his power.
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Earlier this year he fired Pakistan's head judge because he said the courts were interfering too much -
that made some people really angry.

Now he's declared a state of emergency and that's causing even more trouble.

ANNA: What’s that?

A state of emergency is when the government says things are out of control. It brings in a whole lot of
new rules to keep the peace.

Governments also sometimes use something called martial law. That's like a state of emergency but it
means the armed forces are put in control.

ARMY PERSON: No one’s allowed here anymore.

But the rules brought in to keep the peace can mean people lose a lot of freedom.

The media can be shut down.

You might not be able to watch or read what you want.

Go where you want or even go out at night.

You can also be forced to give up your private property.

And people can be arrested with little reason.

That's what happened to Imran Khan, along with some important lawyers and politicians.

This sort of thing is pretty rare in a place like Australia but it has happened.

In 1804 convicts rebelled against the governor and New South Wales was put under martial law for a
week! It has not happened in Australia since then.

But Pakistan has used these sorts of laws four times and this time it has made people everywhere very
angry.

President Musharref says he's trying to protect people from terrorists like the ones responsible for this
bombing but his critics say he's misusing the law. They say he's scared of losing power and he wants to
stop the election.

Even countries like the US and Australia have also spoken out against the emergency laws.

Musharref says there will be a vote but he hasn't given a date yet.

Pakistan's waiting and the world is watching.

                                                      ***

And we'll let you know how it all turns out. Now here's Catherine with some more news.

ZOOM
On Sunday people around Australia held services for Remembrance Day.



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Every year at 11am on the 11th day of the 11th month, services are held to honor people who have died
or suffered in wars and conflicts.

Earlier this year we told you about the hoon driving problem. Now the New South Wales Government
has come up with another plan to try and stop it.

It wants to confiscate the cars of hoon drivers' and use them in crash tests.

A video of the cars being wrecked will then be put on the net as a warning to other drivers.

Tens of thousands of people have marched through city streets calling on the major political parties to do
more to fight climate change.

The protestors want coal greenhouse pollution cut and more renewable energy used.

Parents are being told to return a popular toy because it might poison kids.

Bindeez beads contain a dangerous chemical and several kids have been sent to hospital after swallowing
them.

Shops have stopped selling the toys and parents are being urged to get rid of them.

And a pool at Blacktown in Sydney has installed Australia's first computer system to detect if people are
drowning.

About forty Aussies drown in pools every year and children are most at risk.

The system uses cameras spread around the pool. They pick up swimmers who are motionless or are
struggling and raise the alarm.

HEALTH SYSTEM
Nathan Bazley, reporter

INTRO: Now let’s have a look at the Australian elections. On a recent school visit, kids told us they really
want to know about what's happening with hospitals. They said a lot of their family and friends have to
use them, so they want to make sure they’re looked after properly. Well to try and help out, I thought I'd
have a look at what the main issues are and what the pollies want to do about them.

There is a saying that goes, 'Well, at least you've got your health.' But what happens when you don't
even have that?

Being injured or sick can be a scary and not to mention painful experience.

And when something goes wrong, we need access to healthcare.

Both Mr. Howard and Mr. Rudd have been popping up in hospitals already in this campaign.

But it's not just pollies going on about it. You've told us that you're worried too.

WENNA: I hate going to them because they're grubby and they scare me and I'm afraid I'm going to
catch a sickness from them.

ANNIE: I was really surprised and quite shocked really, because i hadn't really understood what the
hospital would be like and that was my first experience of it and it wasn't very good.

We'll get into the problems later, but first, how does our public healthcare system work?
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Well to be honest, it's kind of a tricky one because both the federal and state governments have a part to
play in making us better.

State governments have the responsibility of building hospitals and staffing them with doctors and
nurses.

But the federal government supplies a lot of that money and it also pays our bills when we go there.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: They do that through a system called Medicare. That means that any
Australian citizen can show this card and get medical help.

It all sounds pretty straightforward. But when you're trying to keep a whole country healthy, there are
bound to be some issues.

After my fall my shoulder seems to be hanging down at a weird angle. I think it's dislocated, so I've come
to the emergency room.

When you arrive a nurse works out the order people need to be treated in, from life threatening injuries
first, right down to the sniffles.

But this is one area where some people say hospitals are struggling.

If too many people come into emergency or there aren't enough nurses and doctors to treat them things
can get severely backed up.

And waiting too long for treatment can be painful or dangerous!

Now say it's a few months later and I'm still having some problems with my shoulder.

I've seen a specialist and the diagnosis is I'll need surgery.

For conditions like mine - when there's no immediate threat to your life - the operation is called elective
surgery.

That sort of operation is sometimes delayed so patients with more serious and life threatening problems
can be treated.

But critics say delays are happening too often now because there aren't enough doctors and nurses.

They say there are thousands of people waiting to be fixed up and that can be very painful, or lead to
further complications.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: So if these are the things that people are worried about - what can be
done to fix them? Well both Mr. Howard and Mr. Rudd have some ideas.

One proposal is for the federal government to take over running our hospitals from the states...

Another is to build big new clinics with lots of doctors to take the stress off hospital emergency rooms...

But some people think we simply just need more doctors, more nurses in hospitals..

Whatever the right solution is - it's really important.

Having a great healthcare system can mean less time in hospital and more time enjoying the things that
put you there!
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                                                    ***
OK a bit of a hospital quiz now.

Where were hospitals first established?

a. Ancient Rome
b. Sri Lanka
c. Egypt

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the earliest evidence of hospitals is in Sri Lanka in 431 BC.

ANSWER: b. Sri Lanka

COSMETIC SURGERY
Catherine Ellis, reporter

INTRO: Now one reason a person might go to a hospital is for cosmetic surgery - that means having an
operation to change the way you look. But some people are saying there's too much of that happening
especially amongst teenagers. It's become such an issue, that a state government is actually looking at
banning kids from having some operations. Here's Catherine.

LIZZY, SCHOOL STUDENT: If I could change anything about myself I would probably want to be taller.

WENNA, SCHOOL STUDENT: I would like to have longer legs and I’d like to maybe be a bit skinner.

SIMON, SCHOOL STUDENT: If I could change anything it would be my nose make it a bit smaller.

CATHERINE ELLIS, REPORTER: Lots of people have at least one thing they'd like to change about their
body.

But there are concerns that more and more teenagers are acting on those feelings and using cosmetic
surgery.

This worrying trend is believed to have come from the pressure kids feel to be perfect.

KATE, SCHOOL STUDENT: definitely because of celebrities and magazines and everything, people feel
like they need to be thinner than they are just for looks.

ANNIE, SCHOOL STUDENT: when we see models and fashionable people, they're always skinny and
beautiful and have like perfect noses.

SIMON, SCHOOL STUDENT: … on boys there's a lots of pressure to have big abs and muscles and arm
muscles and stuff like that.

TV shows like Ultimate Transformations aren't helping the problem.

Even one of the Big Brother housemates last year had breast implants.

CRYSTAL, BIG BROTHER CONTESTANT: They're new and they're now my most valuable possession.

GRETEL KILLEEN, BIG BROTHER HOST: I can't believe you've had a boob job at 19!

CATHERINE ELLIS, REPORTER: A recent magazine survey of Aussie girls found that a quarter would get
cosmetic surgery if they could and two percent already had.


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So what exactly is cosmetic surgery?

Well it's a type of plastic surgery that is performed on healthy people purely to make them look better.

It can be useful for some kids.

For example people born with unusually shaped ears can get them fixed.

CATHERINE ELLIS, REPORTER: Surgeons also use cosmetic surgery to reduce really large breasts that
cause back and neck pain or they can use implants to fix up abnormally shaped ones.

So there are types of cosmetic surgery that can save kids from lots of teasing and unhappiness.

But it's not these types of cosmetic surgery that have people worried.

It's the nipping and tucking being done just to improve looks.

Some people believe teens are not mature enough to make those decisions and they haven't even
finished growing yet!

Queensland is looking at becoming the first Australian state or territory to ban non-essential cosmetic
procedures for teenagers.

Experts agree and they want people to know the risks involved.

They say Cosmetic Surgery can cause infection and scarring for life.

Breast implants can burst and can also make it impossible for you to breast feed later in life.

Nose jobs can sometimes go wrong causing the whole nose to collapse.

It sounds drastic for something that's not necessary.

Medicos say there are far healthier ways to improve your body image - like getting into shape by eating
well and exercising.

KATE, SCHOOL STUDENT: I think it's important that people think they should be fit and healthy and a
good person instead of being just good-looking.

NICK, SCHOOL STUDENT: It's more interesting if people have their own individual look.

And that's what the other advice is be proud and positive about your individuality, because it would be a
pretty boring place if we all looked the same

ONLINE POLL
OK we're doing a poll on that. The question is "Should non-essential cosmetic surgery be banned for kids
aged under 18." If you want to vote go to our website at abc.net.au/btn

LIFE ON MARS
Sarah Larsen, reporter

INTRO: Last week the space shuttle Discovery was given a big welcome home after another trip to the
space station. Everyone was very happy the crew had safely completed a dangerous space walk to fix a
solar wing. But it might not be that long before astronauts are going on much longer and riskier trips.
Scientists say its time for the next big step into space. That could mean a moon base - or life on Mars.
Here's Sarah.
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The red planet!

For centuries people have wondered if there's life up there on the mysterious red deserts of Mars

Now we know more about it. We've sent robots to have a look and well, there aren't any Martians.

But what if humans could live there?

It's not that far fetched.

PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH: Today I announce a new plan to explore space and extend a human
presence across our solar system.

That's right.... he's talking about humans living in space. NASA's already looking at setting up camp on
the moon.

China, India and Japan have their own lunar plans and after that Mars.

SARAH LARSEN: If you're looking for somewhere to go in space, Mars is the obvious choice. Sure, there
aren't any beaches and you can't breathe the atmosphere but as far as planets go it's the closest
environment to Earth's in this part of the galaxy.

It's a lot like some Earth deserts. And there are tourist attractions - - huge mountains, canyons.... as well
as some serious dust storms.

But you won't be able to go there for the weekend. It would take half a year to get to Mars... then you'd
have to wait a year and a half for earth to get closer before you could come back. That's a two a half
year round trip... at least.

SARAH LARSEN: For a stay that long, you need some serious supplies...

That means more than an extra pair of undies; it means a lot of air, water, food and fuel.

There's no way you could take all that with you, so scientists reckon they'll have to make it when they
get there.

DR CHARLIE LINEWEAVER: Well one of the better ideas is to figure out what's going to be there when
we get there and how to use it. Got to live of the land kind of strategy

The air on Mars is mostly carbon dioxide. We can't breath it but some plants can. And carbon dioxide has
oxygen in it so scientists reckon if we can get it out we might have something to breathe. We could even
grow food in inflatable greenhouses.

Then there's water. Mars has some, but it's frozen, so we'd have to melt it.

The reason why it's frozen is it's so cold the temperature never gets above freezing so we might need
heaters.

And to do all those things, we'd need fuel.

DR CHARLIE LINEWEAVER: I think the most plausible plans are to make fuel on Mars. And the first thing
you do is to send up the robotic equipment and tanks to do this. What do you do you need the hydrogen
and oxygen well there already there on Mars.


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But while getting people to mars isn't looking too hard getting them back would be a lot more difficult.
The problem is taking the huge amount of fuel for the trip home.

PROFESSOR ROD BOSWELL: It would be unthinkable. You have to loft that off the Earth. So there would
be too many tonnes. You just couldn't do it I don't think.

But Professor Boswell says there would be plenty of astronauts willing to go to Mars even if they couldn't
ever come back.

There's a lot to think about... and I wouldn't pack your bags for a Martian holiday just yet.

But it looks like in your lifetime life on the red planet could become a reality.

                                                      ***

Right, let's do a quiz on that.

Which planet has the closest orbit to Earth?

a. Venus
b. Mars
c. Moon

ANSWER: a. Venus

The reason why we're not trying to land humans on Venus is because it's so hot the surface temperature
is over 480 degrees. And of course the moon isn't a planet it's a satellite.
Now here's Catherine with some sports news.

SPIN
The netball world championships have begun in New Zealand and in it's first match Australia knocked
over world number SIX Samoa.

The Aussies are looking to regain the title after it lost it to New Zealand in 2003.

Last night the Kiwis opened their campaign with an 85 to 26-goal victory over MALAWI.

The cricket has started as well and despite Shane Warne and Glenn McGrath's retirement the Aussies
have knocked over Sri Lanka pretty easily.

And Surfer Mick Fanning has had a triumphant homecoming to the Gold Coast just days after winning the
world championship.

Hundreds of fans turned up at Coolangatta airport to welcome Australia's first world surfing champion,
since Mark Occalupo in 1999.

Fanning established an unbeatable lead on the professional circuit at an event in Brazil last Wednesday
defeating eight-times world champion Kelly Slater.

“I wouldn't say I'm better than him, I just beat him one year. "

He'll contest the final event of the surfing calendar in Hawaii next month.




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MOUNTAIN BIKES
Nathan Bazley, reporter

INTRO: To another sport now and one that's really booming. Mountain biking is amazingly popular but
it's also very intense - with lots of thrills and spills. At the moment the national competition is in full
swing, so I thought it would be a good chance to check out all the action. When I did, I found some kids
who are mixing it with the best.

This is bike riding.

This is mountain bike riding.

Spotted the difference yet?

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: Mountain biking is an extreme sport that involves incredibly fit riders
racing over some very rough terrain at breakneck speeds.

And when I say breakneck, I'm not exaggerating.

One of the guys risking it all on the national circuit is Will.

WILL: I've cut up my arm pretty bad, and obviously a broken ankle and a few feet.

He's just taken out the first race of the National Downhill series. Not bad for a 17 year old still at school.

WILL: It was my first race in elite men's so it was awesome coming out with a win.

His favourite event is downhill, which involves speeding as fast as you possibly can down the side of an
obstacle filled course.

It often involves massive jumps as well.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: The bikes are specially designed for this punishing event. They are really
strong, have really good suspension front and back, as well as really, really big brakes.

But mountain biking is not all about pointing your bike down a hill and letting go of the brakes. Cross-
country is a different event which requires a lot of stamina.

Riders have to compete over a long course, which has both uphill and downhill sections.

Terri is 18 and a rising star in the National Series. Strangely enough, she's only just started mountain
bike riding.

She used to compete in road races before trying out for a mountain bike development program.

That was her first day on a mountain bike. She even had to borrow it from a friend!

TERRI: I was a bit cocky actually, because I thought, gee this won't be too hard and then just crashed
and made an absolute disgrace of myself, just rolling off into the bushes and everything. At the end of
the day my testing wasn't too bad, like my physical endurance and stuff, so they saw a bit of potential in
me.

Terri comes from a family of great riders. Her sister Alexis is a part of the Australian women's road
cycling team.

You might remember hearing about a terrible road cycling accident in Germany a few years back.
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Alexis was one of cyclists hit by a car while training. She was very seriously injured.

But now she's back riding for Australia and giving her sister the secrets to her success.

TERRI: It's also awesome to have the advice from someone that you look up to and she gives me a lot of
gear so we look like teammates when we're out training.

And while Terri is keen to take it as far as she can, the Beijing Olympics might be a little out of sight. This
being only her second season on the mountain and all.

TERRI: That's pretty much out of the question, unless everyone else in the field crashed in front of me.

But Terri is in a special program preparing for the 2012 London games.

As for me, after seeing all this insane action, I think I'll stick to training wheels.

                                                       ***

If you want to know if there are any races near you, go to our website for more info - it's at
abc.net.au/btn.

Now before we go - lets talk about the clothes you're wearing - do you ever think about how
environmentally friendly they are? Well some of Australia's top fashion designers certainly are.

This might look like your normal fashion parade but it’s a bit different.

The designers say these clothes are more sustainable than your normal threads.

This range is completely organic from the way the fibre is grown to how it's transported.

Other outfits are made from recycled materials.

Eventually they want clothes to have a star rating system to show buyers how sustainable they are - like
fridges and washing machines.

I'm off to check my wardrobe. See you next week.




                                                                                         Behind the News 2007




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