Writing and Reviewing Learning Objectives by esm57392

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									Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training




                      Bureau of
                  Medicine & Surgery

               Writing and Reviewing
                Learning Objectives


                           Click to continue.

Education & Training Standards Division   Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training


NOTE: Some of the slides in this presentation are taken from the
module DESIGN. Please take them as review if you previously
completed DESIGN.

IN THIS MODULE:
1. Purpose of learning objectives.
2. Relationship between items on the training requirements inventory and
   learning objectives.
3. Relationship between terminal and enabling objectives.
4. Characteristics of good learning objectives.
5. Parts of learning objectives.
6. Learning objectives and evaluation of student achievement.


Education & Training Standards Division      Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives

Learning objectives serve two primary purposes:




               For the student                         For the program




      To define the performance
                                             To maintain consistency
    students must demonstrate to
                                          from one iteration of the course
      successfully complete the
                                                    to the next.
       segment of instruction.




Education & Training Standards Division      Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives and the Training Requirements Inventory

Learning objectives operationalize the training requirements inventory.


Every item on the training requirements
                                                               TRI
inventory must be represented by at least one
learning objective in the training program.

                      AND
Every learning objective must represent at
least one item from the training requirements          Lrng Objectives
inventory.




Education & Training Standards Division       Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

Learning Objectives and the Training Requirements Inventory

The connection between an individual item from the training requirements
inventory and the curriculum outline is usually at the lesson topic level,
rather than individual learning objectives.

New Program Development: During the first part of the design phase,
each item from the validated training requirements inventory was
assigned to a unit, then to a lesson topic. Learning objectives for each
lesson were then written to state how the student will demonstrate his or
her mastery of the requirements assigned to that lesson.

Existing Programs: During the first part of the design phase, the items on
the training requirements inventory are compared to the existing learning
objectives. Every item must be covered in at least one lesson and every
lesson must support at least one item. Learning objectives that do not
support at least one item from the training requirements
inventory should be deleted.


Education & Training Standards Division     Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives and the Training Requirements Inventory

As illustrated below, a single learning objective may cover a single item
from the training requirements inventory, but a 1-to-1 correspondence is
not required. Multiple learning objectives, or even multiple lessons, may
cover one item; or one learning objective may cover multiple items.




     Single Item                           Single Objective


     Single Item                          Multiple Objectives


   Multiple Items                          Single Objective


Education & Training Standards Division         Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training




                               IMPORTANT !
                       Learning objectives MUST
                     reflect the learning level (and
                    performance level for tasks and
                      skills) of the relevant item(s)
                    from the training requirements
                                 inventory.




Education & Training Standards Division    Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives

        Final outcome of lesson               Terminal Objective


                                                  Enabling objective

        Subordinate knowledge, skills,            Enabling objective
        attitudes needed to ENABLE the
        student to meet the terminal              Enabling objective
        objective.
                                                  Enabling objective


 In the Medical Department model of instructional systems design, each lesson
 includes one unique terminal objective and as many enabling objectives as needed
 to support the terminal objective.



Education & Training Standards Division         Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives

         Final outcome of lesson                 Terminal Objective


The terminal objective represents the final outcome of the lesson - what the
student must do to demonstrate mastery of the lesson as a whole.


Terminal objectives typically require:
    • Demonstration of a task or procedure.
    • Demonstration of a skill, or combination of skills.
    • Application of principles, theories, rules, concepts, or standards of conduct.
    • Demonstration or application of soft skills
      (e.g., interpreting nonverbal cues in conversation).




Education & Training Standards Division             Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Terminal vs Enabling Objectives
Enabling objectives cover all of the cognitive,
                                                    Terminal Objective
affective, and skill elements students need to
master to meet the terminal objective.

Enabling objectives may require:                              Subordinate
                                                          knowledge, skills,
    • Recall or recognition of facts.                      attitudes needed
                                                            to ENABLE the
    • Explanations or descriptions of                      student to meet
      procedures.                                             the terminal
                                                                objective.
    • Paraphrasing of principles, theories,
      rules, concepts, or standards of conduct.             ENABLING
                                                           OBJECTIVES
    • Demonstration of subordinate skills.

    • Any other performance required to
      support the terminal objective.


Education & Training Standards Division           Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Characteristics
Both terminal and enabling learning objectives have the following
characteristics:
                          • Written for the student
                             • Complete
                                  • Action statement
                                  • Conditions
                                  • Standards
                                      • Level of performance
                                      • Authority for correct performance
                             • Unambiguous
                             • Concise




Education & Training Standards Division          Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

Characteristics

Written for the student:


The most common error in writing learning
objectives is to forget that they are written
                                                                 X
for the student, not the instructor.


Secondly, learning objectives target the performance required when
students are evaluated, NOT what they will do as part of the lesson.




Education & Training Standards Division         Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Characteristics
Concise: State the requirement in clear, direct language. Keep the
objective as short as possible without sacrificing clarity.


Unambiguous: Make sure that the learning objective states the
requirement precisely and clearly. The learning objective should say the
same thing to all students and instructors. If it is “open to
interpretation” it has not met this requirement for a good learning
objective.


Complete: Make sure that each objective includes all three parts:
action statement or behavior, condition(s), standard(s).



Education & Training Standards Division       Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Parts of Learning Objectives - Action Statements

Action statements are used to state the behavior required of the student,
as in these samples:



                    Juggle                               Solve algebra
                    objects                                problems




                      Draw a                         Climb
                      picture                        a cliff




Education & Training Standards Division     Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Parts of Learning Objectives - Standards: Level of Performance

The standards in a learning objective first state the level of
performance required for a student to meet the learning objective.
The level of performance may be specified in terms of time,
qualities, errors allowed or range of accuracy required, or a
percentage of correct responses required or incorrect responses
allowed.




                                                          %
 Product            Errors                Time            Percent
 qualities         allowed                limits          correct



Education & Training Standards Division            Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Parts of Learning Objectives - Standards: Authorities

The authorities part of the standard states where students can find the
definition of correct performance. The authority specified must be
repeatable and readily available to students. Most often, the authority
cited is a printed document such as:
     • Student Texts
     • Student Handouts
     • Technical Manuals
     • Official Documents
Audiovisual materials and computer programs may also be cited.




Education & Training Standards Division     Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Parts of Learning Objectives - Conditions

Conditions in a learning objective state where the student will perform,
and what equipment or assistance will be allowed/required at the time of
evaluation. The illustrations below show the type of information included
in the conditions.




            Equipment                                  Help
            (with or without pack)                     allowed




            Restrictions                               References
            (in the dark)                              allowed




Education & Training Standards Division     Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

Parts of Learning Objectives: Putting it together

Putting the action statement, standards, and conditions in a learning
objective answers all of the following questions for the student:


                 When I’m evaluated:
                     • What do I have to do?
                     • How well do I have to perform?
                     • Where do I find the definition of correct performance?
                     • Where will I do this?
                     • What aids can I use while I do this?
                     • What restrictions will be in place while I do this?


    Student
Education & Training Standards Division        Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
  Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
  Parts of Learning Objectives: Putting it together
1. Juggle six balls          2. in front of an audience           3. for three minutes
   (action statement)           (condition - environment/where)      (level of
                                                                  performance)




4. maintaining height and speed              5. dropping no more than one ball.
    (level of performance)                      (level of performance)
   as stated in the student handout
   (authority)
                 Height
                 and
                 speed
                 standards




 Education & Training Standards Division              Revised 6/2000
 Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training
Learning Objectives and Evaluation of Student Achievement

The primary rule for measuring student achievement
in technical education and training is that                   Did somebody
performance is measured against the objective.                say evaluation?


If an objective calls for the student to perform a
procedure, the only adequate measure of the
student’s ability to perform the procedure is to watch
the student perform it!

Make sure that the evaluation procedure, instrument,
or item is appropriate to the objective:

     • The performance evaluated is the same as the
       performance in the action statement.

     • The conditions are the same as stated in the
       learning objective.

Education & Training Standards Division      Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training


                                 SUMMARY


 Learning objectives:

 • Are based on the items in the training requirements inventory.

 • Are written for the student, stating the requirements the student must
   meet at the time of evaluation.

 • Have three parts: action statement or behavior, conditions, and
   standards. All three parts must be included for each learning objective.

 • Must be complete, concise, and unambiguous.

 • Are the basis for measuring student achievement.


Education & Training Standards Division      Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards
Curriculum Design and Development - Technical Training

     If you have any comments or suggestions on this or other
      Curriculum Design and Development staff development
                 modules, please forward them to:

                 Dr. Anne L. Ballard (BUMED-531)
                 Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
                 2300 E Street NW
                 Washington, DC 20372-5300

                 Phone: 202-762-3829 or DSN 762-3829
                 Email: alballard@us.med.navy.mil

                 Your input is always welcome!

Education & Training Standards Division   Revised 6/2000
Curriculum & Instructional Standards

								
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