Considerations to Reduce Environmental Impacts to Vessels by cja13487

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									“Considerations to Reduce Environmental
          Impacts to Vessels”
                 WG27
          Report No. 99, 2008




                          Sandra Knight
                      US Commissioner PIANC
                           July 15, 2009
                                          PIANC-InCom-WG27
PIANC WG27 Membership

  2 naval engineers, 3 civil engineers, 3 ecologists, 2 representatives (INCOM
  ENVICOM), 6 Meetings from Feb. 2003 / Brussels - Feb. 2006 / London
  2 editorial meetings, published 2008




Bernhard Söhngen (Chairman)                 German Waterways Eng. and Res. Center
Jochen Koop (Vice Chairman)                 Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany
Sandra Knight (InCom-Representative         National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Jorma Rythönen (EnviCom- Represent.)        VTT Industrial Systems, Finland
Paul Beckwith                               British Waterways, Head of Environment
Nicola Ferravi                              Servici Technici, Italy
Jose Iribarren                              SIPORT XXI, Spain
Thomas Keevin                               U.S. Army Corps of Engineering, St. Louis
Christian Wolter                            Institute for freshwater ecology and fisheries
Stephen Maynord (corresponding)             USACE ERDC Vicksburg


                                                                             PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

WG27 - structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary
                                               Top - down - approach
                            wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring,
                            order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, up - approach - plants,
                                              Bottom - canals; species
                             invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds)
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations)
                                    Basis: Impact Cascade
6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design,
                            rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                             protections, island creation)
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel River,      Upper
                                 Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide

                                                                             PIANC-InCom-WG27
Example of the Impact Cascade

                                    Indirect tow
    Primary wave field: Mississippi pushimpact of quick drawdown:
                                          fluidisation of river bed
  water level drawdown, unit with 30 barges,
       return current        about 400 m long.
                              Drawdown time
                                         Resuspension of bed sediments
                        sailing upstream  5 min.!
                           of
  Direct impact: stranding Large affected area!
           fish larvae

                                                  Fish Impacts
        Direct impact:
       displacement of
         fish larvae ...
                                               Correlations are
                                           described in more detail in
                                                  “fact files”

                                                                     PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

WG27 – structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary
                            wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring,
                            order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                             invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds)
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations)
                                    •Size and installed power of
6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design,
                                    vessels are continuously
                        rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                         protections, island creation)
                                    increasing
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature
                                    •Changing system behaviour
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper
                                 Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide

                                                                             PIANC-InCom-WG27
Highlights of WG 27 – report

WG27 – structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary
                        wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring,
                            order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                             invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds)
                                                 Ship speed reduction
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations)
                                                    is one of the best
                          80% of vcrit
  Many vessels drive atadapted vessel design, adapted fairway design,
6 Mitigation Measures (
                                                       measures in
                        rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                                                  case
                         protections, island creation) of predominant
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature      impacts from primary
                                                        wave field!
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper
                                 Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide

                                                                            PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

          WG27 – Distributionof the report
          Example: structure of engine power
          1 Introduction
          from 1 to 2 props reduces jet induced bed
          shear stress by 40 %!
          2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems,
          Chance for innovative ship design!wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and
                                     primary
                                  scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
          3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                                                             Depending upon impact:
Jet velocity on canal bed vJet,B [m/s]




             8                      invertebrates, D     kc    t
                                No.Props Prop.Type fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)       S


          4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, speed
                   P =800kW
                                       1   nozzle
                                                 D
                                                   1,6   0,6  1,6     ship thresholds)
                                       2   nozzle  1,6   0,6  1,6
                                                          check, reduction may be
          5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance0,6 1,6recommended mitigations)
                                       1   nozzle  2,2
             6
          6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel1,6 1,2 adapted wrongdesign,
                                       1   nozzle   design, 2,8
                                                              1
                                                                    fairway measure
                                                                      free   1,6   0,6   1,6
                                                         rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                                         4
                                                          protections, island creation)
          7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature
          Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river,                             Upper
                                         2                         Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
          Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide
                                                     Ship speed vS [m/s]
                                         0
                                             0               1,5                               3            PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report
WG27 – structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems,
                        primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and
                        scouring, order •Nearly 1 in relevant citizen
                                          of magnitude of 20 US impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                                         owns recreation boats
                          invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
                                         •Small systems & taxa, thresholds)
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to boats should sail far
                                         below or recommended mitigations)
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check,well above planing
                                                       Displacement ship

6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel speed adapted fairway design,
                                          design,
                           rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                                                             Planing boat
                            protections, island creation)
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper
                                Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide

                                                                             PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

WG27 – structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems,
                           primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and
                           scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                          invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
                                 •Predominant bank-impact comes from
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according waves of& taxa, thresholds)
                                 secondary to systems passenger or
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations)
                                 recreational boats.
6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design,
                        rules to•Impact not totally avoidable, but bank
                                  navigation, modified revetments, alternative
                                 because creation)
                         protections, island the water level is almost
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature is chance for effective
                                 constant, there
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper
                                 mitigation by alternative bank
                              Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal)
                                 protections.
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide
                                 •Effective mitigation measures depend
                                 on the system
                                                                            PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

WG27 – structure of the report                                                  >2
1 Introduction                      Juvenile fish >100 mm total length in burst
                                    swimming mode (max. 20 s)
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems,




                                                                                                                                   Return Current m/s
                                                 Juvenile fish >140 mm total propeller jet and
                               primary wave field, secondary waves, length in
                                                 critical swimming mode (max. 1 h)
                               scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts)       1




                                              Rheobiont invertebrates
                                                             Sporadic vegetation only
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                                                Juvenile fish >55 mm (burst mode),




                                                                        surface algae only
                                                                        Aquatic moss and
                                                                                             >100 mm (critical swimming mode)
                                 invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
                                                                               0.7
                                                                Juvenile fish >70




                                                                                                             Macrophyte diver-
4 Relevant Impacts                                              mm
                           (impact ranking according to systems (critical swim-
                                                                    & taxa,
                                                                ming mode), >40 thresholds)




                                                                                             invertebrates

                                                                                                             sity decreasing
                                                                mm (burst mode)
5 Decision Making (        incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 0.3




                                                                                             Rheolitic
                                                                 Juvenile fish >30   Limno-
                                                                 mm (critical swim-  Philic
6 Mitigation Measures (                                           fairway design,
                                 adapted vessel design, adaptedming mode), >20
                                                                 mm (burst mode)
                                                                                     Inverte-
                                                                                     brates
                               rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                                                                  Diverse macrophytes
                                          Decreasing biodiversity
                                protections, island creation)
                                              Literature
7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited threshold dependant for site specific conditions and may vary
                                     NB
There is no generally valid threshold! Ranges of return currents on each taxa are “typical”
                                     in upper
                                                           These numbers are not
Appendix I: Case Studies (tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper
But significant impacts start from return
                                                   exact, studies, Montgomery Canal)
                                 Mississippi navigationbut they help to decide,
current velocities of about 0.3 m/s!
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guidethere is a significant
This corresponds to a drawdown of                           if
about 0.1 m!                                               impact problem or not!
                                                                                                                                 PIANC-InCom-WG27
Short portrait of WG 27 – report

WG27 – structure of the report
1 Introduction
2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems,
                            primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and
                            scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts)
3 Ecological Fact Files (systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants,
                              invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians)
4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds)
5 Decision Making (incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations)
6 Mitigation Measures (adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design,
                           rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank
                      Process recommendations
                            protections, island creation)
                 instead 9 Cited Literature
7 Conclusions 8 Glossaryof detailed guidelines
Appendix I: Case from case to case! height for Lower Havel river, Upper
                 Studies (tolerable wave
                           Mississippi navigation studies,
                 Basis of the recommendations isMontgomery Canal)
Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide check“!
                 the „ecological relevance

                                                                             PIANC-InCom-WG27
Ecological relevance check
Looking on relevant impacts and channel areas
in tabular form




                                                                                                                                    neighbours
                                                             duration                                      area
                            importance                      frequency                                    affected

                                                vicinity to                           mitigation
             present state
                                               thresholds                             possible?
system behaviour             Significant Legal          Properties and corresponding qualifiers                                            eco-
                             increase     protec-                                                                                          logi-
                                                                                                                                           cal sig-
                             from    cur- tion
                             rent condi-                                                         WG 27 report is a guide to support        nifi-
                                                                                                                                           cance
                             tions
Relevant
direct /
           threa-
           tened
                    Affec-
                    ted
                                          Interna-
                                          tional,
                                                        State of
                                                        the
                                                                   Impor-
                                                                   tance
                                                                             vicin-
                                                                             ity of
                                                                                      Dura-
                                                                                      tion
                                                                                                 decision making processes on a
                                                                                                 possi-
                                                                                                 bilities
                                                                                                             per-
                                                                                                             centage
                                                                                                                         effects   main
                                                                                                                         to neigh- risks
indirect   repre-   part                  national or   corres-    of spe-   im-      and fre-   and         of affec-   bouring 8
impact     sen-
           tative
                    of the
                    sys-
                                          local pro-
                                          tection of
                                                        pond-
                                                        ing eco-
                                                                   cies
                                                                   or
                                                                             pact
                                                                             to
                                                                                      quenc
                                                                                      y     of
                                                                                                 regular basis!
                                                                                                 limits of
                                                                                                 mitiga-
                                                                                                             ted area
                                                                                                             6
                                                                                                                         ecosys-
                                                                                                                         tems 7
           spe-     tem                   species or    system     habit     thres    the        tion
           cies                           habitat in
                                          law
                                                        1
                                                                   ats 2     h-
                                                                             olds 3
                                                                                      impact
                                                                                      4          It has to be adapted to the special
                                                                                                 meas-
                                                                                                 ures 5

Draw-
down
           fish
           lar-
                    bank
                    zone
                             Already  be- No
                             yond thresh-
                                                        Heavily
                                                        modi-
                                                                   ordi-
                                                                   nary
                                                                             close               impact problem considered!
                                                                                      Short creating total
                                                                                      but fre- pools,
                                                                                                                         no        “hu-
                                                                                                                                   man
                                                                                                                                           low

           vae               old                        fied                          quent speed                                  fac-
                                                                                               reduc-                              tor”
                                                                                               tion
           fish     fair-                 No
           lar-     way
           vae                                                                                                                                        PIANC-InCom-WG27
           fish     ...
Discussion


Engineering measures:
Adapted inland cargo vessels (drive systems, steering, lightweight
  construction, overall dimensions)
 Shelter of ecologically sensitive areas (fairway adaption, wave breakers,
  erosion control)
 Alternative bank protections, especially those using plants

Licensing measures:
 Overall dimensions of permitted vessels
 Control of draught and engine power
 Operational restrictions as permitted bank distance or ship speed




                                                                      PIANC-InCom-WG27
Fairway adaption
      Relative additional width during cornering




        Example concerning extremely narrow bends in the
        German Neckar River for 135 m long motor vessel:
        Necessary bF  11,4 + 0,26 x 135  47 m
       Optimal used bow thruster (cF  2/3):
       Necessary bF  11,4 + 0,12 x 135  28 m
       Reduction  19 m (is sufficient to use the existing
       fairway)                                              PIANC-InCom-WG27
Package of measures for Waterways connected to
Elbe River
                                                                                      WG 27 – report
 Removal of protections             Allowance of erosion                  Sediment supply
                                                                                 Offers design aids for
                                                                                                 Bank development

                                                                                       different lining
                                                                                       materials from
                 New INCOM                                                            „grey literature“
                Working Group
                 „Alternative breakers
    Dead wood supply       Wave                                     Support shallow water areas               Increases roughness
             bank protections”

           New DWA AG WW1.5/2.5
               “Alternativer
                Uferschutz”
   Reeds development              Development of shoulders            Improved pasture waters
                                                                                                          River - adapted vessels,
                                                                                                            fairway, ship speed




1) Morph. und biol. Entwicklungspotenziale ... im Elbegebiet gemäß Wasserrahmenrichtlinie, Umweltbüro Essen         PIANC-InCom-WG27
Limitation of ship speed
                   1.2


                   1.0


                   0.8
                         10% reduced vS cuts wave heights in half
                                                 Messwerte
      vS / vkrit



                   0.6                               For many
                                                        GMS, beladen
                                                        GMS, leer
                                                        Schlepper

        0.4
                                          mitigation measures:
                                               economical and
                             theoretischer Verlauf
                                                        GMS, beladen
        0.2
                                       ecological benefits walk
                                                        GMS, leer
                                                        Schleppboot
      Speed limitation and control is an
        0.0                                        hand in hand!
      effective and politico-economical
            0    0.05    0.1    0.15         0.2      0.25
                              h / h
      measure to reduce impacts! It concerns        m



      about 3% of all vessels. 10 % reduction reduces
      the average speed only by 0,3 %!
      Negligible losses but highly economical
      benefits, e. g. by reduced maintenance
      costs and also ecological benefits!
                                                                       PIANC-InCom-WG27
        Are we ready for the Next generation of
             Environmental Challenges?

DRIVERS: Climate Change, Energy Demands, Economy
IMPACTS:
• Arctic Shipping
• Changes in migratory patterns of TES
• More severe and frequent storms/droughts
• Changing circulation patterns and new challenges for dredging
• Air emissions
• Infrastructure
• Capacity
• Greening the MTS
• Others?
                                                          PIANC-InCom-WG27
       CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team


• Subcommittee of the Committee for Marine
  Transportation Systems
• Approved by Coordinating Board in April,
  2009
• Goal 1: Develop a Research and
  Development Strategic Plan to support the
  MTS strategy
• Goal 2: Re-establish bi-annual forum for
  interagency R&D in the MTS
                                         PIANC-InCom-WG27
       CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team


• Subcommittee of the Committee for Marine
  Transportation Systems
• Approved by Coordinating Board in April,
  2009
• Goal 1: Develop a Research and
  Development Strategic Plan to support the
  MTS strategy
• Goal 2: Re-establish bi-annual forum for
  interagency R&D in the MTS
                                         PIANC-InCom-WG27
       CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team
               Call for Input

• What external trends will shape our long-
  term future?
• What will be the challenges to the MTS as a
  result of those trends?
• What will we need to know and do to
  prepare?



                                         PIANC-InCom-WG27
QUESTIONS?

Contact Information:
Sandra Knight, PHD, PE, D.WRE
Sandra.knight@noaa.gov




                                PIANC-InCom-WG27

								
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