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					Cross Connection Control Survey                                  Buckley AFB Annex




                 CROSS CONNECTION AND
           BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICE SURVEY



                           Buckley AFB Annex, Colorado


                                               By
                                   Portage Environmental, Inc.
                                  2513 Kennedy Circle, Bld 180
                                  Brooks City-Base, TX 78235




                                          March 2006




                                               i
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                         Buckley AFB Annex



                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                             Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................ES-1

1.0      INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 1-1

2.0      REGULATORY BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 2-1
         2.1        Existing Regulations ............................................................................................ 2-1
         2.2        Pending Regulations ............................................................................................ 2-2

3.0      METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... 3-1
         3.1        Site Survey and Data Collection .......................................................................... 3-1
         3.2        Data Management ................................................................................................ 3-1
         3.3        Hazard Ranking Rationale ................................................................................... 3-4

4.0      RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................. 4-1
         4.1        Results .................................................................................................................. 4-1
         4.2        Recommendations ................................................................................................ 4-2
                    4.2.1 Priority 1: Install BFPAs on Unprotected Systems.................................. 4-3
                    4.2.2 Priority 2: Repair/Replace BFPAs on Improperly Protected
                            Systems .................................................................................................... 4-3
                    4.2.3 Priority 3: Relocate BFPAs on Protected Systems .................................. 4-3
                    4.2.4 Priority 4: Global Recommendations....................................................... 4-3

5.0      REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 5-1


APPENDICES

A        HAZARD RANKING RATIONALE............................................................................. A-1
B        RECOMMENDATIONS AND COST ESTIMATES .....................................................B-1
C        ELECTRONIC FILES .....................................................................................................C-1




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Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                  Buckley AFB Annex



                                                      LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                                                                    Page
Figure 3-1: Example Survey Forms ............................................................................................. 3-2


                                                       LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                                                                    Page
Table ES-1: Summary of Cross Connection Survey Results .................................................... ES-2
Table ES-2: Summary of Proposed Recommendations ............................................................ ES-2
Table 2-1: Recurring Backflow Prevention Program Requirements ........................................... 2-3
Table 4-1: Summary of Cross Connection Survey Results ......................................................... 4-1
Table 4-2: Summary of Recommendations ................................................................................. 4-2
Table A-1: Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale ..................................................... A-3
Table B-1: Summary of Recommendation Cost Estimates ........................................................ B-3
Table B-2: Additional Material and Labor Matrix ..................................................................... B-3
Table B-3: Assumptions for Table B-21,2 ................................................................................... B-4
Table B-4: Priority 1 Recommendations: Install BFPAs on Unprotected Systems.....................B-5
Table B-5: Priority 2 Recommendations: Repair/Replace BFPAs on Insufficiently Protected
           Systems ......................................................................................................................B-6
Table B-6: Priority 3 Recommendations: Relocate BFPAs on Protected Systems .....................B-7




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Cross Connection Control Survey                                                Buckley AFB Annex



                           LIST OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
 AF                       Air Force
 AFB                      Air Force Base
 AFFF                     Aqueous Film Forming Foam
 AFI                      Air Force Instruction
 AFIOH                    Air Force Institute for Operational Health
 AFM                      Air Force Manual
 AFSPC                    Air Force Space Command
 ASSE                     American Society of Sanitary Engineers
 AVB                      Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker
 AWWA                     American Water Works Association
 BCE                      Base Civil Engineer
 BEE                      Bioenvironmental Engineer
 BES                      Bioenvironmental Engineering Services
 BFP                      Backflow prevention
 BFPA                     Backflow prevention assembly
 BPM                      Backflow Prevention Manager
 CC                       Cross Connection
 CEOIU                    Civil Engineering Operations - Infrastructure - Utilities
 CEO                      Civil Engineering Operations
 CES                      Civil Engineering Squadron
 DC                       Double Check Valve Assembly
 ECAS                     Environmental Compliance and Analytical Services
 EPA                      Environmental Protection Agency
 HBVB                     Hose Bib Vacuum Breaker
 HQ                       Headquarters
 IAPMO                    International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
 MAJCOM                   Major Command
 O&M                      Operation and Maintenance
 O&P                      Overhead and Profit
 PSCI                     Professional Contract Services, Inc.
 PVB                      Pressure Vacuum Breaker
 PWS                      Public water supply
 QA/QC                    Quality assurance/quality control
 ROM                      Range of magnitude
 RP                       Reduced-Pressure Principle Assembly
 SOV                      Shutoff Valve
 SOW                      Scope of work
 SVB                      Spill-Resistant Pressure Vacuum Breaker
 UFC                      Unified Facility Code
 UPC                      Uniform Plumbing Code
 USC                      University of Southern California




                                                 iv
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                  Buckley AFB Annex



                                  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
        The objective of a backflow prevention, or cross connection control, program is to
prevent the introduction of pollutants or contaminants into the drinking water distribution
system. Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1066, Plumbing Systems, along with federal, state, and
local requirements, establishes backflow prevention requirements for Air Force installations.
AFI 32-1066 adopts technical guidance; establishes administrative authority; delineates the
responsibilities of applicable Air Force personnel; and sets forth requirements for surveys,
approved equipment, recordkeeping, testing, inspection, training, and certification. This AFI
also requires Base Civil Engineer (BCE) personnel to survey all facilities and water-using
equipment and systems every five years.

        This report summarizes the results of a cross connection control survey conducted on
16 March 2006 at Buckley Air Force Base (AFB) Annex, Colorado by Portage Environmental,
Inc. (Portage) personnel. The goal of this project was to identify cross connections and
inventory backflow prevention assemblies (BFPAs) as required by AFI 32-1066. This effort also
recommends corrective actions that the base must take to address unprotected cross connections
and to bring existing BFPAs into compliance with applicable Air Force, federal, state, and local
requirements.

Table ES-1 provides a summary of survey results. A total of five (5) buildings at Buckley AFB
Annex were surveyed and 65 total hazards were identified. Five (5) unprotected cross
connections were identified, including one (1) unprotected hose bib. Of the five (5) unprotected
cross connections identified, none were identified as high hazard. A total of 54 existing BFPAs
were identified, including hose bib vacuum breakers (HBVB). Five (5) of the existing BFPAs
were determined to be providing an insufficient level of protection or were altered in a manner
that prevents proper operation (repair or replace), while one (1) was installed improperly, making
it inaccessible for testing and maintenance.

       The total cost to implement all recommendations is approximately $6,372. The
recommendations have been divided into smaller, distinct projects, or priorities, to assist with the
implementation. The projects and rough order of magnitude (ROM) costs are listed in Table ES-
2, from the highest to lowest priority.




                                               ES-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                  Buckley AFB Annex



                   Table ES-1: Summary of Cross Connection Survey Results

                                        Survey Parameters                                   Total
Total number of buildings surveyed                                                              5
    Number of buildings with water                                                              4
    Number of buildings without water                                                           1

Number of unprotected hazards (total)                                                           5
Number of unprotected High hazards                                                              0
Number of unprotected Low hazards                                                               5
Number of improper air gaps                                                                     0

Number of unprotected hose bibs                                                                 1

Number of hazards identified (total)                                                           65
    Number of BFPAs appropriately applied and installed                                        54
    Number of BFPAs improperly installed                                                        1
    Number of hazards insufficiently protected with installed BFPAs                             5



                      Table ES-2: Summary of Proposed Recommendations
                                                                          Number of
                                Recommendation                              Units         Total Cost
 Priority 1: Install BFPAs on unprotected systems                               5            $2,597
 Priority 2: Repair/Replace BFPAs on insufficiently protected systems           5            $3,312
 Priority 3: Relocate BFPAs on protected systems                                1              $463
                                                                                             Not
 Priority 4: Global Recommendations                                      Not applicable
                                                                                          estimated


        This cross connection assessment provides Buckley AFB Annex with (1) an overview of
applicable regulatory requirements for administration of the backflow prevention program; (2) a
prioritized listing of installation, repair, and replacement recommendations; (3) budgetary cost
estimates for implementing recommendations; and (4) data files necessary to populate the base’s
backflow prevention program database.

        Initiating corrective actions to address the identified deficiencies will greatly reduce
existing vulnerability to water contamination and the subsequent risks posed to personnel and
operations.




                                                      ES-2
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                Buckley AFB Annex



                                  1.0    INTRODUCTION
         Portage was tasked to conduct Cross Connection Control surveys and BFPA inventories
for Buckley Air Force Base (AFB) Annex, Colorado. This project was based upon the
requirements contained within Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1066 which requires Base Civil
Engineer (BCE) personnel to survey all facilities and water-using equipment and systems every
five years. The goal of this project was to identify cross connections, inventory backflow
prevention assemblies (BFPAs), and recommend corrective actions that the bases must take to
address unprotected cross connections and to bring existing BFPAs into compliance with
applicable Air Force, federal, state, and local requirements. Testing of BFPAs was not included
in this scope of work.

        This report presents the findings and recommendations for Buckley AFB Annex based on
information collected during the site visit conducted on 16 March 2006. The report is organized
into the following sections:

       Executive Summary

       Section 1.0, Introduction, discusses the project background and the organization of the
        report.

       Section 2.0, Regulatory Background, discusses regulatory background including AFI 32-
        1066 requirements, and other applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

       Section 3.0, Methodology, describes the approach used for site survey, data collection,
        data entry, and data analysis.

       Section 4.0, Results and Recommendations, provides a summary of the results and
        recommendations for preventing the introduction of pollutants or contaminants into the
        drinking water distribution system. Recommendations are grouped into priorities and
        provided with rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimates in order to facilitate base
        level funding and implementation of recommendations.

These sections are supported by the following appendices:

       Appendix A includes the Hazard Ranking Rationale used as the basis for cross
        connection recommendations.

       Appendix B provides recommendations and budgetary costs for installing, repairing, or
        replacing backflow prevention devices.




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Cross Connection Control Survey                                               Buckley AFB Annex



                          2.0     REGULATORY BACKGROUND
2.1     Existing Regulations

        Federal, state, and local regulations, as well as various AFIs, establish backflow
prevention requirements for Air Force bases. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and the Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 are the basis of the federal regulation. These acts
state that the water purveyor has the primary responsibility for preventing the introduction of
pollutants or contaminants into the public drinking water distribution system. To accomplish
this, water purveyors must establish and implement a backflow prevention program.

        The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state of Colorado
recognize Buckley AFB Annex as operating a consecutive water system. Buckley purchases
water from the city of Aurora, CO, but does not treat the purchased water. Under EPA and
Colorado regulations, the Buckley Annex water system does not require an operating permit and
is considered a customer of the city of Aurora. The Colorado State Regulation 5 CCR 1003-1
requires that all public water systems initiate and maintain a viable cross connection control
program that consists of locating and eliminating unprotected cross connections and maintaining
records pertaining to existing BFPAs (including type, size, and annual testing results).

        In addition to these federal and state requirements, there are a number of other
regulations and references that are specifically applicable to Buckley AFB Annex and other Air
Force installations. AFI 32-1066, Plumbing Systems, is the primary Air Force Instruction that
delineates backflow requirements and regulations. Other AFIs, manuals, and documents
addressing backflow that are referenced or adopted by the Air Force include AFI 32-1067, Water
Systems, AFI 48-119, Medical Service Environmental Quality Programs, AFI 48-144, Safe
Drinking Water Surveillance Program, Air Force Manual (AFM) 32-1070, Plumbing, the
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) Uniform Plumbing
Code (UPC), and the UPC Illustrated Training Manual.5

        AFI 32-1066 adopts technical guidance, establishes administrative authority, delineates
the responsibilities of applicable Air Force personnel, and sets forth requirements for surveys,
approved equipment, recordkeeping, testing, inspection, training, and certification. Within AFI
32-1066, the Air Force adopts the UPC and the UPC Illustrated Training Manual as the primary
technical guidance for backflow operation and maintenance (O&M). It is specified that bases
should use the UPC and the UPC Illustrated Training Manual to inspect, test, repair, and replace
backflow controls. Federal, state, and local regulations related to safe drinking water are
applicable if more stringent.

        AFI 32-1066 distinguishes between three degrees of hazard: minor, moderate, and severe.
Chapter 2 of the UPC Illustrated Training Manual provides definitions for degrees of hazard, but
it only distinguishes between high and low hazards. This is typical of other private sector
references. High hazards are synonymous with health hazards and contamination. Low hazards
are synonymous with aesthetically unpleasing conditions and pollution. For the purpose of
interpreting the required testing frequencies, minor and moderate hazards, as defined in




                                              2-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                Buckley AFB Annex


AFI 32-1066, will be considered as low hazards. Severe hazards will be considered synonymous
with high hazards.

        Table 2-1 compares the relevant AFI 32-1066 and state of Colorado backflow program
requirements with respect to management and administration, O&M, and recordkeeping. The
recommended intervals for testing and inspection of BFPAs may vary across different Air Force
installations. The recommended intervals provided in AFI 32-1066 were intended to be specific
enough to ensure timely testing, but flexible enough to broadly comply with individual state and
local requirements across the continental United States. However, AFI 32-1066 establishes that
the Air Force must comply with the more stringent of the AFI and the state requirements. If
there is a difference in the requirements, the more stringent requirement is bolded in Table 2-1.

2.2     Pending Regulations

        AFI 32-1066 is currently in the process of being revised. This revision changes the title
to "Backflow Prevention Program," defers the general plumbing requirements to Unified Facility
Criteria (UFC) 3-420-01FA, Design: Plumbing, focuses on backflow prevention, and aligns the
backflow prevention requirements with the UPC, 2003 edition. This revision also provides
additional clarification of the Air Force's Backflow Prevention and Cross Connection Control
Program requirements for installations and facilities.

        Most significantly, the draft revision of AFI 32-1066 addresses levels of hazard, testing
frequency, and fire protection. The three degrees of hazards recognized in the current
AFI 32-1066 are simplified to low and high hazards, which mimic the UPC designations as
discussed above. Hazard degrees of low and high are used in this report in conformance with the
current UPC and the expected revision of AFI 32-1066.

       Testing frequencies, which range from every 6 months to every 2 years in the current
AFI 32-1066 depending on degree of hazard, are simplified in draft revision of AFI 32-1066 to
annually for all degrees of hazard. This report defaults to the annual testing requirement in
conformance with the current UPC and the expected revision of AFI 32-1066.

        The draft revision of AFI 32-1066 further clarifies requirements for backflow protection
on fire suppression systems. Specifically, the draft AFI 32-1066 designates a low hazard level
for water only fire suppression systems with or without fire department connections, or Siamese
connections, through which supplemental water can be introduced into the fire sprinkler system.
This allows for the use of a double check valve assembly (DC) instead of a reduced-pressure
principle assembly (RP), which would be required for high hazard. Additionally, existing water
only fire suppression systems will be exempt from backflow requirements for new systems, if
they met the existing backflow requirements at the time they were installed. This report follows
the above requirement for a DC, instead of an RP, on water only fire suppression systems with or
without Siamese connections. This report recommends that unprotected water only fire systems
have a DC as a minimum level of protection. This recommendation requires that further analysis
be conducted to ensure that installation of the recommended level of backflow protection does
not compromise the function of the fire suppression system.




                                               2-2
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                      Buckley AFB Annex


                                    Table 2-1: Recurring Backflow Prevention Program Requirements
                                                     AFI 32-1066                                      Colorado Regulation 5 CCR 1003-1
                                     Responsible
                                    Individual or                                            Responsible
          Requirements                 Group                    Frequency                Individual or Group                   Frequency
MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE
                                                                                                               By approved certification programs,
 Training and certification            BPM1         Every 3 years.                              PWS 2
                                                                                                               only
 Schedule comprehensive survey          BPM         Every 5 years.                              PWS            Not specified
 Set inspection and testing
                                        BPM         Ongoing.                                    PWS            Not specified
 schedules
 Maintain spare parts inventory         BPM         Continuous.                                 PWS            Not specified

 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
 Comprehensive backflow survey         BCE 3        Every 5 years.                              PWS            Not specified
 Install new backflow prevention        BPM         As needed in response to 5-year    PWS, Certified Tester   Within 10 calendar days of discovery of
 device assemblies                                  survey results, or whenever a new                          cross connection
                                                    cross connection is identified.
 Test new backflow prevention           BPM         Within 1 week of installation and PWS, Certified Tester    Not specified
 device assemblies                                  perform follow-up 3 months later.
 Assign degrees of hazard               BES         In conjunction with 5-year survey,       PWS               Not specified
                                                    new construction, or as needed.
 Review plans for new                BPM, BES       As needed.                               PWS               Not specified
 construction associated with
 water supply, distribution, and
 plumbing
 Inspect, test, and maintain            BPM         According to degree of hazard:       PWS, Certified Tester Annual
 backflow prevention device                         every 6 months for severe; every
 assemblies                                         24 months for minor to moderate.
                                                    Ongoing staggered activity. Retest
                                                    after repairs.
 Notification of cross connection       BPM         Not specified                               PWS            Notification to the Department of Public
                                                                                                               Health and Environment must be made
                                                                                                               within 10 calendar days of its discovery


                                                                          2-3
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                                 Buckley AFB Annex


                                    Table 2-1 (cont.): Recurring Backflow Prevention Program Requirements

                                                             AFI 32-1066                                        Colorado Regulation 5 CCR 1003-1
                                          Responsible
                                         Individual or                                               Responsible
             Requirements                   Group                       Frequency                Individual or Group                    Frequency
    RECORDKEEPING
    Certificate of Competency       MAJCOM,4 BPM Air Force (AF) Form 483 updated as                 Certified Tester
                                                   needed every 3 years for each                                        Not specified
                                                   certified individual.
    Backflow Prevention Inspection      BPM        AF Forms 843/844 completed                             PWS
    Data                                           following installation, repair, and                                  Not specified
                                                   annual testing.
    Cross Connection Information        BPM        AF Form 845 completed as needed                        PWS           Not specified
                                                   and following the 5-year survey.
                                                   Update during installation and
                                                   following O&M.
    Inventory of Cross Connection       BPM        AF Form 848 updated every 5                            PWS           Not specified
    Control and Backflow Prevention                years. Update continuously as
    Devices                                        needed to reflect new cross
                                                   connections.
    Written report of BFPA testing   Not specified Not specified.                                         PWS           Not specified
    results
    Update and maintain recurring       BPM        As necessary.                                          PWS           Keep records for 3 years
    work requirements and/or
    backflow database
1
  BPM - Backflow Prevention Manager
2
  PWS - Public Water System
3
  BCE - Base Civil Engineer
4
  MAJCOM - Major Command

Note:      1.   If one of the frequencies is more stringent, it is bolded. AFI 32-1066 requires that the more stringent of AFI and state regulations be followed
                unless the base is specifically exempted from the requirement.
           2.   AFI 32-1066 is currently being revised. The revision is expected to be finalized in late 2006 or early 2007. Significant changes expected to be
                addressed are discussed in Section 2.2.




                                                                                  2-4
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                     Buckley AFB Annex



                                   3.0     METHODOLOGY
3.1     Site Survey and Data Collection

       The survey information presented in this report was collected by Portage on
16 March 2006 at Buckley AFB Annex. Prior to arriving on base, Portage prepared a
preliminary listing of facilities to be surveyed based on a BFPA inventory and the base map
provided by the base plumbing contractor, Professional Contract Services, Inc. (PSCI). This
preliminary listing of facilities was used as a starting point for identifying facilities likely to have
potable water and for scheduling daily survey activities. Additional information gathered on site
was used to further refine and prioritize daily survey activities.

        Portage inspected each facility in an effort to identify existing BFPAs and unprotected
cross connections. Building inspections included exposed water piping and point-of-use devices
in accessible areas within each building, as well as the area within a 100-foot radius surrounding
the outside of each building.

        Field work was conducted by one team of two individuals. Each member of the survey
team has previously participated in, and successfully completed, a certified cross connection
control and backflow prevention training program. The team used customized field survey forms
for documentation of relevant data during the survey process. A copy of the field survey form
used in this effort is included as Figure 3-1. BFPAs were photographed and assigned a unique
control number, if one was not already assigned by the base or have a manufacturers serial
number. Portage created a new BFPA and cross connection numbering system for Buckley AFB
Annex for these other devices. Each control number is made up of the building number (digits
before the hyphen) and a unique number assigned consecutively to each BFPA and cross
connection found at each building (digits following the hyphen) (e.g., the first cross connection
identified at Building 100 would be listed as 100-1).

3.2     Data Management

        The Scope of Work (SOW) required that Portage enter all survey data into the
WaterTools Backflow Prevention Database, a Microsoft Access based database designed to
manage backflow prevention devices. WaterTools was developed by a joint effort by the United
States Air Force and Mac Tech Inc. The USAF owns all rights to use, distribute, and modify the
WaterTools software.




                                                  3-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                      Buckley AFB Annex




                                  Figure 3-1: Example Survey Forms




                                                3-2
Cross Connection Control Survey                                        Buckley AFB Annex




                            Figure 3-1 (cont.): Example Survey Forms




                                              3-3
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                          Buckley AFB Annex


        Portage began quality assurance/quality control during the site visit in order to identify
data gaps and maintain consistency of the data recorded. Data entry into WaterTools and quality
assurance/quality control (QA/QC) continued following completion of the site visit. All devices
were entered into the database along with unprotected cross connections that required installation
of a testable or untestable device.

       The necessary data files to populate the base backflow software are included as an
attachment to this report.

3.3     Hazard Ranking Rationale

        Each drinking water cross connection must be characterized as either a high hazard or
low hazard to determine appropriate protection. Per the UPC, high hazard cross connections are
those that present a health hazard or have the potential to allow the introduction of a
contaminant. Low hazard cross connections are those that may result in aesthetically
objectionable taste, odor, and/or color, or allow for the potential introduction of pollutants.
AFI 32-1066 places responsibility on the Bioenvironmental Engineer (BEE) for assigning hazard
ranking to each drinking water cross connection. Hazard ranking is critical to the selection of
appropriate BFPAs because some types of BFPAs are only rated to protect against low hazards,
while other BFPAs are rated to protect against high hazards.

        To assist the Buckley AFB Annex BEE in assigning hazard rankings, a hazard ranking
rationale was developed by the Air Force Institute for Operation Health (AFIOH) and is used by
permission here by Portage. A copy of this rationale is presented in Appendix A of this report.
This rationale was developed using AFI 32-1066, Civil Engineering Plumbing Systems (4 May
1994)1 and a combination of available industry publications including the UPC, the UPC
Training Manual, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manual of Practice for
Backflow Prevention and Cross Connection Control, the Manual of Cross Connection Control
developed by the University of Southern California (USC) Foundation for Cross Connection
Control and Hydraulic Research, and various state-specific plumbing codes. All hazard ranking
recommendations made by Portage during this project are based upon this hazard ranking
rationale. Different backflow equipment types are rated to protect against health hazards versus
non-health hazards, back pressure versus back siphonage, or both back pressure and back
siphonage. Back pressure is superior pressure at a cross connection that exceeds the pressure
within the potable water distribution system. Back siphonage is a reversal of flow that occurs
when the supply line pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. In many cases, a cross
connection can have the potential to exhibit both back pressure and back siphonage and must be
protected against both.




1
 The pending revision of AFI 32-1066, Civil Engineering Plumbing Systems (4 May 1994), entitled AFI 32-1066,
Backflow Prevention Program (estimated 2005 publication), was also given consideration on issues expected to
impact proposed recommendations.


                                                     3-4
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                Buckley AFB Annex



                     4.0      RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1     Results

        A summary of survey results is provided in Table 4-1. A total of five (5) buildings at
Buckley AFB Annex were surveyed and 65 total hazards were identified. Five (5) unprotected
cross connections were identified. Of the five (5) unprotected cross connections identified, all
five (5) were identified as low hazard.

                    Table 4-1: Summary of Cross Connection Survey Results

                                        Survey Parameters                                Total
Total number of buildings surveyed                                                           5
    Number of buildings with water                                                           4
    Number of buildings without water                                                        1

Number of unprotected hazards (total)                                                        5
Number of unprotected High hazards                                                           0
Number of unprotected Low hazards                                                            5
Number of improper air gaps                                                                  0

Number of unprotected hose bibs                                                              1

Number of hazards identified (total)                                                         65
    Number of BFPAs appropriately applied and installed                                      54
    Number of BFPAs improperly installed                                                      1
    Number of hazards insufficiently protected with installed BFPAs                           5
  NOTE: Data files necessary to populate the Buckley AFB Annex backflow prevention database are
           provided on a CD accompanying this report.

        A total of 54 existing BFPAs were identified. Five (5) of the existing testable BFPAs
were determined to be providing an insufficient level of protection or were altered in a manner
that prevents proper operation, while one (1) was installed improperly, making it inaccessible for
testing and maintenance.




                                                    4-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                 Buckley AFB Annex


4.2     Recommendations

         The recommendations for installing, repairing, and replacing BFPAs are included in the
sections below. These recommendations have been divided into five (5) distinct projects to
assist the base in execution, either in phases or as funding becomes available. Budgetary cost
estimates have been provided for four (4) of the projects (Priority 1, Priority 2, Priority 3, and
Priority 5); while the other two (3) should be completed with base level funds and staff. A
summary of these priority groupings and their estimated costs is provided in Table 4-2. Table 4-
2 also includes an additional priority grouping (Priority 4) that include global recommendations
suggested for implementation base wide. Cost estimates are not provided for Priority 4
grouping.

                              Table 4-2: Summary of Recommendations
                                                                         Number of
                                Recommendation                             Units         Total Cost
 Priority 1: Install BFPAs on unprotected systems                              5            $2,597
 Priority 2: Repair/Replace BFPAs on insufficiently protected systems          5            $3,312
 Priority 3: Relocate BFPAs on protected systems                               1              $463
                                                                                            Not
 Priority 4: Global Recommendations                                     Not applicable
                                                                                         estimated

       Portage also did not find any unprotected low hazard fire systems; therefore, Priority 5
findings are not included in this report.

         Rough order of magnitude cost estimates for recommended corrective actions are
provided in Appendix B for Priority 1, Priority 2, and Priority 3 recommendation groupings.
These cost estimates are not detailed construction cost estimates, but rather budgetary cost
estimates for installing, repairing, or replacing a hazard-appropriate BFPA on a “typical” cross
connection of a particular diameter. The ROM costs were developed using appropriate
budgetary tools such as vendor quotes, unit prices from sources such as RSMeans Cost Works,
Plumbing Cost Data (2005), previous Portage experience, and good engineering judgment. Cost
estimates for recommended corrective actions consider costs for equipment, material, and labor.
Labor costs are included for budgetary purposes in cases where labor may not be conducted in-
house. Labor costs are estimated based on average labor rates, including estimated overhead and
profit, presented for plumbers in RSMeans. Corrective actions for some unprotected cross
connections require extensive reconfiguration of existing piping, mechanical equipment, and
other facility related infrastructure; however, these estimates only represent rough order of
magnitude (ROM) estimates.




                                                       4-2
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                  Buckley AFB Annex


4.2.1 Priority 1: Install BFPAs on Unprotected Systems

        This recommendation includes installation of five (5) BFPAs on the following: hose
connections and mop sinks. There is no existing protection on these systems. The estimated cost
to install appropriate BFPAs at these locations is $2,597.

4.2.2 Priority 2: Repair/Replace BFPAs on Improperly Protected Systems

        This recommendation includes installation or repair of five (5) BFPAs on the following
systems: heating and cooling, irrigation, and carbonated beverage machine systems. There is
existing protection on these systems; however, it is either not the appropriate level of protection
or has been improperly modified in a manner that potentially effects proper operation. The
estimated cost to replace or repair BFPAs at these locations is $3,312.

4.2.3 Priority 3: Relocate BFPAs on Protected Systems

    This recommendation includes repair/relocation of one (1) BFPA on a heating and cooling
system. There is existing protection on this system; however, it has been improperly installed or
modified in a manner that does not effect proper operation, but that is considered inappropriate
based on regulatory guidance for installation of BFPAs (e.g. installed too high or otherwise
difficult to access for testing, operation, and maintenance). The estimated cost to relocate
BFPAs at this location is $463.

4.2.4 Priority 4: Global Recommendations

    The following recommendations should be taken into consideration. The rationale for these
recommendations is included in Appendix A. However, these hazards were frequently observed
at Buckley AFB Annex and deserve special mention. The costs for these recommendations have
not been estimated.

       Ensure hose bibs and industrial sinks are properly protected according to the Hazard
        Ranking Rationale in Appendix A.

       Remove hose bibs from locations where they have the potential to interfere with the
        supply of water to an emergency eyewash or shower.

       Protect hand-held eyewash equipment connected to flexible hose with a dual check
        assembly with atmospheric vent.

       Replace each single-walled heat exchanger with a double-walled heat exchanger with
        leak detection and interstitial monitoring capability. In the interim, an RP should be
        installed on the potable water supply line to the unit.

       Untestable dual checks and vented dual checks should be replaced at least every three
        years, due to the high hazard level associated with the used of these devices.




                                                4-3
Cross Connection Control Survey                                              Buckley AFB Annex


5.0     REFERENCES

        AFI 32-1066, Plumbing Systems, 4 May 1994.

        AFI 32-1067, Water Systems, 25 March 1994.

        AFI 32-7041, Water Quality Compliance, 13 May 1994.

        AFI 48-119, Medical Service Environmental Quality Programs, 25 July 1994.

        AFI 48-144, Safe Drinking Water Surveillance Program, 19 March 2003.

        Cross Connection Control Manual, EPA 570/9-89-007.

        Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, State Regulation
               5 CCR 1003-1, January 19,2005, amended.

        Manual of Cross Connection Control, 9th Edition, Foundation for Cross Connection
          Control and Hydraulic Research, University of Southern California, December 1993.

        Manual of Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross Connection
          Control, American Water Works Association (AWWA), Manual of Water Supply
          Practices, AWWA M14, 2004.

        National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations,
           Part 141.

        Public Law 93-521, Safe Drinking Water Act, 1976.

        RSMeans Cost Works, Plumbing Cost Data, 2005

        Uniform Plumbing Code, Illustrated Training Manual, International Association of
           Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, 2003.

        Uniform Plumbing Code, International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical
           Officials (IAPMO), 2003.




                                              5-1
       APPENDIX A

HAZARD RANKING RATIONALE




           A-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                Buckley AFB Annex



                                             Hazard Ranking Rationale
       To assist the Buckley AFB Annex Bioenvironmental Engineer (BEE) in assigning hazard
rankings, AFIOH (used by permission here by Portage) developed a hazard ranking rationale
(see Table A-1). This rationale was developed using AFI 32-1066, Civil Engineering Plumbing
Systems (4 May 1994)2 and a combination of available industry publications including the
Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), the UPC Illustrated Training Manual, the American Water
Works Association (AWWA) Manual of Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-
Connection Control, the Manual of Cross-Connection Control developed by the University of
Southern California (USC) Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research,
and various state-specific plumbing codes. All hazard ranking recommendations made by
Portage during this project are based upon this hazard ranking rationale.




2
  The pending revision of AFI 32-1066, Civil Engineering Plumbing Systems (4 May 1994), entitled AFI 32-1066, Backflow Prevention Program
(estimated 2005 publication), was also given consideration on issues expected to impact proposed recommendations.

                                                                    2
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                  Buckley AFB Annex

                                                  Table A-1: Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                       Pollutant (P) or
Cross Connection                          Hazard       Recommended
                        Contaminant                                                       Rationale                                           Comments
      Type                                Ranking       Type of BFP
                             (C)1
Fire sprinkler                C            High             RP           Chemicals such as antifreeze, corrosion
system with:                                                              inhibitors, and AFFF are contaminants and
    chemicals,                                                           elevate the hazard to high.
    with or without
     Siamese
     connection,
    with or without
     booster pump

Fire sprinkler                P            Low             DC            Based on DRAFT AFI 32-1066 requirement            The determination of using a DC versus an RP
system with:                                                              for DC on water only fire systems with or         will need to be determined for each base
    no chemicals,                                                        without a Siamese connection.                     depending on state and/or local regulations and
    with Siamese                                                        Water could contain bacteriological               AFI 32-1066.
     connection,                                                          contamination, but chlorine residual in
    with or without                                                      distribution system would minimize impact to
     booster pump,                                                        the public.
    single or                                                            Assumes the presence of a Siamese connection
    multistoried                                                          represents a low hazard.
                                                                         Assumes that a more stringent local and/or
                                                                          state requirement (i.e. installation of an RP),
                                                                          with jurisdiction over the base water
                                                                          distribution system, does not exist.
Fire sprinkler                P            Low             DC            Water could contain bacteriological
system with:                                                              contamination, but chlorine residual in
    no chemicals,                                                        distribution system would minimize impact to
    with or without                                                      the public.
     Siamese                                                             Elevation head (if present) and booster pump
     connection,                                                          creates backpressure.
    booster pump,
    single or
     multistoried




                                                                              A-3
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                     Buckley AFB Annex

                                              Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                        Pollutant (P) or
 Cross Connection                          Hazard      Recommended
                         Contaminant                                                          Rationale                                           Comments
       Type                                Ranking      Type of BFP
                              (C)1
Industrial boilers             C             High            RP              Toxic metals potentially leached from the            Does not include domestic water heaters.
and heaters                                                                   heating system piping are a contaminant and
feed water lines:                                                             elevate the hazard to high. Chemicals such as
   with or                                                                   corrosion inhibitors are also potential
    without                                                                   contaminants.
    chemicals                                                                Recirculation pump pressure elevates the
                                                                              challenge on the BFP by creating backpressure.

Cooling towers and             C             High      Air Gap or RP         Chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors and           The BFP or air gap should be placed on the
chillers, including                                                           biocides are contaminants and elevate the             supply line to the water reservoir.
swamp coolers                                                                 hazard to high.                                       Additional piping to/from the equipment
                                                                                                                                    not requiring BFPs are the supply return
                                                                                                                                    and overflow lines.
Priming funnels for            C             High        Cover and           Cover and place sign that says “Potable water        This recommendation represents an attempt
booster pump                                              signage             system priming funnel. Do not add                     to prevent potentially hazardous chemicals
systems                                                                       chemicals”.                                           from being introduced into potable water
                                                                                                                                    systems. Booster pump priming funnels
                                                                                                                                    often resemble chemical addition funnels
                                                                                                                                    for boilers or chillers and should be clearly
                                                                                                                                    labeled and covered to prevent a hazardous
                                                                                                                                    mix up.
Yard hydrants at               C             High      RP/Remove or          Sewage, pesticides and other contaminants            Weather protection should be provided for
sewage lift stations,                                  Relocate in non        represent a consistently present high hazard.         the RP installed upstream of the yard
pesticide mixing                                        high hazard          If the installation of an RP is not feasible or       hydrant.
areas, and other high                                                         efficient, the potential XC must be removed or       Hydrant should be labeled as non-potable.
hazard locations                                                              relocated to eliminate the hazard.
All other yard               P/C2          Low/High3   Install sanitary      Underground drain valve can allow pollutants         Replace with sanitary yard hydrant with
hydrants                                               yard hydrant4.         and/or contaminants to backflow into the yard         sealed drainage reservoir. Sanitary yard
                                                                              hydrant and enter the potable water supply.           hydrants drain water from the weep hole
                                                                                                                                    into a sealed tank. The water in the sealed
                                                                                                                                    tank is expelled each time the hydrant is
                                                                                                                                    turned on. The hose connection still
                                                                                                                                    requires a HBVB such as ASSE 1052.


                                                                                  A-4
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                  Buckley AFB Annex

                                            Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                       Pollutant (P) or
 Cross Connection                         Hazard    Recommended
                        Contaminant                                                       Rationale                                            Comments
       Type                               Ranking    Type of BFP
                             (C)1
Heat exchangers on            C            High      Double-walled       Potable hot water systems heated by non-              Either replace with a double-wall heat
potable hot water                                    heat exchanger       potable industrial boiler water or steam via           exchanger or a separate potable hot water
systems                                               with a vented       single-walled heat exchangers are                      heater without any connection to a non-
                                                     leak detection       inappropriate. Non-potable water can                   potable system.
                                                          path.           contaminate potable water without any                 Assume single walled exchanger if unable
                                                                          warning or indication.                                 to verify during survey.
Non-potable water             C            High      RP or air gap       Water could contain bacteriological                   If a non-potable fire water storage tank,
storage tanks                                                             contamination and/or corrosion by-products             properly protected with an RP, supplies
including fire water                                                      from interior of storage tank. Chlorine residual       water to fire systems only, additional BFP
storage tanks                                                             in distribution system would not be sufficient         is not required upstream of the fire/booster
                                                                          to minimize impact to the public from such             pump.
                                                                          systems.
Non-potable wells             C            High           RP             Non-potable water tanks could present a               A connection from a non-potable well or
or other non-potable                                                      contaminant hazard.                                    other non-potable system should never be
systems                                                                                                                          made to supplement a potable water system.
                                                                                                                                 Conversely, the use of a potable water
                                                                                                                                 system to supplement a non-potable water
                                                                                                                                 system is acceptable with appropriate
                                                                                                                                 protection.
                                                                                                                                If such a connection is desired and the
                                                                                                                                 facility obtains water from a local water
                                                                                                                                 utility authorization must be obtained prior
                                                                                                                                 the installation.
Potable wells or              C            Low            DC             System isolation to protect potable water
other potable source                                                      source.
water systems
Parts washers                 C            High      RP or Air Gap       Hazards include cleaning solvents and                 Air gap is preferred method of protection.
                                                                          potential contaminants from parts being
                                                                          cleaned in aqueous parts washers.
Decontamination               C            High           RP             Contamination
room water supplies



                                                                              A-5
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                 Buckley AFB Annex

                                           Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                      Pollutant (P) or
Cross Connection                         Hazard     Recommended
                       Contaminant                                                          Rationale                                         Comments
      Type                               Ranking     Type of BFP
                            (C)1
Closed-looped water          C             High           RP               Chemicals such as antifreeze and corrosion
cooling for misc.                                                           inhibitors are contaminants and elevate the
equipment                                                                   hazard to high.
                                                                           Pump pressure elevates the challenge on the
                                                                            BFP by creating backpressure.
Non-destructive              C             High           RP               Chemicals such as penetrant, developer,            Place the RP pipe that feeds the NDI line to
inspection (NDI)                                                            emulsifier and fixer are contaminants and           ensure protection from each dip tank and
water uses                                                                  elevate the hazard to high.                         rinse station.
Auto shampoo and             C             High           RP               Chemicals such as detergents and wax are
wax                                                                         contaminants and elevate the hazard to high.
                                                                           Pump pressure elevates the challenge on the
                                                                            BFP by creating backpressure.
Demineralizer                P             Low            DC               Demineralized water is a potential hazard if       Dual check with atmospheric vent may be
systems                                                                     consumed in large quantities and poses a low        suitable for small scale systems.
                                                                            hazard.
Hose bibs connected         P/C          Low/High     Remove and           Backflow at hose bib can contaminate
to eye wash feed                                    relocate the hose       eyewash. ANSI Z358.1 requires that safety
lines                                                      bib.             equipment be provided with an
                                                                            “uninterruptible” supply of water.
                                                                           Placement of a hose-bib or other water
                                                                            consuming fixture on the dedicated line
                                                                            supplying the eyewash may interrupt the
                                                                            supply of water to the eyewash.
Trap Primer                  C             High         Air Gap            Back siphonage potential with sanitary sewer.      Most trap primers are manufactured with an
                                                                           High hazard due to cross connection with            accessory with a designed air gap.
                                                                            sewer.                                             Else air gap must exist between trap primer
                                                                                                                                outlet and drain.




                                                                                A-6
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                               Buckley AFB Annex

                                            Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                       Pollutant (P) or
 Cross Connection                         Hazard     Recommended
                        Contaminant                                                     Rationale                                           Comments
       Type                               Ranking     Type of BFP
                             (C)1
Hose attached to             P/C          Low/High      HBVB           Potential hazards will be site-specific and          Hose bibs should have a minimum of an
hose bib                                                                could either be low or high hazard.                   HBVB.
                                                                       Potential exposure to pollutants/contaminants        HBVBs are not approved for use when
                                                                        due to back siphonage through hose.                   shut-off valves and spray nozzles are
                                                                                                                              located downstream of the HBVBs. The
                                                                                                                              valve/spray nozzle potentially creates
                                                                                                                              backpressure and continuous pressure
                                                                                                                              which increase the potential for the device
                                                                                                                              to fail.
                                                                                                                             Some equipment connected to hose bibs,
                                                                                                                              such as pressure washers, cannot be
                                                                                                                              protected by a vacuum breaker and require
                                                                                                                              an RP.
                                                                                                                             Hoses should be detached from hose bibs
                                                                                                                              when not in use. Hoses should not be left
                                                                                                                              attached to hose bibs and stored above the
                                                                                                                              level of the hose bib.
                                                                                                                             HBVB is approved for health and non-
                                                                                                                              health hazards and low-head backpressure
                                                                                                                              created by hose being raised no greater than
                                                                                                                              10 feet above HBVB
Cast grinder                  C             High         RP            Blood and body fluids elevate the hazard level
(medical equipment)                                                     to high.
Sterilizer feed line          C             High         RP            If a backflow event occurs before sterilization
                                                                        is complete the hazard potential is very high.




                                                                            A-7
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                  Buckley AFB Annex

                                            Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                       Pollutant (P) or
Cross Connection                          Hazard     Recommended
                        Contaminant                                                       Rationale                                            Comments
      Type                                Ranking     Type of BFP
                             (C)1
Pesticide/Herbicide           C             High          RP            Various chemical elevate the hazard level to
application                                                              high.
equipment




Lawn irrigation               C             High       RP or PVB        Cannot prevent someone from using irrigation           PVB must be installed 12 inches or greater
                                                                         equipment to distribute fertilizer and pesticides       above downstream valves and connections
                                                                         without notice.                                         to eliminate exposure to backpressure.
                                                                                                                                Always check for connection to potable
                                                                                                                                 system.
                                                                                                                                AVB applicable if no valves or sprinkler
                                                                                                                                 heads downstream.
Swimming pool                 C             High     RP or Air Gap      High levels of chlorine, other chemicals and
feed line                                                                the potential of body fluids in pool elevate the
                                                                         hazard to high.
Humidifier make up           P/C          Low/High   AVB, PVB, DC,      Low/Pollutant if only biological contaminants
line                                                   Air Gap           exist that would be addressed by chlorine
                                                                         residual in distribution system.
                                                                        High/Contaminant if chemicals are used.
                                                                        Generally back siphonage potential only.
Carbonated                    C             High      Stainless RP      Potential leaching of metals from pipes due to
beverage dispensers                                                      carbonation elevate the hazard to high.
                                                                        Dual check is un-testable; replace every three
                                                                         years.
Cleaner/Disinfectant         P/C          Low/High   Dual Check w/      Presence of pollutant and/or contaminant will          Ideally, the dispenser should have an
dispenser connected                                   Atm. Vent          be site specific.                                       integral air gap or properly installed AVB.
to hose bib                                                             Potential exposure to pollutants/contaminants
                                                                         due to back siphonage through hose.
                                                                        Dual check is untestable; replace every three
                                                                         years.

                                                                             A-8
  Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                    Buckley AFB Annex

                                             Table A-1 (cont.): Backflow Prevention Hazard Ranking Rationale

                        Pollutant (P) or
 Cross Connection                          Hazard     Recommended
                         Contaminant                                                        Rationale                                            Comments
       Type                                Ranking     Type of BFP
                              (C)1
Hairdresser/barber             C             High        Air Gap           High hazard due to hair dyes and other                Apply administrative controls to ensure that
shop shampoo sink                                                           chemicals.                                             an air gap is maintained.
                                                                           Back siphonage potential; continuous pressure
                                                                            if spray nozzle/valve present.
Retractable sprayer           P/C          Low/High      Air Gap           A spring is usually built in to the faucet
hoses:                                                                      assembly to maintain an adequate air gap.
Domestic or
Commercial faucet
assembly
Elevated retractable          P/C          Low/High     PVB or RP          Presence of pollutants and/or contaminants will       For multiple hose reels on same line,
hose reel attached to                                 (contaminants),       be site specific and could either be low or high       protect upstream with DC for low hazard
hose bib                                               DC (pollutants       hazard.                                                (pollutants only) and with RP for high
                                                           only)           Elevated hose reel creates backpressure at hose        hazard (contaminants); downstream
                                                                            connection. Downstream valves/spray nozzles            locations should be labeled as non-potable.
                                                                            create continuous pressure. Both scenarios            PVB can be use at point of use; however,
                                                                            have the potential to cause the AVB to fail.           PVB must be installed 12 inches or greater
                                                                                                                                   above downstream valves and connections
                                                                                                                                   to eliminate exposure to backpressure.
                                                                                                                                   Note: this may result in the PVB being
                                                                                                                                   difficult to access for testing and
                                                                                                                                   maintenance. In cases where hot and cold
                                                                                                                                   lines combine at the hose connection, both
                                                                                                                                   lines must be protected.
Hose connected to             P/C          Low/High   AVB, PVB, RP         Same as spray equipment.                              Install faucet with built-in AVB with no
sink faucet and                                                            Consider site specific hazards.                        downstream valves.
below the flood rim                                                        Domestic application is low hazard.                   If downstream valves are present, install
of the basin                                                               Commercial/Industrial application can be high          PVB at point of use. PVB must be
                                                                            and contaminant.                                       installed 12 inches or greater above
                                                                           Note: Presence of downstream valves/spray              downstream valves and connections. PVB
                                                                            nozzles and hose elevation makes AVB                   can not be exposed to backpressure.
                                                                            inappropriate.                                        Alternately, install RP on main line
                                                                                                                                   supplying multiple sinks.



                                                                                A-9
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                                Buckley AFB Annex

1
  - A pollutant is defined as a substance, the presence of which represents a non-health hazard, and tends to degrade the aesthetic quality of the water. A contaminant is defined as a
substance, the presence of which represents a health hazard.
2
  – P/C indicates that, depending on site-specific conditions, either a pollutant and/or a contaminant could potentially be present.
3
  – Low/High indicates that the determination of low or high hazards depends on site-specific conditions (i.e. presence of a pollutant or contaminant).
4
  – Sanitary yard hydrants should be automatic draining, frost proof, and pollution proof with ASSE 1052 double check backflow preventer.

ASSE – American Society of Sanitary Engineers
AVB – Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker
BFPA – Backflow Prevention Assembly
CC – Cross Connection
DC – Double Check Valve Assembly
HBVB – Hose Bib Vacuum Breaker
PVB – Pressure Vacuum Breaker
RP – Reduced Pressure Principle Assembly




                                                                                         A-10
            APPENDIX B

RECOMMENDATIONS AND COST ESTIMATES




                B-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                   Buckley AFB Annex



                           Recommendations and Cost Estimates

        The recommendations for installing, repairing, and replacing BFPAs have been divided
into five (5) distinct priority recommendation groupings (Priorities 1-5), to assist the base in
execution, either in phases or as funding becomes available. A summary of the five (5) priority
recommendation groupings is provided in Table B-1.

        Portage noted five (5) unprotected cross connections. Recommendations for installation
of these devices are included in the Priority 1 recommendation grouping (Table B-4). In
addition, Portage recommends repair, relocation, or replacement of six (6) existing BFP devices.
These recommendations are included in the Priority 2 and Priority 3 recommendation groupings
(Tables B-5 and B-6, respectively).

Cost Assumptions

         Rough order of magnitude cost estimates are provided in Tables B-5 through B-7. These
cost estimates are not detailed construction cost estimates, but rather budgetary cost estimates for
installing, repairing, or replacing a hazard-appropriate BFPA on a “typical” cross-connection of a
particular diameter. The ROM costs were developed using appropriate budgetary tools such as
vendor quotes, unit prices from sources such as RSMeans Cost Works Plumbing Cost Data
(2005), previous Portage experience, and good engineering judgment. Cost estimates for
recommended corrective actions consider costs for equipment, material, and labor. Labor costs
are included for budgetary purposes in cases where labor may not be conducted in-house. Labor
costs are estimated based on average labor rates, including estimated overhead and profit,
presented for plumbers in RSMeans. Corrective actions for some unprotected cross-connections
require extensive reconfiguration of existing piping, mechanical equipment, and other facility
related infrastructure; however, these estimates only represent order of magnitude estimates.

Cost estimates are based on the following:

       Labor costs are based on RSMeans Plumbing Cost Data (2005) unless otherwise
        specified.
       Device costs are based on device supplier 2005 Price Lists, unless otherwise specified.
       Cost of materials includes an estimate of costs for piping, valves, etc. in situations where
        reconfiguration of existing piping is expected.
       Labor costs were estimated based on the following device sizes:
            o ≤ 2.5 inches assume work is conducted by one plumber.
            o 2.6 – 4 inches assume work is conducted by one plumber and one plumber's
              apprentice.
            o > 4 inches assume work is conducted by two plumbers and one plumber's
              apprentice.
       “Total including O&P” (overhead and profit) includes a 10% markup on the device and
        material, and a 50.1% markup on labor. The 50.1% labor markup includes 7.8% worker's

                                                 B-1
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                 Buckley AFB Annex


        compensation, 16.3% average fixed overhead (i.e., federal and state unemployment costs,
        social security taxes, builder's insurance, public liability, etc.), 16% general overhead,
        and 10% profit. These costs are provided in the event that the recommended corrective
        actions can not be implemented using base resources.
       It is assumed that base resources will be used for testing and repairing leaking RPs.

       An “Additional Materials” and/or “Additional Labor” cost is provided for some
recommendations. This includes an estimate of costs for piping reconfiguration and other
complicating factors associated with the recommended corrective action that are above and
beyond the labor and material costs associated with a “typical” BFPA installation and/or repair.
Additional material and labor costs are estimated based on the cost matrix provided in Table B-3.
Assumptions for Table B-2 are provided in Table B-3.




                                                B-2
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                                                            Buckley AFB Annex




                                           Table B-1: Summary of Recommendation Cost Estimates
                                                                                                        Number of
                                                    Recommendation                                        Units           Total Cost
                         Priority 1: Install BFPAs on unprotected systems                                     5
                         Priority 2: Repair/Replace BFPAs on insufficiently protected systems                 5
                         Priority 3: Relocate BFPAs on protected systems                                        1
                         Priority 4: Global recommendations                                                 Not              Not
                                                                                                         applicable       estimated
                         Priority 5: Install BFPAs on unprotected low hazard fire systems                       0                 $0



                                                Table B-2: Additional Material and Labor Matrix
                                                                                Estimated Cost
                         Additional Material Costs*                        Additional Labor Costs*                        Total Materials and Labor
  Pipe Size
   (inches)           Low          Medium            High            Low            Medium           High             Low          Medium            High
   up to 1.0         $33.38          $69.36         $132.58         $122.80          $257.30        $439.80          $156.18        $326.66         $572.38
  >1.0 to 2.0        $89.66         $186.65         $347.23         $186.00          $388.50        $670.00          $275.66        $575.15        $1,017.23
  >2.0 to 3.0       $203.40         $431.40         $790.80         $269.50          $568.50        $973.00          $472.90        $999.90        $1,763.80
       4            $435.60         $921.00        $1,557.60        $462.50          $973.00       $1,642.00         $898.10       $1,894.00       $3,199.60
       6           $1,018.80       $2,122.80       $3,520.80        $761.00         $1,617.00      $2,188.00        $1,779.80      $3,739.80       $5,708.80
       8           $1,257.60       $2,553.60       $4,281.60        $838.00         $1,771.00      $2,374.00        $2,095.60      $4,324.60       $6,655.60
      10           $2,167.20       $4,340.40       $7,173.60        $935.00         $1,965.00      $2,610.00        $3,102.20      $6,305.40       $9,783.60
Note: This table includes an estimate of costs for piping reconfiguration and other complicating factors associated with the recommended corrective action that
are above and beyond the labor and material costs associated with a “typical” BFPA installation and/or repair. The selection of "low", "medium", or "high" costs
is based on observations during the survey and the assumptions listed below. No overhead included.




                                                                              B-3
Cross Connection Control Survey                                                                 Buckley AFB Annex




                                   Table B-3: Assumptions for Table B-21,2
              Pipe Size (inches)              Low                   Medium                   High
                    < 3.0            10 ft copper pipe       20 ft copper pipe      40 ft copper pipe
                                     2 couplings             4 couplings            6 couplings
                                     2 elbows                3 elbows               4 elbows
                                                             1 tee                  2 tees
                     4–6             10 ft steel pipe        20 ft steel pipe       40 ft steel pipe
                                     2 couplings             4 couplings            6 couplings
                                     2 elbows                3 elbows               4 elbows
                                                             1 tee                  2 tees
                    8 – 10           10 ft steel pipe        20 ft steel pipe       40 ft steel pipe
                                     2 couplings             4 couplings            6 couplings
                                     2 elbows                3 elbows               4 elbows
                                                             1 tee                  2 tees
          1
              20% was added for miscellaneous materials.
          2
              Costs are based on RSMeans bare costs for copper or steel pipe and pipe fitting




                                                         B-4
Cross Connection Control Survey                      Buckley AFB Annex




                                     APPENDIX C

                                  ELECTRONIC FILES




                                         C-1