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VIEWS: 375 PAGES: 12

									                                                                                                                                   Winter 2007

          he day begins as just any other quiet weekday morning in any one of a thousand small
          towns in America’s heartland, but at 9:15 a call to 911 changes everything. The caller
          reports seeing a man with a gun near the local high school. Before officers can reach
          the scene, the man enters the school and takes a number of hostages. For the next sev-­
eral hours, area emergency response agencies will be pushed to their limits. Not only must they
resolve the hostage situation without loss of innocent lives, they also must deal with a demand-­
ing media and concerned and frightened parents.
   In an event such as a school takeover, the          Agencies, O’Shea says, are now required to
ability of law enforcement to establish an incident    complete some type of National Incident
command post quickly, combine and allocate             Management System training to apply for U.S.
resources effectively, and cooperate with other        Department of Homeland Security grants. Incident
emergency responders fully is paramount. Unfor­        Commander can be used to help meet that training
tunately, public safety agencies, especially smaller   requirement.
agencies in rural and remote parts of the country,
do not often have the staff or budget resources            Incident Commander offers a realistic represen­
for critical incident command training. A recently     tation of crisis management with realistic scenarios,
released, no-cost training program called Incident     realistic time delays, and realistic resource limita­
Commander, however, can help.                          tions. Focusing on smaller jurisdictions (less than
                                                       50,000 residents), participants face the problems
    Available through the National Law Enforcement     of dealing with a school hostage situation, a chem­
and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) sys­        ical spill, the aftermath of a severe storm, and a
tem, a program of the Office of Justice Programs’      possible terrorism incident as they fill the roles
National Institute of Justice, Incident Commander      of the incident commander and the command
is a PC-based software simulation that models          team. At the same time, participants also control

real-world situations within a community, allowing     the various agencies responding to the incident,
for training at the management level during a criti­   including police, fire, emergency medical services,         nteroperability, information sharing, and time-­
cal incident.                                          public works, and school personnel.                         line and link analysis are buzzwords getting a
   According to Mike O’Shea, NIJ program                  Anywhere from 1 to 16 people can partici­                great deal of use in the law enforcement and
manager, Incident Commander is based on the            pate in a scenario by taking on a variety of roles          homeland security communities. Now the Penn-­
command structure mandated by the Federal              within the operations team. In addition, multiple       sylvania Department of Corrections is capitalizing
Emergency Management Agency in its rules for           simultaneous roles for player interaction are avail­    on a software program called WebTAS, originally
National Incident Management System compliance.        able, allowing independent action in any role or
                                                                                                               designed for government agencies and law enforce-­
                                                                  (See Commanding the Incident, page 12)       ment, to show that these buzzwords also have
                                                                                                               meaning for corrections.
                                                                                                                                         (See Doing Prison Time, page 2)
     (Doing Prison Time . . . cont. from page 1)

         Short for Web-Enabled Timeline Analysis System, WebTAS is          called DOCNET. One requirement was that State employees
     a flexible suite of analytical tools that enable public safety agen­   would continue entering data into the various databases used
     cies to quickly and easily merge data from disparate databases         by different correctional facilities and WebTAS would connect
     or other sources of information. It uses an agency’s existing          all these varied data sources together.
     mainframe system to track pertinent incidents.
                                                                               “It’s been a great system,” Flaherty says. “We took it in baby
         “WebTAS is basically what we call ‘government off the shelf,’”
                                                                            steps by looking first at rapes; now we’re expanding it to other
     says Jamie Hepler, a contract analyst with the Law Enforcement
                                                                            types of sexual activity, assaults, and misconducts. We want to
     Analysis Facility located at the National Law Enforcement and
                                                                            try to build up the analysis aspect, but so far, the number of
     Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)–Northeast, a program
                                                                            PREA incidents has been so low that we haven’t been able to do
     of the Office of Justice Programs’ National Institute of Justice.
                                                                            much analysis.”
     The software gives analysts the ability to plot events spatially
     and temporally and look for links.                                        Now that Pennsylvania knows about WebTAS, Flaherty says
                                                                            the State is working on other uses for the software. In addition
        “You should see the look on the people’s faces when the raw
                                                                            to tracking nonsexual assaults and inmate misconduct, Flaherty
     data they have been working with, but have never been able to
                                                                            thinks it could be a useful tool for combating gang activity and
     see visualized, is first plotted on a map or grid for them,” Hepler
                                                                            drug use.
     says. “It’s just amazing, like ‘where has this been all my life?’”
                                                                                “We’d also like to use it to analyze visitors, inmates, gangs,
         Originally, WebTAS was used in the defense and intelligence
                                                                            drug tests, and phone calls to visualize whether there are
     community, predominately for intelligence analysis by the
                                                                            any linkages between these entities,” Flaherty says. “It could
     United States Space Command. Currently, Hepler says, WebTAS
                                                                            help us keep drugs out of prison and the wrong people from
     is used to support tactical and strategic analysis in support of
                                                                            being allowed to visit.” WebTAS also could help find patterns
     the global war on terrorism, Operation Enduring Freedom, and
                                                                            following canine and other contraband searches. “It will help
     Operation Iraqi Freedom. Law enforcement has also realized the
                                                                            us to pick up trends and call them to the attention of the
     software’s potential to help analyze evidence. WebTAS, Hepler
     says, has even been featured on “He Said...She Said,” one of
     the stories in the Autopsy 11: Sex, Lies, and Murder video series         While Pennsylvania examines ways to expand WebTAS use
     (HBO, Spring 2006).                                                    within its correctional system, Hepler says he hopes to expand
                                                                            WebTAS’ correctional applications outside the State.
        Bob Flaherty, a security data analyst with the Pennsylvania
     Department of Corrections, says that although the Federal Pris­            “I think every State has similar technology needs in terms
     on Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003 provided a trigger, his         of infrastructure and software requirements,” he says. “One of
     agency really just wanted to see what WebTAS could do in the           my hopes is to establish its use in more States. All States must
     corrections arena as a whole. The passage of PREA (which man­          report under PREA, and it could also be used for inhouse inves­
     dates that all State and local correctional agencies meet specific     tigations, visitor tracking, and intelligence and financial analy-
     reporting requirements related to prison rape, sexual assault,         sis—all the same problems that law enforcement faces. States
     and harassment) and the subsequent receipt of a grant from the         could use WebTAS to share critical information and collaborate
     Bureau of Justice Assistance, he says, allowed the corrections         with each other. Once you’ve got it in place, it can be used for
     department to purchase needed equipment and begin exploring            so many things. It helps you find the pattern before the pattern
     WebTAS’ possibilities. (The grant primarily went to purchase           becomes a problem.”
     new servers, computers capable of running the software, and
     minor consulting fees.)                                                   For more information about WebTAS, visit www.webtas.
                                                                            com or contact Jamie Hepler at For
         When PREA came into play, Hepler says, Dr. John Shaf­              information about how WebTAS was used in one instance
     fer, Pennsylvania executive deputy secretary for corrections,          to help solve a murder-for-hire case, read “Time Proves the
     quickly recognized WebTAS’ potential. Discussions began on             Crime” from the spring 2002 edition of TechBeat at www.
     making WebTAS fit into Pennsylvania’s correctional intranet,

                                                                 n a late winter day, police arrested three men after receiving a report of gunshots in a neighbor-­
                                                                 hood of North Charleston, South Carolina. One of the men arrested was carrying a weapon that
                                                                 had been reported stolen just 30 minutes earlier. Although reports of shots fired are common
                                                                 occurrences in urban areas, in this particular incident, the report did not come from a human
                                                      witness but from a gunshot location system.

                                                         At the time, the gunshot location system was not even officially operational. The installation process—
                                                      testing and calibration of the sensors— had just begun when the system provided its first hit.

                                                 Two gunshot location systems                         According to Coleman Knight, deputy director at NLECTC–Southeast,1 dis­
                                           produced by ShotSpotter® began oper­                    patch reports in Charleston and North Charleston have placed officers within
                                        ation in North Charleston and Charleston                   a 20-foot range of where shots were fired. Officers can be notified via dispatch
                                     in spring 2003. At that time the National Law                 radio, cell phone, mobile data computer, e-mail, pager, or personal digital assis­
                                  Enforcement and Corrections Technology Cen­                      tant. The system also records a WAV file of the number of gunshots detected by
                              ter (NLECTC)–Southeast, a program of the Office                      sensors. This file can be used in court to support or refute, as needed, observa­
                           of Justice Programs’ National Institute of Justice, was                 tions by witnesses, victims, and suspects.
                        called in to help evaluate the technology, which relies
                      on fixed telephone lines. In addition, NLECTC–Southeast                         Officers headed toward the scene of a gunshot location system report are
                      became involved in the initial evaluation of the wireless                    confident that the information came in not only quickly, but accurately, Knight
                      version of the gunshot location system with the Charleston                   says. When (and if) witnesses report gunshots heard, however, their information
                      Navy Yard and the Richland County Sheriff’s Department                       may be delayed and may conflict with the location and direction of the gunfire
                      in Columbia, South Carolina. Availability of a wireless sys­                 identified by ShotSpotter. The precise location information generated by gunshot
                      tem will allow jurisdictions to choose between the original                  location devices increases an officer’s chances of finding spent casings or even
                      location system, which relies on fixed telephone lines but                   catching a perpetrator with a weapon in hand. In multishot incidents, the system
                    is small and inconspicuous, and the larger wireless sensors,                   reports the location of each individual shot.
                 which are not as easily hidden from the criminal element but are                     Charleston and North Charleston received initial funding for their gunshot
             easily moved. The wireless system has a higher initial cost, while                    location projects under the U.S. Department of Justice’s Safe Neighborhoods
          the landline version has ongoing telephone charges.                                      program. The U.S. Attorney General for South Carolina chose reduction of street
        ShotSpotter uses a network of weatherproof acoustic sensors to record                      violence and gunfire through an initiative named Project CeaseFire. The initiative
  and locate gunshots and other loud noises. The system uses relative arrival                      provided $750,000 to install the two gunshot location systems, which featured
times from a minimum of three acoustical sensors to triangulate and determine a                    32 sensors (8 per square mile). Charleston has added eight more sensors to fill
location, employing technology similar to that used by geologists to pinpoint the                  in gaps or weak areas in targeted areas and North Charleston is in the process
epicenter of an earthquake.                                                                        of adding four to six more to cover gaps. The cities selected coverage areas
                                                                                                   based on their frequent appearance on reports related to violent crimes, firearms
   When the sensors pick up a sound in the appropriate frequency range, the                        offenses, and drug-related incidents.
system ties into geographic information system technology and generates a
colored dot on a city map. Gunshots show as red dots; firecrackers and other                          For more information on gunshot location systems and the ShotSpotter
loud noises have their own colors. The marked map shows a 911 dispatcher the                       evaluations, contact NLECTC–­Southeast at 800–­292–­4385 or e-mail Charles
location of the gunfire; the dispatcher can then listen to a WAV file of the report,               Stephenson at
verify it as a gunshot, and dispatch officers. The entire process usually takes
no more than 6 to 10 seconds, which leads to more rapid incident dispatch that                     1Mr.   Knight passed away in January 2007, after this article was written.
could help save victims’ lives.

                                          In addition to Charleston and North Charleston,                      citizens reported gunshots in only 11 percent of the 

                                      South Carolina, gunshot location systems have been                       cases detected by the system.

                                      deployed across the Nation, with more in the planning
                                      and development stages. Systems can be found in such                ●	   Gary, Indiana. In one evening, use of a gunshot loca-
                                      diverse areas as Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles, California;              tion system resulted in 15 multiple-charge arrests
                                      Gary, Indiana; and Glendale, Arizona. Systems are also in                and 45 confiscated weapons.
                                      use by the FBI, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the U.S. Joint          ●	   State of Ohio. Temporary deployment of a gunshot
                                      Forces Command, and the U.S. Army. Successes have                        location system covering 90 miles of State highway
                                      included the following:                                                  helped lead to the capture of the Columbus highway
                                      ●	   Rochester, New York. Officers responded to a shots-                 sniper in 2003.
                                           fired incident so quickly that a suspect was still             ●	   Redwood City, California. A gunshot location system
                                           holding a shotgun when they arrived.                                helped to reduce the threat of random gunfire in one
                                      ●	   Los Angeles County, California. The sheriff’s depart-               part of town. The result? People felt safer, businesses
                                           ment conducted a study in target areas where a                      began returning to the area, and property values
                                           gunshot location system was in use and found that                   increased.


                      TECH                                                                                     shorts
                                                                                                               Technology News Summary

     T    ECHshorts is a sampling of the technology projects, programs, and initiatives being conducted by the Office of Justice Pro-
          grams’ National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the centers and specialty offices that constitute its National Law Enforcement
          and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) system. If you would like additional information concerning any of the follow-
     ing TECHshorts, please refer to the specific point-of-contact information that is included at the end of each entry.
                                                                                                                                                    groups to collaborate on regional incident management coordi-
                                                                                                                                                    nation and response planning. Following several tabletop and
                                                                                                                                                    field exercises, the group recognized the need for an ongoing
                                                                                                                                                    effort to promote incident management data sharing through
                                                                                                                                                    the use of emerging technologies and current off-the-shelf
     In addition to TECHshorts, an online, weekly technology news summary containing articles relating to technology developments                   and nonproprietary equipment and systems, and requested
     in public safety that have appeared in newspapers, newsmagazines, and trade and professional journals is available through the                 assistance from NLECTC–West. For more information, contact
     NLECTC system’s website, JUSTNET, at This service, the Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology News Sum-                   NLECTC–West, 888–548–1618 or
     mary, also is available through an electronic e-mail list, JUSTNETNews. Each week, subscribers to JUSTNETNews receive the news
     summary directly via e-mail. To subscribe to JUSTNETNews, e-mail your request to or call 800–248–2742.
                                                                                                                                                    On the Skids
     Note: The mentioning of specific manufacturers or products in TECHshorts does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.
     Department of Justice, NIJ, or the NLECTC system.                                                                                              A 59-percent
                                                                                                                                                    decrease in driv-
                                                                                                                                                    ing accidents is
                                                                                                                                                    the very tangible
                                                                                                                                                    result of a “safe
     The Eagle Has Landed                                                    easy to use, and provides law enforcement and private sector
                                                                                                                                                    driving” partner-
                                                                             organizations with 24/7 access to numerous training materials
     Russian explosives experts are lending their expertise to                                                                                      ship between the
                                                                             from any Internet-enabled computer. Currently, the CSL Web
     their American counterparts to help in the detection                                                                                           Anchorage Police
                                                                             environment contains more than 40 hours of tool demonstra-
     of improvised                                                                                                                                  Department
                                                                             tions and training videos created specifically for first respond-
     explosive                                                                                                                                      and NLECTC–
                                                                             ers, forensic investigators, and the legal community.
     devices (IEDs).                                                                                                                                Northwest. The
                                                                             CSL uses this information-sharing method when hosting and              Skid Car, made
     Last fall,                                                              participating in cybercrime and cybersecurity conferences              available by
     NLECTC–                                                                 and seminars nationwide. The events are captured on video              NLECTC–Northwest to numerous law enforcement agencies in
     Northwest                                                               and made available to registered users on the CSL website at           Alaska, allows drivers to practice driving skills needed on icy
     sponsored the                                                  Examples include the Prosecutors’             roads by pushing a button that throws the car into a simulated
     visit of two Rus-                                                       Perspective on Electronic Crime Seminar, held in conjunction           skid. The technology can simulate a front skid, a rear skid, or an
     sian IED experts                                                        with the New York/New Jersey United States Secret Service              all-wheel skid, all of which call for different driving tactics.
     to Washington,                                                          Electronic Crimes Task Force (USSS ECTF) meeting on October
     D.C. While in                                                                                                                                  NLECTC–Northwest sponsors a train-the-trainer program for
                                                                             4, 2006, and the Organization of American States Cybersecurity
     the United                                                                                                                                     driving instructors from individual agencies and helps coordi-
                                                                             and Cybercrime Workshop, held in cooperation with the Miami
     States, the Rus-                                                                                                                               nate the transportation (along with the Alaska National Guard)
                                                                             USSS ECTF on April 25–27, 2006. For more information about
     sians trained                                                                                                                                  of the Skid Car around the State. Anchorage, one of several law
                                                                             these or other CSL activities, contact Joshua Bartolomie at
     American explosives specialists so they could conduct an NIJ-                                                                                  enforcement agencies employing the technology as part of its
                                                                             888–338–0584 or
     sponsored evaluation of a Russian IED detection device called                                                                                  emergency vehicle operations course, reported a substantial
                                                                                                                                                    decrease in accidents in the first year of using the training
     the Eagle. The two Russian IED experts also met with a number
                                                                             Looking at the Same Picture                                            program. For more information, contact NLECTC–Northwest,
     of their U.S. counterparts to discuss and demonstrate the latest
     in Russian IED detection equipment and share lessons learned                                                                                   866–569–2969 or
                                                                             At the request of the Golden Gate Safety Network, NLECTC–
     from IED detection experiences in Chechnya and Dagestan.                West is developing a system of components that will help
                                                                             determine the operational requirements for a common operat-
     NIJ is evaluating the Eagle for potential domestic use with assis-      ing picture system. A common operating picture system is a 

     tance from NLECTC–Northwest and NLECTC–Rocky Mountain.                  computer-generated display of identical information shared by 

     The Eagle consists of a backpack system designed to detect IEDs         more than one command. Its purpose is to provide situation 

     through identification of remote control receivers, transceivers,       awareness and facilitate collaborative planning.

     electronic fuses, electronic timers, and delayed-action units.

     Russian Federation Special Forces have successfully deployed            The project involves the development of capabilities in five basic 

     the Eagle since 2001. Dustproof and shockproof, it is designed          areas: shared mapping, key resource tracking using a global 

     for outdoor use in a wide range of temperatures.                        positioning system (GPS), on-scene digital imagery, incident 

                                                                             command directives (e.g., safety perimeters, road closures), and
     Plans are also underway for NLECTC–Northwest to evaluate the            Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). A shared server architecture
     Eagle’s “little brother,” the less powerful NR-u, for possible detec-   allows ongoing experimentation with shared mapping, GPS
     tion of clandestine cellular phones smuggled into domestic pris-        tracking, and transmission of video and still imagery. Partici-
     ons and jails. This portable device relies on the same technology       pating agencies enter information, including feeds from video
     as the Eagle. For more information, contact NLECTC–Northwest,           cameras, into the shared server. The system’s mapping capability
     866–569–2969 or                                     can then show vehicle locations on a map and provide video
                                                                                footage to all users.
     CyberScience Laboratory’s
                                                                                         The common operating picture system has been
     Webinar Capability                                                                    used in training exercises that have included as
     In an effort to enhance outreach                                                       many as 16 different public safety agencies at the
     and training in combating cyber-                                                        Federal, State, regional, and local levels, as well
     crime, the NLECTC–Northeast                                                             as participation by several nongovernmental
     CyberScience Laboratory (CSL)                                                           organizations.
     has expanded its Web environ-
     ment to include interactive, live, and                                                  The Golden Gate Safety Network was formed
     on-demand streaming video. This                                                        several years ago as an informal means for
     “Webinar” capability is cost effective,                                              San Francisco Bay Area private and public safety

             N L E C T C                                                                                                                                                        2277 Research Boulevard
                                                                                                                                                                                Rockville, MD 20850
                                                                                     ...............................................                                         .................................

                                                                                                                                                                                26 Electronic Parkway
                                                                                                                                                                                Rome, NY 13441–4514
The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology                          thousands of prisons, jails, and parole and probation depart-                                  888–338–0584
Center (NLECTC) system, a program of the Office of Justice Pro-                  ments; and other public safety organizations.                                        
grams’ National Institute of Justice (NIJ), offers no-cost assistance
in helping agencies large and small implement current and                        With a network of regional centers and specialty offices located
                                                                                 across the country, the NLECTC system delivers expertise in a
emerging technologies.                                                                                                                                                          NLECTC–Southeast
                                                                                 number of technologies in partnership with a host organiza-                                    5300 International Boulevard
The NLECTC system was established in 1994 by NIJ’s Office of                     tion. In addition, a number of technology working groups and a                                 North Charleston, SC 29418
Science and Technology to serve as an “honest broker” resource                   national advisory council provide guidance relating to the tech-                               800–292–4385
for technology information, assistance, and expertise by provid-                 nology needs and operational requirements of the public safety                       

ing information and technology assistance to the Nation’s more                   community for each of NIJ’s technology focus areas.
than 18,000 police departments; 50 State correctional systems;
                                                                                                                                                                                NLECTC–Rocky Mountain
                                                                                                                                                                                2050 East Iliff Avenue

Contact NLECTC for:. . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................                                                                           Denver, CO 80208
Technology Identification                             Technology Demonstration                               ordered through NLECTC’s toll-free number,
  The NLECTC system provides information               We introduce and demonstrate new and                  800–248–2742, or via e-mail at asknlectc@
  and assistance to help agencies determine the        emerging technologies through such special                                                                               NLECTC–West
  most appropriate and cost-effective technol-         events, conferences, and practical demonstra-                                                                            c/o The Aerospace Corporation
                                                                                                           Technology Commercialization
  ogy to solve an administrative or operational        tions as the Mock Prison Riot (technologies                                                                             2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
  problem. We deliver information relating to          for corrections) and an annual public safety          Our law enforcement and corrections profes-                        El Segundo, CA 90245–4691
                                                                                                             sionals, product and commercialization man-                        888–548–1618
  technology availability, performance, durabil-       technology conference. On a limited basis,
                                                                                                             agers, engineers, and technical and market               
  ity, reliability, safety, ease of use, customiza-    NLECTC facilitates deployment of new tech-
  tion capabilities, and interoperability.             nologies to agencies for operational testing          research specialists work together to identify
                                                       and evaluation.                                       new technologies and product concepts. They
Technology Assistance                                                                                        then work with innovators and industry to                          NLECTC–Northwest
                                                                                                                                                                                6411 A Street, Suite 200
  Our staff serve as proxy scientists and engi-       Capacity Building                                      develop, manufacture, and distribute these
                                                                                                                                                                                Anchorage, AK 99518–1824
  neers. Areas of assistance include unique            We provide hands-on demonstrations of                 new, innovative products and technologies.
  evidence analysis (e.g., audio, video, computer,     the latest technologies to address such                                                                        
                                                                                                           Technology Needs Assessment
  trace, and explosives), systems engineering,         operational issues as crime and intelligence
  and communications and information systems           analysis, geographic information systems,             Our national body of criminal justice
                                                                                                             professionals—the Law Enforcement and
                                                                                                                                                                                        Border Research and
  support (e.g., interoperability, propagation         explosives detection and disablement,                                                                                            Technology Center (BRTC)
  studies, and vulnerability assessments).                                                                   Corrections Technology Advisory Council
                                                                                                                                                                                        c/o The Sheriffs’ Association of Texas
                                                                                                                                                                                        1601 South I–35
Technology Implementation                                                                                                                                                               Austin, TX 78741
  We develop technology guides, best prac-                   Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                          512–445–2316
  tices, and other information resources that                                          NLECTC–Rocky Mountain          NLECTC–Northeast
                                                                                                                                                 Office of Law Enforcement
                                                                                       Denver, Colorado               Rome, New York
  are frequently leveraged from hands-on                                                                                                         Gaithersburg, Maryland
  assistance projects and made available to                                                                                                                                             BRTC–Western Operations
  other agencies.                                      NLECTC–West                                                                                  NLECTC–National                     c/o SDSU Research Foundation
                                                       El Segundo,                                                                                  Rockville, Maryland
                                                                                                                                                                                        5178 College Avenue, Suite 10
                                                                                                                                                    Office of Law Enforcement           San Diego, CA 92182
Property Acquisition                                                                                                                                Technology Commercialization
                                                                                                                                                    Wheeling, West Virginia             888–656–2782
  We help departments take advantage of sur-                                                                                                                                  
                                                      Border Research
  plus property programs that make Federal            and Technology
                                                      Center (Western                                                                                  NLECTC–Southeast
  excess and surplus property available to law        Operations)                                                                                      Charleston, South Carolina
  enforcement and corrections personnel at
                                                      San Diego, California                                                                                                             Rural Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology Center
  little or no cost.
                                                                                     Border Research and                 Rural Law Enforcement
                                                                                     Technology Center                   Technology Center                                              101 Bulldog Lane
Equipment Testing                                                                    Austin, Texas                       Hazard, Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                                                        Hazard, KY 41701
  In cooperation with the Office of Law                                                                                                                                                 866–787–2553
  Enforcement Standards (OLES), we over-                                                                                                                                      
  see the development of standards and a               inmate disturbances and riots, and com-               (LECTAC)—ensures that we are focusing
  standards-based testing program in which             puter crime investigation.                            on the real world needs of public safety                           Office of Law Enforcement
  equipment such as ballistic- and stab-                                                                     agencies.                                                          Technology Commercialization
  resistant body armor, double-locking metallic       Technology Information                                                                                                    (OLETC)
  handcuffs, and semiautomatic pistols is tested       NLECTC disseminates information to the              Because most of the country’s law enforce­                           2001 Main Street, Suite 500
  on a pass/fail basis. NLECTC also conducts           criminal justice community at no cost               ment and corrections services are provided                           Wheeling, WV 26003
  comparative evaluations—testing equipment            through educational bulletins, equipment                                                                                 888–306–5382
                                                                                                           at the local level, the NLECTC system is                   
  under field conditions—on patrol vehicles;           performance reports, guides, consumer
                                                                                                           composed of five regional centers and is
  patrol vehicle tires and replacement brake           product lists, news summaries, meeting/
                                                                                                           complemented by several specialty offices
  pads; and cut-, puncture-, and pathogen-             conference reports, videotapes, and CD–                                                                                  Office of Law Enforcement
                                                                                                           and a national center. Most centers and                              Standards (OLES)
  resistant gloves. NLECTC also has evaluated          ROMs. NLECTC also publishes TechBeat, an
  emerging products to verify manufacturers’           award-winning quarterly newsmagazine.               offices are colocated with or supported                              100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8102
                                                                                                           by federally funded technology partners                              Building 220, Room 8208
  claims. The primary focus of OLES is the             Most publications are available in electronic
                                                                                                                                                                                Gaithersburg, MD 20899–8102
  development of performance standards and             form through the Justice Technology Infor-          so they can leverage unique science and
  testing methods to ensure that public safety         mation Network (JUSTNET) at www.justnet.            engineering expertise.                                     
  equipment is safe, dependable, and effective.        org. Hard copies of all publications can be

                                                                  TechBeat is the award-­winning newsmagazine of the National Law Enforcement
                                                                  and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) system. TechBeat’s latest award is
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     Individual Subscriptions: TechBeat             names and addresses of individuals           article was reproduced from the Win-           2001 Award of Excellence for Maga­

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            2007 NIJ Technology                                                            September 16–21, 2007 • Washington, D.C.

          Institute for Corrections

                              	       Agenda:	 Attendees	will	receive	information	on	and	assistance	about	existing	and	developing	technologies,	learn	
                                               ways	to	solve	problems	relating	to	technology	implementation,	and	exchange	technology	lessons	learned.	
                                               Attendees	also	will	participate	in	briefings	and	demonstrations	at	various	agencies	and	departments	in	the	
                                               metropolitan	area.

                              	 Registration:	 Attendance	is	limited	to	25	midlevel	managers	from	State,	local,	and	community	corrections	agencies	who	
                                               are	involved	with	technology.

                               Applications:		 To	obtain	an	application,	visit	or	contact	Laura	Luhn	at	
                                               800–248–2742,	ext.	5145	or	at	One	application	is	allowed	per	agency.	Alumni	of	previous	
                                               institutes	are	not	eligible.	Travel,	lodging,	and	meal	expenses	are	paid	by	the	National	Institute	of	Justice.

                                                                                                                       Application deadline: July 13, 2007

      w w w . j u s t n e t . o r g
      Online News Summary. Online News Summary                     vehicles and tires, protection gloves, handcuffs,          Links. Links takes you to other important law 

      includes article abstracts on law enforcement,               and more.                                                  enforcement and corrections websites. 

      corrections, and forensics technologies that have 

      appeared in major newspapers, magazines, and                 Publications. Publications from NIJ and NLECTC                For help establishing an Internet connection, 

      periodicals and on national and international wire           that you can view or download to your system,              linking to JUSTNET, or finding needed technology 

      services and websites.	                                      including printer-friendly versions of TechBeat            and product information, call the NLECTC Infor-
                                                                   articles and features.                                     mation Hotline at 800–­248–­2742.

      Testing Results. Up-to-date listing of public-safety 

      equipment evaluated through NIJ’s testing program.           Calendar of Events. Calendar of Events lists 

      Includes ballistic- and stab-resistant armor, patrol         upcoming meetings, seminars, and training.

          he National Center for Missing &            flash settings, aperture, focal length, and meter­    thumbnail depicted an older version that revealed
          Exploited Children revealed in a June       ing mode. A less common feature is the inclusion      the obscured area.
                                                      of global positioning satellite coordinates that
          2005 study that 40 percent of arrested                                                               The Exif standard also supports data called
                                                      provide the exact location where the picture was
          child pornography possessors had            snapped. Thus, law enforcement can use Exif           “makernotes.” These data fields and their values
both sexually victimized children and were in         data to find out when a photograph was taken, tie     are unique to each digital camera manufacturer.
possession of child pornography. Due in part to       photos to a specific make and model of camera,        They can help determine if a suspect has tam­
                                                      or pinpoint the location where an image was cre­      pered with Exif data in an attempt to prevent
the increasing prevalence of child exploitation
                                                      ated. More advanced techniques can identify the       linking images to a specific digital camera. For
and pornography, the digital photograph has                                                                 example, encountering an image with the Exif data
                                                      owner of a specific camera by extracting its serial
now become a fixture in gathering and examin-­                                                              of a Canon camera and the makernotes of a Nikon
ing forensic evidence in such cases.                                                                        would indicate that fields have been modified.
                                                         Currently not all digital camera manufacturers
   Investigators who frequently handle child          support the standard, although makers of many            Several tools facilitate the extraction and
pornography cases usually have (or know where         popular brands, such as Nikon, Sony, Canon, Fuji,     analysis of Exif data and image thumbnails. Exifer,
to access) the tools and the knowledge to obtain      HP and Olympus, have adopted it. Many image           ThumbsPlus®, Jhead, EXIFextracter, Exif Reader,
evidence associated with contraband images.           editing programs (such as Microsoft® Paint) ignore    ExifPro, and IExif® are just a few of the many free
Nevertheless, law enforcement officers who do         Exif data embedded in a photo if they are used        or inexpensive tools available on the Internet.
not handle these cases on a regular basis may be      only to open the file. If, however, these programs    Additionally, many commercial forensic applica­
unaware of the important data that can be derived     are used to modify an image, they can destroy the     tions such as ProDiscover® and DataLifter™
from digital images.                                  Exif data.                                            now include Exif data analysis as one of their
   Exchangeable Image File Format, “Exif” for             The most important data may be the thumbnail
short, defines the file structure and metadata tags   image linked to the photograph. Thumbnails are           For more information on Exif data, photo
used by digital cameras. The Exif standard, origi­    saved in their own hidden file (a thumbs.db file      metadata, or image analysis tools, contact
nally created to enhance interoperability between     placed in folders containing images on the comput­    Salvatore Paladino, CISSP (Certified Informa-
photographic imaging devices, can be found in         er), and changes to an image may not always trans­    tion Systems Security Professional), at the
both JPEG and TIFF files.                             fer to the corresponding thumbnail. If an original    National Law Enforcement and Corrections
                                                      image is wiped from a disk using a program such       Technology Center–­Northeast in Rome, New
   The Exif standard associates a variety of                                                                York, 888–­338–­0584 or
information with a photograph, such as the date       as Secure Clean™ or BCWipe®, the thumbnail may
                                                      still be available. Officers have encountered situ­   Visit for more informa-
and time the image was taken and the make and                                                               tion about the National Center for Missing &
model of the digital camera used. It also stores      ations in which the victim’s or perpetrator’s face
                                                      was blurred or concealed in the full image, but the   Exploited Children.
camera settings such as shutter speed, film speed,

Law enforcement can use Exif data to find out when
a photograph was taken, tie photos to a specific make
and model of camera, or pinpoint the location where
an image was created.


                                                 he inability to communicate with other departments plagues law enforcement and other public safety
                                                 agencies nationwide. Incompatible radio systems, differing database structures, and a dearth of policies
                                                 and procedures often leave police and other emergency responders working in isolation.

                                               In South Carolina, however, that isolation is dissolving away. Two cooperative statewide initiatives have
                                     helped to remove communications roadblocks and facilitate information sharing.

                                        The initiatives are the South Carolina Information Exchange, known as SCIEx (a statewide data-­sharing opera-­
                                     tion) and the South Carolina State Interoperability System (a shared 800 MHz radio system). The National Law
                                     Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)–Southeast, a program of the Office of Justice Programs’
                                     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), has a hand in both enterprises.

     South Carolina 
                                              through a secure Web-based interface using such
     information ExChangE
                                         parameters as name; vehicle; property stolen; suspect
                                                                   address; incident location; narrative keywords; phone
        In September 2006, the Newbury Police Depart­
                                                                   numbers; and scars, marks, and tattoos. Cosgrove
     ment prepared to execute what appeared to be a fairly
                                                                   adds that an agency cannot begin querying until its
     routine, relatively minor warrant, but something about
                                                                   systems administrators first receive training, obtain
     the individual’s name struck an officer as familiar. A
                                                                   passwords, and train the remainder of their staff.
     search of the SCIEx database revealed previous police
                                                                   NLECTC–Southeast holds frequent training classes
     contacts and a profile of threatening to use weapons.
                                                                   for approximately 20 agencies at a time.
     Based on this information, officers changed their tacti­
     cal approach, and everything went smoothly.                      The underlying software that runs SCIEx is the NIJ-
                                                                   developed Law Enforcement Automated Data Reposi­
        SCIEx, which uses an open source software pack­
                                                                   tory (LEADR), which is available to law enforcement
     age, has come a long way in a relatively short time. In
                                                                   agencies without licensing fees. The success of this
     2000, sheriffs’ departments and major police depart­
                                                                   software has spurred interest from Federal agencies
     ments from the three South Carolina “Low Country”
                                                                   such as the FBI and from other States, including Ten­
     counties of Charleston, Berkeley, and Dorchester
                                                                   nessee and Montana. Cosgrove says that although the
     approached NLECTC–Southeast for assistance in
                                                                   software is free of licensing fees, agencies interested in
     creating a shared master name database. This proj­
                                                                   implementing a “SCIEx” of their own need to have the
     ect became known as the Information Technology
                                                                   right hardware and work with their records manage­
     Improvement Program (ITIP). With funding from NIJ,
                                                                   ment system vendor to obtain support. “It [LEADR]            the creation of
     the programming was expanded to capture more and
                                                                   doesn’t just self-install, and that’s it,” he emphasizes.    the State Interop­
     more elements until it took in “pretty much a whole
                                                                                                                                erability System
     incident report,” says Pete Cosgrove, program man­               For more information about SCIEx or LEADR,                2 years later.
     ager at NLECTC–Southeast.                                     contact Pete Cosgrove, 843–­760–­4089 or peter.
                                                          For more information                     “During the Hur­
         The expanded version of ITIP became so successful
                                                                   about ITIP, read “Getting a ‘TIP,’ Making a ‘Linc’ ”         ricane Floyd evacuation,
     that in 2005, when the South Carolina Law Enforce­
                                                                   from the winter 2005 edition of TechBeat at www.             agencies that participated
     ment Department received a U.S. Department of Home­
                                                          For             in the Palmetto 800 network
     land Security grant to create a central fusion center,
                                                                   more information about the South Carolina Law                could communicate with
     the agency decided that ITIP was the perfect model for
                                                                   Enforcement Division, visit            each other, yet others could
     its new information exchange project called SCIEx.
                                                                                                                                not,” Roberts says. “As a result,
        “We used the same model, a central data ware­                                                                           NLECTC–Southeast partnered with
     house model,” Cosgrove says. “We contracted with              South Carolina StatE                                         the South Carolina Office of the Chief
     the records management system vendors that the law            intEropErability SyStEm                                      Information Officer (SC CIO) to imple­
     enforcement agencies were already using, gave them                Although two hurricanes—Hugo in 1989 and Floyd           ment a statewide interoperability project
     the specs, and asked them to include a module with            in 1999—provided the impetus for development of a            in which the Southeast Center plays the
     their systems that would automatically replicate the          shared 800 MHz radio system in South Carolina, the           ‘honest broker’ role while the State agency
     data for SCIEx.”                                              system is not used solely in times of disaster; it is        manages the radio system.”
                                                                   called upon in the daily operations of the State’s pub­
         The module inclusion process began with the ven­                                                                          NIJ provided grant funding to Southeast to
                                                                   lic service agencies.
     dor with the most clients. Those 70 agencies became                                                                        administer and partner with SC CIO to fund local
     the initial users. As more vendors added the program­            The statewide 800 MHz system had its beginnings           law enforcement agencies for the purchase of
     ming module to their software, more agencies came             in 1992 in reaction to communications problems expe­         console, handheld, and mobile 800 MHz
     online. Today, Cosgrove says, approximately 300 agen­         rienced during Hurricane Hugo, in which 70 South             radio equipment for use on the Pal­
     cies across the State are eligible to use SCIEx, and          Carolina residents died. This initiative, called the Pal­    metto 800 Trunked Radio Network,
     the South Carolina Law Enforcement Department Intel­          metto 800 Trunked Radio Network, was a public safety         Roberts says. Participating
     ligence Fusion Center has added a mapping compo­              communications partnership, according to Bob Rob­            agencies must pay all asso­
     nent that expands SCIEx capabilities to include crime         erts, project manager at NLECTC–Southeast.                   ciated user fees.
                                                                       “The Palmetto 800 network has been financially               Built on the
         “At the local level, officers don’t do anything differ­   self-supporting from the very beginning,” Roberts            existing Palmetto
     ently from what they’ve always done,” Cosgrove says.          says. “The users pay the cost to operate the system          800 network, the
     “But once they hit “enter” or “save” or whatever they         on a per radio, per month basis, based on the number         South Carolina
     click, the data is automatically uploaded to SCIEx. You       of tower sites needed to provide an agency with radio        State Interoper­
     can key in and get the whole incident report. It’s really     coverage. The cost of future upgrades is included in         ability System
     pretty powerful. It can be used for advanced planning         the user fee charges. The system developed on a pay-         presently
     of a tactical approach, as Newbury did [in the incident       as-you-go basis, with expansion taking place when an         encompasses
     noted above], or the officer on the street can quickly        area had generated sufficient revenue.”                      69 tower
     look up something on his laptop.”                                                                                          sites, with
                                                                      Even with the establishment of Palmetto 800,              at least
        Currently, more than 200 agencies are uploading            interoperability issues still existed. In 1999, evacuation   one con­
     data into the system, which gets about 6,000 queries          efforts in preparation for Hurricane Floyd were com­         ventional
     per week. Data stored in the system can be queried            plicated by a lack of full interoperability. This led to     repeater

                                                                                                                 National Criminal 

                                                                                                                 Justice Reference 

in each of 46 counties. This makes it the largest
shared public safety radio system in the Nation,
                                                       users on the statewide system. Although the vast
                                                       majority of local agencies supported the project               Service

with more than 21,000 system users representing        goals and elected to participate in the project, the
more than 350 different agencies.                      offer of free equipment under the grant did not        In	addition	to	funding	the	National	

                                                       guarantee participation by a local government.         Law	Enforcement	and	Corrections	

  Roberts says the implementation strategy             New and recurring user fees, investment in exist­      Technology	Center,	the	National	Insti­


was slow and methodical, involving small group         ing systems, and local priorities caused some
meetings and personal contact to convey the                                                                   tute	of	Justice	(NIJ)	and	other	Fed­

                                                       agencies to decline participation.                     eral	agencies	support	the	National	

importance of joining the statewide system and to
address individual agency concerns and issues.            Roberts adds that interoperability is not solely    Criminal	Justice	Reference	Service	

                                                       about disasters or acts of terrorism, but also         (NCJRS),	assisting	a	global	commu­

   “There’s been a lot of human interaction,” he       about the important role it plays in day-to-day        nity	of	policymakers,	practitioners,	

says. “Clearly, local agencies put a lot of thought    operations. “For example,” he says, “in Manning,       researchers,	and	the	general	public	


into their decision to come on to a State system.      the city police were able to communicate directly      with	justice­related	research,	policies,	

    “Our objective was to increase interoper­          via two-way radio with highway patrol units in the     and	programs.

ability. Local agencies didn’t need to abandon         region regarding fleeing bank robbery suspects.
their existing systems to achieve interoperability     The result of the immediate dissemination of the       NCJRS	offers	reference	and	refer­

capability. Some agencies were heavily invested        suspect information directly from the Manning
                                                                                                              ral	services,	publications,	onsite	and	

in their existing systems and/or in financially dif­   police units on the scene allowed the highway
                                                       patrol to very quickly apprehend the suspects
                                                                                                              offsite	conference	support,	and	other	

ficult times and could not immediately replace                                                                technical	assistance.	The	easiest	way	to	


all of their equipment again. The grant funding        along the Interstate. This incident happened
                                                       shortly after the City of Manning joined the net­      access	NCJRS	is	online.

was not intended to fully equip every agency. Its
purpose was to encourage transition and enhance        work with radio equipment provided by the State
                                                       Interoperability System.”                              Start at The	

                                                                                                              NCJRS	website	showcases	the	latest	

   Some agencies, Roberts notes, elected to pur­          For more information on the Palmetto                criminal	and	juvenile	justice	and	drug	


chase additional equipment with local funds and        800 Trunked Radio Network and South Caro-              policy	information.	Take	advantage	of:

move all of their users to the statewide system.       lina State Interoperability System, contact
Others decided to retain their existing systems        Bob Roberts, 843–­760–­4612 or roberts@                •	 Topic­specific	resources.
and use the grant funds only to place selected
                                                                                                              •	 Online	registration	and	ordering.

                                                                                                              •	 Searchable	abstracts,	calendar	of	
                                                                                                                 events,	and	questions­and­answers	

                                                                                                              Stay informed.	Register	at	http://
                                                                                                    	to	receive:

                                                                                                              •	 JUSTINFO.	A	biweekly	electronic	
                                                                                                                 newsletter	that	includes	links	to	full­
                                                                                                                 text	versions	of	printed	publications.

                                                                                                              •	 E-mail notifications.	Periodic	mes­
                                                                                                                 sages	about	new	publications	and	
                                                                                                                 resources	that	match	your	specific	

                                                                                                              NCJRS Contact Information


                                                                                                              Phone:	 800–851–3420		

                                                                                                              	       (Monday	–	Friday,		

                                                                                                              	       10	a.m.	to	6	p.m.	e.s.t.)

                                                                                                              Fax:	     301–519–5212

                                                                                                              Mail:	    NCJRS,	P .O.	Box	6000,		

                                                                                                              	         Rockville,	MD	20849–6000

                                                                                                                                 The	National	Law	Enforce­
                                                                                                                                 ment	and	Corrections	
                                                                                                                                 Technology	Center	is	
                                                                                                                                 supported	by	Cooperative	
                                                                                                                                 Agreement	#2005–MU–CX–
                                                                                                                                 K077	awarded	by	the	U.S.	
                                                                                                              Department	of	Justice,	National	Institute	
                                                                                                              of	Justice.	Analyses	of	test	results	do	not	
                                                                                                              represent	product	approval	or	endorse­
                                                                                                              ment	by	the	National	Institute	of	Justice,	
                                                                                                              U.S.	Department	of	Justice;	the	National	
                                                                                                              Institute	of	Standards	and	Technology,	
                                                                                                              U.S.	Department	of	Commerce;	or	Lock­
                                                                                                              heed	Martin	Aspen	Systems	Corporation.	
                                                                                                              Points	of	view	or	opinions	contained	
                                                                                                              within	this	document	are	those	of	the	
                                                                                                              authors	and do	not	necessarily	represent	
                                                                                                              the	official	position	or	policies	of	the	U.S.	
                                                                                                              	 epartment	of	Justice.
                                                                                                              The	National	Institute	of	Justice	is	a	com­
                                                                                                              ponent	of	the	Office	of	Justice	Programs,	
                                                                                                              which	also	includes	the	Bureau	of	Justice	
                                                                                                              	 ssistance,	Bureau	of	Justice	Statistics,	
                                                                                                              Office	of	Juvenile	Justice	and	Delinquency	
                                                                                                              Prevention,	and	Office	for	Victims	of	Crime.

   (Commanding the Incident . . . cont. from page 1)

   as a part of a group of players over the            testing phase and built in the ability to      incident command work is effective com­
   Internet or on a local network. Solo play           adapt maps and other aspects of the            munication with the other participants.
   is also possible. Two years in develop­             scenarios to make them specific for local
   ment, Incident Commander was created                areas and provide the capacity for juris­         To “play” Incident Commander, you
   by BreakAway Limited, a company                     dictions to develop their own scenarios.       must have the following minimum system
   specializing in modeling and simulation                                                            requirements:
   software for both computer games and                   “It is important that agencies are able
                                                       to play the scenarios in their city, county,   • Windows® ME, XP, or 2000.
   training purposes.
                                                       or State,” O’Shea says. “The impact of the     • 400 MHz Intel® Pentium® II
       “We wanted a tool that would make               scenario is so much greater if, for exam­         (or equivalent).
   them think outside the box,” O’Shea                 ple, the school is located in the right
   says. “In one recent training session,              place, the street names are the same, and      • 128 MB RAM.
   officials from one jurisdiction yelled at           the available responding units are what
   each other throughout the whole first               can respond in real life.”                     • 4x CD–ROM/DVD–ROM drive.
   scenario. They did a horrible job. The                                                             • Sound card.
   second time they played, they started to                Also during the beta testing phase,
   communicate with each other. The third              NLECTC–Northwest, in Anchorage,                • 36.6 Kbps Internet connection (for In­
   exercise went so well they didn’t want              Alaska, developed an extensive out­               ternet play).
   to stop even though it was 4:45 p.m. and            reach program for Incident Commander.
   the training officially ended at 4 p.m.             Training sessions for the program have            For more information about Inci-
   That’s exactly what we want to have                 been (and will continue to be) offered         dent Commander, visit www.incident-
   happen.”                                            at regional and national conferences., contact Mike O’Shea
                                                       NLECTC–Northwest is also offering train-       at, or call
      At the conclusion of a scenario, play­           the-trainer instruction and developing a       NLECTC–­Northwest at 866–­569–­2969.
   ers receive a score based on how well               communications leader module so that
   they did in public safety (number of peo­           dispatchers and communications unit
   ple killed or injured), media response,             leaders can also gain training benefits.
   and total response cost. The scoring sys­
   tem was changed after the beta testing                 “These Incident Commander scenar­
   phase because nobody was winning. “We               ios are events you never want to have
   didn’t want people to win easily, but we            happen in your community, yet if they
       didn’t want them to lose that badly             do, you want to be able to mount a thor­
             either,” O’Shea says. He adds             ough response,” says Bruce Richter, dep­
                  that the software developer          uty director of NLECTC–Northwest. A
                   ironed out several other            key lesson learned from the training, he
                    glitches during the beta           says, is that one of the secrets to making

                                                                                                                                                                          Winter 2007
       u.S. POSTAgE PAiD

        PERmiT NO. 2538

                                                                                                                                                 “Wear your body armor”
National Law Enforcement and
Corrections Technology Center

                                                                                                                                                      poster inside
2277 Research Boulevard

Rockville, MD 20850
Mail Stop 8J

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