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  c r i t i ca l i n f ra s t r u c t u r e p r o t e c t i o n p r o g ra m                                   volume 6 number 1

                  July 2007                                 This month we are very pleased to be able to highlight a sector new
                                                            to the pages of The CIP Report, the Government Facilities Sector. This
    Government Facilities                                   uniquely governmental sector, which includes facilities owned and
                                                            operated by Federal, State, Territorial, local, or tribal governments
                                                            domestically and overseas, has long been engaged in planning and
    Inside the Government Facilities
                                                            preparedness activities, many of which are highlighted in this issue.
    Sector............................................. 2   With the incredible array of facilities, which range from U.S. embas-
                                                            sies, military installations, schools, courthouses, and public-use spaces,
    Interview with Gary Schenkel                            this sector represents many attractive targets for terrorist or criminal
    Director, Federal Protective                            activities. In this month’s issue, we include an interview with Gary W. Schenkel, Director
                                                            of the Federal Protective Service (FPS) at the Department of Homeland Security, as well as
    Service ..........................................4
                                                            background information on the Government Facilities Sector, which includes information
                                                            on the Sector Specific Plan, and coordination mechanisms for the sector.
    Sector Coordination
    Mechanisms .................................6           On a personal note, this issue of The CIP Report marks my last as Director of the CIP
                                                            Program. Despite many rewarding moments here at GMU, I have decided to accept
                                                            a position working with an exceptional team from C&H Patriot Security, LLC assisting
    Education Facilities Subsector ......8
                                                            a government in the Middle East build their National Critical Infrastructure program.
                                                            I will be working primarily on maritime security issues and have formed a company
                                                            named Kamal Advisory Services, LLC. I am honored to remain affiliated with the CIP
                                                            Program and GMU School of Law as a Senior Fellow.

               Editorial Staff                              The past four years have been among the best in my career and have afforded me the
                                                            opportunity to interact with the very finest minds dedicated to improving our national
                       Editors
                                                            and economic security. The research community here at GMU has truly embraced the
                      Jeanne Geers                          notion of interdisciplinary work in support of national objectives and has marked not
                 Jessica Milloy Goobic                      only this School of Law, but the entire University as a ‘center-of-excellence’ in security
                  Staff Writers                             studies. I am also very pleased with our unique affiliation with James Madison Univer-
                                                            sity in this area.
                    Tim Clancy
                     Amy Cobb                               The CIP Program would never have been possible without the forward thinking and
                    Maeve Dion                              generous support of Congressman Frank Wolf (R-VA) and his staff, who had a vision
                   Colleen Hardy                            for a broad-based university program that supported an emerging national need. Our
                                                            executive agent, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as program
             JMU Coordinators
                                                            officials from the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Energy, the Com-
                 Ken Newbold                                monwealth of Virginia and our many international partners, have all been highly profes-
                John Noftsinger                             sional and a pleasure to work with.
                     Publishing
                                                            I would like to thank President Merten, Provost Peter Stearns, Dean Dan Polsby, Mr.
               Zeichner Risk Analytics                      Lee Zeichner, and the Honorable Jack Marsh for all that they have done for me both
            Contact: CIPP01@gmu.edu                         professionally and personally. Finally, a heartfelt thank you to my outstanding staff.

                      703.993.4840                          I can continue to be reached at my GMU address for CIP Program related matters or at
                                                            my new work address - jam@kamaladvisory.com. Thank you for your continued support
                                                            over the years.
     Click here to subscribe. Visit us online
           for this and other issues at
              http://cipp.gmu.edu
                                                                                                           John A. McCarthy
                                                                                                           Director, CIP Program
                                                                                                           George Mason University, School of Law
The CIP Report                                                                                        July 2007



                          Inside the Government Facilities Sector

U.S. citizens regularly interact         infrastructure and key resources                   Vision Statement
with government at all levels and        (CI/KR) sectors because they are
depend on the provision of various       uniquely governmental.                    To establish a preparedness
government services, all of which        The true value of government              posture that ensures the safety
are supported by an array of facili-     facilities comes from the functions       and security of government
ties owned, leased, or operated by       they have been constructed to             facilities located domestically
government entities. Ensuring the        support. As faithful stewards of          and overseas so that essential
continuity of these functions and        the public trust, it is essential that    government functions and
services through protection of their     those responsible for the protection      services are preserved without
associated government assets is vital    of government facilities ensure that      disruption.
to homeland security.                    these critical services remain avail-
                                         able to the American public.             represents the sector on the NIPP
The Government Facilities Sec-                                                    Federal Senior Leadership Council
tor (GFS) includes a wide variety        The DHS Federal Protective Ser-          (FSLC) and through similar coor-
of buildings, owned or leased by         vice (FPS), as part of Immigration       dinating mechanisms established
Federal, State, Territorial, local,      and Customs Enforcement (ICE),           by other CI/KR sectors.
or tribal governments, located           is the Sector-Specific Agency (SSA)
domestically and overseas. Many          for the GFS. Building on its tradi-      Goals
government facilities are open to the    tional role as protector of facilities
public for business activities, com-     owned and leased by the General          The sector recently released its Sector-
mercial transactions, or recreational    Services Administration (GSA),           Specific Plan (SSP) which provides a
activities. Others not open to the       FPS coordinates efforts among             framework from which to categorize,
public contain highly sensitive in-      government at all levels to identify,    assess, and protect government facili-
formation, materials, processes, and     assess, and enhance the protection       ties necessary for the daily operation
equipment. This includes general-        of government facilities determined      of the nation. The SSP establishes five
use office buildings and special-use       to be nationally critical.               overarching goals:
military installations, embassies,
courthouses, national laboratories,      A Government Coordinating                   Goal 1: Implement a long-term
and structures that may house            Council (GCC), chaired by                   government facility risk manage-
critical equipment and systems,          FPS, is the primary coordination            ment program;
networks, and functions. (See facility   point with representatives from             Goal 2: Organize and partner
categorization table on Page 3.)         government entities with the                for government facility protec-
                                         responsibility for the protection           tion;
In addition to physical structures,      of government facilities. Because
                                                                                     Goal 3: Integrate government
the sector considers cyber elements      of its inherently governmental
                                                                                     facility protection as part of the
that contribute to the protection        focus, security partners are limited
                                                                                     homeland security mission;
of sector assets (e.g., access control   to representatives from Federal,
systems and closed-circuit televi-       State, local, or tribal government          Goal 4: Manage and develop the
sion systems) as well as the protec-     entities involved in the protection         capabilities of the Government
tion of individuals who possess          of owned or leased facilities. As           Facilities Sector; and
tactical, operational, or strategic      the GFS also includes the Educa-            Goal 5: Maximize efficient use
knowledge or perform essential           tion Facilities (ED) Subsector,             of resources for government
functions. Diverse in function, size,    FPS works in close coordination             facility protection.
and location, these facilities are       with the Department of Education
differentiated from other critical        with regard to all schools. FPS also         (Continued on Page 3)
                                                          2
The CIP Report                                                                                                        July 2007

                                      Government Facility Categorization Structure
             Personnel-centric facilities—House personnel in the course of their official business or personal pursuits.
           Offices and office building complexes                           Correctional facilities
           Housing                                                         Embassies, consulates, border facilities
           Education facilities                                            Courthouses

Service-oriented facilities—Provide services to government and the public and house the technical equipment necessary to carry
                   out and deliver government services. (These typically experience large numbers of visitors.)
           Operations, command, dispatch, and control centers             Maintenance and repair shops
           Libraries                                                      Archives

  Research and development facilities—Used to conduct research and development activities and include government-owned,
                       contractor-operated facilities categorized by the type of research conducted.
           Basic science                                                  Aerospace
           Weapons                                                        Analysis and assessment
           Environmental

                      Storage and preservation facilities—Used to house, protect, store, and preserve goods.
           Records centers                                                Warehouses
           Weapons and ammunition storage                                 Precious metal
           Special nuclear materials and waste                            Currency

                      Military installations—Owned or operated by DoD, U.S. Coast Guard, or National Guard.
           Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard               Joint and combined military installations and
           bases and National Guard facilities.                           reservations.


   Space exploration facilities—Owned and operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the purpose of
                                                    space exploration.

  Government sensor and monitoring systems—Facilities and associated systems involved with global positioning systems and
                                             those used for observation.

                         Miscellaneous—Any government facilities that do not fit in the above categories.

Government Facilities (Cont. from Page 2)      Challenges                                    Government facilities represent
                                                                                             attractive and strategically impor-
As part of the GFS, the Education              The sheer size and scope of the GFS           tant targets for both domestic and
Facilities Subsector envisions as its          poses a challenge in providing for            international terrorist groups, as
goal that all schools and institu-             infrastructure protection efforts. The         well as criminals. These assets are
tions of higher education have                 Federal Government alone manages              often targeted because they provide
comprehensive emergency manage-                more than 3 billion square feet of space      unique services, often perform
ment plans to deal with all hazards            and more than 650 million acres of            sensitive functions, and have sig-
that address the four phases of                land. The sector also covers the facilities   nificant symbolic value. Indeed, the
emergency management—preven-                   owned and operated by the more than           most significant terrorist attacks
tion/mitigation, preparedness,                 87,000 municipal governments across           against Americans have targeted
response, and recovery. (Note:                 the Nation, as well as U.S. embassies,        government facilities. Because of
Government facilities exist in each            consulates, and military installations        the high-profile nature of the sector,
of the other 16 sectors, but are               located all over the world. As such,          government facilities operate within
accounted for by sectors based on              these facilities face a full range of both    a very dynamic risk environment
predominant use.)                              natural and man-made hazards.                 (Continued on Page 10)

                                                                  3
The CIP Report                                                                                           July 2007


                         Interview with Gary W. Schenkel, Director
                                 Federal Protective Service
Gary W. Schenkel is the Director of       attacks of September 11, 2001                   Gary W.
the Federal Protective Service (FPS) at   further reinforced the necessity              Schenkel
the Department of Homeland Security       of FPS’ security and law enforce-               was ap-
(DHS). FPS is responsible for ensuring    ment services. As a component of                pointed
standards-based protection for Federal    DHS Immigration and Customs                  director of
facilities through coordination with      Enforcement, FPS is part of the             the Federal
tenants and owners and operators.         nation’s largest law enforcement             Protective
                                          agency, which allows us to leverage       Service, one
                                                                                       of the five
Mr. Schenkel discusses the work of        extensive capabilities to execute our
                                                                                         divisions of U.S. Immigration and
FPS and the accomplishments and           mission. Consistent with DHS’
                                                                                   Customs Enforcement (ICE), in March
challenges he encounters on a daily       focus on risk management, FPS            2007. A retired Marine Corps Lieuten-
basis.                                    regularly conducts Building Security      ant Colonel, Schenkel has significant
                                          Assessments to gauge the risks faced            leadership experience in a wide
Q: What role does FPS play in CIP?        by government facilities and apply         range of arenas, including organiza-
                                          appropriate countermeasures. These       tional transformation efforts, security
Since its inception in 1971, FPS          activities are carried out in nearly        planning for public facilities, logisti-
has played a key role in securing         8,900 Federal facilities that see more          cal planning and execution and
government facilities. As the chal-       than 1 Million visitors every year.                     business administration.
lenges facing these key assets have
changed, FPS has evolved to meet          FPS’ role in CIP expanded with the       holders, we have embraced the
the emerging security needs of the        creation of the National Infrastruc-     direction our nation is headed with
Federal community. When first              ture Protection Plan. As the Sector      regard to infrastructure protec-
established as part of the General        Specific Agency for the Government        tion. The NIPP provides a rally
Services Administration, FPS placed       Facilities Sector, FPS is leveraging     point that serves as a basis for our
a heavy focus on controlling civil        its expertise in assessing and secur-    activities to reduce risk. Thus, our
unrest that posed a danger to Fed-        ing government facilities to coordi-     responsibility as the SSA for the
eral buildings and their occupants.       nate infrastructure protection efforts    Government Facilities Sector is a
As the risks facing government            among security partners at all levels.   natural extension of our mission to
facilities changed, FPS adapted its                                                mitigate risk to facilities. Many of
practices to ensure that government       Q: How are these dual CIP roles          the same stakeholders we have been
facilities remained secure and their      for FPS managed?                         working with for years as tenants in
occupants safe. The 1995 bombing                                                   the facilities under our jurisdiction
of the Murrah Federal Building in         I prefer to think of it as a singular    are the same people we need to
Oklahoma City reinforced the real         role driving us to ensure that           coordinate with to accomplish the
threat that terrorism poses to Fed-       government facilities and their          goals outlined in the Government
eral facilities. Following that attack,   occupants remain safe and secure.        Facilities Sector Specific Plan. As
FPS led the way in implementing           In everything that we do, the            we work with them, and others, it
a variety of security practices to        NIPP serves as our guiding light.        provides us with better information
reduce the risk of terrorist attacks      From conducting building security        on the security needs of the Sector
for Federal facilities.                   assessments and implementing             and allows us to leverage our exper-
                                          countermeasures to reduce risk,          tise to accomplish our mission and
FPS became a part of the Depart-          to the information sharing and           the goals of the NIPP.
ment of Homeland Security as it           coordination activities we conduct
was stood up in 2003. The terrorist       on a daily basis with our stake-         (Continued on Page 5)
                                                           4
The CIP Report                                                                                         July 2007


Schenkel (Cont. from 4)
                                        Our approach to facility protection is propelled by
Q: What is involved with FPS’
                                        a skilled workforce that is working to arm itself with
Operational responsibilities?
                                        modern risk-based tools, standards, and protocols.
FPS provides a wide range of services
performed by nearly 1,200 govern-       Having arrived at FPS over three            What we have to remember with
ment personnel and supported            months ago, I have developed a              government facilities is that there
by over 15,000 contract security        sincere appreciation for the chal-          are 300 Million Americans that rely
guards. The strength of FPS lies with   lenges that this organization has           upon us every day. It is our job
our inspectors. FPS inspectors are      faced since transitioning from the          to make sure that the services they
uniformed law enforcement of-           General Services Administration             rely on remain available. Whether
ficers that possess full authority and   (GSA) to the Department of Home-            that means getting their social
training of the FPS police officer.       land Security (DHS).                        security check on time or securing
However, inspectors are also duly                                                   the blessings of liberty for ourselves
trained as physical security experts    One of my priorities during this time       and our posterity, it requires that
and provide comprehensive security      has been to undertake a detailed            government operations be carried
services, including building security   strategic planning process. This            out in a secure and reliable man-
assessments, and implementing and       resulted in our vision, mission, and        ner. FPS has long had the expertise
testing security measures and moni-     guiding principles that you will see        to provide security solutions for a
toring and overseeing the contract      incorporated into all that we do. As        range of government facilities and
guard force.                            I said earlier, the NIPP is the guiding     it brings that experience to every
                                        light for FPS and we will continue          effort undertaken by the Govern-
In addition to the physical security    to be proactive about engaging              ment Facilities Sector. The goals of
efforts carried out by our inspectors,   stakeholders and setting standards in       the Sector are wholly shared by FPS
FPS also has a number of specialized    areas such as countermeasure recom-         and we are committed to working
programs to enhance preparedness        mendation, emergency dispatch and           with all Sector security partners to
and security for Federal facilities.    response, and inspection of new             share information and best practices
Among these are the FPS MegaCen-        and existing facilities. Assessing and      to achieve the objectives outlined in
ters that provide alarm monitoring      managing risk for Federal facilities is     the Sector Specific Plan.
and dispatch services, a Criminal       central to everything that we do, and
Investigations Program where we are     it is the priority that drives all of our   We already have seen many positive
members of select Joint Terrorism       activities. Accordingly, one initia-        outcomes by expanding our partner-
Task Forces and Explosive Detection     tive in particular is to design and         ships with other government entities.
Dog teams that conduct routine          implement a new risk assessment and         We know that there also is a broad
searches and respond to suspicious      management tool that will provide           range of experience beyond FPS that
packages and bomb threats.              enhanced analytical capabilities for        can be utilized by various security
                                        our personnel to plan countermea-           partners. Government facilities have
           FPS Vision:                  sures and measure risk across the           been on the cutting edge of security
 Secure Facilities, Safe Occupants      range of facilities FPS is responsible      since Pharaohs had guards, so we
                                        for.                                        now that there is a wealth of experi-
 Guiding Principles:                                                                ence to draw on from our partners.
 I. Stakeholder Service                 Q: The Government Facilities                This has enabled us to provide
 II. Technical Expertise                Sector is unique in that the                linkages among various efforts that
 III. Organizational Excellence         infrastructure it protects is               would not have interacted otherwise
                                        entirely governmental. How well             and expand the reach and effective-
                                        equipped is FPS in leading sector           ness of programs that enhance
Q: What are your near term              coordination efforts as the desig-          protection of government facilities.
priorities for FPS?                     nated Sector-Specific Agency?               (Continued on Page 11)
                                                          5
The CIP Report                                                                                       July 2007


      Coordination Mechanisms in the Government Facilities Sector
Overall Government Facilities            geographic, or logical in nature.
Sector (GFS) coordination is             High-level dependencies exist,
conducted through the Federal            whereby a government facility
Protective Service Headquarters,         relies on another component
as the focal point for GFS Sector        of the infrastructure and is
Specific Agency (SSA) activities          adversely affected if there is
and responsibilities. FPS HQ is          an interruption. For example,
responsible for applying program         under normal operating con-
management protocols to ensure           ditions, a government facil-
that the goals and objectives of the     ity requires electricity, water,
sector are achieved.                     information technology, and              National NIPP Coordination
                                         telecommunications to carry out          Mechanism
Coordination mechanisms are              necessary operations. If these other
utilized within the GFS and              infrastructures are interrupted,         At the national level, the GFS is
cross-sector to support GFS activi-      there would be an effect to the           part of the NIPP Sector Partnership
ties. Interdependencies that exist       government facility.                     Model that provides a mechanism
between sectors are one reason                                                    for cross-sector coordination:
why coordination mechanisms              Implementing the Sector                  • The GFS Government Coor-
are critical to sector planning and      Partnership Model                            dinating Council (GCC) is
operational efforts. Government                                                        chaired by the SSA, consists of
facilities are highly interconnected,    Enhancing the protection of                  government representatives, and
both physically and through a            government facilities requires               is used to coordinate strategies,
variety of information and commu-        a strong partnership among all               activities, policy, and com-
nications technologies. Identifying,     levels of government. Coordina-              munications across government
understanding, and analyzing in-         tion must occur on multiple                  entities.
terdependencies and dependencies         levels within the GFS and across         • State, local, and tribal cross-sec-
are subject to challenges because        other sectors, and it is necessary           tor coordination is conducted
of the diversity and complexity of       for addressing specific topics               at the national level through the
government facilities or associated      affecting the sector. Coordination           State, Local, and Tribal Govern-
elements. Interdependencies vary         is facilitated by formal structures          ment Coordinating Council
widely, and each has its own char-       and existing mechanisms and                  (SLTGCC). This DHS-enabled
acteristics; whether physical, cyber,    relationships.                               forum facilitates coordination
                                                                                      by Homeland Security Advisors
 The FPS Risk Assessment and Management Program will provide a compre-
                                                                                      across jurisdictions on State- and
 hensive data collection, management, and analysis application to facilitate
 the risk assessment process. RAMP will provide FPS inspectors with enhanced          local-level CI/KR protection
 capabilities to conduct risk assessments, plan countermeasures, and track            guidance, strategies, and pro-
 implementation of countermeasures throughout their life cycle; it will also          grams for all sectors.
 allow FPS management to perform enhanced data analysis. RAMP will                • Federal cross-sector coordination
 also include a comprehensively redesigned risk assessment methodology;               is conducted at the national
 it will ensure full compliance and compatibility with the baseline criteria          level by the NIPP Federal Senior
 established in the NIPP. FPS is also working with HITRAC and the Office of           Leadership Council (FSLC).
 Infrastructure Protection (OIP) to ensure that the new methodology can be            This DHS-chaired council
 used in conducting cross-sector risk analysis and prioritization. Once RAMP is       consists of Federal Department
 implemented for FPS, it will be made available to all security partners in the
                                                                                      and Agency representatives from
 GFS. This software will provide a single platform that can be used to assess
                                                                                      GCCs to drive enhanced com-
 risk for government facilities at the Federal, State, and local levels.
                                                                                     (Continued on Page 7)
                                                           6
The CIP Report                                                                                      July 2007

Coordination (Cont. from 6)
  munications and coordination
  for implementation of the NIPP.
• National cross-sector coordina-
  tion of government and private
  sector is conducted through the
  Critical Infrastructure Partner-
  ship Advisory Council (CIPAC).
  This partnership between
  government and private sector
  CI/KR owners and operators
  facilitates effective coordination      process from collection of raw data      • Information is received from
  of Federal CI/KR protective            through to the production of intel-        other information sharing
  programs.                              ligence products, with many inputs         mechanisms, reviewed for sector
                                         and outputs along the cycle. The           relevance and time and secu-
Coordination mechanisms exist for        entire life cycle is used to exchange      rity-sensitivity then pushed to
the GFS at the local, state, regional,   information that facilitates effective      security partners.
Federal, international, and topic-       decisions, actions, and investments      • Live Tactical Chat - Security
specific levels. Some are formal          to execute higher-level strategies. In     partners and their Emergency
mechanisms, while many others            the context of the GFS, it is espe-        Operations Centers (EOCs)
exist based on security partner          cially essential to gather, analyze,       tune in for real-time information
relationships. Other coordination        and share real-time information on         on activities that could affect
mechanisms serve specific topics or       immediate threats to ensure that it        government facilities
agency needs; these include com-         reaches appropriate security partners    • Secure Messaging & Alerts - An
mittees, councils, boards, forums,       as quickly as possible.                    efficient method to get time-
working groups, task forces, and                                                    sensitive information out to the
partnerships.                            The information tool used by the           security partners
                                         sector to share information is a         • Open sources are mined, infor-
                                         secure web-based portal called FPS         mation gathered, and assimilated
                                         Link. The information flow created          into sector-relevant products
                                         by FPS Link is as follows:                 (Continued on Page 11)

                                         In advance of the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, MA, the
                                         Federal Protective Service acquired and installed a system of surveillance
                                         cameras called LiveWave. This system provided a networked capability to
Information Sharing and Protection       access cameras located at various points around Boston that are used to
                                         monitor Federal facilities. While working to implement this system, FPS
                                         discovered that Boston Police also were working to implement the same
Information is any communication
                                         system. Thus, the two entities worked together with other surrounding
or representation of knowledge such      jurisdictions to implement a large-scale roll out of the LiveWave system.
as facts, raw data, or opinions in       Utilizing UASI grant funds, Boston Police acquired, installed, and networked
any medium or form; information          a number of additional cameras in partnership with FPS and other juris-
usually has not been processed or        dictions in the Metro Boston area. The enhanced capability garnered by
analyzed. Sharing information is the     the partnership of these areas allows for constant surveillance of critical
process of gathering and disseminat-     infrastructure in the Boston area. Because the system is accessible via the
ing it to security partners. However,    Internet, appropriate personnel can access the system anywhere at any
information sharing is only one part     time and maintain appropriate situational awareness. The capability also
of a larger information life cycle.      allows live video feeds to be shared with operations centers run by DHS in
                                         Washington, DC, providing a capability for national incident awareness and
                                         response that can be centrally coordinated.
The information life cycle spans the
                                                          7
The CIP Report                                                                                        July 2007


                  Emergency Preparedness for Education Facilities
Overview                                 in the Gulf Coast. In addition to        Federal agencies to promote school
                                         hurricanes, schools and universi-        preparedness and school protection.
As a subsector within the Govern-        ties in the United States have also      Further, OSDFS has well-established
ment Facilities Sector (GFS), the        experienced loss and destruction         relationships with associations
Department of Education’s (ED’s)         from other major natural disasters       and organizations, security chiefs,
Office of Safe and Drug-Free               such as wildfires, tornados, floods,       and other partners at all levels of
Schools (OSDFS) serves as the            and earthquakes. Further, schools        government. OSDFS’ established
Subsector-Specific Agency for the         have been affected by hazardous ma-       relationships have fostered coopera-
Education Facilities Subsector, and      terials and chemical spills that have    tion and mutual understanding of
is referred to as Education Facilities
(EF). The EF Subsector consists of
all schools, K-12 public and private,    The Education Facilities Subsector includes almost
institutions of higher education         54 million K-12 students housed in 124,281 schools;
both public and private, proprietary     over 17 million post-secondary students housed in
schools (such as business, computer,
technical, and trade schools), and       over 6,000 education facilities, in addition to almost
prekindergarten (preK) programs.         10 million teachers, faculty, and staff.
EF includes almost 54 million K-12
students housed in 124,281 schools;
over 17 million post-secondary           forced students and staff to evacuate     key principles for school emergency
students housed in over 6,000            the school building. The threat of       management. For example, OSDFS
education facilities, in addition to     infectious disease outbreaks, such as    published a primer for schools in
almost 10 million teachers, faculty,     pandemic influenza and meningitis,        developing and refining emergency
and staff.                                also has an impact on education          management plans entitled Practical
                                         facilities. Therefore, as education      Information on Crisis Planning: A
Schools and universities are unique      facilities warrant consideration in      Guide for Schools and Communities.
in comparison to other entities          relation to critical infrastructure      This document was developed in
requiring infrastructure protection,     protection, EF works with a host of      collaboration with numerous school
as preK to post-secondary schools        partners at the Federal, State, local,   security specialists and associations,
house primarily students for the ma-     and tribal level to enhance school       Federal partners, and health and
jority of the day, five days a week or    and university preparedness.             mental health care professionals, and
more, and often include after-school                                              it provides key principles for effective
and evening activities and events.       Partnerships                             emergency management for schools.
While schools may have a security        As a subsector of the GFS, EF            Such collaborative efforts have
presence, it is unclear exactly how      coordinates closely with its overarch-   produced a variety of tools for the
many schools and universities have       ing sector including participation on    education community to assist in all
emergency management plans as a          the GFS Government Coordinating          aspects of emergency management.
protective measure to help mitigate      Council and Federal Working              (Continued on Page 9)
effects of an incident. Yet, schools      Groups. In addition, over the
and universities, being numerous         past several years, OSDFS has         Discretionary Grant Program Totals
and geographically widespread, have      been working with the DHS                         2003-2006
been affected by violent acts and         on school-related security               Grantees:               413
natural disasters of all types, from     issues. Even prior to that time,
                                                                                  States/Territories:     131
the recent shooting attack at Virgin-    however, OSDFS was involved
ia Tech to the effects of hurricanes      in various joint efforts with             Total Awarded:      $131,674,223

                                                          8
The CIP Report                                                                                        July 2007

Education Facilities (Cont. from 8)     (REMS) discretionary
                                        grant program. The
Programs, Resources, and Tools to       discretionary grant
Assist in Emergency Management          program began in
                                        October 2003 to help
For EF, CI/KR protection refers to      school districts improve
comprehensive all-hazards emergen-      and strengthen




                                                                Photo by Greg Henshall / FEMA
cy management plans that are based      comprehensive plans
on the key principles of emergency      for any emergency or
management (prevention-mitiga-          crisis, including but
tion, preparedness, response, and       not limited to natural
recovery). Comprehensive plans are      disasters, violent
practiced and updated regularly,        incidents, and terror- Greensburg, KS May 16, 2007 - Heavily damaged Greens-
coordinated with appropriate State      ist acts. Grantees are     burg High School will have to be torn down. An F5
                                                                   tornado struck the town on May 4.
and local partners, developed           required to address
in close collaboration with first        all four phases of                          an emergency management plan. In
responders and the community,           emergency management: preven-               addition, “Helpful Hints” docu-
include written plans for an infec-     tion-mitigation, preparedness,              ments provide a quick overview of
tious disease outbreak, and incor-      response, and recovery and now are          school emergency preparedness top-
porate measures to address special      also required to plan for infectious        ics that are frequently the subject of
needs students and staff. EF works       disease outbreaks such as an influ-          inquiries. The Center also produces
to help education facilities improve    enza pandemic.                              “Lessons Learned from School
and strengthen comprehensive                                                        Crises and Emergencies.” These
all-hazard emergency management         In addition, ED, often through its          documents highlight a specific
plans. ED has various programs,         Emergency Response and Crisis               school-related incident and describe
resources, and tools available to       Management (ERCM) Technical                 the lessons learned as a result of the
support schools and universities        Assistance (TA) Center, (www.ercm. incident.
in developing effective, all-hazards     org), provides a variety of training
emergency management plans.             for both grantees and non-grantees          While the REMS grants focus on all
                                        on key issues related to emergency          four stages of emergency manage-
ED’s emergency management-re-           management for schools, and fields           ment, another ED program called
lated programs and materials for the    inquiries and provides information          Project School Emergency Response
education subsector include discre-     to any requestor regardless of educa- to Violence (SERV) is focused on
tionary grants to help K-12 school      tion level represented. The TA Cen-         recovery efforts following a violent
districts with their emergency          ter also disseminates information to        or traumatic event in which the
management plans; emergency             the education community through             learning environment has been
response and crisis planning train-     various publications. The ERCM              disrupted.
ing for grantees and non-grantees; a    Express is a newsletter that provides
grant program to help Local Educa-      timely and relevant information             Also, ED has partnered over the
tion Agencies (LEAs) recover from       regarding various topics related to         past several years with the NOAA
a violent or traumatic incident;        school emergency preparedness ef-           and DHS to provide NOAA all-
and all-hazards radios for all public   forts. Recent editions discussed the        hazards radios to all public schools,
schools K-12.                           National Oceanic and Atmospheric            K-12, free of charge. The DHS’s
                                        Administration’s (NOAA) All-                goal was to produce an effective
The primary ED program for              Hazards Weather Radios, infectious          and inexpensive tool for commu-
enhancing preparedness and protec-      disease, and the National Incident          nicating both weather-related and
tion for school districts from all      Management System (NIMS) for                non-weather-related alerts to local
hazards is the Readiness and Emer-      managing domestic incidents and             communities - including schools
gency Management for Schools            its suitability for schools designing       (Continued on Page 10)
                                                         9
The CIP Report                                                                                          July 2007

Government Facilities (Cont. from 3)       Develop and issue guidance for             of Operations efforts under
requiring a variety of well-coordi-        assessing risk to government fa-           HSPD-20 to ensure that essen-
nated protective measures to ensure        cilities and associated elements;          tial government functions are
the safety and security of citizens        Develop measures to assess pro-            protected as a key portion of
and the continued availability of          tective program performance;               the nation’s critical infrastruc-
essential government functions.            Develop and distribute all-                ture;
                                           hazard government facility                 Providing tools and expertise
Next Steps                                 occupant emergency planning                to Sector security partners to
                                           guidance; and                              support efforts to enhance
The GFS SSP provides the frame-                                                       protection; and
                                           Expand information shar-
work for understanding and assess-                                                    Continue to reach out to and
                                           ing about intentional threats
ing the Government Facilities Sector                                                  engage State, Local, Tribal, and
                                           and unintentional hazards to
and delineates the steps that need to                                                 Territorial partners.
                                           promote awareness and increase
be taken over the next year to better
                                           understanding of risk to gov-
secure our nation’s facilities. The                                               For more information on the sector,
                                           ernment facilities and associ-
next steps will require considerable                                              inquiries and comments can be sent
                                           ated elements.
coordination between all sector                                                   to: NIPP_GFS@dhs.gov
security partners to assess our level
                                        Based on these next steps, the GFS will
of preparedness, and implement ac-                                                Government Facilities Sector Point of
                                        focus on the planning and implemen-
tions to strengthen existing systems.                                             Contact:
                                        tation of specific activities such as:
The SSP provides actions aimed at
enhancing protection of govern-                                                   Susan Burrill
ment facilities, including:                Development of a risk assess-
                                           ment and management tool               Director, Government Facilities Sector
                                           with modules to accommodate            Federal Protective Service
   Identify and obtain appropriate                                                U.S. Department of Homeland
                                           varying security partner needs;
   data for government facilities                                                 Security
   and associated elements;                Coordination with Continuity           Susan.Burrill@dhs.gov




Education Facilities (Cont. from 9)     these tools and materials available       Much work has been done within
- that rely on the information          to anyone interested in enhancing         ED to develop and provide tools
provided by the NOAA weather            their preparedness efforts via ED’s        and information to help the school
radio network to better respond to a    emergency plan Web site, www.             community strengthen and refine
crisis or emergency.                    ed.gov/emergencyplan. Examples of         effective emergency management
                                        these tools are as follows:               plans. These efforts and collabora-
In addition to the grant programs,                                                tions continue in the interest of
grantee and non-grantee training           Practical Information on Crisis        CI/KR protection for education
coordinated with the ERCM TA               Planning: A Guide for Schools          facilities.
Center, and the NOAA radio effort,          and Communities
ED has developed or participated in                                               K-12 Students and Schools: K-12 public
                                           Threat Assessment
the development of several tools and                                              and private, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
                                           Pandemic Preparedness Information      DoD, DoS. Post-Secondary Students and
projects that support emergency
management planning for schools.           Hurricane Help for Schools             Schools: Public and private 2-and 4-year
                                           Campus Public Safety: Weapons          degree-granting institutions. Teachers,
These tools and publications are
                                           of Mass Destruction Terrorism          Faculty, and Staff: K-12 public and private,
designed to assist all schools, preK                                              DoD, DoS, and public and private 2-and
through post-secondary, in their           Protective Measures
                                                                                  4-year degree-granting institutions. Source:
preparedness efforts. ED makes              Bomb Threat Assessment Guide           http://www.nces.ed.gov.
                                                        10
The CIP Report                                                                                                                                         July 2007


Coordination (Cont. from 7)                                       piles articles related to officer                         Users of the link include:
  that are then sent out.                                         safety and law enforcement over
• Virtual Roll Call                                               the previous 24 hours                                   •     Emergency Operations or
   o Incorporates OPEN                                                                                                          Watch Centers for Federal
       SOURCE news reporting                                The current membership of the                                       Departments and Agencies who
       on relevant look outs, crime                         FPS portal spans the various                                        occupy GSA-owned or -leased
       trends, and otherwise noto-                          groups of security partners within                                  property nationwide;
       rious crimes throughout the                          the Government Facilities Sector.                             •     State and local government
       country                                              Inclusion of security partners at all                               fusion centers and law enforce-
   o Provide a common opera-                                levels allows the sector to receive                                 ment operations geographically
       tional picture across the U.S.                       a more comprehensive and robust                                     dispersed nationwide; and
• Daily News Summary - Com-                                 security picture.                                             •     The Intelligence Community.

                                   Notable Accomplishments in the Government Facilities Sector

        Created an understanding of Government Facilities as a Sector with common issues, concerns, and risks
        Established Government Coordinating Council (GCC) consisting of Federal and State representation with more
        than 70 active participants
        Completed and issued Sector-Specific Plan to provide a foundation for infrastructure protection activities
        throughout the Government Facilities Sector
        Connected disparate operations of security partners that contribute to reducing risk
        Issued guidance and fact sheets for Sector security partners to assist their efforts
        Sharing information on best practices and resources for Sector security partners
        Coordinating with the Department of Education to address infrastructure protection issues for the Education
        Facilities Subsector


Schenkel (Cont. from 5)                                     personnel have demonstrated to                                communications web portal.
                                                            ensure the security of Federal                                Since its assignment as SSA of the
Q: What achievements should                                 facilities and the people there in.                           GFS, FPS has worked to build
FPS be proudest of?                                                                                                       tools and implement activities
                                                            In refining its operations to                                 that use NIPP standards of risk
FPS has endured a series of                                 achieve a high performing and                                 assessment methodology. Paired
challenges since its transition                             operationally aligned workforce,                              with our diligence and workforce
from GSA to the Department of                               FPS is in the midst of creating/                              expertise, I am confident that all
Homeland Security. While there                              enhancing systems to support its                              these components as part of FPS’
are many remaining, I have been                             efforts. Examples of this include                             new vision will achieve its goal to
truly impressed with the dedica-                            a standards based risk methodol-                              provide and ensure secure facili-
tion and commitment that FPS                                ogy, and an enhanced and secure                               ties and safe occupants.


 The CIP Program is directed by John A. McCarthy, a member of the faculty at George Mason University School of Law. The CIP Program works in conjunction with James
 Madison University and seeks to fully integrate the disciplines of law, policy, and technology for enhancing the security of cyber-networks, physical systems and economic
 processes supporting the nation’s critical infrastructure. The CIP Program is funded by a grant from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

 The CIP Report is published by Zeichner Risk Analytics, LLC (ZRA) on behalf of the CIP Program. ZRA is the leading provider of risk and security governance knowledge
 for senior business and government professionals. ZRA’s vision is to be a consistent and reliable source of strategic and operational intelligence to support core business
 processes, functions, and assurance goals.

 If you would like to be added to the distribution list for The CIP Report, please click on this link: http://listserv.gmu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?SUBED1=cipp-report-l&A=1


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