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					 This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts
      covered in the following TEKS for biology:


3.a – Analyze, review and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses
and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and
information
3.c – Evaluate impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the
environment
4.b – Investigate and identify cellular processes, including homeostasis,
permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of
wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules
 This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts
      covered in the following TEKS for biology:

10.a – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms
10.b – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the
body as a whole
11.a – Identify and describe the relationships between internal feedback
mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis
11.b – Investigate and identify how organisms respond to external stimuli
11.c – Analyze the importance of nutrition, environmental conditions, and
physical exercise on health
    Previous Lesson


Nervous System and
  Drug Addiction
Question: What is a nerve
impulse and how does it
cross a synapse?
              Nerve Impulse
  ++++++++
 ----------            Polarized membrane
          Neuron       of resting neuron

   ++++++++
                       Sodium (Na+) moves
  ----------
     Neuron            inside to depolarize

           +++++
  0000                 Nerve impulse is wave
           ------
          Neuron
                       of depolarization
Nerve                  moving down neuron
impulse
                                 Synapse




Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill


        Nerve impulses cross synapses when
        neurotransmitters are released into the
        synapse and attach to receptors on
        dendrite, which are depolarized
Question: Tobacco use is the
number one cause of death in the
U.S. Why do we use tobacco when
we know it causes lung cancer and
death?
       Nicotine is Addictive
• Nicotine enhances amount of dopamine in
  the synapses
• Increased dopamine results in increased
  feelings of pleasure
• Nervous system responds by reducing the
  number of dopamine receptor sites
• Addict must take more nicotine to produce
  the same “high”
• So while addicts begin by taking nicotine
  to feel high, they end up taking nicotine in
  order not to feel low
Question: Physiologically,
why would an opioid
painkiller like OxyContin be
addicting?
             How Painkillers Work

                   Based on:
                   Newsweek, Oct. 20,
                   2003




Opioids used as painkillers travel
in the blood to the pain centers of
the brain, where they interrupt
incoming pain signals
              Why Painkillers Are Addicting

                                    • As a secondary effect,
                                      opioids can stimulate
                                      reward pathways in the
                                      brain, resulting in
                                      sensations of pleasure

                                    • People addicted to
                                      painkillers become
                                      accustomed to an over-
                                      stimulated reward
                                      pathway

Based on: Newsweek, Oct. 20, 2003
       Today’s Lesson


Skeletal-Muscular System
      and Arthritis
Overview of Lesson
•   Skeletal System
•   Muscles and movement
•   Causes of Paralysis
•   Arthritis
Functions of the Skeletal System
• Mineral storage: bones are a reservoir for
  calcium and phosphorus for the body,
  minerals are constantly being deposited
  and withdrawn from bones
• Support: bones support and anchor
  muscles
• Movement: bones interact with skeletal
  muscles during movement
• Protection: cover soft internal organs
• Blood cell formation (red bone marrow)
Skeleton




      Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
Overview of Lesson
•   Skeletal System
•   Muscles and movement
•   Causes of Paralysis
•   Arthritis
Muscles




 Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
Muscles




   Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
                                         Neurons and
                                         skeletal muscle




Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
                         Neuromuscular Junction


                                              Neurotransmitters
                                              are released from
                                              the neuron into the
                                              neuromuscular
                                              junction to
                                              depolarize muscle



Based on Raven et al., Biology, McGraw-Hill
                              Muscle Cells

                                                      A. Muscle
                                                       cell when
                                                       muscle is
                                                       relaxed




                                                      B. Muscle
                                                       cell when
                                                       muscle is
                                                       contracted

Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
We move by muscles pulling not
       pushing bones




    Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
Overview of Lesson
•   Skeletal System
•   Muscles and movement
•   Causes of paralysis
•   Arthritis
              Causes of Paralysis
• Damage to nerve: nerve impulse does not reach
  muscle




                                           X
       Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
              Causes of Paralysis
• Botulism toxin: blocks acetylcholine at
  neuromuscular junction so nerve impulse does
  not reach muscle




      Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
                                                            X
            Causes of Paralysis
• Tetanus toxin: causes antagonistic muscles to
  contract at the same time




         Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
              Causes of Paralysis
• Nerve gas: prevents neurotransmitters from
  being removed from neuromuscular junctions




      Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill
Overview of Lesson
•   Skeletal System
•   Muscles and movement
•   Causes of paralysis
•   Arthritis
                                                  Arthritis
                                                • causes joint
In slide show                                    inflammation
mode, use the hot
                                                •Begins in your 20s
link below to
download a copy                                 •100s of different
of the cover of                                 forms
Time Magazine on
                                                •By 2020, 40 million
Arthritis                                        Americans will suffer
                                                 from osteoarthritis
TIME Magazine Cover: Arthritis - Dec. 9, 2002
            Osteoarthritis of the Knee
                                           -Most common
                                            form of arthritis

                                           -Involves wearing
                                            away of cartilage
                                            that caps bones
                                            in joints

Based on Mayo Clinic Health Letter, 1996
                                           -Usually involves a
                                            specific joint like
                                            the knee or hip
                                    Osteoarthritis

                                                      •Cartilage, the body’s shock
                                                       absorber, breaks down
                                                      •Weak muscles contribute to
                                                       stress of walking and running
                                                      •Changes in bone structure
                                                       may trigger loss of cartilage
                                                      •Injured tendons and ligaments
                                                       result in unstable joints
                                                      •Inflammation due to immune
                                                       response to cartilage
Based on Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide
                                                       breakdown
                                                      •Mutations in genes may result
                                                       in weaker cartilage
                               Treatment
                               •Drugs
                               •Surgery
                               •Exercise

                               Prevention
                               •Keep moving
                               •Stay slim
                               •Build muscle

From: Time, December 9, 2002
               Joint Replacement




Based on Mayo Clinic Health Letter, 1996
                               Rheumatoid
                               Arthritis
                               Based on Mayo Clinic Health
                               Letter, 1996




- Most severe form of arthritis
- Usually hits between ages 30 & 50
- Is a systemic disease, involving many joints in body
- Due to immune system attack on cells of synovium
  that lubricates joints, cause is unknown
- Synovium grows out of control, damaging joint
- Treatment involves use of drugs to control growth
   of synovium
     Next Lesson



     Exam III
(Lessons and Labs)

				
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