Brand Personality in Sport: Dimension Analysis and General Scale Development

Document Sample
Brand Personality in Sport: Dimension Analysis and General Scale Development Powered By Docstoc
					                    Sport Marketing Quarterly, 2010, 19, 8-16, © 2010 West Virginia University

Brand Personality   Brand Personality in Sport:
                    Dimension Analysis and
                    General Scale Development
                    Jessica R. Braunstein and Stephen D. Ross
                    Jessica R. Braunstein, PhD, is an assistant professor and the sport management internship coordinator at Towson University.
                    Her research interests focus on consumer behavior in sport, specifically examining the use and effectiveness of athlete
                    endorsers, brand personality, and the internal and external motivating factors regarding spectator consumption.
                    Stephen D. Ross, PhD, is an associate professor of sport management at the University of Minnesota. His research interests
                    include sport brand management, sport consumer psychology, and sport marketing as it relates to the youth segment.


                         Abstract
                         The idea of brand personality in sport (BPS) has become a popular topic of study among academicians in
                         the sport management field. While the conceptualization and operationalization of the construct has been
                         heavily discussed, establishing a valid and reliable assessment tool has yet to be achieved. The current study
                         reexamines the general brand personality (BP) dimensions and looks to apply them to the unique charac-
                         teristics in sport. The scale developed in the current study establishes a baseline tool in which future research
                         can be conducted. The results provide initial levels of validity and reliability, making suggestions as to the
                         further development of the sport brand personality (BPS) construct. These findings support previous liter-
                         ature, yet provide a number of suggestions for future theoretical development.


                    Introduction                                                        Brand Personality
                    Long before Reis and Trout (1969) stressed the impor-               As a result of advertising campaigns, brands are often
                    tance of positioning in order to solidify the branding              portrayed as having human characteristics. Although
                    process in the mind of one’s consumer, marketers                    this concept had been described, it had not been sys-
                    focused on specific “character” traits when promoting               tematically and empirically studied until Aaker’s
                    their products. Whether perceived or developed, brand               (1997) creation of the Brand Personality Scale (BP).
                    personality (BP) has been studied regarding its use and             After examining 309 candidate traits based on previous
                    effectiveness for decades (e.g., de Chernatony, 2001;               literature (psychology, marketing, and original qualita-
                    Keller, 2003). With its academic exploration stemming               tive research), the author ultimately looked at 114
                    from Aaker’s (1997) original five dimensions of brand               traits over 37 brands. The final BP scale included 42
                    personality (i.e., Sincerity, Excitement, Competence,               items/traits under five factors: Sincerity (e.g., honest,
                    Sophistication, Ruggedness), this phenomenon has                    genuine), Excitement (e.g., daring, spirited),
                    provided marketers with the ability to examine mar-                 Competence (e.g., reliable, responsible), Sophistication
                    keting practices, finding that matching the characteris-            (e.g., glamorous, charming), and Ruggedness (e.g.,
                    tics of a brand with those of its endorsers and                     tough, strong). Although Govers and Schoormans’
                    consumers tends to be the most effective (e.g., Kamins,             (2005) longitudinal study confirmed Aaker’s findings,
                    1990, Lynch & Schuler, 1994). Embracing many gener-                 examining the influence of product personality on a
                    al marketing practices, sport marketers have begun to               consumer’s preference over time, Austin, Siguaw, and
                    question and, in turn, dissect this concept on their own            Mattila (2003) argued that the BP scale was not gener-
                    turf (i.e., brand personality in sport – BPS) due to the            alizable to individual brands, as a result of the method
                    unique characteristics often associated with sport and              of the study. Agreeing that a measurement study was
                    sport products. As such, this study proposes to assess              necessary to fully understand the concept of brand per
				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: The idea of brand personality in sport (BPS) has become a popular topic of study among academicians in the sport management field. While the conceptualization and operationalization of the construct has been heavily discussed, establishing a valid and reliable assessment tool has yet to be achieved. The current study reexamines the general brand personality (BP) dimensions and looks to apply them to the unique characteristics in sport. The scale developed in the current study establishes a baseline tool in which future research can be conducted. The results provide initial levels of validity and reliability, making suggestions as to the further development of the sport brand personality (BPS) construct. These findings support previous literature, yet provide a number of suggestions for future theoretical development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
BUY THIS DOCUMENT NOW PRICE: $6.95 100% MONEY BACK GUARANTEED
PARTNER ProQuest LLC
ProQuest creates specialized information resources and technologies that propel successful research, discovery, and lifelong learning.