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Making the Right Choices to Reduce Cancer Risk

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									Making the Right Choices to
Reduce Cancer Risk


   The University of Georgia
   Cooperative Extension Service
Cancer risk can be reduced 60-
70% by
   Sensible food choices
   A healthy weight
   Physical activity
   Not smoking
Specifically Cancer May
Be Reduced By -
   20% by eating 5 or more vegetables and
    fruits per day
   30% if you don’t smoke
   30-40% if you eat a plant based diet,
    maintain a healthy weight and exercise
    regularly
What are the major causes of
cancer?
   Tobacco
   Inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables
   Excess alcohol intake
   Obesity
   Too much sun
Less Common Causes of Cancer
   Genetics
   Pollution
   Radiation
   Occupational hazards
Nutrition and Activity Guidelines
from AICR and ACS
   Plant based diet with      Healthy weight
    plenty of fruits and       Regular physical
    vegetables                  activity
   Low fat, low sodium        Moderate alcohol if at
    foods                       all
   Less red meat              Save storage and
   More whole grains           preparation of food
What good nutrition and exercise
can do
   Lung cancer reduced nearly 30% with
    more fruits and vegetables
   Stomach cancer reduced 66-75% if fewer
    foods preserved with salt were eaten
   Breast cancer reduced 33-50% if consume
    a plant based diet with no alcohol
Reducing the risk
   Colon and rectal cancer reduced 66-75%
    with high vegetable diet with little meat
    and alcohol and regular physical activity
   Mouth and throat cancer reduced 33-50%
    with high vegetable and fruit intake and
    little alcohol
   Liver cancer reduced 33-66% with less
    alcohol and aflatoxin not in food
Four P’s of Prevention
   Plant Based
   Portion Controlled
   Physically active
   Practical thinking
Why a Plant Based Diet Helps
   Fewer calories and less fat
   More vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals
    and antioxidants
   Less alcohol
Plant Based Goals
   5 - 9 servings of
    fruit vegetables
   3 - 7 whole grains
Phytochemicals
   Diallyl sulfides      Onions, garlic, leeks


   Carotenoids           Carrots, cooked
       Betacarotene       tomatoes, leafy
       Lycopene           greens, sweet
       Lutein             potatoes
       Zeaxanthin
Phytochemicals
   Indoles and          Broccoli, cabbage,
    isothiocyanates       cauliflower, kale,
    (cruciferous          brussel sprouts
    vegetables)

   Isoflavoids          Soy
Phytochemicals
   Phenolic acids      Berries, citrus, apples,
                         whole grains and nuts


   Saponins            Beans, other legumes


   Terpenes            Cherries, rosemary,
                         citrus peel
Over 100 phyto-
chemicals in just one
fruit or vegetable – may
work together so
supplements are not the
same
Ultimate Goal – Meat as a
Condiment – Not the Main Event
The 2nd P - Portion Control
   Prevents overweight and obesity associated
    with cancer of –
       Colon
       Breast
       Pancreas
       Kidney
       Prostate
       Endometrium (lining of uterus)
Reducing Risk
   Prevent childhood weight problems
   Have BMI between 18.5 and 25
   Don’t gain more than
    11 pounds during adulthood
   Apple shape more at risk
   Just a 10% weight loss is beneficial
Know your portion sizes
   ½ cup          ½ baseball, rounded
                    adult handful
   ¼ cup          Golf ball, scant adult
                    handful
   1 cup          Baseball, adult fist


   3 oz.          Deck of cards, bar of
                    soap
Other portions of interest
   1 oz. meat – small matchbox
   8 oz. meat – thin paperback book
   1 oz. cheese – 4 dice
   Med. potato – computer mouse
   2 tablespoons peanut butter – ping pong
    ball
High fat foods
   Increase risk for
    cancer of the
       Lung
       Colon
       Rectum
       Breast
       Endometrium
       Prostate
What are some ways you can cut
fat and calories?
   Snack on fruit and      Steam, bake,
    vegetables               microwave or stir fry
   Order smaller           Use fresh over
    portions                 processed food
   Read labels             Add spices and herbs
   Look for lower fat       instead of fat
    version of foods
The 3rd P – Physical Activity
   Associated with
    reduced risk for
       Colon cancer
       Breast cancer
       Lung cancer
To Lower Cancer Risk
More May be Better
                  Moderate to vigorous
                   intensity
                  30-45 minutes or
                   more per session
                  5 or more days a
                   week
                  For kids – 1 hour per
                   day
Moderate or Brisk Activity
versus Vigorous Activity
   Moderate                  Vigorous
       Walk – 4 mph              Walking hills
       Canoeing – 3 mph          Hiking
       Gardening                 Tennis
       Volleyball                Swimming laps
       Biking                    Jogging
       Dancing                   Stair climbing
4th P – Practical Thinking
   Gradual changes
   Slow weight loss
   Planning activity into weekly schedule
   Planning menus, shopping lists and time
    for food preparation
In summary
   What are the 4 P’s of cancer prevention?
   What does the “New American Plate” look
    like?
   What are you going to do this week to
    lower your risk for cancer?

								
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