ACCESS TO MARKETS FOR SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMERS,
FEMALE AND MALE, IN 2015
Report On First National Workshop – Lao PDR
(Houaysay on 27-28th February 2006).
Lao PDR, unlike the other countries of VECO, has its Head Office in Bokeo, in the northwest of
Laos close to the borders of China, Thailand and Myanmar. It is therefore a key location for
cross-border trade. It was decided at the outset that the First National Workshop would be held in
Bokeo and cover both regional as well as national issues, rather than being held in Vientiane and
only focussing on national issues, in order that many people from Bokeo could participate and
gain benefit from the workshop.
It was also decided to combine this workshop with one of VECO’s advocacy issues for 2006,
which is to raise awareness and understanding about the impacts of Free Trade. Combining
these two issues was seen to have the advantages of firstly, being cost-effective in terms of
minimising travel arrangements for district staff, and secondly, the workshop was able to be
promoted as a concrete learning opportunity which had clear benefits for the province, as well as
being able to satisfy VECO’s own strategic planning requirements.
This Workshop took the additional step of having the participants develop a likely future for Bokeo
around the key driving forces that will affect the province in 2015. They were then able to develop
a mini- strategic plan for themselves that could seek ways of either ensuring that the positive
outcomes from the driving forces were achieved, or conversely that the negative outcomes could
2.1 Stakeholder Analysis
A list of about 30 stakeholders was selected by the Lao Program Co-ordinator (Mr Stuart Ling),
the Program Advisor (Ms Vansy Senyavong) and the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office
(PAFO). A useful list of contacts was already available from the Proceedings of the National
Workshop on Marketing Information Systems, which brought together a wide range of marketing
stakeholders (and which Vansy and Stuart both attended). About 10 potential interviewees were
identified outside Bokeo province (in Vientiane).
The questions for the interviews (which followed the format given in the methodology paper) were
translated into Lao language. Most of the interviews were conducted by Ms Vansy in late January,
and early February. The interviews were analysed and a list of relevant issues, along with the
possible positive and negative impacts, was drawn up in preparation for the workshop. Of the
eight people interviewed in Vientiane, five were unable to make it to the workshop in Houaysay in
the end due to other work commitments.
2.3 Desk Study
Five key driving forces were identified from the interviews, newspapers and from VECO
documentation, being: Free Trade, Growth of China, Urbanisation in Asia and the Increasing
Market Share of Supermarkets, the Potential of Fair Trade/Organic Products, and Information
Technology. The internet was used to identify existing and future trends for these forces, and a
likely outcome for the agriculture sector was developed for each driving force in 2015. These
outcomes were then translated into Lao language.
The workshop was held over two full days on 27th and 28th February. The key agenda items were:
1. Free Trade and the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) – Ms Songkan, Ministry of Trade
2. Market Development of Coffee in Laos – Mr Sisanouk, Lao Coffee Association
3. Improving the Marketing of NTFP’s in Laos, Mr Joost Foppes, SNV
4. Strategy to increase the value of Agricultural Products in Bokeo, Mr Bounmy, PAFO
5. Export Promotion Policies of Laos, Mr Souksavanh, Lao Export Promotion Centre
Groupwork on the impact of free trade on the small farmer in 2015 (4 groups –
farmers/companies, NGO’s, junior govt. senior govt.), including mapping on the
impact/uncertainly axis. Presentation of the results to the plenary.
Presentation of the results of the interviews, and likely outcome of the remaining driving
forces on the agriculture sector – Ms Vansy, Program Advisor
Groupwork (including mapping on the impact/uncertainly axis) using the same four groups
as above. Each group considered the positive and negative impacts to the small farmer in
2015 from the interviews, as well as one of the other four remaining driving forces. Those
issues that were classified as ‘high impact’ to the small farmer in 2015 were then analysed
further to determine actions that need to be taken by the different sectors (farmers,
companies and government) in Bokeo in order to prepare for 2015.
There were a total of 58 participants, comprising 10 senior government, 23 junior government, 7
companies, 8 farmer groups and 10 NGO staff/counterparts. The results of the workshop reflect
the differences in these four groups.
3.1 Stakeholder Study
Stakeholders were selected from the various sectors that would be able to contribute to the key
issue, being government, non-government (NGO), trade organisations, companies, and farmers.
As mentioned in the introduction, most stakeholders were provincially based, of whom the key
players are the Department of Agriculture and Forestry, the Department of Trade, and the Head
of the local Trade Association (all men). The Heads of locally progressive farmer groups were
selected to represent the farm sector. The Lao Coffee Association (represented by Mr Sisanouk)
is considered to be the most developed trade association in the country, with its members
contributing 2% of Lao’s total GDP. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the key negotiator on Free
Trade, which combines as both a market access issue and an advocacy issue, and Mr Somchit
was nominated by the Ministry to be interviewed on their behalf. Mr Sisaliao’s company (Lao
Farmers Products) is currently the only company in Laos with internationally recognised Fair
It becomes obvious from the list of those interviewed that women are not well represented (3 out
of 17). While the original stakeholder list had 8 women, unfortunately most of these women were
not available to be interviewed (being unavailable during the 3 days that Vansy was conducting
interviews in Vientiane).
There were no stakeholders who refused to participate in the process. However, there were
some interviewed that did not receive permission by their supervisors at relatively short notice to
travel to Bokeo for the workshop (eg Ms Sako., Mr Ounkeo). Mr Sisaliao was unavailable
because he had a mission coming from two Fair Trade organisations (Max Havellar and Ecocert)
to provide certification to his products, while Mr Somchit went to study further in Vietnam. We did
have a woman to replace him in giving the presentation on Free Trade (Ms Songkan from the
Ministry of Trade).
Most interviewees described the difficulties that a small agricultural country of about 6 million
people faces compared to its larger industrialized and economically more powerful neighbours of
China, Vietnam and Thailand. A lack of infrastructure, human capacity and investment capital
means that it is difficult to compete in the international marketplace, and there is a risk that small
farmers could end up being worse off in 2015.
The government respondents were generally positive about the future, believing that free trade
would lead to greater prosperity amongst the population and allow small farmers to increase their
standard of living. Showing that the old socialist principles have been castaway in favour of the
The government needs to understand the power of the private sector. Now the provincial plan
is exceeded because the private sector is supporting more.
Mr Bounmy Head, PAFO.
Farmer groups were generally more negative, and tended to concentrate more on immediate
difficulties which needed to be solved. They were particularly concerned about the taxes levied
by government, the uneven way in which taxes are levied, and the paperwork required to export.
Many farmers will lose interest in production and selling and the farmer groups recently
formed will finish, or they will sell illegally and not declare their exports,
Ms Pinkeo, Ban Homyen Farmers group.
NGO’s were concerned that some non-market issues would be faced by farmers, such as the loss
of environment and natural resources, as well as human health as a result of too much emphasis
on production by the government.
Farmers know its dangerous to use chemicals, but the consumer always wants the most
beautiful – farmers have to produce according to what the market demands,
Ms Hien, Quaker Service Laos
There were some differences in thinking between the national and local levels. One example is
about who should be responsible for extension. Some smaller companies and farmers in Bokeo
complained that the government never helped them with crop extension. The government was
clear that it should be the job of the company to do the extension, and that most companies were
only interested in buying cheaply and selling expensively without doing extension. It was
interesting to note however, that the bigger companies (such as Sinouk Café) do see the need to
be involved from the farmer level to ensure the quality of their product.
Secondly, those interviewed at national level felt that Laos needs to look to niche products, rather
than trying to compete with countries in producing low-priced commodities.
Because Laos is still largely chemical free there is potential to develop organic agriculture for
export, but there needs to be organic standards and certification,
Mr Souksavanh, Lao Export Promotion Centre.
The demand for non timber forest products (NTFP’s) will continue (eg Chinese medicine), and
Laos has an advantage because it still has a large natural resource base,
Mr Sisaliao, Lao Farmers Products.
There was a lot of discussion about corn, because it is one of Bokeo’s main crops. The
government believes that there is no limit to the market demands of animal food, and has
encouraged farmers to increase production. Farmers and traders (whoa re doing the work and
investing the money) are concerned that markets are not so reliable, citing the case of China,
which suddenly closed its border to Lao corn exports in early 2006, rumoured to be as a result of
pressure from local producers who felt that they were being undercut by cheap Lao corn. This
forced traders to sell very cheaply since they had already transported the corn there.
Finally there was some concern for the loss of cultural identity that arises as Laos enters the
market economy. Many interviewed commented on the influence of China. Some examples:
- the Chinese will takeover many of the current businesses, and the profits will leave the
- the Chinese are more competitive – how can a small farmer compete against the Chinese;
- Chinese concessions will force ethnic minorities off their land and they will have no place to
Also, ethics and morals are declining as people just think about money.
There is a loss of honesty. I can already see it happening. There needs to also be a focus on
spiritualism and ethics in order to save Lao traditions.
Mr Souksavanh, Lao Export Promotion Centre
3.3 Desk Study
Laos has actively promoted free market policies in order to increase production and exports (and
thereby taxes to replace those currently raised through tariffs), and generate internal and external
investment, with the aim of moving out of the group of least developed countries by 2020. The
percentage of agriculture in GDP will fall from 48.4% to 38.5% by 2010 as the country develops,
and average GDP/capita will rise from about 500USD in 2005 to 838 USD in 2010. The following
trends which impact upon the small farmer are regarded as ‘predetermined elements’ and ‘driving
1. Free trade: As a member of ASEAN, Laos has joined AFTA and its program of reducing
quotas and tariffs, which have to be at 0% by 2017. Free Trade Agreements will also come into
force between ASEAN and China, Japan and India by 2012. Thus the potential free market is
over 4.4 billion people by 2015, excluding any bilateral deals that give Lao farmers preferences in
Europe, the USA, and other developed markets. However, research from Thailand suggests that
small farmers lack capital, are heavily indebted and so do not benefit from free trade, with most of
the benefits falling to big exporters and processors (Taneewut, 2005).
2. China: We can predict quite accurately that Chinas population will be 1.45 billion in 2015,
and we also know that the Chinese government states that China will go from being 100% self
sufficient in 2003 to only 90% self sufficient in rice in 2010 as a result of industrialisation, meaning
that China will need to import rice for about 145 million people a year. Meat consumption is also
rising rapidly (from 30.4 kg/person/year in 1992 to 52.4kg/person/year in 2002), meaning a great
demand for animal feed such as corn and soybean that is expected to continue as hundreds of
millions of Chinese leave poverty over the next 10 years (Shantong and Fan,1999). There will be
an increased demand for traditional medicines.
3. Urbanisation and Supermarkets: There is a net migration across Asia from the rural areas to
the cities, with the urban population increasing by 453 million over the next 10 years
(www.wikipedia.org). Urban consumers are characterised by higher incomes but less time for
cooking (due to smaller families and women working). Supermarket power is growing rapidly as a
result of increasing urbanisation and the widespread availability of the car and better refrigeration
(meaning people can buy in bulk). A study in Thailand found that the market share of
supermarkets/hypermarkets /convenience stores (like 7-11) rose from 5% in 1988, to 26% in 1997,
and to 53.2% in 2001 (Tokrisna, 2002). This trend is set to continue as incomes increase further
and because the current teenage generation is growing up in shopping malls. Supermarkets
require uniform quality, fresh and perfect fruit/vegetables (eg no insect holes, off-season
mangoes), and prefer big suppliers, attractive packaging and cheap prices (due to competition
between supermarket chains).
4. Organic/Fair Trade Produce: Rising incomes and increasing concerns over food safety will
ensure that the market demand for organic and fair trade products continues to increase in 2015.
The UN forecasts global demand for organic products to rise between 10-15%/year (www.fao.org).
Japan already has contracts with Lao companies to produce organic soyabeans and rice. Laos is
an organic country by default, due to its small population and history of war, and it has the same
potential as Cambodia, which now it has started to really develop its organic markets, and is
already exporting certified rice to Europe (Oxfam America, 2005).
5. Communications Technology: The phone system has been partially privatised with three
different companies operating in Laos. The five year plan from 2006 to 2010 calls for 80% of all
Lao residents to have access to mobile phone services (including upgrading to 4G and
broadband), and we would expect that by 2015 almost everybody would have coverage. The
government has recently signed a deal with IPSTAR satellite that allows internet coverage
throughout the country, and although prices are still expensive now, they will fall significantly over
the next few years (Tanner, 2004). Technology could provide a market information system at
village level through use of either mobile phones or the internet.
a) Key factors for success or failure: Results are a combination from the interviews with additional elements added as a result of the workshop.
The Positive Dream The Negative Dream
Factor Issue Impact for Small farmer Issue Impact for Small farmer
Government With free trade there won’t be Farmers will be able to increase It is not possible to Many groups will lose interest in
Policy on any export or import taxes production and export directly to manage tax collection fairly producing and selling and will not
Taxes and the final user. There will be a for the farmer groups, and declare their exports, sell not as a
Export reduction in the bureaucratic steps many steps to run group, smuggle or otherwise buy
Procedures to run documents and transport export/import documents. and sell illegally Small companies
goods, won’t be able to compete and will
go out of business..
Capacity of The producer group (or co- Products will be high quality, value Lack of market knowledge There is a market surplus, forcing
Farmer operative) will have strength, adding, and will be able to protect leads to overproduction, or producers to accept low prices,
Groups both in business and (and rehabilitate) the natural low quality products. meaning they will lose money and
managing their natural and environment. Seed can be locally be forced to cease production. This
human resources produced, rather than imported. will result in movements of people
Farmers will be able to contact from the rural areas to the city
and negotiate with companies and seeking work as labourers or
government themselves, so prostitutes
reducing the middle men and
directly reaching the final user
Finance There will be processing The market chain will remain local, Lao investors will lack the It will be difficult to compete with
available for factories within the province so that money will remain local, knowledge and capital to the international market, and
investment in and a network with other there will be a reduction in the invest in processing international companies will control
processing provinces. There will be travel needed to buy and sell (because the banks lack the Lao market, meaning that Lao
facilities processing of OTOP (one produce, there will be an increase funds to lend). people will become labourers or
tambon one product) in the local price of raw materials sellers of raw materials, while being
and farmers will have more importers of finished products.
Management The need for NTFP’s (non Laos has an advantage in the There will be no control There will be a loss of watersheds
of NTFP’s timber forest products) will NTFP market compared to other over the destruction of which will result in an increase in
continue due to demand from countries because it still has a natural resources and natural disasters, lower production,
neighbouring countries (eg large natural resource base. NTFP’s loss of potential market in which
China). Good prices will Laos is competitive eg organic
mean there is an incentive to products, NTFP’s and timber
save the environment.
Use of Laos has international The health and environment of the Laos cannot control the Chemicals will damage the soil and
Chemicals recognition for organic people are protected, and farmers use of chemicals in health, production will reduce,
products will receive higher prices for their agriculture, foreign leading to lower prices, higher
products. investors provide inputs at costs, an increase in farm debt, an
cost price. inability to enter fair trade or
Intellectual There will be assistance in Small farmers will receive better There is no protection of Neighbouring countries will be able
Property Laws providing certification from prices for their products. patents or intellectual to copy the products and sell more
international organisations property. cheaply, resulting in production
ceasing and wasting time looking
for new products
Networking Small farmer groups need to By co-operating together they can Small farmer groups are Free trade will mean that larger
among farmer network together have a better understanding of the isolated, and don’t network companies have an advantage over
groups market needs, and more links to together to combine smaller ones, because they have
traders and companies, better resources (language more capital to invest and can
opportunities for training barriers between ethnic access large markets eg
groups make co-operation supermarkets. Small farmers
more challenging) groups will go out of business
Land Land is owned by the farmers Farmers will maintain their food Land concessions will be Farmers will lose their livelihoods
ownership themselves security. given by government to as they either have to move or sell
Chinese businesses, or their land.
Chinese businesses will
rent land from farmers in
Non trade Laos is able to negotiate with Farmers can increase production The developed countries Farmers receive reduced prices or
barriers and other countries to ensure free and invest in new technologies will change the rules to outright import bans
quotas trade rules are implemented prevent market access (eg
corn), or they will have
strict guidelines that can’t
be met by Laos.
b, c) Driving Forces and Predetermined Elements
These were outlined in detail under Section 3.3 Desk Study. The key impacts as discussed during the workshop are below:
Driving Force Positive Impact Negative Impact
1. Free Trade Bring income into the country, which will encourage Laos could sell only cheap raw materials and import expensive
processing and better quality products. Producing for processed ones. The capacity of the government/small farmers is not
market will result in less subsistence agriculture and less sufficient to protect against negative forces of free trade. Foreign
slash and burn cultivation. Small farmers will have companies will invest but take their profits out of Laos. Small farmers
better market information and more negotiation power. will be become dependant on companies, and especially in receiving
inputs such as chemicals and fertilisers required to produce to foreign
2. China The volume of agricultural exports will increase and Chinese bargaining power/trade practices try to divide farmers and
farmers will be able to move from a subsistence force individual selling, and reduce the farmer group organising power.
economy to a market economy, with higher incomes and Chinese cheat at the border crossings and force traders to sell at cheap
a higher standard of living. prices by delaying them. There will be a loss of biodiversity (eg wildlife)
as farmers meet Chinese demand for medicines/NTFP’s. There will be
land concessions given to Chinese businesspeople by the government.
3. Urbanisation There will be further opportunities for small farmers as Small farmers are unable to access the supermarket, and not be able to
and they satisfy demand. take advantage of higher prices because they are scattered. The
Supermarkets government will focus on supporting large companies to the detriment
of smaller ones. The standard of living of small farmers will decline
compared to larger farmers and Laos will become a more unequal
4. Fair Trade Laos will be able to enter the international market and No negative impact. It is hard to convince farmers to accept lower
and Organic can become well known for organic and fair trade yields as a tradeoff for improved health and environment.
Products agricultural products, which are processed locally and of
high quality. Farmers will have better health.
5. Telephone Every village will have a telephone network and be able No negative impact
network and to access the internet. Farmers will have a market
internet information system at village level, and so have many
choices for selling and improving their products.
d) Critical uncertainties
Only three factors and driving forces were classed as both high impact and high uncertainty, being
Networking among farmer groups, nontrade barriers and quotas, and intellectual property rights.
Networking was seen as critical because small farmer groups would not be able to compete under the
driving forces of free trade/China/supermarkets. They have to group together as a network or
association in order to gain market access, which is challenging because of the different ethnic groups
Nontrade barriers and quotas are still expected to disadvantage Laos even though under free trade they
should be eliminated, because stronger countries will always have power to suit their own interests.
One example given was corn, because if it is not immediately dried to less than 15% moisture content, it
will have high levels of aflatoxins (a contaminant), resulting in either reduced prices or outright import
bans. For Laos, meeting such standards without kilns, particularly in the wet season, is very difficult.
Intellectual property rights were considered important because Thailand already imports Lao products
and re-exports them as brand name Thai products (eg clothing), meaning that Laos is missing out on
value adding. Also there was concern that if Laos could produce expensive and high quality products in
future (eg coffee) that these products could be copied and force the producer out of business.
Land ownership (which is on the border of critical uncertainty) was seen as an issue impacting on the
ethnic minorities of Laos (who comprise nearly half the population. Because they generally live in
remote areas, and have high levels of illiteracy, they are unlikely to gain market access to the same
level as the lowland Lao, which dominate in government and whom are concentrated along roads and
the Mekong river. In the interests of reducing shifting cultivation, and because of their weak bargaining
position, their land may be appropriated or sold to commercial (eg Chinese) interests, and they could
become even worse off than before. (it was significant that even the senior government group, who
were examining the impact of China, stated that Chinese land concessions were a certainty that would
have a high impact on the small farmer).
The workshop was not able to address uncertainties that may arise as a result of the driving forces. For
example, we are absolutely certain that there will be free trade, and we are absolutely certain that there
will be an impact on the small farmer, and so Free Trade was placed in the bottom right corner of the
graph. However, we are unsure whether the net impact will be positive or negative in Laos. Likewise,
China was seen as definitely having a big impact, but the participants recognized that there would be
many negative impacts as a result of increasing Chinese influence.
KEY FACTORS AND DRIVING FORCES
Capacity of farmer
groups Non trade barriers
Demand for Fair Intellectual
Trade and Organic Property Laws Land ownership
Products Management of
Supermarkets and Urbanisation
Availability of China
Use of chemicals
Government taxes and Free trade
The workshop concluded that there are many more certainties that will impact upon the
small farmer than uncertainties. Asia will be the fastest growing area in the world over the
next ten years, and the driving forces of free trade, China, urbanisation and change in
shopping behaviour (via supermarkets) will have a huge impact on the farming sector in
The changes will have many obvious benefits for Laos, and there seems little doubt that
average incomes will rise and many people will be lifted out of poverty by 2015. But there
is a risk that wealthier countries (eg China, Thailand) will take advantage of Laos, and Laos
will become dependant on selling raw agricultural products and buying processed foods. In
Laos itself, the benefits may not be evenly spread. For ethnic peoples the pace of change
will be greater than the pace of capacity development, and it is possible that many will
either become marginalized, or will lose their culture and integrate into lowland society.
Farmers and companies in particular see a need to address taxes and export procedures,
and the availability of finance, which they regard as having a high impact upon small
farmers and are immediate barriers to development.
It seems that despite the improved understanding of the benefits of free trade and organic
farming (from both the presentations and the discussions), there is a perception that these
will always be a small market, which is difficult to access (eg need certification), and which
takes time to establish. It is not therefore relevant to small farmers in Bokeo, who are more
interested in markets which they have already. It is significant that it is certain that use of
chemicals will increase.
The workshop was well received by the participants, particularly from farmers and the
private sector. It was the first time many had been presented with the facts and policies of
free trade, as previously this information had been limited to only a few senior government
participants who had attended meetings in Vientiane.
Appendix 1: Selected Bibliography
CIA (2000) Global Trends 2015, a dialogue about the future with non-government experts,
National Intelligence Council
Committee for Planning and Investment (2006). Sixth national Socio-economic
Development Plan, Vientiane
Oxfam America (2005) Cambodian Rice Farmers go Organic (report accessed via internet)
Shantong Li, Fan Zhai (1999), Scenarios for Chinas Economic Development, Development
Research Centre, PRChina
Taneewut, S. (2005) Thai AFTA Report (in preparation for Hong Kong WTO workshop),
Tanner, J (2004) Lao Telecom: ready to change, Telecom Asia
Tokrisna, R. (2002), Thailand changing retail food sector: consequences for consumers,
producers, and trade, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
Von Braun et al, New Risks and Opportunities for Food Security (2005). Scenario Analysis
for 2015 and 2050, International Food Policy Research Institute, Policy Brief No. 73
Appendix 2: Interview Questions
1. What is the current situation regarding the focal issue
2. Critical issues. Would you identify what you see as the critical issues for the future
regarding market access for small family farmers? Suppose I had full
foreknowledge of the outcome as a clairvoyant, what else would you wish to know?
3. A favorable outcome. If things went well, being optimistic but realistic, talk about
what you would see as a desirable outcome.
4. An unfavorable outcome. As the converse, if things went wrong, what factors
would you worry about?
5. Where culture will need to be valorized or will need to change. Looking at internal
structures, how might these need to be valorized or changed to help bring about
the desired outcome?
6. Lessons from past successes and failures. Looking back, what would you identify
as the significant events that have produced the current situation?
7. Decisions that have to be faced. Looking forward, what would you see as the
priority actions that should be carried out soon?
8. If you were responsible. If all constraints were removed and you could direct what
is done, what more would you wish to include
Appendix 3: Some pictures
One tambon, one product honey (from Thailand) and Fair Trade Pineapple
Jam from Laos, as shown during the meeting
Discussion Group on impacts of Free Trade
Vansy presenting the results of the interviews to the plenary
Participants ranking the factors and driving forces on the graph
Presentation of factors and driving forces
Mr Sisanouk with his packaged Lao coffee
APPENDIX 4: Key Participants
Position and Organisation Attended
No Name Organisation Organisation Type Criteria Interviewed Workshop
Mr Bounmy critical role in
1 Souvannalangsy Head PAFO Bokeo Government success yes yes
Mr Somchit Economics Ministry of Foreign knowledge in
2 Inthamith Dept. Affairs Government processes yes no
Head, Internal critical role in
3 Mr Phaseuth Trade Trade Dept. Bokeo Government success yes yes
Managing Bokeo Development
Director Company Company
Bokeo Chamber Trade critical role in
4 President Commerce organisation success yes no
Ms Sako Access knowledge in
5 Xosanavongsa Advisor SNV NGO processes yes no
Mr Ounkeo Assistant knowledge in
6 Pathammavong Marketing CIAT NGO processes yes no
Mr Sisanounk Director Sinouk Café Company
Lao Coffee Trade knowledge in
7 President Association organisation processes yes yes
Mr Souksavanh Head Trade Lao Export representative of
8 Sayarath Information Promotion Centre Government culture yes yes
Marketing representative of
9 Mr Joost Foppes Project SNV NGO culture yes yes
Ms Hien Program Co- Mennonite Central participation of
10 Phommachanh ordinator Comm. NGO men and women yes no
Ban Moksukthafa knowledge in
11 Mr Bounhom Head Production Group Farmer Org processes yes yes
Lao Farmers knowledge in
12 Mr Sisaliao President Products Company processes yes no
Ban Dan Production representative of
13 Mr Bounheuane Head Group Farmer Org culture yes yes
Ban Homyen representative of
14 Ms Pinkeo Head Production Group Farmer Org culture yes no
Chaleunsin representative of
15 Mr Sisomphay Head Company Company culture yes yes
Ban Donekhun Tai representative of
16 Mr Sinouane Head Production Group Farmer Org culture yes
DAFEO Tonpheung representative of
17 Mr Somphone Head District Government culture yes yes
Economic Co- specific
operation knowledge in
18 Ms Songkan ASEAN Ministry of Trade Government processes no yes
Province Lao representative of
19 Ms Bouasing Head Womens Union Government culture no yes
20 Mr Sisongkham Head NCA Bokeo NGO culture no yes
Number senior Junior Trade Farmer
Summary Total Men Total women Total govt. Govt. Org) Groups NGO
Interviews 14 3 17 3 2 4 4 4
Workshop 49 9 58 10 23 7 8 10