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Ice Cream Manufacture

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					                                   Ice Cream Manufacture
                                                   P. S. Luc*s
                      Dairy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing

    In retrospect, the changes in the ice cream                           Ice Cream Takes Hold, 1906-1916
 industry during the past 50 years may seem to
he primarily the advances made in merchandis-                         During the first decade after 1906 many
 ing and in sanitation, but for the consumer who universities began offering courses in ice cream
 lived in the early period the changes are largely                  manufacture, the first such course having been
 those of price. Although consumer prices are                      given at Pennsylvania State College in 1892.
                            h i g h e r t o d a y , the in-        Much of the early teaching was foreign to
                             crease is relatively less many of the practices in vogue today and was
                            than that in machinery,                largely a trades school approach. The industry
                             labor, and material costs             used colors made from such materials as spin-
                            confronting the nmnu-                  ach (green), carrots (yellow), cochineal (red),
                            facturer. The methods                  and indigo (blue). The use of the extra milk
                            u s e d in m a k i n g i c e           solids in the form of concentrate was con-
                                                                   sidered as a sales promotional effort by con-
                            cream of superior qual-
                                                                   denseries to increase the market for their prod-
                            i t y in 1906 w e r e e x -
                                                                   ucts. The amount of ice cream manufactured
                            tremely cumbersome and
                                                                   in 1909 was only 80,000,000 gal. but by 1916 it
                            e x p e n s i v e by t o d a y ' s
                                                                   had increased to 280,320,000 gal.
                            standards. F o r example,
                                                                      The first brine freezer was made in 1900 by
                            the 10-day aging period
                                                                   Edward Walker, of Warren, Pa. In the same
                            involved then would be
                                                                   year a movement was started for exchange of
                            i m p r a c t i c a l t o d a y be-
      P. S. Lucas           cause of the additional                ideas among industry members by a meeting
                                                                   held in Illinois, which crystallized a few months
                            space and equipment re-
                                                                   later in the Three I's Association, including the
quired. The freezing process at this early date
                                                                   states of Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. This asso-
was one involving the use of a nmtor-propelled
                                                                   ciation later became the International Associa-
10-gal. can placed inside a tub packed with
                                                                   tion o£ Ice Cream Manufacturers and has been
ice and s a l t - - a great contrast to the high-
                                                                   the principal influence in the formulation of
capacity continuous freezers of today.
                                                                   manufacturing policies since that time. One
    The soda bar and fountain of 1906 brings                       year previous, 1905 , the Ice Cream Trade Jour-
nostalgic thoughts to many old-timers. Located                     nal, devoted entirely to ice cream problems,
ordinarily in the rear of a drugstore, it was a was established by Thomas D. Cutler, who is
vast expanse of glass and marble with seating                      now living in retirement in New York. This
arranged to accommodate several persons. The journal must be credited with a major role in
serving glasses held between 10 and 12 oz., and                    developing the ice cream industry of this coun-
the flavors were largely synthetic. An ice cream                   try. Mr. Curler's dynamic energy was directed
soda cost five cents, and the ambition of the                      to quite an extent to the technical phases of
average youngster was to consume as many as                        the industry, whereas the major portion of at-
his resources pernfitted, regardless of later con- tention today seems to be given over to mer-
sequences. A multiplicity of tempting concoc- chandising methods.
tions was absent, although sundaes were begin-                        The first appearance of the ice cream cone
ning to come into vogue.                                          was at the St. Louis World's F a i r in 1904.
    The sale of ice cream at this early date was                   These cones, baked as thin wafers and rolled
by no means confined to drugstores. There while hot around a wooden form, were dell-
were establishments known as ice cream par-                        cious and became a common article of sale at
lors, which served a variety of flavored ice all carnivals and fairs of the period.
creams. These stores usually sold candy also.                         Far-seeing leaders in the industry felt the
There were ice cream soda bars at most of the need of standardizing their product and even
amusement parks. Usually a considerable space though the persons attending the early meetings
was given over to table service in such places. of the N.A.I.C.M. were few, enough were as-
The "hokey pokey" man and his wagon with                          sembled by their first secretary, Nathan Lowen-
its string of bells to announce his approach                      stein, to form a solid core of progressive
was a familiar sight along the dusty streets of thought. Among these early leaders must be
each fair-sized city, and the ice cream social mentioned such stalwarts as John Knobbe,
was the favorite method of raising money by                        John Cunningham, Nelson Dessert, and W. F.
practically all church and lodge groups. Many                     Luick. In 1906 the Association reconmmnded
homes had their own facilities for making ice regulations for the industry to the Federal
cream, using salt and ice tub hand freezers and                   Food and Drug Division, and the U. S. Secre-
a mix nmde largely of cream, sugar, and eggs. tary of Agriculture established the first ice
Ice cream in these early days was associated                      cream standards. Although the federal stand-
with special events.                                              ard called f o r ] A % milk fat, ninny of the states
                                                               833
834                                J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E


maintained a standard as low as 8%. The high             until 1923, however, that Glen Cowan, of the
federal standard was fought through the years            Arctic Ice Cream Co. of Detroit, perfected and
by manufacturers, but criticism was especially           placed on the market the Nizer ice cream cabi-
harsh in 1908. The problem was brought before            net. At the same time he offered to the industry
the U. S. Supreme Court in 1919 by industry              a correspondence course on the operation of the
members with the result that much confusion              cabinet and the principles involved in mechani-
ensued regarding correct fat standards for               cal refrigeration. As would be expected, the
interstate shipments of ice cream. Eventually            criticism was made that the expensive mechani-
no United States standard was held to or                 cal cabinet was a move to place the ice cream
enforced.                                                business in the hands of large producers who
  I n 1906 the National Association called for           had the capital necessary to purchase such
regulation of plant sanitation and began a               equipment. Other companies quickly followed
campaign for quality. That their actions were            in the production of the iceless ice cream cabi-
productive is shown by the tremendous increase           nets, and their use spread rapidly.
in ice cream sales. Automotive delivery of ice              Dry ice was introduced to the trade the same
cream began in 1911, and by 1918 most plants             year as the ice cream cabinet (1923) and has
were using nmtor-driven trucks. Express rates            been used extensively ever since for refrigerat-
were topics of interest at all times, and the            ing ice cream in shipment.
Interstate Commerce Commission was in fre-                  A few people may remember some of the
quent controversy with the industry over in-             management questions of this period, such as
equality of such rates. Quite naturally, with            the fight to enforce and establish ethical ad-
the industry growing as fast as it did, and, in          vertising practices. Aiding the progressive de-
a period when the muck-raking reporters were             velopment of the industry was the work, started
enjoying a heyday, the newspapers were de-               in 1917, on a model accounting system for ice
manding ingredient labeling of packaged ice              cream plants, the formulation of quality stand-
cream, and the critics of the industry were              ards by the National Association, and the pass-
suggesting the sale of ice cream by weight. By           age of uniform laws and regulations. These
1916 newspaper articles had appeared purport-            moves were important from a public relations
ing the use of river water in ice cream, glue            standpoint. By 1920, overhead shafting and
for stabilizer, and gross insanitary conditions          pulleys were on the way out; they were re-
in the plant. The period immediately before              placed with direct-drive individual motors.
World W a r I was one of tribulation but in                 Mojonnier Brothers Co. introduced the first
reality a good one for the industry, since it            automatic ice cream packaging machine, and
served as a grim awakening for some of the               the direct expansion batch freezer appeared in
few who were taking advantage of lack of                 1920. A successful industry always attracts
adequate inspection and intelligent sanitary             the unscrupulous, and many cases were prose-
methods. I n 1914, placing on the market of              cuted for the introduction of foreign fats,
the Mojonnier fat and solids tester was espe-            especially peanut oil, to replace milk fat. Ex-
cially sensational.                                      periment stations began work at once on tests
                                                         for the detection of foreign fats in cream. I n
      The Foundation Is Laid, 1916-1926                  1921, the proponents of selling ice cream by
   The decade beginning in 1916 featured in-             weight brought their arguments into the courts
ventions and methods that set a pattern for              of California and were defeated.
merchandising and technical adjustment. I t                 Although the Eskimo Pie was considered a
was a period that, in a sense, might be termed           novelty at the time, its appearance (1922)
a foundation upon which the present ice cream            marked an important epic in merchandising ice
industry was built. It was marked (1920) by              cream. Next to appear was the frozen sucker
the start made in the practice of standardizing           (1923). Many other such items were introduced
mixes, the experimentation which set limita-             but none attained the popularity of the Eskimo
tions upon the ingredients that might be used            Pie, which is still an important item in the
in ice cream, the introduction of mechanically           industry. Incidentally, the general adoption of
refrigerated ice cream cabinets, and more rigid          the mechanically refrigerated ice cream cabinet,
standards for ice cream. The period covers               in 1923, made the handling of novelties more
World War I, when shortage of supplies threat-           convenient. The ice cream association became
ened the very existence of the industry. Noth-           so concerned at this time about the inroads
ing was considered too good for the American             made into the industry by the selling at carni-
soldier, and the American soldier wanted his             vals and fairs of low-fat products called cus-
favorite ice cream. Perhaps this did as much             tards that they successfully petitioned the Fed-
to stop the utter suppression of ice cream               eral Trade Commission to stop the use of the
making at this time as any other single factor.          name "ice cream" for such products.
   Talk among industry members as early as                  During the period from 1918 to 1924 great
1916 was directed toward the need for a me-              technical advances were made in the manufac-
chanically refrigerated ice cream cabinet in             ture of ice cream, many of them motivated by
order to do away with the messy ice and salt             abuses perpetrated by some manufacturers.
cabinet with all its attendant evils. I t was not        Nonfat dry milk solids had been found to be
                                     50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE                                             835

 of great value in building body. Some repu-             T h e Y e a r s of U p - B u i l d i n g , 1926-1936
 table manufacturers believed that if some solids      By 1926, ice cream consumption per capita
were good, more would be better, and some           had increased to 2.77 gal. The previous 20
 ice creams were produced testing as high as        years, therefore, marked great advances in the
50% total solids. Needless to say, sandy ice        public's appetite for ice cream. During that
 cream resulted. No one knew the cause until        period the hopper system for mass production
 finally the crystals were identified as those of   of ice cream and the use of freezers of large
lactose. This led ~o extensive studies to deter-    capacity were developed. The first mechanically
 mine how nmch nonfat milk solids could be          refrigerated truck was shown at the Dairy Show
incorporated in the mix without causing the
                                                    in October, 1926. The Vogt freezer of 1927
.precipitation of lactose crystals in the stored
                                                    embodied the principle of pumping air into the
ice cream.
                                                    mix as it was frozen in a drum much smaller
    I n this period the emulsifying machine was
                                                    but resembling the barrel of the batch brine
introduced. Designed primarily for the small
                                                    freezer. This and the Creamery Package type
 operator to replace the expensive homogenizer,
                                                    of continuous freezer readily lent themselves to
 it relied on centrifugal force to produce the
                                                    adequate control of overrun and to such devices
 required emulsification. This method helped
                                                    as fruit feeders and such accessories as those
 texture but did not produce the results ex-
                                                    used for making Neapolitan ice cream. Many
 pected of homogenization. When this system
                                                    other technical advances were made during this
 went out of use, a less expensive type of homog-
                                                    period. Glass-lined and stainless steel pasteur-
 enizer, which relied upon the breaking up of
                                                    izing vats were introduced. These replaced the
 fat by passing it through a perforated steel
                                                    old style coil vats.
 disk, was placed on the market. There were
                                                       The inroads on sales of gelatin were par-
 many of these rotary type machines, and al-
                                                    ticularly noticeable in the thirties. The need
 though they did excellent work initially the
                                                    was for less expensive stabilizers having the
 orifices eventually became enlarged by the pass-
                                                    stabilizing qualities of gelatin and, if possible,
 age of mix through them at high pressures, thus
                                                    producing required viscosity or plasticity with-
 reducing the efficiency of the machines.           out aging. Foremost among these were the
    I n this period too, carbonation of ice cream   sodium alginates; others were mixtures of gum,
 was tried. The experiment was interesting, but     gelatin, alginates, methyl-cellulose, locust bean
the "Purer because Carbonated" idea did not         gum, and sea moss derivatives. Many of these
long continue. At this time was worked out the      stabilizers still hold their popularity.
:fundamentals of supplementary corn sugars to          I n the thirties, short-time, high-temperature
replace sucrose. Determination of the sweeten-      pasteurization was the main topic of conver-
ing value of corn sugars was desirable so that      sation among nfilk processors. Much explora-
they could be used to relieve the shortage of       tory work was done during the period on the
sugar supplies and to build body into the ice       application of this process to ice cream mix.
 cream by reducing its water content. Their         Two factors combined to encourage this sys-
usage was at first protested, especially by the     tem: the advantages of the vacuum method for
sugar interests and by law-enforcing agencies,      pasteurizing milk and the importation from
but today they are seldom questioned.               New Zealand of the Vacreator. Details of meth-
    Prior to 1920, gelatin was commonly used in     ods and the determination of the proper tem-
sherbets and ices, where it caused excessive        peratures for using H T S T pasteurization
overrun. The use of gum stabilizers, introduced     equipment for ice cream mix have been pub-
about 1921, completely removed this difficulty.     lished. The advantages of this method in speed-
Further advances in sherbet and ice manufac-        ing up operations and in reducing expensive
ture resulted from the use of corn sugar, which     floor space in the plant are well known. The
removed the bugaboo of bleeding and petrified       adoption of such an improved method has been
ice.                                                slow since so many factors have had to be con-
    Stringent reguIations and laws were passed,     sidered, such as the effect upon pasteurization
which required the making of ice cream in           efficiency, protein stabilization, body and flavor,
places other than basements. This had the           cleaning procedures, and costs.
effect of removing ice cream manufacturers             Much was done in this period to bring about
from questionable surroundings and resulted in      a change in the method of handling ice cream
the reduction of the number of snmll, ill-          for sale. Greater emphasis was placed upon
equipped factories.                                 sale of ice cream for home use. Packaged ice
    The universal adoption of homogenizers and      cream was believed by the consumer to contain
batch freezers of both the brine and direct ex-     more overrun than was found in bulk ice cream.
pansion types removed the old problems of           As any ice cream man knows, the reverse was
aging cream and the difficulty of obtaining con-    true, but the dipping of ice cream forced out
trolled overrun. Changes were made from brine       much of the air and resulted in a heavier pint
hardening to direct expansion and flooded am-       or quart, which was soon evident to the cost-
monia systems and finally to forced air and         conscious consmner. During this period, bulk
freezing tunnels. Large-scale operations were       sales amounted to approximately 67% and
in the nmking.                                      packaged goods, 33%. However, the change
836                                J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E


taking place has been so rapid that at the pres-         led to redesign of much of the equipment used.
ent time more packaged goods than bulk are                  Competition was so keen in the period of the
sold.                                                    depression that some questionable practices
   One of the ice creams that proved popular in          were resorted to. The double dip cone was the
this period was peppermint stick. A laborious            sensation of the day, and cut-rate prices were
method was first used to make this product.              the rule. To meet such competition it was
Stick candy was broken and heated to make a              necessary that the manufacturer sharpen his
syrup, which was then added to the ice cream.            pencil, and, although standardization of mixes
The popularity of the peppermint flavor led to           had begun in 1920, it became the eonnnon prac-
the use of other candies in ice cream. One of            tice during the depression period when it was
these, chocolate chip, was made originally with          necessary to cut costs in the interests of econ-
broken pieces of chocolate chip candy. Another           omy. Overrun control became a common prac-
method was to punch a hole in a can, fill it with        tice.
chocolate coating syrup and permit the sirup                In this period much work was done on tech-
to flow in a small stream into the partially             nical problems in ice cream nmking. However,
frozen ice, cream. The chocolate solidified at           since this time, research in the ice cream field
once and assumed in the ice cream the form of            has become limited and the trend has been de-
small drops. Little flavor was added by this             cidedly in the direction of the basic chemistry
method. At the present time the product is               and bacteriology of milk and milk products.
made ahnost entirely from a candy chocolate.             This does not mean that there is less interest
   Candy flavors have been augmented with                today in ice cream but rather that the practieaI
many others, the latest addition being apple.            problems of the early period were greater and
Yruits have been added in the form of purees             more urgent than those of today.
and ripples. The standard extracts have under-
gone changes; in some states more fortified                           The War Years--1936-1946
flavors are used at the present time than were
used earlier, but the quality is now improved               The period of 1936 to 1946 covers a time of
and in general it may be said that the public            readjustment in the ice cream industry. During
is being given better flavored products today.           the entire period, and especially the war years,
l~or instance, citrus flavors have been greatly          fruits and the raw materials for any dessert
 improved by the development of methods of               food became scarce and high-priced. With the
renmving troublesome terpenes, thus avoiding             scarcity of desserts caused by the needs of the
the bitter flavor caused by the oxidation of the         war camps, ice cream became increasingly de-
terpenes.                                                pended upon as a source of material for des-
                                                         serts in the home. The limiting factor was
   In the period under discussion most of the            again, as it was in World W a r I, sugar, but
chocolate ice cream was made from cocoa, but             the industry did not suffer seriously. Vanilla
there was a trend toward the use of mixtures             was scarce, but the market at no time became
of chocolate liquor and cocoa. Because of the            entirely depleted of this flavoring. TropicaI
richer texture the mixture imparts and the in-           materials, such as coffee, chocolate, and the
crease in mellowness of flavor, this has come to         vanilla bean, skyrocketed in price because of
be common practice.                                      scarcity.
   In the sanitary field the changes and the                At the beginning of the war, ice cream had
progress made have been gradual and con-                 been classed as a frozen dessert and as such
stantly for good. It was realized that the fact          was denied a full quota of sugar. Its classifi-
that ice cream is frozen does not necessarily            cation in 1943 as a food proved helpful to the
mean that it is safe for human consumption.              industry in obtaining suitable quotas, although
There has been constant improvement in the               serious limits were placed on the smount of
raw products entering into ice cream, and since          total milk solids that could be used. In 1945,
1920 practically no infections have been traced          butterfat controls were canceled and the indus-
to ice cream--a remarkable record for a food             try began to enjoy post-war recovery.
product so commonly used.                                   Because of the low purchasing power of the
   The slack period resulting from cuts in pro-          public during the forepart of the 1936-1915
duction during the depression years did not              period, a major problem of the industry was
prove entirely unprofitable to the industry be-          the production of inexpensive packages that
cause it brought into focus the crying need for          could be sold at a low price. Many factories
laboratory control of products. Perhaps this             made a low-priced ice cream by increasing
was hastened by the passage, beginning in 1925,          overrun. As a consequence, over 15 states en-
of state laws setting bacterial standards for ice        acted laws regulating overrun. Laws were also
cream. Naturally, when ice cream samples were            passed regulating wages; Social Security was
found to contain high nmnbers of bacteria, the           enacted; hours of employment were specified;
sources were sought in equipment, such as box-           the W.P.A. was established; and similar moves
ings in homogenizer heads that could not be              were made to alleviate the condition of the
disassembled for proper cleaning and beaters,            worker. Msnufaeturers faced the problem of
scrapers, and unloaders in the freezer, which            some dealers bootlegging their products into
did not lend themselves to easy cleaning. This           ice cream cabinets other than their own, which
                                      50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE                                          837


enabled them to reduce prices. Some attempts          I n 1952, the half-gallon package had convinced
were made to establish trade barriers. These          manufacturers that it was here to stay; in
were not imaginary barriers; they were real           1953 sherbets were packaged in these contain-
and some of them still exist. By 1940, cooler         ers; in 1950, 3.86% of all sales was in half-
heads had ameliorated the situation by compro-        gallon containers, and in 1955, 25%, or a total
mising many of the disputes and senseless regu-       of 186,000,000 gal., was sold this way.
lations.                                                 With America riding the highways, the way
   During this period of slack sales, manufac-        was open for ice cream stands selling soft ice
turers of refrigerating equipment were glamor-        cream. The number of Dairy Queen stores,
izing their plain cabinets into attractive units.     started in 1940, had grown to 2,500 by 1955.
Work was begun on the deep-freeze cabinets            Ice cream vending machines were to be found
for homes, and new refrigerating chemicals            in theaters, railroad trains, and army bases. A
were perfected. The open-top cabinet was de-          richer than usual ice cream made its appear-
veloped and, when its great selling possibilities     ance in 1947; the ice cream cake roll appeared
were demonstrated, the way was paved for the          in 1949. I n the earlier fifties vegetable-fat prod-
sale of ice cream from food stores.                   ucts entered the picture, and unofficial figures
                                                      placed the quantity produced in 1955 at 80,-
   The Industry Grows Up: 1945-1955                   000,000 gal.
   A vigorous industry usually recovers quickly
from batterings such as the ice cream business                        The Look Ahead
suffered during the war years. The release from
the anxiety and privations of World W a r I I            However the future may appear to different
called for celebration by the public. Conse-          individuals, there are conditions in industry in
quently, 1946 was a big' year for the ice cream       general which should thrill even the most opti-
industry. Imported products could be obtained,        mistic. I n the first place there is a minnmm of
at least in limited quantities. However, some         unemployment and industry sees no lack of
scarcities still existed, owing to the neglect dur-   employment in the immediate future. This
ing the war of cocoa bean production and the          means that there is an abundance of purchasing
disorganization and retrenchment policies of in-      power, and purchasing power means sales. I n
~lustries catering to the ice cream trade. At the     addition, population is increasing at a rapid
same time there was a plethora of labor dis-          rate, and changes from rural to urban areas
putes, most of them resulting in increased labor      mean greater purchases by consumers. Even
costs. The spiral of costs was continuously up-       for the country dweller, ice cream is becoming
ward during this decade.                              readily available through the operation of rural
   By 1950 the production of ice cream had            ice cream routes. People living in cities are
reached 537,000,000 gal. and the industry em-         purchasing combination refrigerators and home
ployed 80,000 men. The gallonage of ice cream         freezers, and sales have increased rapidly as a
/or 1954 was 542,373,000; of sherbet, 34,048,-        result of this home storage of ice cream. The
000; and of ice nfilk, 78,742,000.                    great increase in the employment of women
   I n 1945 the W a r Production Board estimated      has caused increased demand for ready pre-
the number of soda fountains in the United            pared desserts. Also, more people are eating
States at 120,000. Ice cream was sold in 40,000       their meals outside the home, and ice cream is
(lrugstores; in 40,000 confectioneries; in 15,000     a favorite dessert on such occasions.
restaurants; in 2,000 variety stores; in 400             The dealers have contributed greatly to in-
department stores; in 5,000 specialty shops,          creased sales by the use of better merchandis-
and at 17,500 fountainettes. During the war           ing methods, and the manufacturer has been
period, which is sometimes referred to as the         aided immensely by store selling. Not only is
golden age of the package, the shift from bulk        the availability of ice cream enhanced by store
to packaged ice cream began in earnest. Auto-         selling, but the items are constantly before the
matic ice cream packaging came into the picture       potential purchaser as a reminder of their
i n 1947, and the following year the half-gallon      availability. Improvement in package attrac-
package started its long run of popularity. I n       tiveness also has increased store sales. I n addi-
~951, as compared with 1941, bulk dropped             tion, the increase in numbers of flavors has
from 63% of sales to 46%. Packaged sales              added zest to the purchase. Improved quality
 climbed from 20% to 29% of total output, cup         has further increased consumer acceptance and
sales increased from 5.4% to 6.4%, and frozen         in turn has resulted in increased business for
specialties increased from 11.35% to 17.2%.           the manufacturer.

				
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Description: Ice Cream Manufacture