Ice Cream Manufacture P. S. Luc*s Dairy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing In retrospect, the changes in the ice cream Ice Cream Takes Hold, 1906-1916 industry during the past 50 years may seem to he primarily the advances made in merchandis- During the first decade after 1906 many ing and in sanitation, but for the consumer who universities began offering courses in ice cream lived in the early period the changes are largely manufacture, the first such course having been those of price. Although consumer prices are given at Pennsylvania State College in 1892. h i g h e r t o d a y , the in- Much of the early teaching was foreign to crease is relatively less many of the practices in vogue today and was than that in machinery, largely a trades school approach. The industry labor, and material costs used colors made from such materials as spin- confronting the nmnu- ach (green), carrots (yellow), cochineal (red), facturer. The methods and indigo (blue). The use of the extra milk u s e d in m a k i n g i c e solids in the form of concentrate was con- sidered as a sales promotional effort by con- cream of superior qual- denseries to increase the market for their prod- i t y in 1906 w e r e e x - ucts. The amount of ice cream manufactured tremely cumbersome and in 1909 was only 80,000,000 gal. but by 1916 it e x p e n s i v e by t o d a y ' s had increased to 280,320,000 gal. standards. F o r example, The first brine freezer was made in 1900 by the 10-day aging period Edward Walker, of Warren, Pa. In the same involved then would be year a movement was started for exchange of i m p r a c t i c a l t o d a y be- P. S. Lucas cause of the additional ideas among industry members by a meeting held in Illinois, which crystallized a few months space and equipment re- later in the Three I's Association, including the quired. The freezing process at this early date states of Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. This asso- was one involving the use of a nmtor-propelled ciation later became the International Associa- 10-gal. can placed inside a tub packed with tion o£ Ice Cream Manufacturers and has been ice and s a l t - - a great contrast to the high- the principal influence in the formulation of capacity continuous freezers of today. manufacturing policies since that time. One The soda bar and fountain of 1906 brings year previous, 1905 , the Ice Cream Trade Jour- nostalgic thoughts to many old-timers. Located nal, devoted entirely to ice cream problems, ordinarily in the rear of a drugstore, it was a was established by Thomas D. Cutler, who is vast expanse of glass and marble with seating now living in retirement in New York. This arranged to accommodate several persons. The journal must be credited with a major role in serving glasses held between 10 and 12 oz., and developing the ice cream industry of this coun- the flavors were largely synthetic. An ice cream try. Mr. Curler's dynamic energy was directed soda cost five cents, and the ambition of the to quite an extent to the technical phases of average youngster was to consume as many as the industry, whereas the major portion of at- his resources pernfitted, regardless of later con- tention today seems to be given over to mer- sequences. A multiplicity of tempting concoc- chandising methods. tions was absent, although sundaes were begin- The first appearance of the ice cream cone ning to come into vogue. was at the St. Louis World's F a i r in 1904. The sale of ice cream at this early date was These cones, baked as thin wafers and rolled by no means confined to drugstores. There while hot around a wooden form, were dell- were establishments known as ice cream par- cious and became a common article of sale at lors, which served a variety of flavored ice all carnivals and fairs of the period. creams. These stores usually sold candy also. Far-seeing leaders in the industry felt the There were ice cream soda bars at most of the need of standardizing their product and even amusement parks. Usually a considerable space though the persons attending the early meetings was given over to table service in such places. of the N.A.I.C.M. were few, enough were as- The "hokey pokey" man and his wagon with sembled by their first secretary, Nathan Lowen- its string of bells to announce his approach stein, to form a solid core of progressive was a familiar sight along the dusty streets of thought. Among these early leaders must be each fair-sized city, and the ice cream social mentioned such stalwarts as John Knobbe, was the favorite method of raising money by John Cunningham, Nelson Dessert, and W. F. practically all church and lodge groups. Many Luick. In 1906 the Association reconmmnded homes had their own facilities for making ice regulations for the industry to the Federal cream, using salt and ice tub hand freezers and Food and Drug Division, and the U. S. Secre- a mix nmde largely of cream, sugar, and eggs. tary of Agriculture established the first ice Ice cream in these early days was associated cream standards. Although the federal stand- with special events. ard called f o r ] A % milk fat, ninny of the states 833 834 J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E maintained a standard as low as 8%. The high until 1923, however, that Glen Cowan, of the federal standard was fought through the years Arctic Ice Cream Co. of Detroit, perfected and by manufacturers, but criticism was especially placed on the market the Nizer ice cream cabi- harsh in 1908. The problem was brought before net. At the same time he offered to the industry the U. S. Supreme Court in 1919 by industry a correspondence course on the operation of the members with the result that much confusion cabinet and the principles involved in mechani- ensued regarding correct fat standards for cal refrigeration. As would be expected, the interstate shipments of ice cream. Eventually criticism was made that the expensive mechani- no United States standard was held to or cal cabinet was a move to place the ice cream enforced. business in the hands of large producers who I n 1906 the National Association called for had the capital necessary to purchase such regulation of plant sanitation and began a equipment. Other companies quickly followed campaign for quality. That their actions were in the production of the iceless ice cream cabi- productive is shown by the tremendous increase nets, and their use spread rapidly. in ice cream sales. Automotive delivery of ice Dry ice was introduced to the trade the same cream began in 1911, and by 1918 most plants year as the ice cream cabinet (1923) and has were using nmtor-driven trucks. Express rates been used extensively ever since for refrigerat- were topics of interest at all times, and the ing ice cream in shipment. Interstate Commerce Commission was in fre- A few people may remember some of the quent controversy with the industry over in- management questions of this period, such as equality of such rates. Quite naturally, with the fight to enforce and establish ethical ad- the industry growing as fast as it did, and, in vertising practices. Aiding the progressive de- a period when the muck-raking reporters were velopment of the industry was the work, started enjoying a heyday, the newspapers were de- in 1917, on a model accounting system for ice manding ingredient labeling of packaged ice cream plants, the formulation of quality stand- cream, and the critics of the industry were ards by the National Association, and the pass- suggesting the sale of ice cream by weight. By age of uniform laws and regulations. These 1916 newspaper articles had appeared purport- moves were important from a public relations ing the use of river water in ice cream, glue standpoint. By 1920, overhead shafting and for stabilizer, and gross insanitary conditions pulleys were on the way out; they were re- in the plant. The period immediately before placed with direct-drive individual motors. World W a r I was one of tribulation but in Mojonnier Brothers Co. introduced the first reality a good one for the industry, since it automatic ice cream packaging machine, and served as a grim awakening for some of the the direct expansion batch freezer appeared in few who were taking advantage of lack of 1920. A successful industry always attracts adequate inspection and intelligent sanitary the unscrupulous, and many cases were prose- methods. I n 1914, placing on the market of cuted for the introduction of foreign fats, the Mojonnier fat and solids tester was espe- especially peanut oil, to replace milk fat. Ex- cially sensational. periment stations began work at once on tests for the detection of foreign fats in cream. I n The Foundation Is Laid, 1916-1926 1921, the proponents of selling ice cream by The decade beginning in 1916 featured in- weight brought their arguments into the courts ventions and methods that set a pattern for of California and were defeated. merchandising and technical adjustment. I t Although the Eskimo Pie was considered a was a period that, in a sense, might be termed novelty at the time, its appearance (1922) a foundation upon which the present ice cream marked an important epic in merchandising ice industry was built. It was marked (1920) by cream. Next to appear was the frozen sucker the start made in the practice of standardizing (1923). Many other such items were introduced mixes, the experimentation which set limita- but none attained the popularity of the Eskimo tions upon the ingredients that might be used Pie, which is still an important item in the in ice cream, the introduction of mechanically industry. Incidentally, the general adoption of refrigerated ice cream cabinets, and more rigid the mechanically refrigerated ice cream cabinet, standards for ice cream. The period covers in 1923, made the handling of novelties more World War I, when shortage of supplies threat- convenient. The ice cream association became ened the very existence of the industry. Noth- so concerned at this time about the inroads ing was considered too good for the American made into the industry by the selling at carni- soldier, and the American soldier wanted his vals and fairs of low-fat products called cus- favorite ice cream. Perhaps this did as much tards that they successfully petitioned the Fed- to stop the utter suppression of ice cream eral Trade Commission to stop the use of the making at this time as any other single factor. name "ice cream" for such products. Talk among industry members as early as During the period from 1918 to 1924 great 1916 was directed toward the need for a me- technical advances were made in the manufac- chanically refrigerated ice cream cabinet in ture of ice cream, many of them motivated by order to do away with the messy ice and salt abuses perpetrated by some manufacturers. cabinet with all its attendant evils. I t was not Nonfat dry milk solids had been found to be 50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 835 of great value in building body. Some repu- T h e Y e a r s of U p - B u i l d i n g , 1926-1936 table manufacturers believed that if some solids By 1926, ice cream consumption per capita were good, more would be better, and some had increased to 2.77 gal. The previous 20 ice creams were produced testing as high as years, therefore, marked great advances in the 50% total solids. Needless to say, sandy ice public's appetite for ice cream. During that cream resulted. No one knew the cause until period the hopper system for mass production finally the crystals were identified as those of of ice cream and the use of freezers of large lactose. This led ~o extensive studies to deter- capacity were developed. The first mechanically mine how nmch nonfat milk solids could be refrigerated truck was shown at the Dairy Show incorporated in the mix without causing the in October, 1926. The Vogt freezer of 1927 .precipitation of lactose crystals in the stored embodied the principle of pumping air into the ice cream. mix as it was frozen in a drum much smaller I n this period the emulsifying machine was but resembling the barrel of the batch brine introduced. Designed primarily for the small freezer. This and the Creamery Package type operator to replace the expensive homogenizer, of continuous freezer readily lent themselves to it relied on centrifugal force to produce the adequate control of overrun and to such devices required emulsification. This method helped as fruit feeders and such accessories as those texture but did not produce the results ex- used for making Neapolitan ice cream. Many pected of homogenization. When this system other technical advances were made during this went out of use, a less expensive type of homog- period. Glass-lined and stainless steel pasteur- enizer, which relied upon the breaking up of izing vats were introduced. These replaced the fat by passing it through a perforated steel old style coil vats. disk, was placed on the market. There were The inroads on sales of gelatin were par- many of these rotary type machines, and al- ticularly noticeable in the thirties. The need though they did excellent work initially the was for less expensive stabilizers having the orifices eventually became enlarged by the pass- stabilizing qualities of gelatin and, if possible, age of mix through them at high pressures, thus producing required viscosity or plasticity with- reducing the efficiency of the machines. out aging. Foremost among these were the I n this period too, carbonation of ice cream sodium alginates; others were mixtures of gum, was tried. The experiment was interesting, but gelatin, alginates, methyl-cellulose, locust bean the "Purer because Carbonated" idea did not gum, and sea moss derivatives. Many of these long continue. At this time was worked out the stabilizers still hold their popularity. :fundamentals of supplementary corn sugars to I n the thirties, short-time, high-temperature replace sucrose. Determination of the sweeten- pasteurization was the main topic of conver- ing value of corn sugars was desirable so that sation among nfilk processors. Much explora- they could be used to relieve the shortage of tory work was done during the period on the sugar supplies and to build body into the ice application of this process to ice cream mix. cream by reducing its water content. Their Two factors combined to encourage this sys- usage was at first protested, especially by the tem: the advantages of the vacuum method for sugar interests and by law-enforcing agencies, pasteurizing milk and the importation from but today they are seldom questioned. New Zealand of the Vacreator. Details of meth- Prior to 1920, gelatin was commonly used in ods and the determination of the proper tem- sherbets and ices, where it caused excessive peratures for using H T S T pasteurization overrun. The use of gum stabilizers, introduced equipment for ice cream mix have been pub- about 1921, completely removed this difficulty. lished. The advantages of this method in speed- Further advances in sherbet and ice manufac- ing up operations and in reducing expensive ture resulted from the use of corn sugar, which floor space in the plant are well known. The removed the bugaboo of bleeding and petrified adoption of such an improved method has been ice. slow since so many factors have had to be con- Stringent reguIations and laws were passed, sidered, such as the effect upon pasteurization which required the making of ice cream in efficiency, protein stabilization, body and flavor, places other than basements. This had the cleaning procedures, and costs. effect of removing ice cream manufacturers Much was done in this period to bring about from questionable surroundings and resulted in a change in the method of handling ice cream the reduction of the number of snmll, ill- for sale. Greater emphasis was placed upon equipped factories. sale of ice cream for home use. Packaged ice The universal adoption of homogenizers and cream was believed by the consumer to contain batch freezers of both the brine and direct ex- more overrun than was found in bulk ice cream. pansion types removed the old problems of As any ice cream man knows, the reverse was aging cream and the difficulty of obtaining con- true, but the dipping of ice cream forced out trolled overrun. Changes were made from brine much of the air and resulted in a heavier pint hardening to direct expansion and flooded am- or quart, which was soon evident to the cost- monia systems and finally to forced air and conscious consmner. During this period, bulk freezing tunnels. Large-scale operations were sales amounted to approximately 67% and in the nmking. packaged goods, 33%. However, the change 836 J O U R N A L OF D A I R Y S C I E N C E taking place has been so rapid that at the pres- led to redesign of much of the equipment used. ent time more packaged goods than bulk are Competition was so keen in the period of the sold. depression that some questionable practices One of the ice creams that proved popular in were resorted to. The double dip cone was the this period was peppermint stick. A laborious sensation of the day, and cut-rate prices were method was first used to make this product. the rule. To meet such competition it was Stick candy was broken and heated to make a necessary that the manufacturer sharpen his syrup, which was then added to the ice cream. pencil, and, although standardization of mixes The popularity of the peppermint flavor led to had begun in 1920, it became the eonnnon prac- the use of other candies in ice cream. One of tice during the depression period when it was these, chocolate chip, was made originally with necessary to cut costs in the interests of econ- broken pieces of chocolate chip candy. Another omy. Overrun control became a common prac- method was to punch a hole in a can, fill it with tice. chocolate coating syrup and permit the sirup In this period much work was done on tech- to flow in a small stream into the partially nical problems in ice cream nmking. However, frozen ice, cream. The chocolate solidified at since this time, research in the ice cream field once and assumed in the ice cream the form of has become limited and the trend has been de- small drops. Little flavor was added by this cidedly in the direction of the basic chemistry method. At the present time the product is and bacteriology of milk and milk products. made ahnost entirely from a candy chocolate. This does not mean that there is less interest Candy flavors have been augmented with today in ice cream but rather that the practieaI many others, the latest addition being apple. problems of the early period were greater and Yruits have been added in the form of purees more urgent than those of today. and ripples. The standard extracts have under- gone changes; in some states more fortified The War Years--1936-1946 flavors are used at the present time than were used earlier, but the quality is now improved The period of 1936 to 1946 covers a time of and in general it may be said that the public readjustment in the ice cream industry. During is being given better flavored products today. the entire period, and especially the war years, l~or instance, citrus flavors have been greatly fruits and the raw materials for any dessert improved by the development of methods of food became scarce and high-priced. With the renmving troublesome terpenes, thus avoiding scarcity of desserts caused by the needs of the the bitter flavor caused by the oxidation of the war camps, ice cream became increasingly de- terpenes. pended upon as a source of material for des- serts in the home. The limiting factor was In the period under discussion most of the again, as it was in World W a r I, sugar, but chocolate ice cream was made from cocoa, but the industry did not suffer seriously. Vanilla there was a trend toward the use of mixtures was scarce, but the market at no time became of chocolate liquor and cocoa. Because of the entirely depleted of this flavoring. TropicaI richer texture the mixture imparts and the in- materials, such as coffee, chocolate, and the crease in mellowness of flavor, this has come to vanilla bean, skyrocketed in price because of be common practice. scarcity. In the sanitary field the changes and the At the beginning of the war, ice cream had progress made have been gradual and con- been classed as a frozen dessert and as such stantly for good. It was realized that the fact was denied a full quota of sugar. Its classifi- that ice cream is frozen does not necessarily cation in 1943 as a food proved helpful to the mean that it is safe for human consumption. industry in obtaining suitable quotas, although There has been constant improvement in the serious limits were placed on the smount of raw products entering into ice cream, and since total milk solids that could be used. In 1945, 1920 practically no infections have been traced butterfat controls were canceled and the indus- to ice cream--a remarkable record for a food try began to enjoy post-war recovery. product so commonly used. Because of the low purchasing power of the The slack period resulting from cuts in pro- public during the forepart of the 1936-1915 duction during the depression years did not period, a major problem of the industry was prove entirely unprofitable to the industry be- the production of inexpensive packages that cause it brought into focus the crying need for could be sold at a low price. Many factories laboratory control of products. Perhaps this made a low-priced ice cream by increasing was hastened by the passage, beginning in 1925, overrun. As a consequence, over 15 states en- of state laws setting bacterial standards for ice acted laws regulating overrun. Laws were also cream. Naturally, when ice cream samples were passed regulating wages; Social Security was found to contain high nmnbers of bacteria, the enacted; hours of employment were specified; sources were sought in equipment, such as box- the W.P.A. was established; and similar moves ings in homogenizer heads that could not be were made to alleviate the condition of the disassembled for proper cleaning and beaters, worker. Msnufaeturers faced the problem of scrapers, and unloaders in the freezer, which some dealers bootlegging their products into did not lend themselves to easy cleaning. This ice cream cabinets other than their own, which 50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 837 enabled them to reduce prices. Some attempts I n 1952, the half-gallon package had convinced were made to establish trade barriers. These manufacturers that it was here to stay; in were not imaginary barriers; they were real 1953 sherbets were packaged in these contain- and some of them still exist. By 1940, cooler ers; in 1950, 3.86% of all sales was in half- heads had ameliorated the situation by compro- gallon containers, and in 1955, 25%, or a total mising many of the disputes and senseless regu- of 186,000,000 gal., was sold this way. lations. With America riding the highways, the way During this period of slack sales, manufac- was open for ice cream stands selling soft ice turers of refrigerating equipment were glamor- cream. The number of Dairy Queen stores, izing their plain cabinets into attractive units. started in 1940, had grown to 2,500 by 1955. Work was begun on the deep-freeze cabinets Ice cream vending machines were to be found for homes, and new refrigerating chemicals in theaters, railroad trains, and army bases. A were perfected. The open-top cabinet was de- richer than usual ice cream made its appear- veloped and, when its great selling possibilities ance in 1947; the ice cream cake roll appeared were demonstrated, the way was paved for the in 1949. I n the earlier fifties vegetable-fat prod- sale of ice cream from food stores. ucts entered the picture, and unofficial figures placed the quantity produced in 1955 at 80,- The Industry Grows Up: 1945-1955 000,000 gal. A vigorous industry usually recovers quickly from batterings such as the ice cream business The Look Ahead suffered during the war years. The release from the anxiety and privations of World W a r I I However the future may appear to different called for celebration by the public. Conse- individuals, there are conditions in industry in quently, 1946 was a big' year for the ice cream general which should thrill even the most opti- industry. Imported products could be obtained, mistic. I n the first place there is a minnmm of at least in limited quantities. However, some unemployment and industry sees no lack of scarcities still existed, owing to the neglect dur- employment in the immediate future. This ing the war of cocoa bean production and the means that there is an abundance of purchasing disorganization and retrenchment policies of in- power, and purchasing power means sales. I n ~lustries catering to the ice cream trade. At the addition, population is increasing at a rapid same time there was a plethora of labor dis- rate, and changes from rural to urban areas putes, most of them resulting in increased labor mean greater purchases by consumers. Even costs. The spiral of costs was continuously up- for the country dweller, ice cream is becoming ward during this decade. readily available through the operation of rural By 1950 the production of ice cream had ice cream routes. People living in cities are reached 537,000,000 gal. and the industry em- purchasing combination refrigerators and home ployed 80,000 men. The gallonage of ice cream freezers, and sales have increased rapidly as a /or 1954 was 542,373,000; of sherbet, 34,048,- result of this home storage of ice cream. The 000; and of ice nfilk, 78,742,000. great increase in the employment of women I n 1945 the W a r Production Board estimated has caused increased demand for ready pre- the number of soda fountains in the United pared desserts. Also, more people are eating States at 120,000. Ice cream was sold in 40,000 their meals outside the home, and ice cream is (lrugstores; in 40,000 confectioneries; in 15,000 a favorite dessert on such occasions. restaurants; in 2,000 variety stores; in 400 The dealers have contributed greatly to in- department stores; in 5,000 specialty shops, creased sales by the use of better merchandis- and at 17,500 fountainettes. During the war ing methods, and the manufacturer has been period, which is sometimes referred to as the aided immensely by store selling. Not only is golden age of the package, the shift from bulk the availability of ice cream enhanced by store to packaged ice cream began in earnest. Auto- selling, but the items are constantly before the matic ice cream packaging came into the picture potential purchaser as a reminder of their i n 1947, and the following year the half-gallon availability. Improvement in package attrac- package started its long run of popularity. I n tiveness also has increased store sales. I n addi- ~951, as compared with 1941, bulk dropped tion, the increase in numbers of flavors has from 63% of sales to 46%. Packaged sales added zest to the purchase. Improved quality climbed from 20% to 29% of total output, cup has further increased consumer acceptance and sales increased from 5.4% to 6.4%, and frozen in turn has resulted in increased business for specialties increased from 11.35% to 17.2%. the manufacturer.