"Teen Driver Safety Fair"
ISS UE 1 SPRING 2008 The Sustainability and Safety of Rural Transportation Systems and Infrastructure YOUR PHOTO Teen Driver Safety Fair HERE As part of National Teen Driver Safety Week, the University Transportation Center hosted a young driver safety fair in Fiedler Hall on the Kansas State University campus. The fair was open to the public, and partici- pants got to try out state-of-the-art driving simulators, ride the Seatbelt Convincer, learn about ATV safety, visit booths with information about driver safety, and enjoy cookies, soda and conversation with transportation professionals. “Bringing in young voices into the discussion on transportation safety is critical in developing new trans- portation professionals,” said Brian A. Coon, the direc- tor of K-State’s University Transportation Center. The fair was held in in conjunction with Con- gress’s recognition of a National Teen Driver Safety The event was attended by K-State and Manhattan Week, noting that automobile crashes are the leading High School Students, with even a few elementary-aged cause of death amongst our nation’s youth. students. “We need to make transportation safety part “I was thrilled when I learned that congress passed of everyday conversation. One of the ways to do that is the resolution” said Renee Slick, Associate Director of by making people aware of the problem,” said Manhat- the UTC and Director of the Simulation Training and tan High School driving instructor, Brad Wille. Assessment Research (STAR) Lab research project. The fair also presented guest speakers, including “We’ve been lobbying at all levels to reenergize a na- Wade Allen, president of System Technology, Inc., on tional research agenda for young driver safety,” said driving simulation, Larry Emig, director of Local Pro- Slick. So the announcement of a National Focus on jects of the Kansas Department of Transportation, on Teen Driver Safety was the perfect opportunity to bring “Put the Brakes on Fatalities” and Brian A. Coon, direc- that focus center stage right here at the UTC to show- tor of the University Transportation Center, on crash case all we are doing in the young driver safety arena.” reconstruction and transportation safety. INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Director’s Welcome 2 Development of Efficient Asset Man- 6 Advanced Modeling of Interfaces between 8 Factors Affecting Fatal Crash 2 agement Practices For Transportation Asphalt Concrete Layers Involvement of Older Drivers Infrastructure in Rural Communities and Permanent Deformation in Subgrade Thin Surface Treatment for As- 3 Knowledge Discovery in Transportation 6 UTC Advisory Committee Members 9 phalt Pavements Databases (KDiTD) 2007-2008 UTC Research Projects 9 Rural Transportation Safety Re- 4 Characterizing KDOT’s Chloride Per- 7 meability Testing Protocol: Reducing Establishing a Mobile Laboratory 10 search Program the Duration of the Rapid Chloride for Transportation Research and Education ITE Chapter Update 5 Permeability Test Page 1 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Director’s Welcome K-State’s designation as a Tier II University Transportation Center (UTC) by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has brought a host of opportunities to advance transportation research, education, human resources, diversity, and outreach at Kansas State University. This year saw the first annual Teen Driver Safety Fair, ten new research projects, and the equipping of a mobile research lab for transportation research. Additionally, Dr. Renee Slick joined the Civil Engineering department, an expert in driver psychology, who is coordinating outreach and research efforts at the Manhattan High School’s driver education pro- gram. Involving high school students in transportation research—and creating an interest at a young age—is critical to meeting of tomorrow’s transportation needs. The mission of the UTC is to advance U.S. technology and expertise in the many disciplines comprising transportation through the mechanisms of education, research and technology transfer. This requires reaching out to not only to faculty and college students, but reaching out to the community, industry, and even high school students—those who will become our future proponents of transportation research, education, and outreach. It is only with society’s “buy in” that we will be able to provide leaders who are prepared to meet the nation’s need for safe, efficient and environmentally sound movement of people and goods. More information about K-State’s UTC, along with research reports and updates, is available only at http://transport.ksu.edu. I would be remiss if I did not express appreciation to the Kansas Department of Transportation, spe- cifically Dick McReynolds and Secretary of Transportation Deb Miller, for their support of the UTC, both economically and politically. Additionally, funding for the center also comes from the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The KDOT website is http://www.kdot.org and information on the University Transporta- tion Center program is available at http://utc.dot.gov. Dr. Brian A. Coon Factors Affecting Fatal Crash Involvement of Older Drivers The percentage of elderly among vey has been conducted and a number of studies and publica- the US population is increasing and the tions have been identified and are being reviewed. Two sources majority of elderly are dependent on of crash data are supposed to be analyzed in this project to automobiles for their transportation achieve the objectives of this study. Those are Fatality Analysis needs either because of lack of public Reporting System (FARS) data and fatal crash data from Kan- transportation or by choice. However, as sas Accident Reporting System (KARS) database. As the initial a result of the natural aging process, step both of these datasets have been acquired by the research older drivers experience decreased men- team. The datasets are presently being screened and basic char- Dr. Sunanda Dissanayake tal and physical capabilities as compared acteristics are studied to identify the characteristics of fatal to younger drivers. This situation com- crashes involving older drivers. Additionally, exposure seems bined with imperfect highway infrastructure is making older driv- to be one of the crucial factors that needs to be studied when ers one of the most critical the crash involvement of older drivers groups in terms of highway under various conditions are taken safety, particularly in terms of Flaming enthusiasm, backed into consideration. With that consid- fatal crash involvement. eration, data from the National by horse sense and persis- Household Travel Survey has also A project is currently under way at KSU-UTC to study the been obtained to see whether the tence, is the quality that most amount of actual driving with respect factors affecting this situation to various sub-categories could be and a Graduate Student (Abhiteja frequently makes for success. obtained. Data from the crash data- Rallabandi) started working on the project in August. Her Mas- Dale Carnegie sets are expected to be combined with ters thesis is expected to be based exposure data to make a more mean- on this project. A literature sur- ingful risk analysis. Page 2 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Thin Surface Treatment for Asphalt Pavements This project was initiated in the sum- mm) at about 9,000 passes. mer of 2007 to examine the performance Seal Coat History Data Dr. Mustaque Hossain of seal coat and its design features in Kansas. The seal coat projects were Performance of seal coats depends on various factors like created to obtain database from the weather, environmental conditions of the region, traffic, mate- Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) of the Kan- rials, design method, and construction process. Thus we sas Department of Transportation was obtained. There are ap- planned to examine the distresses on the pavements after appli- proximately 1,500 seal coat projects in Kansas. cation of the seal coat. We obtained the seal coat history data from KDOT. We tracked all project history for research. We Project Selection examined the changes in the IRI wheel path, rut depth, trans- The projects were classified based on the year of treatment. verse cracking, and fatigue cracking. We looked at the changes Four projects from two different Districts were selected for ex- in these parameters after application of the seal coat on these tensive investigation. Cores were taken and tested in the Ad- projects. Our research shows that there is significant change vanced Asphalt Laboratory. in the condition of the projects after application of the seal coat Laboratory Tests: for a few years. However, we could not exactly come up with the specific lifespan of the seal coat. Seal coat performance is To test these cores in the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test, the influenced by so many other factors like traffic growth, exist- core size should be 150mm diameter and 622 mm according to ing conditions of the pavement, weather, materials, etc. How- Tex-242-F. We cut the cores to achieve the above dimensions ever, the seal coat slowed down the progression of roughness by using a radial saw. We also did the bulk and theoretical spe- on all projects. cific gravity tests to evaluate the air voids of the cores. Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Tests: We tested the cores the next day in the Hamburg Wheel Tracking machine at 500C. The results (rut depth in mm and number of passes) are shown below. Most projects had the maximum allowable rut depth limit (20 Project KA-0671-01 Left Right Average Rut Depth (mm) -20.6057 -20.3057 -16.6648 Number of Passes 9142 13530 9142 Project KA-0624-01 Left Right Average Rut Depth (mm) -20.3295 -20.4057 -18.8531 Asphalt core samples are drilled for testing Number of Passes 11850 13290 11850 Project KA-0641-01 Left Right Average Rut Depth (mm) -19.8628 -20.0835 -13.8303 Number of Passes 19,850 4472 4450 Project KA-0634-01 Left Right Average Rut Depth (mm) -20.4041 -20.0739 -16.918 Number of Passes 6268 8364 6250 Page 3 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Rural Transportation Safety Research Program The basic objective of the study was to de- the Kansas DOT Strategic Highway Safety velop a multi-disciplinary, comprehensive re- Plan (SHSP). It is the recommendation of search agenda that can guide the Kansas State this study that the KSU Advisory Committee University Transportation Center’s (KSU UTC) adopt this research report as a policy guide in rural transportation safety research program into the selection of future UTC-funded research the 21st century. The products of the research projects in the area of rural transportation include a description of recommended rural safety. In ranking and selecting potential transportation safety research topic areas, a pro- safety research projects in the future, it is posed organizational structure (in terms of re- recommended that the UTC Advisory Com- search expertise) to implement the research mittee consider the six “Criteria for Selecting agenda, and a suggested technology transfer pro- Research Areas” established by the research gram to disseminate information on the research team in developing the 12 recommended program and its findings. The research team Research Areas presented in this report. To This project is headed by Robert W. recommends the following rural transportation implement the KSU UTC rural transportation Stokes (Civil Engineering) and his re- safety research topics as focus areas for the KSU safety research agenda presented in this re- search team: Sunanda Dissanayake, UTC: 1) Sustaining Proficiency in Older Drivers port it is recommended that the KSU UTC Eugene R. Russell (Civil Engineering), and Providing Mobility Options for the Elderly Advisory Committee consider establishing a and Malgorzata J. Rys and Kendra L. in Rural Areas; 2) Improving the Traffic Safety rural transportation safety “institute” within Sullivan (Industrial and Manufacturing Culture in Rural Areas; 3) Increasing Seatbelt the KSU UTC. Systems Engineering). Usage in Rural Areas; 4) Keeping Vehicles on Roadways in Rural Areas; 5) Making Rural Truck Travel Safer; 6) Enhancing Rural Emergency Medical Capabilities; 7) Designing Safer Rural A draft of this report is Work Zones; 8) Improving Design and Opera- available for review and comments at tions of Rural Highway Intersections; 9) Creating http://transport.ksu.edu More Effective Rural Safety Management Sys- tems; 10) Making Non-Motorized Rural Travel Safer; 11) Economic Issues Associated with Ru- ral Transportation Services and Facilities; and 12) Transportation Planning for Terrorism, Natural Disasters, Traffic Incidents and Other Emergen- cies in Rural Areas. The selection of the topic areas was based on the following criteria: 1) The research area must address one or more of the UTC’s strategic re- search focus areas; 2) The research area must address a “rural” transportation safety issue and have the potential to significantly improve rural transportation safety; 3) The research area should offer substantial opportunities to involve stu- dents in the research effort; 4) The research area must have a moderate to high potential to attract regional and national funding; 5) The research area should have the potential for a multi- disciplinary research effort; and 6) The research area must address one of the areas identified in Page 4 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 ITE Chapter Introduced at K-State This fall, we were excited to introduce the This close-knit organization will allow licensed Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) professional engineers in the Midwest, as well as Student Chapter to Kansas State University. K- student members at K-State, to create relationships State will be one of 130 student chapters within the civil engineering community. In addi- around the world. With the help of Brian Coon, tion to speakers, ITE will provide members with associate professor in the department of civil several service projects within the Manhattan area, engineering, this organization will provide stu- field visits to local transportation engineering sites, dent members with a strong connection to pro- and the opportunity to attend national transporta- fessional engineers throughout the Midwest. tion conferences. ITE is looking forward to a strong first year at K-State as well as in the com- A wide variety of speakers will provide stu- munity. dents with a greater knowledge of transporta- Kyle Warta, president, tion engineering, as well as present transporta- ITE Student Chapter tion product demonstrations. This relaxed hands-on atmosphere will allow students to develop knowledge about upcoming products used in everyday design. One of ITE’s main goals is to provide members with the correct knowledge and tools required for life after col- lege. Students will be provided with mock in- terviews as well as resume-building sessions to ensure the success of all members. Civil Engineering Sudoku Each Sudoku puzzle has a unique solution that can be reached logically and without guessing. Enter digits from 1 to 9 into the blank spaces. Every row, column, and 3x3 square must contain one of each digit. Solution provided on p. 8. Page 5 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Development of Efficient Asset Management Practices For Transportation Infrastructure in Rural Communities were asked how they prioritize ranges: Less than 5,000, be- Principal Investigators: maintenance, what software tween 5,000 and 50,000, and Drs. Yacoub Najjar, Asad Es- they are using, and what assets greater than 50,000. These in- maeily & Sunanda Dissanayake they have inventoried. clude software recommenda- Dr. Jacob Najjar tions and creating inventories of Asset Management is a rela- The results of the questionnaire all county assets including cul- tively new term in the transpor- show that counties with large tation world. It involves a sys- populations have shown interest tematic approach to maintain- in implementing Asset Manage- ing, upgrading and operating all ment systems and many have transportation assets (including worked to implement such a infrastructure) cost-effectively. system. Conversely, counties With the Government Account- with small populations that do ing Standards Board’s State- not have the resources or per- ment 34 (GASB 34) requiring sonnel available have not imple- all transportation entities to mented Asset Management sys- report all capital assets on their tems. Recommendations for annual reports as well as the implementing Asset Manage- development of new software ment systems are made to coun- and technologies. Asset Man- ties in the three population agement is becoming easier to implement and quickly becom- ing an important part of the transportation industry. Knowledge Discovery in Transportation Databases In Kansas, the Department of Transportation has developed (KDiTD) and successfully utilized an Asset Management system for Principal Investigators: form that is typically needed to be defined in all assets including bridges, Drs. Yacoub Najjar, Sunanda Dissanayake and advance for statistically-based (SB) methods. roadways, drainage structures Dunja Peric Appropriately combining the best features of and signs. Kansas counties SB and AIB methodologies can yield a far however, do not have the funds Over the years, DOT agencies along with uni- more superior hybrid knowledge discovery and personnel to implement and versity laboratories have produced a large number (HKD) approach. Utilizing such hybrid ap- maintain an Asset Management of transportation system databases that cover a proach can efficiently extract the important system similar to that of the wide spectrum ranging from crash-traffic histori- features (i.e., useful knowledge) hidden in the KDOT. Asset Management cal databases to pavement-material performance complex transportation system databases. systems have only been devel- databases. The main goal of the knowledge dis- oped by counties with large covery process, via the use of statistically-based, In this research study, we are proposing to populations, but even they have artificial intelligence-based or hybrid techniques, appropriately combine the diverse expertise not reached the full potential of is to extract the knowledge buried within these of the research team in order to develop an the system. databases. Knowledge discovery via statistically- efficient HKD approach. The developed based techniques is widely used. However, these HKD approach will then be used to extract This introductory study dis- techniques have severe limitations and constraints the hidden features within a wide spectrum of cusses the importance of creat- in extracting the knowledge due to the complexity databases ranging from crash-traffic-driver ing and maintaining an effec- of these databases. On the other hand, artificial related databases to pavement-material- tive Asset Management system. intelligence-based methods such as artificial neu- performance related databases. It is expected Kansas counties were surveyed ral networks, fuzzy logic, and other various forms that this research will help advance the and asked a series of questions of data mining procedures offer a more efficient proper utilization of the newly created infor- about their asset management methodology for knowledge discovery. For exam- mation-based science (IBS) in transportation systems, or lack thereof, as well ple, artificial intelligence-based (AIB) methods engineering. as the successes and failures of are not constrained by the required functional these systems. The counties Page 6 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Characterizing KDOT’s Chloride Permeability Testing Protocol: Reducing the Duration of the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Principal Investigators: hours at a concrete age of 56 days. need to reduce the testing time of the Dr. Yacoub Najjar Results of this test make it possible to currently used KDOT rapid chloride obtain the desired time-dependant permeability test. Reliable and economical design of concrete permeability response. Dur- PCC pavement structural systems re- ing the past years, KDOT has per- These developed models will allow lies on various factors among which formed numerous numbers of full six- KDOT to reduce the duration of the proper characterization of the ex- hour permeability response tests. Un- Rapid Chloride Permeability test from pected permeability response. Perme- fortunately, KDOT has not been able 6 hours to 1 or 2 hours. Additionally, ability is an extremely important fac- to capitalize on the richness of the these models will allow KDOT to: i) tor that strongly relates the durability available full-response permeability increase the number of tests that can of PCC pavement systems to prevail- database in order to shorten the testing be performed in one day, and ii) mini- ing environmental conditions. For this duration. Accordingly, it is proposed mize/eliminate damage to the testing reason, KDOT uses the Rapid Chlo- herein that we utilize the statistical/ cells, particularly, when excessively ride Permeability testing protocol to artificial neural network (SANN) ap- permeable concrete is tested. The pro- determine the resistance of concrete to proach for the development of appro- posed research will provide an excel- water, chlorides and other chemical priate SANN-based models that can lent research opportunity to produce intrusion. Typically, the Rapid Chlo- effectively project the full six-hour innovative prediction models that will ride Permeability test measures the response from a shorter-duration per- impact Chloride Permeability testing number of coulombs that pass through meability response. The proposed re- procedure for KDOT and other DOT a concrete sample over a period of six search is in direct response to KDOT's agencies. Page 7 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Advanced Modeling of Interfaces between Asphalt Concrete Layers and Permanent Deformation in Subgrade Soils Asphalt pavement layers cannot be constructed in one single lift if the layer thickness is larger than 2.5 to 3.0 inches because thicker lifts cannot be efficiently compacted with the existing equipment. Poor bonding between layers may cause distress in the form of a slippage failure, which usually occurs due to accelerating, decelerating and turning of heavy vehi- cles. To achieve a good bond between the asphalt layers a tack coat is sprayed on the bottom layer prior to the place- ment of the top layer if the later is placed more than two days apart from the for- mer. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the shear behavior of three asphalt-to-asphalt mix interfaces subjected to static and dynamic loading. To accomplish this objective, a special attachment and loading mechanism was designed and built. The mechanism en- abled the measurement of dynamic shear moduli and shear strength of the asphalt- Custom Built Test Apparatus for Testing to-asphalt interfaces exposed to simulta- neous action of shear and normal forces. Dynamic and static shear tests were con- ducted on 4-inch diameter cylindrical samples cored from an asphalt concrete pad. Three different interface types in- cluding coarse on coarse, coarse on fine and fine on fine asphalt mixes were con- CEdoku Solution p. 4 structed. Each interface type was con- structed with four different amounts of tack coat including the option of no tack coat. The experiments suggest that the dynamic shear modulus is affected by both the interface type and the amount of tack coat. Dr. Dunja Peric Page 8 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 UTC Advisory Committee Members The following individuals have volunteered their time and expertise to help guide the University Transportation Center in its efforts to further transportation research. The center, its director, and the entire CE department wish to offer their thanks to the following indi- viduals: J. Michael Bowen, Federal Highway Administration W. Michael Lackey, Kansas Dept. of Transportation (Ret.) Keith Browning, Douglas County Public Works Paul Malir, TranSystems Corporation E. Dean Carlson, Carlson Associates Richard McReynolds, Kansas Dept. of Transportation Lt. Gregory Harkrader, Kansas Highway Patrol Edward J. Mulcahy, TranSystems Corporation Leon Hobson, Riley County Public Works Robert Thorn, Finney & Turnipseed, L.L.P. James Jones, Kansas Asphalt Pavers Association Joanie Roeseler, Federal Transit Administration Matt Ross, American Concrete Pavement Association 2007-2008 UTC Research Projects The following projects were selected for funding by the UTC Advisory Committee. Individuals with interest in these projects are welcome to contact the investigators or the Center director to help contribute their experience, expertise, or knowledge to the projects. Project reports, theses, dissertations, and other information can be found on the Center’s website, http://transport.ksu.edu Kansas State University Transportation Center’s Website http://transport.ksu.edu Primary Investigator Research Topic Peterman Establishing A Mobile Laboratory for Transportation Research and Education Rys & Russell Promoting Center Line Rumble Strips to Increase Rural, Two-lane Highway Safety Dissanayake Factors Affecting Fatal Crash Involvement of Older Drivers Hossain & Testa Kansas Pavement Preservation Initiative Russell Increased Pedestrian Safety and Decreased Motorist Delay with a HAWK Pedestrian Signal Rys & Russell Effectiveness of Larger Traffic Signs, High-Performance Sheeting and Clearview Font on Accident Reduction Dissanayake, Stokes Improving the Usage of Demand Response Transit Services in Rural Kansas Najjar & Dissanayake Knowledge Discovery in Transportation Databases (KDiTD) Page 9 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1 Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE PAID Permit #525 Manhattan, KS 66502 University Transportation Center 2118 Fiedler Hall Manhattan, KS 66506-5000 Phone: 785-532-5862 Fax: 785-532-7717 Notice of nondiscrimination Kansas State University is committed to nondiscrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, or other non-merit reasons, in admissions, educational programs or activities and employment (including employment of disabled veterans and veterans of the Vietnam Era), as required by applicable laws and regulations. Responsibility for coordination of compliance efforts and receipt of inquiries concerning Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, has been delegated to Clyde Howard, Director of Affirmative Action, Kansas State University, 214 Anderson Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-0124, (Phone) 785- 532-6220; (TTY) 785-532-4807. 12/06-4500 Establishing a Mobile Laboratory for Transportation Research and Education The need to replace or upgrade As part of this project, the UTC Mobile Laboratory will be transportation infrastructure is typi- customized to include a window and access panel installed in cally based on the interpretation of the box portion of the truck, and then custom painted to data collected in the field. Often, the proudly display the name and new logo of Kansas State Uni- types of data that are available to deci- versity and the University Transportation Center. In addition, sion makers are limited by the severe the lab will be outfitted with a data acquisition system. Dr. environment of the site (temperature, Peterman is currently in the process of obtaining a commercial dust, moisture). Thus, although engi- driver’s license in order to operate the vehicle. Dr. Robert Peterman neers and technicians currently have many sophisticated tools and devices that can give detailed information about the performance of the infrastructure, these are often not employed to their full extent due to the difficulty of dealing with site conditions and also because of the increased effort required to set up and take down test systems (data acquisition, etc). The focus of this project is to develop a mobile laboratory for use in transportation research at Kansas State University. To do this, Dr. Peterman was able to acquire a decommissioned mobile laboratory from the Federal Highway Administration. The labo- ratory consists of a 1997 International Navistar Truck with only about 50,000 miles of prior use. The box portion is complete with a hydraulic lift-gate, heating and air conditioning, counter space, and an onboard generator. Page 10 K-State University Transportation Center Issue 1