article Use of baking power in cake powder by benbenzhou


article Use of baking power in cake powder

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									                              Use of baking powder in cake
                               Irina ten Klooster, Tamara Griffioen
                             Christelijk Lyceum Delft, the Netherlands

                                      Datum: 29 March 2009

There are over a thousands recipes to make a cake. In fact, everyone makes a cake in his or
her own way. There are different ways to make a cake rise, using yeast or baking powder.
This is an experiment with baking powder which shows that the amount of baking powder
influences the lightness of a cake and it also shows that there is a maximum amount of baking
powder that can be used.

Introduction                                         that the acid former and the product that
Baking products are being recognized by              produces the gas are divided equally.
lightness. During the baking process air is          The chemical reaction of NaHCO3 is (2):
being introduced into the product. This can
be brought in by using yeast or baking
powder. When baking a product, for
example a cake, you can use different                The amount of NaHCO3 determines the
ingredients like baking powder. Baking               amount of CO2. This means that there must
powder is NaHCO3, starch of corn and di-             be a balance between the amount of
phosphate (acid former), also enumerated             product and the needed amount of CO 2. A
on the packaging (E500 and E450i).                   product can not become lighter by putting
                                                     in more baking powder. It must be able to
                                                     make a calculation about the needed
                                                     amount of baking powder and test this by
                                                     doing baking experiments.

                                                     The package contains 16 gram. We
                                                     presume that the amount of NaHCO3 is ¼
Figure 1 NAHCO3                                      of the total weight, which means 4 gram.
                                                     The molar mass of the molecule is 84.01.
During the baking process, the powder                This means 4/84.01 mol: 0.0476 mol. With
produces CO2 by a chemical reaction and              a molar volume of 25.4 this means 1.667
the gas escapes and produces holes in the            dm3.
cake. This causes the lightness in the cake.         We will check this in our experiment
The network of cake that is formed, is built         although other aspects will influence the
up out of several ingredients. On the recipe         amount of volume increase as well.
of the package of a product the needed
amount of baking powder is mentioned.                Our inquiry question is: is there a
The question is what happens if you use              maximum in the use of baking powder in
more baking powder than prescribed.                  the baking process of light products?
There is probably a limit to the amount of           Our hypothesis is that we expect that there
volume increase, because there is not                is a maximum of baking powder in the
enough cake to form the network. The gas             baking process of light products.
forming component of baking powder is
NaHCO3. The package does not tell how
much NaHCO3 is inside. McGee (1) says
that starch is mostly half of the content and

Experimental design
We use a normal recipe of cake (50 gram
                                                    Measure Baking Baking Baking Yeast Plain:
butter, 250 gram sugar, one bag of vanilla
                                                    -ments powder powder powder : 0.7g
sugar and 5 eggs, 250 gram flower and
                                                    in cm   : 0.6g : 1.2g : 2.4g
baking powder). We chose for three
different amounts of baking powder, 0.6             Sample        3.4         3.7          4.0             2.4       2.9
gram, 1.2 gram and 1.8 gram. The first is           1
just a little bit less than the normal recipe       Sample        3.7         3.6          3.8             3.2       3.0
says (which says like 0,667 gram), the              2
second and third is more than the recipe
says. We estimated this.                            Sample        3.5         3.9          4.0             3.6       2.9
Furthermore, we used 1.7 gram yeast and             3
three cakes were made without anything              Average 3,5               3,7          3,9             3,1       2,9
except the flower we used in all the cakes,
                                                     Table 1
this is our control cake.
All the cakes are baked at a temperature of          The graphic shows the results of the
180 degrees Celsius, all are 40 minutes
                                                     experiment. It looks like the amount of
                                                     baking powder causes a linear relation,
                                                     starting at the height of the plain cake.
Two variables can be distinguished. One is
                                                     Yeast does not give a steady result. This
the difference between baking powder,
                                                     can be caused by the quality of the yeast or
yeast and plain. The second is that we               by the rising time, which was quite short.
varied the amount of baking powder:
    - baking powder; 0.6 gram
    - baking powder; 1.2 gram                                                    Height cakes
    - baking powder; 1,8 gram
    - yeast; 0.7 gram                                       4,5
    - plain (no baking powder and no                         4
        yeast).                                             3,5                                                        Cake
The baking powder is put into the cups                       3                                                         number 1
after the mixing of ingredients.                            2,5                                                        number 2

                                                             2                                                         number 3
The oven is prewarmed till 180 degrees
Celsius and the temperature is kept the
same during the whole experiment.

Results                                                      0
                                                                   Baking    Baking    Baking Yeast: 0,7    Plain:
After the cakes have been in the oven for                          powder:   powder:   powder:
                                                                     0,6       1,2       2,4
40 minutes, we can measure. The results
are in table 1.                                      Graphic 1

                                                     The results show that there is a relation
                                                     between the amount of baking powder and
                                                     the height of the cakes. Nevertheless, a
                                                     maximum is not found. There are a lot of
                                                     unknown aspects in the experiment. The
                                                     weight of the baking powder is estimated
                                                     quite roughly and we do not know exactly
                                                     the weight of dough we used for one cake.

Therefore it is hard to draw conclusions.           The 11 cakes looked like this (cake no. 12
For these reasons we set up a second                is not taken into account).
experiment. In this experiment we will use
several times the advised amount of baking
powder, so hopefully we will find a

Experiment design 2
The first cake is the plain cake, it contains
no baking powder. The second cake
contains 0.5 gram baking powder. The
third contains 1 gram and so on, till the
eleventh cake contains 5 gram baking
powder. One cake weighs about sixty
grams in total (flower, eggs, sugar, butter,
vanillin and baking powder). Normally one           Figure 3: The cakes after baking (experiment
cake should contain about 0.667 gram of             2)
baking powder, according to the
prescription on the packaging of baking             After the baking process and after cooling
powder (16 grams to be used for 500 gram            we measured the height of the different
flower to make 12 cakes of 60 grams based           cakes in the middle of the cakes.
on 250 grams flower, this means 8/12
grams per cake).                                                Amount
                                                                of baking
The dough of the cakes was made and the             Cake        powder     Height
baking powder was put in the cakes                  no.         (g)        (mm)
afterwards. The amount of baking powder                     1            0      36
was defined by splitting the amount of one                  2          0,5      37
packaging into two halves, and so on till                   3            1      34
there were 32 parts of 0.5 gram. The cakes                  4          1,5      31
were baked at the same temperature as in                    5            2      26
the first experiment, 180° Celsius.                         6          2,5      20
                                                            7            3      17
Results                                                     8          3,5      16
                                                            9            4      13
                                                           10          4,5      13
                                                           11            5      12
                                                    Table 2

Figure 2: The cakes before baking (experiment

Presented in graphic it looks like this:
                                                                            And the accuracy is probably not exact
                                                                            right. We had to estimate the amounts,
                   Relation baking powder - height
Height of cakes                                                             because we do not have a balance which
                                                                            measure in 0,1gram.
     25                                                                     Besides, the experiment with yeast was not
     15                                                                     right at all. Yeast dies by to high
     10                                                                     temperatures. Yeast transposes sugars into
                                                                            energy, but this only works by room
          0       0,5   1    1,5   2   2,5   3   3,5      4   4,5   5       temperature. We should have let the mix
                            Amount of baking powder (g)
                                                                            risen with yeast before putting it in the
Graphic 2                                                                   oven.

As can be seen in the table and in the graph                                Evaluation
the height rises till 0.5 g baking powder                                   We liked to bake cakes, it was a nice and
and decreases at the point of 1.0 g and on.                                 enjoyable afternoon, although it felt not
It stabilizes at about 4 g per cake.                                        quite like doing science after a while. But
It can be calculated that the volume of cake                                we have had a lot of fun and nice cake to
no. 2 rises with ca. 55 cm3 (with the                                       eat at the end!
formula of a topped skittle = 1/3 x π x h x (
R² + r² + R x r ) = 1/3 x π x 0.17 x (0,3² +                                Bibliography
0.34² + 0.3 x 0.34) = 0.055 dm3. Cake no.                                      1. McGee, H. – Over eten en koken
2 contained 0.5 g baking powder. So a                                          2.
cake with the prescripted amount of baking                                         mwaterstofcarbonaat
powder of 0.667 rises about 0.073 dm3.                                         3. Chemie overal – 5 VWO
The total amount of volume increase                                            4.
would be 12 times as much, which means                                             oken/recept/Mini-cakejes
0.877 dm3.                                                                     5.
Discussion and conclusion
The height of the cakes rises with the
amount of baking powder. There was a
maximum of rising. The cake collapsed, as
you can see in graphic 2.
The Hypothesis is accepted.

The total volume rises with about 0.9 dm3.
This a little more than halve of the
calculated volume. Probably a certain
amount of CO2 escapes during the baking
process and does not cause lightness.
But baking powder is not the only element
which causes the rising of the cakes.
Probably eggs and the amount of air in the
dough causes difference rises as well. Even
as the order of putting the ingredients in
the cake. The cake will probably become
higher when you first mix the eggs and


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