Economics and politics have helped boost Cuban immigration for by jib24063

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									                                       Economics and politics have helped boost Cuban immigration
                                         for almost 50 years, helping shape South Florida’s image.
U.S. CUBANS                                                                          2004 DEMOGRAPHICS                                                                                                                                                                    U.S. CUBAN IMMIGRATION                                             1959                                                                                   *Decade is




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In thousands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              250         Today, the U.S.-Cuba agreement                                     Castro takes                                                                           incomplete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             power                                                                                  because
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              200         requires both countries to ensure                                                                                                                         figures are
More than 1.4 million Cubans have                                                                           U.S. CUBANS                                                                                                                                                   safe passage and discourage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              150                                                                                                                                                                   available only
lived in the United States since                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          mass migration to Florida.                                                                                                                                to 2004
                                                                                                            Hispanics of                                                                                                                                      100
2004, mostly in South Florida,                                                                              Cuban origin.                                                                                                                                      50
according to estimates. Although                                                                               0-5,000                                                                                                                                          0
U.S. law has allowed a minimum                                                                                 5,001-15,000                                                                                                                                               1921-1930         1931-1940       1941-1950       1951-1960                              1961-1970          1971-1980       1981-1990         1991-2000      2001-2004*
of 20,000 Cuban visas per year                                                                                 15,001-35,000
since 1994, immigration hasn’t                                                                                 More than                                                                                                                                                1959-1962                       1965-1973                              1980                                               1995                          2004
reached the numbers of people                                                                                  35,000                                                                                                                                                   Many wealthy                    U.S.-sponsored                         Mariel Boatlift:                                   United States enacts          President Bush
who arrived in the 1970s.                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fla.                                          Cubans flee                     Freedom Flight                         A flotilla of 125,000                              “wet foot, dry foot”          limits visits for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          985,334                                       Castro’s rule.                  airlifts.                              Cubans migrate to                                  policy to curb mass           Cuban-Americans’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Florida.                                           migrations.                   families.



SOUTH FLORIDA CUBANS                                                                                                                            2005 ESTIMATES

                                75                                                                                                                                                      7
                                                                                                                                                                                                   95
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A1A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BELLE GLADE                                                             WEST PALM BEACH                                                                            Opinions, reflections
                                                                                                                                     Plantation
                                                                                                                                                                       Broward Blvd.                Lauderdale                         Lake                                                                                                                                                            and attitudes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Military Trail
                                                                                     Weston                                                                                                                                         Okeechobee                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                                         595                                                              1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                95                        A1A                          A poll conducted in 2004 by
                                                                                                                Flamingo Rd.




                                                                                                                               Davie
                                                                                                                                                     University Dr.




                                                                           27                    75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  West                                 Florida International University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  441                                     Okeechobee                                              Palm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Blvd.                                                   Beach                                reflected the views of more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Belle Glade                                                                                                   Palm                         1,800 Cuban-Americans about
BROWARD, PALM KEY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Southern Blvd.                                                  Beach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             441                                                                                                       U.S. policies toward Cuba. A look




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Congress Ave.
             10% Cuban or less                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         at some of those issues:
             10%-15%                                                             Pines Blvd.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Atlantic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ocean
             15%-25%                                                                 Pembroke                                                                                                                                                          80                                                                                                          Lake
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       When do you think major political
             More than 25%                                                           Pines                                                                                          BROWARD COUNTY                                            27                                      880                                                                          Worth                               changes will occur in Cuba?
                                                                                                            Miramar                                                                                                                                                                                       Lake Worth Rd.
                                                                                                                                                                                  MIAMI-DADE COUNTY                                                                                                                                                                                                    Within a year:                 Don’t know:
                                                                                                                                                                                        7                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.5%                           30.5%
MIAMI-DADE KEY                                                                                                                                                                                    North
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Miami                                                                                                                                                                                                In 2-5 years:                  Don’t care: 1.9%
                                                                                                                                        826
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30.8%
             25% Cuban or less                                                                         75
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Beach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Florida’s Cubans                                                                                                                                                      In 6-10 years:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Never: 10.9%
                                                                                                                                     Red Rd.




             25%-50%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than
                                                                                                                                                                                    95                                           As of 2004, the state’s Cuban population had increased by more than 18 percent                                                                                        9.9%
             50%-75%                                                                               27                                                                                                         A1A                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10 years: 7.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 since 2000, to 985,334. A look at the population changes in 1990 and 2000.
                                                                                                                                                                        27 Ave.
                                                                                                                                                     Lejeune Rd.




             More than 75%
                                                                                            Hialeah                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Has the U.S. embargo of Cuba
                                                                                                                                                                       Miami                 1                                                                                                                                                                                                         worked overall?
                                                     Krome Ave.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jacksonville
                                                                                                                                                                                                    195                                                                                                                                                                                                Very well:                      Don’t know:
                                                                                                                826                                                                                           Miami
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1990                                                                    2000                                                                                          7.9%                            6.1%
                                                                                                                                 836                                                                          Beach              Total population:                                                       Total population:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Well:                           Not at all:
                                                                                                                                                                       SW 8 St.                                                  675,786                                                                 833,120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       16.1%                           43.5%
                           41
                                                                        Tamiami Trail                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not very well:
                                                                                             Bird Rd.                          SW 40 St.                                                                                            FLORIDA KEY                                                                                                           St. Petersburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       26.4%
                                                                                                                                                                      Coral                                                                                                                              NOTE: Population by
                                                                                                                                                                      Gables                                                           None
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         counties is available only
     E V E R G L A D E S




                                                                    Kendall                                                                                                                       Key                                  Less than 1,000                                                                                                              Fort Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                 1                                                                                                                                                                       from each census, which                                                                       If Cuba became a democracy, how likely
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bi s ca yn e                         1,000-20,000                                                      is done every decade.                                            Miami                        are you to return to Cuba to live?
                                                                  N. Kendall Dr.                                                                                                                                                       20,001-100,000                                                    Figures for 2004 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2005 are estimates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       More than 100,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46.2% 17.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NOT AT ALL LIKELY               VERY LIKELY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Miami-Dade has the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 highest concentration                                                                                                                                                    TO RETURN                     TO RETURN
     T H E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of Cuban-Americans of any
                                                                                                                                                     Biscayne Bay                                                                county in Florida. But there                                                                                                                                         How politically involved should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 are pocket communties in                                                                                                                                             the United States get after Castro?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 South Broward and parts of
                                                                                 1                                                                                                                                               Palm Beach counties.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      48.5% 17.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             VERY                    NOT INVOLVED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           INVOLVED                     AT ALL
                                                                                     Homestead
                                         Florida
                                         City                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Immediately after Fidel and Rául Castro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      leave power, who do you think the next
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cuban president should be?


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      48.0% 18.1%
                                                                          997



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SOMEONE                  SOMEONE FROM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             IN CUBA                EXILE COMMUNITY

CUBA’S ECONOMY HOW IT AFFECTED MIGRATION
The first wave of Cubans who migrated to Florida came largely fleeing political persecution. More recent waves have been
motivated by economic hardship on the island, which became especially acute after Soviet subsidies dried up in the early 1990s.

40              U.S. INTERDICTIONS OF CUBANS                                                                                                                                                1994:                                                                   The Freedom Tower
35
                ATTEMPTING TO ENTER BY SEA                                                                                                                                                  More than 38,000 Cubans                                                 in downtown Miami is
                    In thousands                                                                                                                                                            attemped to sail to Florida                                              a symbol of pride for
30                                                                                                                                                                                          after Castro announces                                                     Cuban-Americans.
                                                                                                                                                                                            his government would no                                                         Thousands of
25                                                                                             Dissolution                                                                                  longer stop boats or rafts                                                   immigrants were
                                                                                                of Soviet                                                                                   from leaving the country.                                                  processed there for
20                                                                                                Union                                                                                                                                                                       citizenship.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       File photo
15
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1995-2002:
10                              1982-1994:                                                                                                                                                        More than 7,000 Cubans
                                All Cubans who arrived in                                                                                                                                         land in the United States.
5                               the U.S. are allowed to stay.
0
            ‘82                 ‘83      ‘84   ‘85                ‘86      ‘87       ‘88   ‘89        ‘90      ‘91             ‘92             ‘93                    ‘94         ‘95       ‘96     ‘97   ‘98       ‘99    ‘00   ‘01    ‘02




1989                                                                       1994                                                       2000                                                                2005
GDP: $20.9 billion                                                          GDP: $14 billion                                          GDP: $19.2 billion                                                  GDP: $39.2 billion
Soviet Union gives about                                                    GDP slips 35 percent                                      Tourism and foreign                                                 Despite GDP growth, average
$4 billion in subsidies.                                                    due to lost Soviet aid.                                   investment spur growth.                                             standard of living is low.
Exports                                                                    Exports                                                   Exports                                                              Exports
                                  $5.4 billion                                $1.6 billion                                              $1.8 billion                                                          $2.4 billion
                Soviet Union: 67%                                                Russia: 15%                                               Russia, Netherlands: 46%                                             Netherlands: 25%
Imports                               $8.1 billion                         Imports                                                   Imports                                                              Imports $6.9 billion
                                                                              $1.7 billion                                                 $3.4 billion
                Soviet Union: 71%                                                Spain: 17%                                                     Spain: 18%                                                    China, Spain, Venez.: 39%
Debt                                                                       Debt                  billion
                                                                                           $10.8 billion                             Debt                               $11.1 billion
                                                                                                                                                                              billion                     Debt             $12.6 billion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 billion
                                       $6.8 billion
                                            billion

SOURCES: U.S. Census; Department of Homeland Security; The New Cuban Immigration in Context by Max J. Castro,
University of Miami; Cuba Research Institute, Florida International University; McClatchy Tribune; Sun-Sentinel files
                      Milarsky
Staff research/Jeremy Milarsky                                                                             Staff graphic/Belinda Long bplong@sun-sentinel.com
                                                                                                 Sun Sentinel graphic/Belinda Long bplong@sun-sentinel.com

								
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