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Chapter 2 Origins of American Government by ewa18516

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									            Chapter 2
Origins of American Government
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Identify the three basic concepts of
  government that influenced government in
  the English colonies.
• Explain the significance of the following
  English documents: the Magna Carta, the
  Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights.
• Describe the three types of colonies that
  the English established in North America.
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Why it Matters:
  – Our system of government has its origins in
    the concepts and political ideas that English
    colonists brought with them when they settled
    North America. The colonies served as a
    school for learning about government.
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Political Dictionary:
   –   Limited government
   –   Representative government
   –   Magna Carta
   –   Petition of Right
   –   English Bill of Rights
   –   Charter
   –   Bicameral
   –   Proprietary
   –   Unicameral
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Did not begin in 1776 or 1787—It started
  with the first colonies.
• French, Dutch, Spanish, Swedes, and
  others.
• English was most influential
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Basic Concepts of Government
• English were influenced by:
  – Romans
  – Babylonians—Hammurabi’s Code, 1750 B.C.
     • 282 laws
     • Influenced the Hebrews
     • Old Testament
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Basic Concepts of Government (cont)
  – Ordered Government
     • Words=sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the
       peace, the grand jury, counties, townships, etc.
  – Limited Government—restraint on actions of
    government.
  – Representative Government—‖government of,
    by, and for the people.‖
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Landmark English Documents
  – The Magna Carta
     • Runnymede in 1215—to restrain King John
        – Trial by jury
        – Due process of law
        – Protection against arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or
          property.
        – First intended only for the privileged classes.
        – Established the principle that the power of the monarch
          is NOT ―absolute.‖
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Landmark English Documents (cont).
  – The Petition of Right—1628, to limit the
    power of King Charles I when he asked
    Parliament for more taxes.
     • Limited the power of the king
     • Could not imprison or punish without judgment of
       peers or law of the land.
     • Could not impose martial law.
     • Require housing of the king’s troops in homes.
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• Landmark English Documents (cont).
  – The Bill of Rights—1688
     • Restored monarchy with William and Mary in the
       Glorious Revolution.
     • Prohibited a standing army in peacetime.
     • That parliamentary elections be free.
     • That taxation without the approval of Parliament
       was prohibited.
     • Guaranteed right to a fair trial, freedom from
       excessive bail, and no cruel and inhuman
       punishment.
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• The English Colonies
  – Came about over a 125 year period—Virginia
    first in 1607, Georgia last in 1733.
  – Created by ―charters‖ which were later
    withdrawn.
  – Royal Colonies (8)
      • New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New
       Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
       and Georgia.
     • Evolved the ―bicameral‖ or two-house legislature.
        – Governor + governor’s council + lower house
Section 1—Our Political Beginnings

• The English Colonies
  – Proprietary (3) A grant to a person—Lord
    Baltimore in Maryland, William Penn in
    Pennsylvania and Delaware.
     • Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
     • Pennsylvania had a ―unicameral‖ or one-house
      legislature.
  – The Charter Colonies (2)—quite liberal
     • Connecticut and Rhode Island
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Explain how Britain’s colonial policies contributed
    to the growth of self-government in the
    colonies.
•   Identify some of the steps that led to growing
    feelings of colonial unity.
•   Compare the outcomes of the First and Second
    Continental Congresses.
•   Analyze the ideas in the Declaration of
    Independence.
•   Describe the drafting of the first State
    constitutions and summarize the constitutions’
    common features.
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Why It Matters:
  – Changes in British colonial policies led to
    resentment in the colonies and eventually to
    the American Revolution. Ideas expressed in
    the early State constitutions influenced the
    development of the governmental system
    under which we live today.
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Political Dictionary:
  – Confederation
  – Albany Plan of Union
  – Delegate
  – Boycott
  – Repeal
  – Popular Sovereignty
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• ―We must all hang together, or assuredly
  we shall all hang separately.‖—Benjamin
  Franklin, July 4, 1776.
• Britain’s Colonial Policies
  – Controlled separately by Privy Council and the
    Board of Trade under the King—
     • Parliament not much involved.
  – London was 3,000 miles away
  – Almost ―federal‖—allowed a lot of self-rule
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Britain’s Colonial Policies (cont.)
  – King George III in 1760
     • More restrictive
     • Additional taxes
        – Taxation without representation
        – To support troops stationed in North America after
          French and Indian War of 1754-1763
     • King’s ministers were poorly informed and
       stubborn.
     • Choice was to submit or revolt.
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Growing Colonial Unity
  – Early Attempts
     • New England Confederation in 1643
     • 1696—William Penn’s plan
  – The Albany Plan
     • Offered by Benjamin Franklin
  – The Stamp Act Congress
     • 1765—stamps on all legal documents
     • Later repealed
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• Growing Colonial Unity (cont.)
  – The Stamp Act Congress (cont.)
     • New laws stimulated a ―boycott.‖
        – March 5, 1770, Boston Massacre
     • Committees of Correspondence led by Samuel
       Adams organized resistance (1772).
     • December 16, 1773—Boston Tea Party
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• The First Continental Congress
  – Parliament passed more laws to ―punish‖ the
    colonies in 1774
     • Intolerable Acts
  – Met on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia
     • For 2 months
     • Issued a Declaration of Rights-a protest
     • Adjourned on October 26 calling for a second
      meeting.
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• The Second Continental Congress
  – May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia
     • Battles of Lexington and Concord—‖the Shot Heard
      Round the World‖—April 19
  – Representatives from all 13 colonies—John
    Hancock as president.
  – Our First National Government
     • From July 1776-March 1, 1781
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• The Declaration of Independence
  – July 4, 1776, adopted.
     • ―We hold these truths . . .‖
     • ―. . .our lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred
       Honor.‖
Section 2—The Coming of
Independence
• The First State Constitutions
  – Popular Sovereignty
  – Limited Government
  – Civil Rights and Liberties
  – Separation of Powers
  – Checks and Balances
  – Governors Had Little Power
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Objectives:
  – Describe the structure of the government set
    up under the Articles of Confederation.
  – Explain why the weaknesses of the Articles
    led to a critical period for the government in
    the 1780s.
  – Describe how a growing need for a stronger
    national government led to plans for a
    Constitutional Convention.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Why It Matters:
  – The Articles of Confederation established a
    fairly weak central government, which led to
    conflicts among the States. The turmoil of
    the Critical Period of the 1780s led to the
    creation of a stronger National Government.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Political Dictionary:
  – Articles of Confederation
  – Ratification
  – Presiding Officer
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Articles of Confederation—Nov. 15, 1777
  – ―A Firm League of Friendship.‖
  – Ratification—13 colonies must approve.
     • 11 did so within a year
     • Delaware in 1779
     • Maryland—March 1, 1781
Section 3—The Critical Period
• The Articles of Confederation (cont.)
  – Governmental Structure
     • One body of Congress—members chosen annually
        – Each state had one vote.
        – No Executive or Judicial branch.
             Handled by committees of Congress.
             A presiding officer was chosen.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Articles of Confederation (cont.)
  – Powers of Congress
     • Make war and peace
     • Send and receive ambassadors
     • Make treaties
     • Borrow money and set up a money system.
     • Establish post offices
     • Build a navy
     • Raise an army by asking the states to send troops
     • Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
     • Settle disputes among the states.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Articles of Confederation (cont.)
  – State Obligations
     • To obey acts of Congress
     • Provide funds and troops requested.
     • Regard citizens and acts of other states as binding
     • Provide for open travel among the states.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• Articles of Confederation (cont.)
  – Weaknesses
     • No power to tax—could only borrow
     • No power to regulate trade among the states.
     • No power to enforce laws.
     • Needed the consent of 9 of 13 states for laws to
       pass.
     • Could not amend without 9 states
        – (No amendment was ever passed)
Section 3—The Critical Period
• The Critical Period, the 1780s
  – War ended October 19, 1781.
  – Treaty of Paris in 1783
  – Jealousy and bickering among the states
    increased.
  – Taxed goods from other states.
  – Debts went unpaid.
  – Shay’s Rebellion in the fall of 1786.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• A Need for Stronger Government
  – Mount Vernon
     • Invited by George Washington
     • To settle trade problems between Maryland and
       Virginia.
     • Stimulated a call for a meeting of all states to
       regulate commerce.
  – Annapolis—September 11, 1786
     • Only 5 states attended but a call went out for
       another meeting the next year in Philadelphia.
Section 3—The Critical Period
• A Need for Stronger Government (cont.)
  – Annapolis (cont.)
     • ―for the sole and express purpose of revising the
       Articles of Confederation and reporting to Congress
       and the several legislatures such alterations and
       provisions therein as shall when agreed to in
       Congress and confirmed by the States render the
       [Articles] adequate to the exigencies of
       Government and the preservation of the Union.‖
             The   United States in Congress Assembled,
                                      February 21, 1787
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Objectives:
  – Identify the Framers of the Constitution and discuss
    how the delegates organized the proceedings at the
    Philadelphia Convention.
  – Compare and contrast the Virginia Plan and the New
    Jersey Plan for a new constitution.
  – Summarize the major compromises that the delegates
    agreed to make and the effects of those
    compromises.
  – Identify some of the sources from which the Framers
    of the Constitution drew inspiration.
  – Describe the delegates’ reactions to the Constitution
    as they completed their work.
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Why It Matters:
  – The Framers of the Constitution created a
    document that addressed the major concerns
    of the States attending the Philadelphia
    Convention. By reaching compromise on
    items about which they disagreed, the
    Framers created a new National Government
    capable of handling the nation’s problems.
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Political Dictionary:
  – Framers
  – Virginia Plan
  – New Jersey Plan
  – Connecticut Compromise
  – Three-Fifths Compromise
  – Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Started May 25, 1787
• The Framers
  –   12 States represented (none from Rhode Island)
  –   74 designated—55 attended
  –   Outstanding backgrounds
  –   Young—average age of 42
  –   Many big names were missing—Jefferson, John
      Adams, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry ―Smelt a rat‖,
      John Hancock
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Organization and Procedure
  – Independence Hall
  – George Washington as president
  – One vote per State—majority rules
  – Working in Secrecy
     • James Madison’s Notes—
        – Father of the Constitution
  – A Momentous Decision
     • Throw out the ―Articles,‖ write a new constitution
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• The Virginia Plan—created by Madison
  – Three branches of government
  – Bicameral legislature
  – Power to overrule States
  – Congress to choose executive and judiciary
  – State officers must take an oath of support
  – Smaller States found it too ―radical‖
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• The New Jersey Plan
  – Unicameral legislature
  – States equally represented.
  – Added powers to tax and regulate trade
  – A Federal executive of more than one person
  – A single supreme judiciary appointed by the
    executive.
  – Fundamental disagreement on representation
    in Congress.
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Compromises
  – Connecticut Compromise (the Great
    Compromise)
     • Two houses of Congress---one based on equality
      of States---one based on population.
  – The Three-Fifths Compromise
     • ―Three-fifths of all other persons‖
  – The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
     • Could not tax exports from any State
     • Could not act on the slave trade for 20 years
      (1808).
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Compromises (cont.)
  – A ―Bundle of Compromises‖
  – Fundamental Values were not disputed:
     • Popular Sovereignty
     • Limited Government
     • Representative Government
     • Separation of Powers
     • Checks and Balances
Section 4—Creating the
Constitution
• Sources of the Constitution
  – Greece, Rome, Great Britain, others in Europe
  – William Blackstone, Baron de Montesquieu,
    Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Locke and
    many others.
• The Convention Completes Its Work
  – September 17, 1787
  – 39 signed—3 refused
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• Objectives:
  – Identify the opposing sides in the fight for
    ratification and describe the major arguments
    for and against the Constitution.
  – Describe the inauguration of the new
    government of the United States of America.
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• Why It Matters:
  – The Constitution could not take effect until it
    had been ratified by nine States. The battle
    between those who supported and those who
    opposed the Constitution was hard fought in
    all the States.
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• Political Dictionary:
  – Federalists
  – Anti-Federalists
  – Quorum
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• The Fight for Ratification
  – Unanimous approval NOT needed
  – Federalists and Anti-Federalists emerged
     • Federalists—who favored ratification
        – Led by Madison and Hamilton
     • Anti-Federalists—who opposed ratification
        – Led by Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock
          and Samuel Adams
        – Concerns about increased central power and no Bill of
          Rights
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• The Fight for Ratification (cont.)
  – Nine States Ratify
     • Delaware first, New Hampshire was 9th but without
       Virginia or New York.
  – Virginia’s Ratification
     • Washington’s support was crucial
     • Very divided 89-79
  – New York, The Last Key State 30-27
     • 85 essays called:The Federalist by Hamilton,
       James Madison and John Jay
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution
• Inaugurating the Government
  – Quorum assembled on April 6, 1789, in
    Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York (the
    temporary capital)
  – April 30, 1789, George Washington was sworn
    in as president.
  – North Carolina first failed to ratify.
  – Rhode Island was last more than a year later.
Section 5--Ratifying the
Constitution

								
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