TEACHING NOTES Sonia Silva Earthquake in El Salvador by url15344


									                                     TEACHING NOTES

                   Sonia Silva: Earthquake in El Salvador
Appropriate Grade Levels: 6 – 12 (This lesson can be used as the start of a larger research project and
career exploration for students in grades 9 – 12)

Implementation Time:
One class period (45 minutes to one hour) required for basic exercise.
An additional class period or more may be required if the teacher wishes to have students spend class
time on the optional research project.

Materials Needed:
   Teaching notes for “Sonia Silva” case study
   • Student copies of “Sonia Silva”
   • Notepaper for small groups to use when brainstorming answers
   • An atlas, world map, or globe or, preferably, a detailed map of El Salvador

Career Pathway: Business & Management

Subject Area: Geography, Communications

What will happen for learners as a result of this lesson?
Students will explore a career opportunity related to international relief. They will explore the use of
geography and hone their map-reading skills in a career situation. Students will explore the need for
detailed planning in emergency situations. They will demonstrate their ability to carefully and clearly
communicate information to others in a persuasive fashion.

How will students learn?
• Geography: Students will use maps, globes, and other geographic tools to interpret information from
   a spatial perspective.

•   Communication: Students will demonstrate listening and observation skills to gain understanding; will
    practice communicating ideas clearly and effectively; will demonstrate communication strategies and
    skills to work effectively with others; will use available technology as a communications tool; and will
    analyze how communication is used in career settings.

•   Writing: Students will practice writing clearly and effectively to explain technical information. Students
    will practice writing for career applications, producing a persuasive piece of writing using resources
    from career settings.

How will this lesson plan prepare students to be assessed? This lesson plan will help prepare
students for assessment exams in reading and writing. The in-class writing exercise will permit students
to demonstrate their ability to organize and explain information in a persuasive way. The optional
research exercise will allow students to explore geographic and historic themes in more depth.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       1
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                                         TEACHING NOTES

                           Sonia Silva: Earthquake in El Salvador
This lesson is designed to be taught in one session, though additional classroom sessions may be desired
if the teacher wishes to have students work on the optional research assignment during class time.

    •   Distribute the students’ version of the “Sonia Silva” case study to your class. Divide the students
        into groups of two or three.

    •   Read aloud to them or let them read one section of the case study at a time. Don’t let them read
        ahead. After each section, use the discussion questions included with the teaching notes to help
        students decide what Sonia should do next.

    •   Finish by asking students to prepare the in-class writing exercise, a persuasive writing prompt in
        which they will have to organize the information they have been given in the case study and use it
        to convince other people to support Sonia’s efforts. If you wish, continue your study of the
        geography and history of earthquakes by having students complete the research assignment on
        earthquakes around the world.

Review students’ writing assignments for basic writing and presentation skills, as well as for their ability to
persuasively articulate a case for Sonia’s efforts. You may also want to assess students on their ability to
use a map or atlas and on their ability to use different tools (such as an atlas, a globe, or the Internet) to
locate an unfamiliar destination.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       2
Prepared for the Boomerang Box Project by APL Limited to help students learn about trade and transportation
               Sonia Silva: Earthquake in El Salvador
Part One - Read to the bottom of this page then stop.

      Sonia Silva had had a busy week and a half. As the new Assistant Country
Director/Program for international relief organization CARE in El Salvador, Sonia
had been getting to know her staff and coworkers at CARE, learning about
CARE's programs in the country, and figuring out her responsibilities.

       Sonia had spent the last seven years working in El Salvador, five years with
the United States Agency for International Development (US AID) there and two
years with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). In both
organizations, Sonia had helped manage programs in the fields of education,
health, training, organizational development, and political issues related to
elections and the Peace Accord from El Salvador’s long civil war.

        In her new job, Sonia was CARE’s number two person in El Salvador. She,
her director, and CARE’s 180 staff members in El Salvador worked with people in
cities, towns, and rural areas throughout the country to help them live better lives.
CARE had been working in El Salvador since 1956, though it suspended its
programs there from 1980 through 1993 because of the country’s civil war.
During the war, CARE helped by providing a hospital for war victims. When the
war ended, CARE staff returned to help people put their lives back together.

       CARE staff members in El Salvador helped rural people build safe water
systems. They helped people who had lost their homes during the flooding that
followed Hurricane Mitch in the late 1990s. They helped farmers develop
techniques that were better for the environment and the soil. They provided health
care to children. And they helped people return home after the long war.

       Today, Saturday, January 13th, Sonia was planning to spend a good part of
her time getting up to speed in her new job. Suddenly, she heard a rumbling noise.
The floor started to shake and then roll. She heard crashing as nearby buildings
swayed and fell. El Salvador was having an earthquake, a big one. Sonia knew
instantly that CARE’s help would be needed more than ever. But how big had the
earthquake been? And what should she do next?

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       3
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Sonia Silva: Teaching Notes for Part One

First, make sure students understand what CARE does. The short description on the
next page might be helpful. Additional information on CARE’s work and the role of
international relief around the world can be found at www.care.org.

Next, make sure students understand the kind of work Sonia might do in El Salvador.
Have students identify information from the case study that describes the types of
projects CARE organizes in El Salvador. List these types of projects on the board.

Then ask students what they think Sonia should do following the earthquake. What
should she do first? What then? What do they think an organization such as CARE
should do?

Note their answers on the board then read on.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       4
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About CARE*

CARE was founded in the aftermath of World War II as a vehicle of generosity for Americans wanting to
help people devastated by war. More than 100 million CARE Packages were sent to survivors of the
conflict in Europe and Asia. The plain brown boxes holding food and other essential items were
harbingers of hope. Though the original CARE Package was retired in 1967, CARE continued as a leader
in self-help development and food aid.

CARE plays that role to this day, reaching out to people who are devastated by humanitarian
emergencies, or who are struggling each day in poor communities to survive and to improve their lives.
We seek a world of tolerance and social justice, where people have overcome poverty and live in dignity
and security. We seek a world where everyone sleeps in safety and awakens with hope.

CARE focuses its approach at the family and community levels. We believe that each family should enjoy
a basic level of livelihood security. This means that every family should have food, health care, a place to
live, education, a safe and healthy environment and the ability to participate in decisions affecting their
family, community and country. CARE’s programs seek to help poor families obtain this security.

For more than 50 years, CARE has reached out to people in need around the world. The organization
provides effective and efficient solutions to the complex problems of poverty, reaching tens of millions of
people each year.

CARE’s Programs

        Agriculture and Natural Resources: Helping poor farm families produce more food while
preserving their natural resources and the environment.

        Basic and Girls’ Education: Promoting basic education for all, including girls, who are often
denied the opportunity to go to school.

        Emergency Aid: Providing food, water and health care to victims of natural and man-made
disasters, including civil wars, ethnic conflicts, famines and floods.

         Health and Population: Promoting maternal and child health through immunizations, good
nutrition and preventive health measures. Providing access to family planning and supporting the
prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.

        Infrastructure: Supporting the construction of essential infrastructure, including shelters, roads
and bridges.

         Nutritional Support: Providing food to those people most vulnerable to hunger and malnutrition,
particularly children under 5, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

         Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health: Helping poor communities build and maintain
wells, water systems and latrines. Also, providing health education to reduce the risk of water-borne

*From “The Faces of CARE,” published by CARE USA

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       5
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Part Two - Read to the bottom of this page then stop.

       Sonia soon learned that the earthquake had been very big indeed. It had
measured 7.6 on the Richter scale, or about fifteen times more powerful than the
level at which an earthquake is considered dangerous. It had been centered off El
Salvador’s southern coast, about 65 miles southwest of the town of San Miguel,
but had caused damage throughout the country.

      Many people were injured. Others lost their homes, water, or electricity.
Over 16,000 homes had been destroyed and another 45,000 had been damaged.
Landslides caused by the earthquake had buried homes and roads.

        Sonia and her colleagues quickly developed a plan so that they could help.

      First, they checked on the safety of CARE employees around the country
and learned, to their relief, that all 180 staff people were safe.

       Next, they divided staff people into teams and had them assess the damage.
These teams communicated information back to Sonia and others at headquarters
so that they could learn exactly what was needed – tents, bedding, mattresses,
food, water, medicine – and where it was needed most urgently.

       Third, they developed an emergency relief effort based on this information.
They made plans to get food and water into isolated rural areas that had been cut
off by landslides. They brought in building experts from neighboring countries to
help them work with people throughout El Salvador in constructing thousands of
temporary homes. And they worked hard to prevent diseases from spreading due
to lack of clean water.

      Then, they started work on a long-term plan for the country to rebuild
homes, schools, roads, and water systems, and to help people return to their towns
and villages.


TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       6
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Sonia Silva: Teaching Notes for Part Two
Have students use a globe or map to locate El Salvador and then locate the center of
the earthquake. If you wish, you might want to use the Internet or library to locate
archival news reports about the earthquake. Use that information to get names of other
locations that were affected by the quake or subsequent landslides and ask students to
locate those places on their maps also.

Then ask students to critique Sonia’s plan. Do they think she approached the
earthquake correctly? Do her priorities sound right to them?

Discuss with students the need for an organized plan in a time of crisis. How will
Sonia’s plan help her and other CARE staff decide what to do? How will it help them
set priorities?

How does Sonia’s plan compare with students’ ideas for what they would do following
the earthquake?

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       7
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Part Three - Read to the bottom of this page.

      It was difficult work. CARE staff mobilized quickly into an Emergency
Response Unit. They worked with the El Salvador government and other relief
organizations to get food and water into the countryside and to help people find
new homes by the time the rainy season started in April.

       As Sonia and her colleagues worked, they communicated with reporters to
get the story out around the world. They knew people would want to help, and
sure enough, donations began to come in to help them pay for the supplies and
equipment they needed.

       After a few weeks, Sonia thought the worst was over. They had moved
beyond emergency relief and were now dealing with the longer-term work of
rebuilding the country. Many people still needed help, but much progress had
been made. There were temporary houses and hospitals and reliable means of
getting food and water throughout the country.

       And then the second earthquake hit. On February 13th, exactly a month after
the first quake, a 6.6 magnitude quake hit, destroying more buildings and
triggering another round of landslides. This second quake was centered halfway
between San Vicente and San Salvador. It worsened conditions in areas that had
been hit by the first quake and, in addition, caused damage in new areas.

      Sonia and her team quickly swung back into relief mode, assessing
conditions around the country, and getting emergency supplies distributed as
quickly as possible. She knew that CARE would need more help and more funds
to cope with this second earthquake… and she hoped that people would continue
to be willing to give.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       8
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SONIA SILVA: Teaching Notes for Assignment
In-class writing exercise. This writing exercise has been designed to give students
experience responding to a persuasive writing prompt. Read the following paragraph to your

CARE staff had been well on their way to helping people in El Salvador recover from the
January 2001 earthquake when a second quake struck four weeks later. The second
quake caused more damage and forced CARE to return to emergency work. CARE
needs help to do its work. It needs to raise money for supplies and equipment. Sonia
has been asked to write a fundraising letter that CARE staff people around the United
States and around the world will use to explain the earthquake damage and relief efforts.
Sonia knows that there are many other needs for money: for instance, India also
suffered a major earthquake during January, and there are always needs close to home.
But she feels the earthquake relief in El Salvador is important, and she wants to
communicate that to others.

Ask students to work alone or in groups of two to three. Give them approximately 15 minutes to
complete the assignment. A sample answer key follows on the next page. Evaluate students’
work on their ability to summarize the situation in El Salvador clearly and concisely and on their
ability to translate their summary into a request for help.

Optional Research Assignment. Use the library or Internet to research a major earthquake
from the last century. (A good starting point is the U.S. Geological Service at www.usgs.gov.)
Research the damage the earthquake caused, the relief and rebuilding efforts that were
mounted following the earthquake, and the way people from different regions or countries came
together to help. Write a 2- to 3-page paper on what you learn.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       9
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Dear ______________:

The people of El Salvador need your help.

Two earthquakes – exactly one month apart – have devastated the country. They have caused
landslides, destroyed homes, schools, and clinics, and made even finding clean water difficult in
many areas of the country.

For people rebuilding following the flooding of Hurricane Mitch and a decade-long civil war, the
earthquakes have been very difficult indeed. Many lack the resources to rebuild. And without
help, they will be left without shelter, food, or water when the rainy season begins in April.

We at CARE ask for your help.

CARE has been a partner with the people in El Salvador since the 1950s. Following the first
earthquake, we immediately developed an emergency relief plan to rush medical supplies,
clean food and water, and building supplies to hard-hit towns and villages. We had been well
on our way to developing a long-term rebuilding plan when the second earthquake struck in
February. Now, we must begin again, helping people construct temporary homes, rebuild roads
and bridges, and get food and water.

The people of El Salvador are working hard. But they need your help to succeed.

Thank you.

TEACHING NOTES – SONIA SILVA                                                                       10
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