Carilec Engineers Conference July 23 - 25, 2002 Montego Bay

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Carilec Engineers Conference July 23 - 25, 2002 Montego Bay Powered By Docstoc
					                  Carilec Engineers Conference
                        July 23 - 25, 2002
                     Montego Bay - Jamaica


                              “Fuels for Medium and
                         Slow-Speed Diesel Engines
                              A Fuel Quality Primer”
        by Dr. Rudolph Kassinger and Charles Stucky

1   2
        CARILEC - JULY 2002
    Residual Fuel                   - Typical Composition



                  A mixture of Petroleum Residue (atmospheric or
                  vacuum) and Cutter Stocks blended to meet
                  specifications.




     Source: Major petroleum company Material Safety Data
             Sheets (MSDS)




2
      CARILEC - JULY 2002
       Typical Crude Oil Quality

COUNTRY               VENEZUELA     IRAN       INDONESIA    UK     NIGERIA


Crude Oil               Boscan    Iran Heavy    Ardjuna    Brent   Brass River

API                        10        31          36.5       38      41.6


Density @ 15oC         .999        .870          .841       .834   .817


Sulphur %                 5.5      1.65         0.11       0.36     0.09

Viscosity cSt 40o     19,000       3.5           3.5       3.7      2.2

Vanadium PPM            1,200      88           ---        1.6     ---


Pour Point oC            + 10     -21           +24        -3      +2

 3
            CARILEC - JULY 2002
        SIMPLE REFINERY
         Aka Topping or Hydroskimming Refinery


                                                 LPG

                                                 Naphtha

    Crude Oil
                                                 Kerosine

           Crude
                                                 Gas Oil
      Distillation
              Unit
                                                 Fuel Oil

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          CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                     o
                                                         API   DENS      Visc                            Metals ppm
                                                                      cSt @ 100F   %S                    V        Ni
                           CRUDE OIL                     37.6 .866        6.7      2.0                   12       7
                          Atmospheric                                                                    Metals ppm
                          Distillation, o F   wt %
                                                     o
                                                         API   Dens   Visc @ 210   %S     % Arom % MCR   V        Ni

    Light Naphtha             C5 - 158        3.1        85.9 651                  0.03

    Med. Naphtha             158 - 212        3.9        58.6 707                  0.04    8.5

    Med/Heavy Naphtha        212 -302         7.5        57.6 748                  0.06    14.6

    Heavy Naphtha            302 - 374        6.8        49.7 781                  0.10    20.1

    Kerosene                 374 - 455        8.1        44.4 806        0.7       0.26    23.8

    Light Gas Oil            455 - 536        8.1        38.5 832        1.1       0.72    26.3

    Gas Oil                  536 - 650        11.0       32.9 861        1.8       1.49    NR     Tr


    ATMOS Residue              650 +          51.1       15.7 960        25.3      3.33    NR     8.4    24       14


    Source: Oil & Gas Journal

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              CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                                                                                   3
        COMPLEX REFINERY
        (Visbreaker Case)

       Crude                                             LPG
       Distillation              Reforming
       Unit                                              Gasoline
    Crude Oil                                            Kerosine
                                Hydro-                   Gas Oil
                                desulphurisation

                                Catalytic
    High-Vacuum                 Cracker Unit       HDS
    Distillation
    Unit
                                Visbreaker Unit          Fuel Oil



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          CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                   o
                                                       API DENS      Visc                       Metals ppm
                                                                  cSt @ 100F % S                 V       Ni
                    Crude Oil                          37.6 866       6.7    2.0                 12      7
                                                                                                Metals ppm
                          Distillation, oF wt % oAPI Dens Visc @ 210 % S % Asphaltene % MCR      V       Ni
    ATMOS Residue                650 +         51.1 15.7 960        25.3     3.3   2.0   8.4    24       14
                          vac. Dist. AEBP oF
    Vac Gas Oil (VGO)          650 - 1050      34.3 21.6 924         6.8     2.8   Tr     Tr
    Vac Residue                 1050 +         16.8 3.4 1049        2860     4.5   9.7   25.6   71       42




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         CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                                                                     5
        COMPLEX REFINERY
        (Coking Case)

      Crude                                               LPG
      Distillation
      Unit                       Reforming               Gasoline

    Crude Oil                                            Kerosine
                                    Hydro-
                                                         Gas Oil
                                desulphurisation

                                  Catalytic
                                 Cracker Unit      HDS
    High-Vacuum
    Distillation                                   HDS
    Unit                          Coking Unit
                                                         Coke 6%

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          CARILEC - JULY 2002
    100%
     90%
     80%
     70%                                           GASES
     60%
                                                   GASOLINE
     50%
     40%                                           MIDDLE DISTILATES
     30%                                           RESID
     20%
     10%
      0%
                 SIMPLE    COMPLEX      COMPLEX


                          (Visbreaking) (Coking)

9
    CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                                       8
     COMMERCIAL HEAVY FUEL OIL GRADES

                             APPROXIMATE % CUTTER
                                STOCK IN GRADE*
                   IFO GRADE            % MDO
                               380         2
                               180        12
                               100        20
                                30        42

       *Cutter Stock 5 CSt @ 40o C
       HFO 460 cSt @ 50oC

10                                                  10
       CARILEC - JULY 2002
      ROTTERDAM




                                  2 Year Average

                                   168
                            133

                                     115

                                      75




     Source: “BP World Energy Outlook”
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      CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                   9
                                                         ROTTERDAM


                                                              2 year average



                                                                 18
                                                                 2

                                                                 160

                                                                 126



                                                                  74




     BP Statistical Review of World Energy - June 1995
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            CARILEC - JULY 2002
     ISO 8217 : 1996 (E)                    Specifications of Marine Fuel


                                                               Category ISO - F -
                  Characteristic           Limit   RME         RMF RMG RMH             RMK
                                                    25          25   35     35          35
      Density at 15oC, kg/m3               max.      991.0              991.0          1010.0
      Kinematic viscosity at
      100oC, mm2s                          max.         25.0                 35.0
                     o
      Flash point, C                       min.           60                    60
                               o
      Pour point (upper), C
        -- winter quality                  max.           30                    30
        -- summer quality                  max.           30                    30
      Carbon residue, % (m/m)              max.    15           20    18             22
      Ash, % (m/m)                         max.    0.10        0.15   0.15           0.20
      Water, % (v/v)                       max.          1.0                 1.0
      Sulfur, % m/m)                       max.          5.0                 5.0
      Vanadium, mg/kg                      max.    200         500    300            600
      Aluminium plus silicon, mg/kg        max.           80                    80
      Total sediment, potential, % (m/m)   max.         0.10                 0.10




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         CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                                                                                17
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001

                            Major Port Overview



                                   TEST PARAMETER


                     DENS   VISC   MCR    %S        Ash     V    Al + Si   CCAI
      HOUSTON
            IF 180   986    183    14.7   3.14      0.04   124    21       856
      ROTTERDAM
            IF 180   981    178    12.2   2.52      0.03   85     21       850
      SINGAPORE
            IF 180   976    175    13.0   3.11      0.04   92     21       846
      FUJAIRAH
            IF 180   958    175    10.5   3.28      0.05   68      5       828




14
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001


                            Major Port Overview



                                   TEST PARAMETER

                     DENS   VISC   MCR    %S        Ash     V    Al + Si   CCAI
      HOUSTON
            IF 380   988    333    16.2   3.33      0.04   143    19       851
      ROTTERDAM
            IF 380   985    356    12.7   2.70      0.04   103    20       846
      SINGAPORE
            IF 380   984    345    14.6   3.35      0.04   96     20       846
      FUJAIRAH
            IF 380   974    364    13.9   3.23      0.04   104     6       836


15
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001

                             Major Port Overview

                                     TEST PARAMETER

                      DENS    VISC   MCR    %S        Ash     V    Al + Si   CCAI
       HOUSTON
             IF 180   986     183    14.7   3.14      0.04   124    21       856
             IF 380   988     333    16.2   3.33      0.04   143    19       851
       ROTTERDAM
             IF 180   981     178    12.2   2.52      0.03   85     21       850
             IF 380   985     356    12.7   2.70      0.04   103    20       846
       SINGAPORE
             IF 180   976     175    13.0   3.11      0.04   92     21       846
             IF 380   984     345    14.6   3.35      0.04   96     20       846
       FUJAIRAH
             IF 180   958     175    10.5   3.28      0.05   68      5       828
             IF 380   974     364    13.9   3.23      0.04   104     6       836




16
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001

                      CARIBBEAN / CENT AM OVERVIEW

                                     TEST PARAMETER

                       DENS   VISC    MCR    %S       Ash     V    Al + Si   CCAI
     PORT of SPAIN*
           IF 180       970   179     10.8   1.74     0.04   115     9       839
           IF 380       982   360     11.8   1.87     0.04   128    10       844
       SAN JUAN
           IF 180       970   188     11.9   1.89     0.05   161    23       837
           IF 380       980   342     12.7   1.97     0.06   156    25       842
       ST. CROIX
           IF 180       978   187     15.6   2.48     0.04   121     9       847
           IF 380       982   319     17.0   2.48     0.04   142     9       845
     PCZ
           IF 180       976   185     12.5   2.37     0.06   193    22       845
           IF 380       985   344     13.5   2.43     0.06   212    23       847

17
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001

                      CARIBBEAN / CENT AM OVERVIEW
                                        TEST PARAMETER

                        DENS    VISC     MCR    %S       Ash     V    Al + Si   CCAI
     GUAYAQUIL
             IF 180      -       -        -      -        -      -       -       -
             IF 380     957     364      11.0   1.41     0.04   138     4       818
     ARUBA
             IF 180      -       -        -      -        -      -       -       -
             IF 380     980    369.00    16.2   3.30     0.08   314     9       841
     PUNTA CARDON
             IF 180     978     186      10.4   2.46     0.07   302    27       847
             IF 380     981     345      11.2   2.62     0.09   335    30       843




18
     FUEL QUALITY COMPARISONS, 2001

                             BRAZIL OVERVIEW

                                  FUEL   PARAMETER

                    DENS   VISC   MCR      %S        Ash    V    Al + Si   CCAI
     PARANAGUA
           IF 180   981    176    10.7     0.97      0.02   40    12       851
           IF 380   986    310    11.5     1.00      0.02   41    13       849
     SANTOS
           IF 180   974    183    10.2     0.86      0.02   32    18       843
           IF 380   983    327    11.1     0.96      0.02   33    20       846
     RIO
           IF 180   976    181    10.7     2.26      0.02   39    21       845
           IF 380   985    328    12.2     2.39      0.02   45    19       847




19
     Future Marine Fuel Quality Forecast




20
      CARILEC - JULY 2002
                                           24
Future Marine Fuel Quality Forecast Uncertainties



                        Environmental Constraints
                                SOx limits
                                NOx limits
                                Particulates
                        Customer Demands
                                Metals constraints
                                Ignition Quality
                        Kyto Protocol




 21
       CARILEC - JULY 2002                            10
                    EMISSIONS

                         AIR




                                      EXHAUST
       FUEL
              100


                        ENGINE




     Fuel Composition             Exhaust Products
         86.3% C                 CO2            316
         11.0% H                 H2O            88
         2.7% S                  SOx            5.5
        Excess O2                NOx
                                 PM
                                 VOC

22