"JAMAICA NATIONAL ASSESSMENT REPORT"
JAMAICA NATIONAL ASSESSMENT REPORT A Ten Year Review of the Implementation of the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States Ministry of Land and Environment December 2003 i Acknowledgement The Ministry of Land and Environment acknowledges the assistance received in the preparation of the Jamaica National Assessment Report. We would like to thank all those persons from the public sector and wider civil society who helped in providing information and those who assisted with the review of the document. We especially recognise the Planning Institute of Jamaica for the provision of available data. This report is based on material extracted from several reports, responses from various agencies and organisations as well as inputs from the national consultations. The Government also acknowledges CARICOM and the Commonwealth Secretariat, which provided financial support for the hosting of national consultations and the preparation of the national report. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action ii Table of Contents Acknowledgement ................................................................................... i Acronyms .............................................................................................iv 1. Background..................................................................................... 1 2. Introduction.................................................................................... 3 3. Socio-Economic Context: Key Characteristics, Challenges and Responses .......... 6 3.1 Geographic characteristics ............................................................ 6 3.2 Demographic Characteristics.......................................................... 8 3.3 Economic Characteristics .............................................................. 8 3.4 Social Context ........................................................................... 9 4. Key Challenges and Responses ............................................................. 11 4.1 Poverty Eradication.................................................................... 11 4.2 Crime and Violence .................................................................... 13 4.3 Urbanisation ............................................................................ 15 4.4 Impacts of Globalisation .............................................................. 16 4.5 Trade and Export....................................................................... 18 4.6 Natural Resources Depletion ......................................................... 20 4.7 Debt Servicing .......................................................................... 21 5 National Framework for Sustainable Development ..................................... 23 5.1 The Sustainable Development Council of Jamaica (SDC-J)...................... 23 5.2 Public Sector Reform .................................................................. 24 5.3 Sustainable Development Unit of the PIOJ ........................................ 25 5.4 Business Council for the Environment .............................................. 26 5.5 Local Sustainable Development Planning ......................................... 26 5.6 Policies .................................................................................. 27 5.7 Institutional Framework .............................................................. 27 5.8 Lessons Learnt.......................................................................... 28 6 National Progress Made and Problems Encountered in the Implementation of the BPOA: Sectoral and Cross-Sectoral Areas ...................................................... 30 6.1 SECTORAL AREAS: Progress Made and Problems Encountered .................. 30 6.1.1 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise .............................................. 30 6.1.2 Natural and Environmental Disasters ............................................ 33 6.1.3 Coastal and Marine Resources .................................................... 38 6.1.4 Land Resources, including Terrestrial Biodiversity ............................ 45 6.1.5 Energy ................................................................................ 52 6.1.6 Management of Wastes & Provision of Water and Sanitation Services ..... 56 6.1.7 Tourism ............................................................................... 63 6.1.8 Trade.................................................................................. 67 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action iii 6.2 CROSS-SECTORAL AREAS .............................................................. 72 6.2.1 Financing and Investment for Sustainable Development ..................... 72 6.2.2 Capacity Building and Coordination.............................................. 74 6.2.3 Constraints ........................................................................... 74 7 The Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development in SIDS ........ 76 7.1 Poverty Eradication.................................................................... 76 7.2 Education and Reduction of Child Mortality ....................................... 77 7.3 Gender equality and empowerment of women ................................... 78 7.4 HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases .............................................. 80 7.5 Environmental Sustainability......................................................... 82 7.6 Global Partnership for Development................................................ 83 8. Emerging Concerns and Special Needs ................................................... 84 8.1 The Role of Culture in the development of SIDS.................................. 84 8.2 The Brain Drain......................................................................... 86 8.3 Developing Competitive Advantage ................................................. 86 8.4 Conflict Resolution .................................................................... 87 References .......................................................................................... 89 Appendices.......................................................................................... 91 Appendix I: List of Agencies with roles involving Sustainable Development ....... 91 Appendix II: GDP by Major Sector 1994- 2002 ........................................... 93 Appendix III: List of Poverty Eradication related Programmes . ....................... 94 Appendix IV: Selected Environmental Treaties and Protocols ......................... 95 Appendix V: Selected List of Achievements under the BPOA (1994-2003) .......... 97 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action iv Acronyms BCE – Business Council for the Environment BPOA – Barbados Programme of Action CBO – Community Based Organisation FD – Forestry Department GoJ – Government of Jamaica HEART /NTA – Human Employment and Resource Training /National Training Agency JAMPRO – Jamaica National Investments Promotions JSIF – Jamaica Social Investment Fund MLE – Ministry of Land and Environment NDB – National Development Bank NEPA – National Environment and Planning Agency NRCA – Natural Resources Conservation Authority NGO – Non-Governmental Organisation NIBJ – National Investment Bank of Jamaica ODPEM – Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management PIOJ – Planning Institute of Jamaica PSOJ – Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica SIDS – Small Island Developing States SRC – Scientific Research Council STATIN – Statistical Institute of Jamaica USAID – United States Agency for International Development UTech – University of Technology UWI – University of the West Indies WSSD – World Summit on Sustainable Development WTO – World Trade Organisation ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 1 1. 1 Background The first Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) was convened in Barbados in 1994, following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992. Agenda 21, a blueprint for sustainable development in the 21st century was adopted in Rio. The SIDS Conference adopted the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) that set out specific actions and measures to be taken at the national, regional and international levels in support of the sustainable development of SIDS.2 The BPOA is a blueprint for action on sustainable development that should be undertaken by SIDS with the cooperation and assistance of the international community in the following 14 priority areas: 1. Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 2. Natural and Environmental Disasters 3. Management of Wastes 4. Coastal and Marine Resources 5. Freshwater Resources 6. Land Resources 7. Energy Resources 8. Tourism Resources 9. Biodiversity Resources 10. National Institutions and Administrative Capacity 11. Regional Institutions and Technical Cooperation 12. Transportation and Communication; 13. Science and Technology 14. Human Resource Development The final section of the Plan concerns Implementation, Monitoring and Review. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002 which carried out a ten-year review of the implementation of Agenda 21, reaffirmed the special case of SIDS and highlighted a series of SIDS-specific issues and concerns in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation3 adopted by the Summit. In a 1 Based on the Template for National Assessments of the Barbados Programme of Action +10 review 2 See Untied Nations General Assembly. “Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States”, Barbados, 25 April –6 May 1994, (A/Con. 167/9), October 1994, p. 5-6. Available on the Internet at http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf167-9/html. 3 UN Economic and Social Council. “Report of World Summit on Sustainable Development. (A/CONF. 199/20) p.4143 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 2 follow-up to the WSSD, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a Resolution which, among other things, called for a comprehensive review of the BPOA at an international meeting to be held in Mauritius in 20044 some ten years after its adoption. In order to achieve one of the key objectives of the UNGA resolution, namely, that the international meeting “seek(s) (to renew) political commitment by all countries to, (by focusing on) practical and pragmatic actions for the further implementation of the Programme of Action, inter alia, through the mobilization of resources and assistance for small island developing States,” SIDS were requested to provide information on their respective national circumstances for the review in a timely, effective, holistic and integrated manner, using a specified template format. The template requires a particular emphasis on the four main cross-sectoral issues (trade, investment, capacity building and cooperation) that were endorsed by the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) at its plenary in January 2003. The template includes a section on the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals that were agreed at the Millennium Summit held in September 2000. It is intended that there should be a common format for obtaining information, while focusing attention on developing linkages, promoting goals and fostering partnerships related to SIDS-specific needs/issues highlighted in the various preparatory processes leading up to the international meeting in Mauritius. There will be additional review of national reports at regional consultations. Regional institutions such as CARICOM and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean will prepare regional reports based on national assessments. 4 UNGA. “Further implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States”, A/57/262. December 22, 2002 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 3 2. Introduction The Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) of 1994 recognises that in addition to the general problems faced by developing countries, island developing states suffer specific handicaps, arising from factors such as smallness, remoteness, geographical dispersion, vulnerability to natural hazards and highly limited internal markets. It has been noted that “in both economic and environmental terms, the risks for small countries are high. Sudden shocks can devastate whole sectors or islands. Often the causes of the problems cannot be influenced by small states. As a result, ‘resilience’ to shocks becomes a desired policy goal, incorporating elements of preparedness, flexibility, recovery, and insurance against disaster.”5 The Caribbean is included in the top five hotspots for biodiversity conservation – that is, those areas with concentrations of unique biodiversity and which are at high risk of losing it without immediate and effective conservation. Island ecosystems are fragile: most of the species that have been lost to extinction were island species.6 The economy of most small island developing states is resource-based. Since 1994, there have been major developments worldwide including in information and communications technology, the effects of globalisation and trade liberalisation, the increase in war and terrorism, the growth of the drug trade, and the rapid spread of diseases. The eradication of poverty is now seen as a major priority on the international agenda. Various goals and targets have resulted from recent international conferences, including the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, 2002 and the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative. Implementation reviews done at the time of these major meetings have shown that in many areas, natural resources are being more depleted and social conditions are worsening. The effects of climate change are already being seen. This report on the implementation of the BPOA is therefore being done in the context of new pressures for island developing states, but also stronger recognition of the importance of sustainable development. 5 Sutton, Paul - Lomé Negotiating Brief 6 Conservation International: www.biodiversityhotspots.org ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 4 Within the constraints of limited financial resources, national capacity, and technological capabilities, Jamaica has implemented national programmes in order to comply with many regional and international agreements that support the priority areas outlined in the Barbados Programme of Action. Additionally, we have among other things, established local and national institutions, enacted legislation and regulations to strengthen sustainable development strategies, formed partnerships with civil society, and participated in programmes and projects to meet the sectoral and cross-sectoral challenges outlined in the following pages. In 1999, for the five year review of the implementation of the BPOA, considerable progress was reported in almost all the Programme of Action items, including ratification/accession to several international Treaties and Protocols, the management of wastes, coastal area management and human resource development. Jamaica has signed or acceded to virtually all the major environmental conventions (see Appendix IV) and a number of local action plans and policies have been developed to support the implementation of these treaties. Among these are the plans on biodiversity, climate change, ozone protection and coral reefs. Other plans are being developed on desertification, persistent organic pollutants and on the prior informed consent procedure regarding pesticides. At this stage of preparation for a ten-year review of implementation, it is clear that the Government is committed to sustainable development and policies built around the objectives of social equity, conservation of the environment, sustainable use of natural resources and sustained economic growth and employment. There have been major steps in addressing deforestation, the loss of biodiversity, the destruction of watersheds, and the management and development of coastal and marine resources, the management of solid waste, hazardous waste, human shelter, poverty, health, education, and energy (see Appendix V). Progress has also been made in respect of a number of socioeconomic issues such as the inclusion of civil society in policy formulation, poverty eradication, land tenure and resource management. There is more awareness now among policy makers and the general public of the issues of sustainable development particularly as they relate to human interaction with the natural environment, and there are more legal bases and mechanisms to manage natural resources. With sustained efforts, Jamaica is now better informed about the state of natural resources, other ecological issues, and the general state of the natural environment. This has been boosted with the production of a detailed quantitative Environment Statistics and State of the Environment Report. There is also greater awareness of the implications of ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 5 global issues such as trade and environment, and climate change. Such knowledge and analysis of the information available has been utilised as a basis for informed decision- making. Appropriate sustainable development strategies, plans and institutional arrangements are being developed, including civil society, the private sector as well as central and local government. This was an adopted Agenda 21 concept which sought to bring about sustainable national development strategies as a means of integrating economic, social and environmental objectives into a strategically focused blueprint for action, and also was a means to achieving the action items enunciated in the BPOA. While the official sustainable development strategy is yet to be formulated explicitly, the elements of a sustainable development strategy are certainly in place. The main constraints to the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action and other sustainable development initiatives include limited technical and institutional capacity, the heavy debt burden and the development needs of the country. Capacity building and public awareness and education are considered among the highest priorities for the country As the Commonwealth Secretariat has pointed out “the range of issues addressed in creating sustainable development is so broad that success in `Making it Happen’ will demand a clear vision of how development is to be directed and supported. Creating this vision involves open, intense and continuing dialogue with all elements in society and the capacity to assess, monitor, and communicate on risk and the known and unknown thresholds of natural systems. Implementing the vision needs long-term investment in partnerships between nation states, as well as between governments at all levels, business, and civil society.” In addition to the challenges we face, we recognise that there are also opportunities from our most important resources – our people and our culture. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 6 3. Socio-Economic Context: Key Characteristics, Challenges and Responses Key Characteristics: Briefly outline the general socio-economic characteristics of your country including land area, geographic characteristics, population growth and density etc. 3.1 Geographic characteristics Jamaica is located in the Greater Antilles or the western Caribbean (See Figure 1). It is the third largest island in the Caribbean with a land area of 10,991 square kilometres (4,411 sq. miles). Jamaica is 236 km long, 35 km wide at its narrowest point and 52 km at its widest. As an archipelagic state, Jamaica has stewardship over marine space 24 times its land space, with an exclusive economic zone of approximately 235,000 square kilometres. Figure 1: Map of the Wider Caribbean ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 7 3.1.1 Topography The island’s topography consists of a mountainous interior, formed by a backbone of peaks and plateaux running the length of the island, surrounded by flat/gentle sloping coastal plains. Over half the island is more than 1,609 km. (1,000 ft.) above sea level. The highlands, consisting of two major land forms – mountain ranges, and limestone plateaux and hills - are varied and, in some places, extremely rugged. The topographic features include steep-sided mountains, highly karstified land, high plateaux, rolling hills and the coastal plains with large interior valleys. Coastal Plains The coastal plain is less than 3.2 km. (2 miles) wide along most of the north coast. On the south coast, the plains widen to form broad embayments, the most extensive of which are located at the eastern and western ends of the island and the Clarendon and St. Catherine Plains. The prime agricultural lands are mostly located on the southern coastal plains and interior valleys. Some areas of the coastal plain are waterlogged. The major wetlands are the Upper and Lower Morass associated with the Black River, the Negril Morass and the Great Morass in St. Thomas. Coastline Jamaica’s 885 km. (550-mile) long coastline is varied. Long, straight cliffs, mangrove swamps and black sand beaches edge the south shoreline. The north coast is very rugged, with several white sand beaches. 3.1.2 Climate Jamaica’s tropical maritime climate is modified by north or northeast trade winds and land-sea breezes. Rainfall and temperature patterns vary locally according to location and altitude. Rainfall: Rainfall in Jamaica is marked by monthly, annual, and spatial variability. The average annual rainfall for the entire island is 195.8 cm. The Blue Mountains and northeast coast lying in the path of the trade winds receive the highest annual rainfall, over 3300 mm. Kingston, in the lee of the range, receives less than 1270 mm annually. Water shortages are characteristic of the southern coastal lowlands, making irrigation necessary for agriculture. The island’s rainfall is bimodal, with the primary season occurring in October and the secondary season in May. Damaging rains ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 8 are associated with hurricanes and “northers”, cold winter fronts that mainly affect Jamaica’s northern side. 3.2 Demographic Characteristics The current population is estimated at 2.6 million with some 52 percent living in urban areas. Kingston, the capital city, is the commercial centre and seat of Government, and has a population of about 716,000. The current growth rate of 0.5 percent in 2002 has been consistent with the National Population Policy target for a growth rate below 0.8 percent over the medium term and a projected population size of fewer than 3.0 million by the year 2020. This growth rate has been consistently below 1.0 percent since 1997. The downward trend is desirable in light of national policy for achieving a stable population at zero growth. This decline in the growth rate is influenced mainly by continuing high levels of emigration rather than declines in fertility and may have serious repercussion for national development. 3.3 Economic Characteristics Jamaica has historically had an open economy. It has faced periodically depressed and highly competitive markets for its principal exports and sources of foreign exchange (tourism, bauxite, alumina, agriculture, and light manufactured goods). A rapid liberalisation policy in the nineties further weakened the position of exporters. By 1995, the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) faced large fiscal deficits and significant public sector debt. The rapid proliferation of financial institutions in the wake of liberalisation, an inadequate regulatory framework, and poor and unacceptable management practices led to serious problems with the country’s financial system in 1996, under the weight of non-performing loans and inflated real estate investments. Between 1990 and 2000, per capita GDP (at constant prices) declined at an annual rate of nearly 0.7 percent, while official unemployment remained over 15 percent and per capita real income fell annually from 1993. Remittances from Jamaicans, an expanding informal sector, and the underground economy (of which the production and trade in illicit drugs are assumed to be a significant component) have been significant factors in the economy. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2002 grew by 1.0 percent to reach J$20, 146 M. Total goods-production fell by 0.4%, while the production of services increased by 1.8%. Production performance in 2002 was, to a large extent, characterised by (i) a normalisation of production levels in the mining and quarrying, electricity and ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 9 water and miscellaneous services; (ii) continued growth in transport, storage and communications, influenced by policy and regulatory changes. The main constraints on output occurred in productive sectors that were either buffeted by shocks (for example, the agriculture, forestry and fishery sector, which suffered from flood rains), or were undergoing restructuring in the face of international competition (for example, manufacturing). Tourism is an important industry in the Jamaican economy. However, details on its precise contribution to the economy are not available, as Jamaica does not currently prepare a tourism satellite account. Its contribution is mainly reflected in sectors such as the Miscellaneous Services (which includes Hotels and other Accommodations), Transport, the Distributive Trade, and Manufacturing. 3.4 Social Context Jamaica is classified as a country of ‘medium human development’, whose social indicators compare favourably with many Latin American and Caribbean countries. The capacity of the State to fund and deliver social services and their supporting infrastructure has been reduced due to financial and economic problems. Jamaica ranks 78th among 175 countries with a Human Development Index of 0.742. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 10 Table 1: Selected Social and Economic Indicators7 Indicator 1994 1999 2002 Population Demographics Total (‘000) 2,472.9 2,590.4 2,624.7 Growth rate % 1.1 0.7 0.5 Fertility rate % 2.9 2.8 2.8 Infant mortality rate (per 000 live births) 28.6 24.5 24.5 Urban population % 47.2 43.3 52.0 Youth Population (15-24 years old) % 20 18.4 21.8 Life expectancy 72.2 72.2 72.0 Total Unemployment Rate % 15.4 15.7 15.1 Education Adult Literacy Rate 75.7 75.4 79.9 Enrolment in schools - primary (’000) 329.1 318.6 332.9 - secondary 232.1 228.5 226.5 - tertiary 16.5 12.7 12.5 Poverty % of Individuals living in Poverty 28.2 15.9 18.2 Human Development Index (UNDP) - 0.742 % of population with access to safe water 82.38 81.2 86.2 % of population with access to sanitary facilities 99.5 99.5 99.5 9Economics Economic Growth (GDP) 0.8 -0.4 1.0 Inflation Rate % 35.1 6.0 7.1 Debt Servicing % GDP 25.4 97.1 36.3 7 Statistics taken from PIOJ Economic and Social Surveys 8 1995 Revised Figures 9 See Appendix II for more details on Economic characteristics. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 11 4. Key Challenges and Responses (What are the key socio-economic challenges facing your country and what are some of the constraints your country faces with respect to these challenges? Identify areas/programmes where action has been taken to address any or all of the challenges that you have listed.) 4.1 Poverty Eradication The level of poverty10 declined from 28.2% in 1994 to 18.2% in 2002. It should be noted, however, that the incidence of poverty was 16.8% in 2001 and 15.9% in 1999. The Policy Development Unit of the Planning Institute of Jamaica has calculated the percentage of persons living below US$1 a day at 2.98% in 2001, up from 1.98% in 2000. Children (0-18 years) as a population group are disproportionately represented among the poor and are most adversely affected by poverty, accounting for 47.9% of persons below the poverty line. The Survey of Living Conditions 2001 indicates that the wealthiest 20% of the population accounted for 45.9% of national consumption while the poorest 20% accounted for only 6.1% of national consumption. On average, the wealthiest 10% of the population consumed approximately 12.5 times more than the poorest 10% - in dollar terms, a mean per capita annual consumption expenditure of J$235,949.00 compared to J$18,721.00. 4.1.1 Key Responses A number of policy instruments, programmes and plans have been developed since the 1994 Barbados Conference to help in the eradication of poverty. These include: Jamaica s Policy Towards Poverty Eradication, 1995 National Poverty Eradication Programme - 1995 National Plan of Action on Population and Development - 1995 10 The incidence of poverty is determined by the number of persons unable to satisfy predetermined basic needs as defined by minimum nutritional standards with an additional amount for non-food items. [The poverty line estimator is most widely specified as attainable consumption expenditure in excess of a minimum necessary level of expenditures on a representative bundle of necessary goods and services valued at relevant prices]. Therefore, an individual or household in Jamaica is considered privately poor if unable to attain a level of real consumption expenditure above an appropriate poverty line. It should be noted that income is not used as a measure of poverty. The poverty line is composed of a basket of food and non-food items. The food basket was determined by the Ministry of Health based on PAHO recommendations of minimal daily nutritional requirements of 11, 225 kilocalories for a family of five, as well as known Jamaican consumption patterns. To this was added an amount representing the cost of basic non-food items including clothing and footwear, transport, healthcare and personal expenses and education, among others. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 12 National Plan of Action for the Survival, Protection and Development of Children – 1996 National Plan of Action on Poverty Eradication - 1997 National Poverty Eradication Policy – 1997 Health Sector Reform Project Jamaica Social Policy Evaluation (JASPEV), 2002 By the end of the 2002/2003 financial year, approximately J$34 billion had been spent on poverty eradication projects and programmes. Information on two of the main programmes is set out below. 188.8.131.52 National Poverty Eradication Programme (NPEP) In 1995, the Government of Jamaica re-stated its commitment to eradicate poverty by launching the NPEP following consultation with the local private sector, academia, NGOs, international agencies, church, the political opposition, CBOs and other community groups. These consultations culminated in the development of Jamaica s Policy Towards Poverty Eradication and the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NPEP): A Community-Based Partnership Approach”. NPEP was approved by Parliament in 1997. Both the Policy and the Programme are predicated on the commitment to promote economic and social development; to reduce the number of persons below the poverty line in targeted poor communities by 50 percent over three years; and to eradicate absolute poverty. NPEP seeks to coordinate the approximately 45 projects and programmes on poverty eradication currently being undertaken by 11 government Ministries. The main areas of focus are human resource development and employment creation through enterprise development, social welfare, protection of the environment and natural resources, community empowerment, community-based development and improvement of infrastructure. The activities of the NPEP have therefore been grouped into four sub-programmes: Community Based Programmes , Human Resources/Social Development and Welfare , Environment and Natural Resources Protection , and The Enabling Environment (Institutional Capacity Building and Economic/ Employment/ Infrastructure). Welfare assistance continues to be high on the agenda for poverty eradication, but significant focus is being given to initiatives aimed at enabling and empowering ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 13 groups and individuals who are poor. A number of these initiatives are outlined in Appendix III. 184.108.40.206 Programme of Advancement through Health and Education (PATH) The principal objective of PATH is to improve human capital development by increasing the access of children in poor families to education, thereby breaking the cycle of inter-generational poverty. It also seeks to improve the health status and productivity of the poor. This programme is part of the Government’s reform of the Social Safety Net Programme and includes a merger of the three existing income support programmes - Food Stamp, Old Age and Incapacity Allowance, and Outdoor Poor Relief - that were being administered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MLSS) and the Ministry of Local Government, Community Development and Sports. PATH is being managed by the MLSS as the core of the Social Safety Net Programme and will be implemented on a phased basis. PATH is intended to improve the targeting mechanisms used to identify the poorest segments of the population, to increase the effectiveness of welfare and related programmes, streamline the delivery of services and reduce administrative costs. It is expected that through PATH, there will be a considerable increase in the level of benefits that will be disbursed. 4.2 Crime and Violence Despite a downward trend in crimes in 2002 (statistics below), high levels of violence and criminal activities continue to represent one of the most significant challenges to socio-economic development. Crime prevention is an important aspect of sustainable development because a stable and secure environment is necessary to support the goals of poverty eradication, economic investment, environmental stewardship, gender equity and participation, and sustainable livelihoods. According to statistics from the Ministry of National Security, for the year 2002, total major crimes recorded were down by 7% when compared to 2001, or 1,129 per ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 14 100,000 population, and there was a general downward trend, with five of the major crime categories recorded by the police showing a lower incidence than in 2001: murder, down by 8% or 40 per 100, 000; rape, by 4%; carnal abuse, by 12%, breaking and entering by 19%; and robbery by 4%. Regarding the other two major crime categories, shooting was up by 7%; and larceny up by 10%. While the Jamaican economy has become more open during the last ten years, this has been achieved at the cost of serious dislocation in both manufacturing and agriculture, two of the biggest providers of employment. The socio-economic realities of the country have no doubt affected the extent of the involvement of Jamaicans in the illegal trans-national drug trade, particularly in relation to the transhipment of cocaine from South America to North America and the UK. 4.2.1 Key Responses In response to this major challenge, the Government of Jamaica has embarked on a comprehensive programme to modernise and reform the country’s justice system and law enforcement infrastructure. Under this programme, the capabilities of the Security Forces are being strengthened through additional investment in training, technological resources, equipment, welfare needs, investigative techniques, intelligence gathering and the collection of evidence. More attention is also being focussed on crime prevention through three programmes: a youth anti-crime initiative; the Peace Management Initiative, and the Citizenship Security and Justice Programme which will provide direct support for community improvement/upliftment in many inner-city areas. The signing of the Report of the National Commission on Crime and Violence in Parliament by both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition signalled not only bi-partisan political commitment, but also the emergence of a broad-based societal consensus on critical approaches to dealing with crime and violence in Jamaica. In an effort to reduce the international trafficking of illicit drugs, the Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the United Kingdom that provided for the installation of ion scan and emit machines at the island’s two international airports. It has also been recognised that it is important to invest in skills development, education and health, and build capacity for people to be able to participate in decision- making so as to increase the quality and range of social interactions and create benefits for both present and future generations. The Inner City and Urban Renewal Programme outlined below (section 220.127.116.11) is an example of this approach. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 15 4.3 Urbanisation By 2002, 52% of the population lived in urban areas – an increase of 50.1% over the 1991 figure. Jamaica’s population is expected to grow by 1.2 million by 2050 and most of this growth will be in urban areas. Rapid urbanisation of some areas has resulted in major problems such as squatting, crime and violence, inadequate housing and social services, inadequate infrastructure, traffic congestion and urban decay. 4.3.1 Key Responses The challenge of urbanisation has been addressed in a variety of ways, which include strengthening the capacity to undertake sustainable development planning inclusive of the physical aspects. This process has been decentralised and involves a participatory process involving parish council development committees, the private sector and communities. Several programmes are being implemented including tax incentives for blighted and depressed areas, improving urban services and infrastructure, and development of open spaces and recreational areas. Among the significant programmes are the National Physical Plan for Sustainable Development and the Inner City and Urban Renewal Programme (see section 18.104.22.168 below) The Planning Institute of Jamaica is coordinating the development of a sustainable rural development policy, which will address improving physical and social conditions, creating economic opportunities and maintaining the integrity of the rural environment. The implementation of this policy is expected to reduce rural-urban drift. 22.214.171.124 National Physical Plan for Sustainable Development (NPPSD) The primary objectives of the NPPSD, which is being prepared by NEPA and which is set for completion in 2004, are to: - ensure an integrated approach to sustainable development/physical planning in Jamaica - provide a framework for the preparation of local and regional plans - provide a spatial framework for private sector development. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 16 126.96.36.199 Inner City and Urban Renewal Programme In 2001, close to 45% of the population of Jamaica was concentrated in Kingston, St. Andrew and St. Catherine. The Inner City and Urban Renewal Programme was started in March 2001, to stimulate employment and economic activity and to arrest the physical and social decline of inner city and other communities of the Kingston Metropolitan Area. The programme also seeks to empower the residents in the target communities by fostering personal and community involvement with the planning and development of these areas. The comprehensive five-year plan is being implemented on a phased basis to address the full range of issues affecting inner city conditions in three basic categories: the physical environment – including the infrastructure, that is, roads, drains, sanitation, utilities, etc.); commercial, industrial and historic buildings, housing and related amenities; solid waste management and gully clearing among other things; the people – including social and community development i.e. community empowerment, welfare provisions and miscellaneous services; human resource development, health, education, training, etc; and enforcement - capacity building of law and order officers through the clarification and dissemination of information on legal requirements and standards, and by consistent policing. A critical outcome of the programme is expected to be the increased attractiveness of Downtown Kingston to business and investments, and a more ready participation of the population at large in activities in this area of the capital city. 4.4 Impacts of Globalisation Globalisation has occurred at an accelerated pace since the early 1980s, through liberalisation of trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) regimes, capital controls, etc. in developing countries under structural adjustment programmes. The increasing integration of national economies into the world market through the free flow of goods and services across national boundaries can be seen as the liberalisation of global markets. New technologies, including computer use, Internet, e- mail, cellular phones, cable and satellite intensify the process of globalisation by making it easier for goods, services and capital to move freely. Since 1995, the WTO has been ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 17 managing the process of globalisation by requiring its member states to engage in global trade according to WTO rules. The implications for Jamaica include: Adjustment and transformation of the economy and the institutions in the society to allow integration into the global economy without reliance on preferences by 2008 Jamaican businesses must become more competitive by focusing on local talents and resources so that they can effectively penetrate global markets Non-state actors must become more involved in the formulation and implementation of national policies so that Jamaica and the Caribbean can actively influence the WTO rules and not be negatively affected by globalisation. 4.4.1 Key Responses 188.8.131.52 Regional Strategy for Adjustment CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) - In 1989, CARICOM Heads of Government took the decision to establish a CARICOM Single Market and Economy. The key objectives of the CSME is to create a Single Market where goods, services, capital and people can move freely, and a Single Economy where economic and trade policies will be coordinated regionally. Full implementation is expected by 2005. International trade is being facilitated through CARICOM’s Regional Negotiating Machinery. 184.108.40.206 National Strategy for Adjustment Jamaica s New Trade Policy -This policy provides a crucial framework for our negotiations and for our adjustment to the global trading environment. A key element of the new trade policy is that government will facilitate the development of the capacity and tendency of our private sector to produce goods and services that make intensive use of domestic capital. Here, domestic capital refers not only to machinery and equipment but also to services, intellectual and social capital, local creativity, skills, infrastructure and relevant institutional supports as long as they are made in Jamaica or in the wider CSME, and used for the production of goods and services. The policy also recognises the need to facilitate the movement of people and increase the flow of income from overseas assets. Jamaica Trade and Adjustment Team (JTAT) - The new trade policy established the JTAT in 2001 comprising a wide cross section of the Jamaican society who are actively involved in formulating and implementing trade policy. Among other things, JTAT will establish and implement a Trade Adjustment Project that will: (i) assist the ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 18 private sector to adjust to the new trading environment and enhance their competitiveness within the period of adjustment provided under the Cotonou Agreement and other bilateral and multilateral agreements; (ii) upgrade the data required to monitor and measure trade dynamics; and (iii) build capacity and strengthen institutional arrangements to improve the formulation and implementation of trade policy. 4.5 Trade and Export Countries such as Jamaica, with relatively high commodity or manufacturing production costs need to increase skill/knowledge-based activities, services, niche markets, product and service differentiation, and add value to goods and services before export. The principal challenges faced include access to foreign markets, declining commodity prices, access to affordable credit, ability to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), increasing local and external debt, new and increasing non-tariff barriers to trade. One response has been the creation of agencies to enhance investment generation, agro- industrial development, technological innovation and expansion of the money market. Another issue of concern is trade and the environment. The Doha Declaration speaks to “mutual supportiveness of trade and environment” which is in keeping with the tenets outlined in Chapter 2 of Agenda 21. Twenty Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) have trade implications, including several to which Jamaica is either a signatory or a party. 4.5.1 Key Responses In order to meet the challenges of globalisation and its impact on trade, Jamaica has introduced fiscal and economic reforms to attract FDI. Emphasis has been placed on liberalisation of the foreign exchange market and maintenance of measures to reduce domestic inflation. Jamaica continues to be an active participant in the work of the WTO and the ongoing negotiations to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. Jamaica has adopted economic reforms to streamline business operation and the promotion of a climate that encourages entrepreneurship and investment. New laws and amendments to existing legislation as well as administrative procedures have been made in various areas including, banking, insurance, taxation and customs to provide ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 19 greater access to credit and more effective mechanisms for the distribution of goods and services. Through the Bureau of Standards Jamaica, companies have been assisted and encouraged to attain the highest international standards and certification particularly in the manufacturing, services and export sectors. Human resource development is recognised as an integral part of efforts to improve competitiveness and training institutions such as HEART Trust/NTA, the UWI and UTECH have redesigned their programmes to reflect the specialised needs within the global trade and economic environment. The Government, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, in response to the post-Doha trade and environment negotiating agenda, has established an inter-ministerial committee to examine the agenda, monitor developments in the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment and formulate the country’s negotiating position on the issues. NEPA with the assistance of the relevant public sector agencies will be conducting a review of the domestic environmental regulatory framework to assess its impact on trade. The output of this exercise and the discussions arising from the inter- ministerial committee on trade and the environment will provide the basis for a proposed national symposium on the topic involving the public and private sectors and civil society. The symposium will serve as a consultative process thereby sensitising players to the broader issues, creating linkages and informing the country of the negotiating position. 4.5.2 Private Sector Views The Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica (PSOJ) has expressed the view that trade liberalisation can benefit small developing countries only if it serves as a vehicle for prompting growth, structural transformation and economic diversification. This can be achieved in a rules-based multilateral trading system such as the WTO only if account is taken of differences in size and development. Their main concerns include: 1. The continued erosion of market access preferences for Jamaican exports, inadequate adjustment periods and lack of compensation for the attendant losses in earnings. 2. The need for modalities for market access to take into account the lack of economies of scale and limited ability of small industries and small suppliers to be internationally competitive and make trade adjustments; ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 20 3. The lack of progress in the negotiations mandated at Doha on subjects of interest to developing countries, such as special and differential treatment, Trade Related Intellectual Property rights (TRIPS), public health, modalities for market access and agricultural reform; 4.6 Natural Resources Depletion Natural and environmental resources are deteriorating, partly due to the critical sectors of the economy such as tourism, agriculture, manufacturing and mining and quarrying. The deterioration of the environment jeopardises these industries and the society at large. Economic losses due to resource degradation are, however, hard to measure and they are not yet reflected in our national accounts. As a consequence conservation of the natural resources is not easily viewed as critical to sustaining the economy. Long-term benefits are easily eclipsed by the need for short-term returns on investments. It is difficult, for example, to dissuade some farmers to desist from the cultivation of steep slopes, when they have no readily accessible alternatives for income generation. 4.6.1 Key Responses There have been several initiatives to respond to natural resources depletion over the last few years, including the enactment of legislation, the development of policies and guidelines and the declaration of parks and protected areas. A number of these are outlined in section 6 below. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 21 4.7 Debt Servicing In 1993, the government accelerated the pace of liberalisation of the economy with the deregulation of the foreign exchange market. This was the final major step in the more than a decade long structural adjustment process that had been precipitated by a debt crisis at the end of the 1970s. Two years later, there was a major financial crisis which led the Government to intervene to contain the scope of the meltdown in the financial sector by extending substantial support to ailing financial institutions in an effort to rehabilitate and to protect depositors. In the 1996/97 Financial Year, the Financial Sector Adjustment Company (FINSAC) was created as the Government’s vehicle to see to the phased restructuring of the financial sector by way of intervention, rehabilitation and divestiture. A substantial portion of FINSAC’s assistance to the financial sector was financed by the issue of Government-guaranteed securities. The years of stabilisation and structural adjustment left Jamaica with a large debt to the multilateral financial institutions, and the intervention in the financial sector increased the total stock of outstanding debt and in particular the domestic component of the debt. The debt servicing cost has for several years been the major component of public expenditure – of the order of 60% - leaving the balance for all other expenditure including the social services. Of this balance, the lion’s share goes to health and education, and to the Government’s main social programme, the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NPEP). There has been and will continue to be in the foreseeable future, a severe constraint on the availability of public resources. 4.7.1 Key Responses While substantial progress has been made, Jamaica’s debt is not yet at sustainable levels. The debt has increasingly absorbed resources at the expense of economic and social development. Achieving sustainable levels of debt has necessitated the design and implementation of a comprehensive debt strategy within the context of seeking to bring the total debt to sustainable levels over the medium term. Sustainability within this context is defined as Jamaica’s ability to honour payment obligations and, at the same time, maintain an acceptable level of economic growth. The broad objectives over the medium term include: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 22 Satisfying the Government’s annual borrowing requirements; Minimising borrowing and debt service costs; Achieving a balanced maturity structure; Ensuring continued or wider access to markets, both domestic and overseas. The primary aim is to ensure that overall borrowing is kept within prudent levels and secured on the best terms available. In addition, Jamaica has undertaken widespread reform of its economy through trade liberalisation, dismantling barriers to capital movements, relentlessly pursuing an anti-inflationary path and greater fiscal discipline. Consequently, and in keeping with the core debt objectives established, the debt management strategy to be implemented through the medium term will continue to be: Maintenance of a prudent debt structure; Use of market mechanisms for domestic debt issuance; Promotion and building of a liquid and efficient market for Government securities; Increasing the transparency and predictability of primary market issuance; Financing the fiscal deficit and the debt redemption; Accessing the external markets for funds to the extent of gross external amortisation ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 23 5 National Framework for Sustainable Development (Give a brief description of any comprehensive national sustainable development policies and national sustainable development mechanisms/frameworks that have been put in place to address sustainable development issues since the inception of the BPOA in 1994. For example, provide information on specific national legislation or sustainable development policies that have contributed to overall implementation of SD. This could include references to the creation of National Commissions on Sustainable Development and/or National Coordination Mechanisms/Committees for coordinating action on sustainable development conventions and treaties etc. Focus on specific lessons learned in implementation or establishment of the national SD mechanism and/or SD policies.) A number of initiatives have been undertaken with regard to sustainable development in the public and private sectors as well as at the local levels. 5.1 The Sustainable Development Council of Jamaica (SDC-J) To address the issue of sustainable development and in keeping with the BPOA, the Government of Jamaica established the Sustainable Development Council of Jamaica (SDC-J) in 1996, facilitated by the UNDP under the Regional Capacity 21 project. The mandate of the Council was to ‘sensitise key players and decision-makers at all levels of the society by facilitating dialogue on the importance of sustainable development and the responsibility it imposes on Government and other sectors and interests in the society as well as the need for all to work together in an integrated and coordinated manner”. The SDC-J functioned under the National Planning Council. Between 1996 and 1998 Council meetings and workshops towards sensitisation on SD issues were held with a focus on the potential role of the Council. In 1998, the GOJ/CIDA ENACT Programme developed a project to build the capacity of the Council, to renew and advance it as a key forum for discussion and resolution of sustainable development issues in Jamaica. Several capacity building exercises were conducted between 1998 and 1999. The SDC-J went into hiatus in mid-1999 for two principal reasons, namely failure to successfully define its role and clarify its relationship with the rest of Government and lack of funds to implement its activities. Subsequently an assessment of the former SDC-J, lessons learned and the way forward has been conducted. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 24 An Interim Council was re-established in March 2001 and was designed as a central node to network with relevant groups in the private and public sectors. This group led the preparation for the WSSD. Further efforts have continued to create a SD framework within the Public Sector reform activities and are reported on below. 5.2 Public Sector Reform In 1998, a programme of public sector reform, the Public Sector Modernisation Programme (PSMP), began with the promotion of a ‘joined-up government” approach to the development of policies and programmes. Phase II of the PSMP was launched in September 2002 setting out a vision and strategy to improve efficiency and decision- making in the public sector. In effect, sustainable development has now been mainstreamed as one of the central pillars for modernising the public sector in the Public Sector Reform Policy document “Government at Your Service: Public Sector Modernisation Vision and Strategy 2002-2012 (Ministry Paper 56/2002). Within this policy for public sector reform, sustainable development is presented as the vehicle to achieve the nation’s primary development goals. Below are the five broad strategies, which are outlined in the policy document as the means for ensuring the sustainability of the country’s development path. a national sustainable development strategy, a planning strategy, a policy reform strategy, a regulatory strategy, and a greening of government strategy. The National SD strategy is being developed through broad consultation and roles and responsibilities are now being discussed. It is planned that the strategy will: bring together the goals and aims of all sectors of society within a common vision describe how to protect our environment and natural resources for their own sake and their contribution to economic development address important national issues such as food security, disaster mitigation and planning, cultural identity, and particularly poverty eradication identify the roles of each sector in ensuring that society reaps environmental, social and economic benefits for present and future generations. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 25 As a first step to implementing the strategies identified in Ministry Paper 56/02, a Governance Framework for Sustainable Development is being developed to establish the roles, relationships, duties and commitments of the key agents of national planning and to allow public sector actors to identify and apply the basic principles of sustainable development. The framework will set out the parameters for decision-making, and streamline the process so that there is greater participation and coordination in the priority setting, decision and policy making of the country, as well as the implementation of such decisions and policies in a manner that is open, just, inclusive and accountable. A high level Task Force is to be convened to address issues identified to date and identify others, affecting the development and implementation of policies for national planning. The Task Force will discuss and vet proposals presented for ensuring the integration of SD principles into the Government’s decision-making processes and arrive at an agreement as to the path that the Government should adopt. This proposal will become the National Framework for Sustainable Development. The Task Force is to be assisted by a Technical Team comprised of representatives from the institutions headed by the Task Force members. The Technical Team will be directed to complete research and consultations in developing proposals, and represent the position of the Task Force in the draft Framework. This draft, after approval by the Task Force, will be sent out for further consultation, among key stakeholders within the public and private sectors. An Interim Task Force has been established, comprising the Permanent Secretaries and Heads of Department of: the Cabinet Office, PIOJ, NEPA, and the Ministries of Land and Environment, Finance and Planning, and Local Government, Community Development and Sport. The formal Task Force will include representation from the Office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade and the Private Sector. 5.3 Sustainable Development Unit of the PIOJ A Sustainable Development Policy Unit was established within the PIOJ in June 2002, with the mandate to ensure an effective, integrated, coordinated approach to sustainable development. The Unit s initial focus is on three broad areas: strategy design and co-ordination, data and information management, and governance. A key operational principle of the Unit is to avoid duplication of activities, which are core functions of other government agencies. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 26 5.4 Business Council for the Environment The Business Council for the Environment (BCE) was launched in January 2001. It is collaboration by the following associations: Private Sector Organization of Jamaica, Jamaica Manufacturers Association, American Chamber of Commerce, Jamaica Employers Federation, Jamaica Bankers Association, Jamaica Exporters’ Association, Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, Small Business Association of Jamaica, Jamaica Hotel and Tourism Association, and the Jamaica Institute of Environmental Professionals. The aim of the BCE, whose establishment was facilitated by the GOJ/CIDA Environmental Action (ENACT) Programme, is advocacy on behalf of the private sector of Jamaica on environment and sustainable development issues. 5.5 Local Sustainable Development Planning A strong and vibrant system of decentralised administration is essential to the achievement of good governance. The Local Government Reform Process was launched in 1994, as the Government sought to create modern Local Authorities with the capacity, vision and resource base necessary to deliver the range of services for which they are responsible, as well as appropriate mechanisms for accountability and transparency. The Government firmly believes in the importance of the direct involvement of the public in the decision-making process. Against this background, the Government’s programme of decentralisation and reform recognised the necessity for, among other things the broadening of responsibilities and functions of local authorities, and the provision for a sound financial base for the authorities to fulfil their new mandates. Recognition was also made of the need for mechanisms of inclusion to broaden the participation of stakeholders and to streamline these for transparency and accountability. Legislation recently enacted will provide a sound basis for the reforms, in keeping with the decentralisation/efficiency thrust. Local Authorities have been given more autonomy in governance and control over local rates, fees, and user charges, and also with respect to making by-laws/regulations on matters over which Local Authorities have jurisdiction. Legislation has also been enacted to designate specified types of taxes as dedicated local government revenues, and the scope and capacity of Local Authorities to manage their own finances have been significantly enhanced. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 27 5.6 Policies The Government of Jamaica has also pursued several broad-based policies and programmes to address national priorities as it pertains to sustainable development, such as the National Industrial Policy, the Medium Term Economic and Social Framework, the National Poverty Eradication Programme and the Jamaica National Environmental Action Plan. One example of a broad based policy – the National Environmental Education Plan for Sustainable Development is described below. 5.6.1 The National Environmental Education Action Plan for Sustainable Development The National Environmental Education Action Plan for Sustainable Development (NEEAPSD) is a national framework for incorporating Environmental Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) into all aspects of Jamaican life. It describes a vision of a sustainable future for Jamaica and presents specific goals and outcomes to achieve this vision. It provides a framework for action, identifying specific activities and potential partners for moving forward. As one of the few plans of its kind, it has been a model for other countries as they have sought to create a framework for their own environmental education activities. After five years, the implementation of the NEEAPSD is currently being reviewed. A national consultation, planned for November 2003, will examine the review findings, set the strategic direction and renew commitment for EESD in Jamaica for the future. This initiative is timely, preparing Jamaica for the United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2015). 5.7 Institutional Framework 5.7.1 Institutional Organisation and Structure for Implementation The main implementing agencies for SD at the national level are the Office of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Office, NEPA, MLE, the Ministry of Local Government, Community Development and Sport (MLGCDS) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Culture. Appendix I outlines the major agencies with SD roles within the public service. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 28 5.7.2 Monitoring, Enforcement and Evaluation The responsibilities and capabilities for monitoring, enforcement and evaluation of SD at the national level are fragmented and largely reside in the macro- and physical planning agencies - the PIOJ and NEPA as well as the MLE and the Forestry Department. The Ridge to Reef Project, the ENACT Programme and Trees for Tomorrow programme are targeted at improving the monitoring and enforcement capabilities of the national public sector agencies related to SD, while the EAST project of USAID (see Tourism section 220.127.116.11.2) works with private sector associations and individual properties to help to build the capacity for environmental management of individual hotels and manufacturers including monitoring for ongoing certification. The MLGCDS’s capacity development mandate for the Parish Councils includes the strengthening and decentralisation of the physical planning and monitoring and enforcement functions at the regional/parish level. The Coastal Water Quality Improvement Project works with public sector/NGO partnerships at the regional and local levels and with the private sector to improve environmental monitoring capabilities. 5.8 Lessons Learnt The planning, policy reform and Greening of Government strategies are in various stages of implementation and have had some measure of success. Environmental concerns have been incorporated into all policies, plans and programmes, and there will shortly be a requirement for Strategic Environmental Assessments to be done. The Greening of Government initiatives have shown financial and environmental benefits; though more work needs to be done to have more ministries and agencies participating more actively. Lessons learned in the SDC-J and now in the development of the SD framework include11 the need to: constantly scan and adapt to a changing political and economic environment; have leadership of the policy process at or near the highest levels ensure that the reforms called for are properly resourced – in terms of both personnel and funding12 11 David V. J. Bell, PhD ENACT Project – Final Paper (3/11/03): National Sustainable Development Framework Scan and Approaches for Process Management. 12 Richard Lumsden and Alain Lafontaine, “Capacity Development (CD) for Sustainable Development…The CIDA/GOJ Environmental Action Programme (ENACT) experience.” Provisional Draft, February 2003. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 29 engage the private sector which has a significant role to play - in particular in: information gathering and management for SD; planning for SD; monitoring and enforcement for SD; as well as in particular resource mobilisation for SD. build capacity of the environment consulting sector to increase their response to an eventual demand for environmental services, should the efforts aimed at engaging the private sector in integrating environmental issues yield results. One key lesson in the development of the SD framework is the importance and difficulty in identifying suitable mechanisms for achieving coherence and coordination across ministries. Obtaining agreement on issues has required extensive and intense dialogue between the parties involved at the technical level. There has had to be much give and take to move the process forward. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 30 6 National Progress Made and Problems Encountered in the Implementation of the BPOA: Sectoral and Cross-Sectoral Areas 6.1 SECTORAL AREAS: Progress Made and Problems Encountered 6.1.1 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise (Date of Ratification/Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and/or Kyoto Protocol) Agreement Date of Accession UNFCCC Instrument deposited Accession entered into force January 6, 1995 - April 6, 1995 Kyoto Protocol to the June 28, 1999 UNFCCC (List relevant national or sub-regional projects related to the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol) 18.104.22.168 Projects 22.214.171.124.1 Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC)/Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change Jamaica has participated in the regional projects concerning adaptation to climate change, which provided support to Caribbean countries in preparing to cope with the adverse effects of global climate change, particularly sea-level rise, in coastal and marine areas through vulnerability assessment, adaptation planning, and capacity building linked to adaptation planning. The Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in the Caribbean (MACC) Project, which was approved for funding on April 17, 2003 by the World Bank, will build on the achievements of the CPACC Project and assist countries in ways to integrate climate change adaptation strategies into national development planning on issues such as tourism, health, agriculture, fisheries and infrastructure. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 31 The Caribbean Climate Change Centre has been established to function as a permanent mobilizing and coordinating mechanism for climate change activities in the Region. 126.96.36.199.2 Wigton Wind Farm Under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ) and a number of partners have invested in the construction of a 20 Megawatts wind farm at Wigton, Manchester. The island’s electricity provider has already committed to purchasing this alternative source of energy. (See section 6.1.5 on energy for more details). (Please use the first national communications your country has submitted to the UNFCCC and/or any other relevant national reports to provide a summary of key constraints related to the implementation of the Convention’s objectives) 188.8.131.52 Constraints Jamaica as a SIDS is very vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. At the third World Water Summit in Kyoto, Japan in March 2003, the Ministerial declaration recognised the special circumstances of small island states and the need for support to reduce the impacts of climate change. Sea level rise13 will pose problems for coastal regions and sectors such as agriculture and water resources will also be affected. These vulnerability concerns have been identified and some adaptation measures proposed to deal with them. Adaptation options for the water resources sector are based on an improved distribution network incorporating water conservation techniques. In effect, demand side management and supply side management measures have been adopted. On the supply side, worthy of mention is the proposed Watershed Policy for Jamaica, and on the demand side, a National Irrigation Development Plan that provides specific planning recommendations for the promotion of agricultural water use conservation. A Water Resources Development Master Plan has also been developed. Based on Jamaica’s first national communication, prepared by the National Meteorological Service in 2000, the following may be summarised as constraints: 13 Sea level rise of 30-50 cm for the region over the next fifty years is a reasonable assumption. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 32 1.There is a clear need for a. sensitisation of policy makers to the importance of climate change and the need to mainstream vulnerability, mitigation and adaptation strategies in the broader national sustainable development plan. b. further cross-sectoral consultation on the issue of climate change as well as detailed comprehensive public awareness activities to ensure that the public will better understand the issues, challenges and opportunities that could arise from a changing climate. c. further work on the analysis of issues pertaining to vulnerability and adaptation and climate change research (Jamaica has already made good progress in this area). d. additional technical expertise in climate change and its related fields. Many of the scientific institutions in Jamaica require this to enable them to perform the additional functions as well as allow for additional research as Jamaica prepares for climate change. e. additional equipment including high-speed computers and other specialised equipment for some organisations. f. careful examination of the legal and policy framework with regard to climate change so that public and private organisations can more effectively cooperate and develop. 2. Jamaica cannot provide all the finances that will be required to combat the adverse effects of climate change. Considerable financial assistance will be needed to complete and continuously update the required vulnerability analysis, to develop, design and implement effective adaptation measures. Financial resources will be required for institutions to train personnel who can formulate and implement the effective policies and measures that will be required in an environment of a changing climate. Financial and technical assistance will also be required for research. 3. For Jamaica to respond to the many vulnerability concerns, constructive adaptation policies will have to be implemented so that the potential impacts of a changing climate could be avoided or mitigated or adaptation measures put in place. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 33 6.1.2 Natural and Environmental Disasters (Describe the national framework for risk management and disaster preparedness including a list of the relevant national and/or sub-regional projects in which your country has participated or is participating). Jamaica is subject to earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and the effects of droughts. The island is also exposed to anthropogenic and technological risks related to the transportation sector and its proximity to sea lanes through which significant volumes of hazardous cargo pass. Jamaica’s economy, social and physical assets have on numerous occasions been negatively impacted by natural and environmental disasters. Disaster loss reduction is therefore a vital element in moving towards sustainable development. 184.108.40.206 Institutional Framework The Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM), under the MLE is the national focal point responsible for disaster management and the implementation of disaster policy in Jamaica. The ODPEM works in conjunction with the National Disaster Committee (NDC). There are also various working committees, including those on public education, health, finance and disaster relief. At the local level, there is a disaster management system, which relies heavily on the local planning authorities. Parish Disaster Committees (PDCs), supported by a Parish Disaster Co-ordinator, are located within each of the Parish Councils. These PDCs are further grouped into regions, with a Regional Co-ordinator assigned for the Northern, Southern, Eastern and the Western Regions of the island. The role of the regional coordinators is to act as Parish Liaison officers for the ODPEM. The Meteorological Services Division, also under the MLE, has the national responsibility to issue warnings and watches for meteorological hazards, including droughts, during the preparedness stage of a disaster. Further, the Unit for Disaster Studies (UDS) at the Department of Geography and Geology, UWI, Mona studies geo-hazards in the Caribbean. One of the major aims of the UDS is to demonstrate how geological knowledge can help to forecast, avoid and mitigate natural hazards in SIDS. Since landslides and flooding rank high on the list of ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 34 recurrent natural disasters that affect Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean, landslide- related research became the top priority of UDS.14 With respect to oil spills and spills of hazardous material, the ODPEM coordinates response in accordance with the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan which deals with spills on land and in the sea. The Plan outlines the responsibilities of each team member and the particular area for which he is responsible. It also addresses the standards of clean-up and disposal which are monitored by NEPA and refers to external cooperation. The Plan is being reviewed by public and private sector representatives including persons from the large oil companies. The issue of large tankers carrying oil overland is of particular concern, as well as spills along the coast. Inadequate financial resources and lack of equipment are major challenges to implementing the plan. As a consequence of two fires at the oil refinery in Kingston, measures are being actively undertaken to improve the national capacity for dealing with chemical fires and to relocate a fishing complex located close to the facility. There has been an increase in the number of wild fires and in response there have been capacity-building exercises in relation to wildfire and forest fire management spearheaded by NEPA in collaboration with National Fire Brigade, the Forestry Department, the Jamaica Defence Force and the ODPEM. 220.127.116.11 Hazard Mitigation Policy The addition of the ODPEM to the MLE portfolio was a catalyst for the renewed focus on hazard mitigation in disaster management planning and outlined the pathway towards a national Hazard Mitigation Policy. This policy is scheduled for completion by the end of 2003, with support coming from the CDB. The policy is being developed from a CDERA model through its Caribbean Hazard Mitigation Capacity-building Programme (CHAMP). (CDERA is an organ of CARICOM and its involvement at the national level is usually triggered by a request from a Heads of State for support during a disaster. CDERA has had some challenges in terms of the contributions from some national governments, and is currently actively seeking to acquire funds from international bodies related to emergency relief.) The national policy on hazard mitigation provides a framework for integrating hazard mitigation into all policies, programmes and plans at national and community levels. It sets out the broad goals and guiding principles for hazard risk reduction, and thus informs the development of national hazard mitigation plans. This is necessary, as 14 Extracted from http://www.uwimona.edu.jm/uds/ ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 35 in the absence of well-articulated policies there is the real risk that scarce resources may not be utilised as effectively as they should be in the implementation of programmes, projects and ongoing activities. Although generally speaking the policy does not address the preparedness and response activities, it does comprehensively deal with mitigation measures. The key principles guiding the policy are: The value of vulnerability reduction An integrated approach to hazard risk management and development planning Effective community mobilisation Protection of the natural, social and economic environment Ensuring accountability among institutional stakeholders responsible for specific hazard mitigation policy implementation. Sustainable development is the major focus of the hazard mitigation policy, which signals commitment to a broader and more long-term development process. The policy outlines a number of objectives, a policy strategy that will involve the incorporation of hazard risk reduction into development planning, project formulation and implementation of both government and private sector projects. The document also enunciates priority areas for action and the specific tasks involved in the achievement of these priorities. 18.104.22.168 Projects In October 1993, the USAID and the OAS began co-operation in the provision of technical assistance for disaster mitigation in the wider Caribbean Region, including Jamaica. The project was aimed at addressing problems related to unsafe location and construction, insufficient preparedness and prevention, through promoting greater private sector collaboration. The Caribbean Hazard Mitigation Project was developed out of this collaboration and this assisted greatly in the development of storm surge maps as well as multi-hazard assessment maps for Kingston. During the period, 1999 to 2000, the Rio Grande flood early warning system project was implemented. The main objective was to strengthen the community response capability, set up a flood alert system, establish a monitoring network of gauges, and to develop some hazard vulnerability maps. The approach used was one that built on the concept of sustainable human development. In 2000, the USAID Project sought to implement a disaster mitigation programme, which was aimed at minimising the impact of flooding in Fort George, St ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 36 Mary. The major objectives of this project were to develop and strengthen the disaster management framework at the community level, establish a community-based flood warning system and to increase awareness of disaster preparedness at the community level. In 2001, the EU provided assistance to implement community disaster management strengthening programmes in the communities of Harbour View, Gordon Town, and August Town in St Andrew. This resulted in the development of community hazard maps and vulnerability maps. (Provide information on any national work your country has undertaken on vulnerability assessments or indices and/or sustainable development indicators. If no work has been done at the national level, indicate key problems (technical capacity, investment etc) related to the development of vulnerability assessments, indices and SD indicators). 22.214.171.124 Vulnerability Assessments Jamaica has not yet carried out a vulnerability assessment. A number of hazard maps have, however, been prepared for certain vulnerable areas such as the Hope River and Rio Cobre Flood Plains. Several maps have been prepared and hazards have been mapped for landslides, flooding, storm surges, wind damage, earthquakes and tsunamis. These maps in most instances do not cover the entire island but are available for areas where projects have been undertaken. 126.96.36.199 SD Indicators The main public sector capacity for information gathering and management for SD at the national level resides in a number of key agencies: NEPA and the Forestry Department, particularly through the development of their GIS capabilities; the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN), the central public sector statistical agency; and the PIOJ including its SD Unit which has set out to build a national database for SD. There are a number of donor-funded projects that also address capacity for information gathering and management at the national level in the public sector. Data on the state of natural resources are collected biennially by NEPA and STATIN and a State of the Environment Report produced which provides quantitative as well as qualitative data. The last one was produced in 2001. Data feed into the decision-making process for new programmes and projects and revisions of existing ones. The Jamaica National Environmental Action Plan (JaNEAP) is another tool for ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 37 focusing national activities (government, private sector and civil society organisations) towards environmental management, showing where there are gaps and areas for future attention. Additionally, NEPA is developing SD indicators focused mainly on environment and physical planning to be published by the end of 2003. Provide a summary of national progress and/or constraints associated with the implementation of early warning systems. 188.8.131.52 Early Warning Systems There are challenges to the transference of early warning systems to vulnerable communities in Jamaica. At present reliable early warning systems for hurricanes and major storm events are in existence. Many arrangements for local flood events are less reliable and in need of development. Efforts are underway to ensure that populations in marginal and high-risk areas are given priority attention through community-based warning systems, and appropriate loss reduction schemes. Describe any sub regional/regional mechanisms for Disaster Management that are currently in place or anticipated The main regional mechanism in place at this point is the Caribbean Disaster Response Agency (CDERA) described above. An organ of CARICOM, CDERA is mandated to co-ordinate disaster management and response at the regional level. Provision of assistance is triggered by a request from the affected Head of State. 184.108.40.206 Constraints (Based on existing national or sub-regional reports and projects, provide a summary of key constraints (lack of capacity, investment, infrastructure etc.) related to effective planning and implementation of disaster management strategies and risk assessment.) Capacity (human and financial) and to a lesser extent technological resources, are a serious concern. There is a need to make disaster mitigation attractive to the private sector. Land is a limited natural resource in SIDS. In Jamaica, as in many other small island states, there have been significant increases in population over the past ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 38 decades, especially in urban areas. This had led to an increase in the population at risk from the occurrence of natural hazards since the major conurbations are in the high-risk coastal zone. Many areas that were traditionally regarded as marginal or unsafe have been brought into use by engineering works as well as by informal settlements. The use of marginal lands may perhaps be inevitable given the need for land and the constraints of Governments in SIDS to make land available to large sections of society at affordable prices. In addition to having almost two thirds of the Jamaican population living in coastal towns and cities, there are also issues pertaining to inadequate urban infrastructure. Low lying residential areas in close proximity to the coasts are particularly vulnerable to damage from hurricanes, storm surges and other natural hazards, and may also be at risk from sea level rise. Disaster victims are not the only ones who pay the consequences of living in disaster prone areas. Disasters divert funds from other important programmes resulting in derailment of planned Government activities, and in most cases economic setbacks. 6.1.3 Coastal and Marine Resources, including Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Resources (Date of Ratification/Signature of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and/or Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB)) Agreement Date of Accession Convention on Instrument deposited Accession entered into force Biological Diversity January 6, 1995 – April 6, 1995 Cartagena Protocol on Signed 23 May, 2001 Not yet ratified Biosafety Policy and legislative frameworks for the Cartagena Protocol are being developed through a GEF project to enable accession to the Protocol. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 39 (Date of deposit of your country’s EEZ charts or list relevant projects relating to the delineation of your country’s EEZ.) 220.127.116.11 Exclusive Economic Zone Jamaica’s EEZ Act, 1991 was promulgated to establish beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, a zone known as the EEZ. The zone extends to an outer limit of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (Jamaica’s EEZ covers approximately 235,000 km2). Rights and jurisdiction over the zone include exploration, exploitation, conservation, protection and management of the natural resources including the preservation and protection of the marine environment and prevention of marine pollution. The Maritime Act, 1996 declares Jamaica to be an archipelagic state and makes provisions with respect to certain maritime areas in Jamaica. Southwest Rock is the southernmost boundary of Jamaica’s archipelagic area. In order to add legitimacy to this declaration, it is necessary to construct a marine beacon on Southwest Rock. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, is spearheading the efforts to have a beacon constructed, through the National Council on Ocean and Coastal Zone Management. List relevant national, sub-regional and regional projects related to the sustainable use, management and conservation or coastal and marine resources. (Please indicate linkages or crosscutting projects/reports, for example coastal and marine resources and the impact of climate change) The first national report to the CBD was the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). The second national report is now being finalised for submission to the CBD secretariat at the end of 2003. 18.104.22.168 Projects Among the main developments is the establishment of a National Biodiversity Secretariat that is leading the development of project concepts identified in the NBSAP into full project documents. Three high priority project proposals have been completed and funding is being sought from donors and some private sector interests. A total of 37 project concepts have been identified for priority implementation within the next 5 to 7 years. These concepts were designed to address the seven goals outlined in the NBSAP. Examples of the project concepts are as follows: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 40 Goal 1. Biodiversity Conservation: Establishment of a National Biodiversity Secretariat Rehabilitation of Degraded Forests Rehabilitation of Coral Reef Ecosystems Preparation of an Alien Invasive Species Management Strategy Implementation/preparation of recovery strategies for critically endangered species Goal 2. Sustainable Use of Biological Resources: Preparation of an Ecological Zonation Plan and Land Use Plans for Declared Protected Areas Development of a Sustainable, Community-based Management Plan for the Yallahs Lagoon Ecosystem Goal 3. Facilitation of Access to Biological Resources to Promote Developments in Biotechnology and Benefit Sharing: Preparation of policies and Legislation to facilitate access to biological resources and equitable benefit sharing Creation of a Traditional Knowledge Register/Library Goal 4. Enhancement of resources management capacity: Expansion of the national Clearing-house Mechanism Establishment of the Jamaica Protected Areas Biological Database Goal 5. Public Awareness and Education and Community Empowerment: Sensitisation of the judiciary and training for Customs and Immigration Officers and the Constabulary (Programmes for the sensitisation of the judiciary, customs, immigration and constabulary have already been initiated.) Goal 6 Promotion of Local and Regional Cooperation and Collaboration in Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and the NBSAP: Building on existing regional data and information exchange mechanisms Goal 7. Ensure Safe Transfer, Handling and Use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) Strengthening of the institutional capacity of organisations involved in biotechnology to develop measures for conducting risk assessment and management concerning the use and release of LMOs Public education on the use of LMOs Other relevant projects include: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 41 GOJ/USAID Coastal Water Quality Improvement Project (CWIP) This project which ended in 2003, focused on the building of capacity, at local and national levels, in a number of areas including: collection and testing water quality samples, training sewage treatment facility workers to maintain and manage sewage treatment plants, fostering the establishment of wastewater advisory committees, which brought all the stakeholders together for consultation and decision-making about wastewater management. A follow-up project CWIP II is to be implemented in Port Antonio, Portland, August 2003 to 2005. GOJ/USAID Ridge to Reef Project The focus is mainly on selected watershed management areas. Through this project there have been significant public awareness, local sanitation solutions, sustainable livelihood strategies and opportunities, and governance mechanisms for institutional arrangements to better manage watersheds and thereby ensure reliable water yield and quality and minimise the contamination of the coastal and marine resources. GoJ/SIDA Integrated Coastal Zone Project The Swedish International Development Agency funded a project to institute integrated coastal zone management in Jamaica. The major outputs were a coastal atlas and satellite imagery. Both have been significant in assisting the decision-makers regarding assessments of development proposals and their likely impacts on the marine and coastal environment. (Based on the first national communications your country has submitted to the Convention on Biological Diversity and/or other relevant national and regional reports prepared, such as to the GPA on land-based sources of pollution and/or Regional Seas programmes, please provide a summary of key national constraints related to the implementation of the Convention’s objectives in the areas of coastal and marine resources.) ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 42 22.214.171.124 Constraints The gaps and challenges identified in implementing the CBD’s objectives relating to coastal and marine resources, include the need to: Develop legislation, monitoring and enforcement mechanisms to prevent over- fishing, poaching and accidental entanglement in gill nets; Increase understanding by resource users, tourists and developers of the need to conserve marine resources, and of their responsibilities; Increase efforts to reduce sedimentation and land-based sources of pollution from developments and illegal sand-mining operations; Overcome gaps in data, information and knowledge required to manage coastal and marine resources Overcome financial constraints that impede the establishment and proper management of marine protected areas and securing the financial sustainability of the areas once established Establish incentives for conservation and protection of species to prevent species from becoming threatened; Overcome gaps in knowledge of the ecology, taxonomy and systematics, and status of species, and overcoming gaps in capacity for these scientific areas of expertise. Jamaica is in the process of finalising its National Programme of Action (NPA) for the protection of the marine environment from land-based sources (LBS) and activities. Development and implementation of the NPA for LBS is critical to reducing, preventing and controlling land-based sources of pollution. Jamaica is a signatory to the Aruba Protocol to the Cartagena Convention and proposes to accede to this LBS Protocol shortly. (Please discuss the extent to which the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, the elimination of destructive fishing practices, the establishment of marine protected areas have occurred in your country.) 126.96.36.199 Approaches to the Management of Coastal Resources 188.8.131.52.1 Marine and Coastal Protected Areas There are three declared marine parks - in Ocho Rios, Montego Bay and Negril. Regulations are to be prepared for five types of protected areas under the NRCA Act, incorporating the IUCN classification of protected areas. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 43 The Negril Environmental Protected Area (EPA) was declared in 1999, the first EPA to be established under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act of 1991. It takes a whole ecosystem approach to coastal area management, protecting not just marine areas but the entire watershed area. Portland Bight, Port Royal-Palisadoes and Coral Spring-Mountain Spring have also been declared protected areas. Regulations for EPAs have been drafted. The Portland Bight Protected Area is the largest protected area in Jamaica and includes marine and coastal areas, (including offshore cays, wetlands and numerous aquatic faunal species), and terrestrial resources including forests and endemic, indigenous and introduced species of flora and fauna, towns and residential areas, as well as wilderness areas. This declaration was done in an effort to implement the ecosystem approach and to incorporate the major resource users in the area in the decision-making process. In keeping with one of the strategies for implementing the National Protected Areas System Policy, some protected area management functions have been delegated to NGOs, as in the case of Portland Bight, for example. The Green Paper on Watershed Management in Jamaica takes an ecosystem approach to the management of watershed resources and the principles of ecosystem management are built into the policy. A few of the principles are: decentralisation of management to the lowest appropriate level, consideration of the effects of watershed management activities on adjacent or other ecosystems, conservation of ecosystem structure and functions as a priority to secure the ecosystem services, and ensuring an appropriate balance between sustainable resource usage and conservation. 184.108.40.206.2 Fisheries Management Fishing has always played an important role in the economic, social and cultural life of Jamaica. The Fisheries Division has the mandate for the development and management of capture and culture fisheries. There are various legislative and policy tools, which will help the Fisheries Division in the sustainable management of the county’s resources. There is, for example, a draft Fisheries Management Plan, prepared with the assistance of CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Programme (CFRAMP) in 1997, as well as the Fisheries Bill that will make provisions for achieving sustainable management of the marine capture fishery. The General Principles of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, among others, will be implemented and the Division is currently formulating a Fisheries Sector Policy. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 44 220.127.116.11 Coastal Zone Management, Issues and Challenges Coastal Zone Management is a necessity, in view of competing interests and complex influences. The following are some of the issues pertaining to effective management of the coastal zone: Development in coastal areas sometimes takes place without due regard to carrying capacity and the effects of increased pressures Pollution, beach erosion and illegal sand mining pose a threat to beaches, the tourism industry and the enjoyment of local, as well as near shore fisheries. The area of wetlands is decreasing Degradation of coral reefs threatens the fishing and tourism industries. Jamaican waters have been declared the most over fished in the CARICOM area The formation of the Council on Oceans and Coastal Zone Management and the development of a National Policy on Oceans and Coastal Zone Management for Jamaica (2002) are major initiatives related to integrated coastal zone management. The Action Plan on CZM, attached to the policy, is now being implemented, and it is expected that improved coordination and collaboration will take place among the sectors, which have an impact on the coastal environment. Plans and projects include the Jamaica Coral Reef Action Plan, USAID/GOJ Coastal Water Quality Improvement Project (see Projects above), Kingston Harbour Rehabilitation Programme (see Waste Management below) and its sub- activities/projects. Consideration is being given to modifying some laws and regulations and creating a new overarching legislation dealing with costal zone management. A Beach Policy has been prepared and is being discussed for finalisation. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 45 6.1.4 Land Resources, including Terrestrial Biodiversity Date of Ratification/Signature of the Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Agreement Date of Accession UNCCD Instrument deposited Accession entered into force November 12, 1997 – March 10, 1998 Stockholm Convention Signed 23 May, 2001 Not yet ratified on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) List relevant national, sub-regional and regional projects related to the sustainable use, management and conservation of land resources including terrestrial biodiversity (Please indicate linkages or cross-cutting projects/reports, for example land degradation and sea level rise/saltwater intrusion). 18.104.22.168 Institutional Strengthening The Ministry of Land and Environment was created in 2000, demonstrating Government’s commitment to the effective management and administration of land and the sustainable planning, conservation and development of the island’s natural resources. It signalled Government’s recognition of the need to facilitate long-term objectives for achieving economic, social and physical development and to ensure a better quality of life for present and future generations. Two Executive Agencies have also been formed under the Ministry to carry out the activities to achieve this objective – the National Land Agency (NLA) and the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA). The NLA comprises the former Office of Titles, Survey Department, Land Valuation and Estates Department. They are responsible for the implementation of several of the goals and objectives of the 1996 National Land Policy. Among the Agency’s objectives is an efficient approach to streamlining the administration and management of land, in particular government owned lands. The Agency is undertaking programmes to: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 46 establish an efficient and transparent land divestment and land titling system. create modern cadastral and other maps for Jamaica. develop modern information systems to support the sustainable development of Jamaica’s resources. The NEPA was created through the merger of the former Town Planning Department the Land Development and Utilisation Commission and the Natural Resources Conservation Authority. The establishment of this Executive Agency sought to achieve a more integrated approach to planning for sustainable development; and resolution of overlaps in formulation of environmental and planning policies and enforcement of legislation to ensure effective overall management of land and natural resources. This more effective institutional framework is designed to help resolve conflicts between environmental and development interests when considering appropriateness of development proposals. One objective is to significantly reduce the time period to review and process applications for environmental, subdivision and development approval. NEPA’s core functions include environmental and natural resource database maintenance and mapping and environmental education and public information services. 22.214.171.124 Projects At the national level, there are various projects and initiatives related to land management and the conservation of biodiversity. The Trees for Tomorrow Project (CIDA/GOJ) is an example of a long-term project focused on forest management and conservation including institutional development. In 2000, the Government began implementing a Government land inventory programme. The data sets required for the creation of the database for the management of land and buildings have been identified and the database structure defined. Officers from Parish Councils and agencies such as the Urban Development Corporation have begun the data collection exercise for lands that they own and control. The MLE, NEPA and other stakeholders are in the process of developing a National Environment and Planning Process Framework as well as a Strategy which will guide the planning and environmental activities and facilitate the preparation of ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 47 recommendations to Cabinet for the better management of existing human and other resources. At the regional level, there is the GEF project - Conserving Biodiversity and Preventing Land Degradation in Small Island Ecosystems in the Caribbean, which aims to fulfil obligations under the UNCCD. This regional project will address the problems of land degradation, in particular deforestation, habitat loss and its associated biodiversity, particularly endemic species, through the mainstreaming of sustainable land management into national development priorities and conservation management techniques. It will also promote the improvement of management practices, institutional arrangements, policies and incentives, aimed at the attenuation of land degradation on fragile and unique ecosystems of small islands in the Caribbean. The project will contribute to the harmonisation of sustainable land management priorities identified in the National Action Programmes to combat desertification as well as in the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans. 126.96.36.199 Parks and Protected Areas A number of parks have been or are being developed as recreational areas for the public and other protected areas declared. NGOs are managing some of these protected areas and parks. Management capability and reducing sources and amounts of funds for NGOs pose a problem with this approach. A major issue to be resolved is the fact that large sections of the island, which are privately owned, should be protected areas or forest reserves as many of these areas are in need of proper management. Government is therefore considering and has begun to use various means, whether by suasion, “buy-in” and or the provision of incentives to enable private owners to manage these areas properly, to develop commercial forests and to implement sustainable reforestation practices. 188.8.131.52 Establishment of a National GIS Centre Within the next two years a centralised technical unit, “A National Spatial Data Management Centre” will be established to provide coordination and technical support required to implement and maintain the national GIS network. The network is being implemented to facilitate the sharing of geospatial information across government agencies in Jamaica. This system will consist of five Data Marts accessing a Spatial Data ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 48 Clearing House of the National Spatial Data Management Centre over a Wide Area Network. 184.108.40.206 GPS Network A modern national geodetic infrastructure is to be established comprising geodetic control points, and other geodetic facilities compatible with GPS. The existence of this GPS infrastructure and the use of GPS equipment will significantly reduce the time and effort taken and expended to conduct location based measurement activities such as land surveying and mapping. It will also allow for other business opportunities such as vehicle location and navigation, fleet monitoring, and enhanced emergency response systems. Based on the first national report your country has submitted to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and any other relevant national or regional reports prepared, please provide a summary of key national constraints related to sustainable management of land resources, forests and terrestrial biodiversity. Jamaica has drafted its national action plan under the UNCCD. The current situation with respect to the forest resources, according to an assessment15 done by the Forestry Department (FD) in 2000, is that Jamaica has 30% forest cover16, equivalent to 336,000 hectares, 33% of which are government-owned. The FD in its Forest Management and Conservation Plan has put in place measures to ensure consistent reporting of this parameter. The FD continues to implement mitigating activities to counter deforestation and forest degradation through the following: Improving protection through increased vigilance and patrolling activities strengthening community linkages/participation through establishment of Local forest Management Committees (LFMC s) Establishing Co-management Agreements and MOU’s with NGO and private sector entities to broaden and deepen forest management and protection Increased public awareness activities 15 The assessment was done using a combination of satellite imagery (LANDSAT) data, aerial photographs, and ground reconnaissance. By comparing land cover data for the period 1989 and 1998 it was determined that loss in forest cover amounted to 3,304 ha, which is equivalent to an annual rate of 0.1 %. This loss was due largely to bauxite mining. 16 8% is undisturbed natural forest. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 49 Forging private sector and NGO partnerships in support of reforestation and other activities. Promotion of incentive packages through a Private Planting Programme in which land owners are given free seedlings and technical advice to establish forest plantations. This is done collaboratively with other government agencies such as NEPA and the Rural Agricultural Development Agency (RADA) It is anticipated that by the next forest cover assessment, there will be positive gains or at least no net loss. 220.127.116.11 Challenges and Constraints Jamaica’s aim is to manage its lands in a sustainable manner. This is being done through legislation and a variety of policy documents, projects and programmes. Overall management is made more difficult because the necessary databases and development plans specifying zoned areas etc. are presently not in place. The following have been identified as challenges and constraints related to sustainable management of Jamaica’s land resources and forests. Protecting Jamaica’s remaining forests from encroachment by cultivators, livestock and timber cutters. Changing public attitudes to overcome indifference to forest degradation and theft of forest resources, Unsustainable land use practices Enforcing relevant laws and regulations Securing financial resources to overcome forest resource base knowledge gaps Increasing the understanding of the roles and values of forest resources for biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, carbon sequestration etc. Ensuring cooperation and collaboration among government departments, resource users and other stakeholders to prevent and resolve conflicts and integrate multiple objectives for forest areas and biodiversity resources. Creating an information network so that the average stakeholder can easily access and make use of pertinent information as regards land degradation and drought Developing an early warning system on drought Building capacity to implement an action plan to combat land degradation and drought ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 50 18.104.22.168 Mining Mining areas are generally located in the rural and semi-rural areas where forms of employment other than agriculture are not easily available. The wages paid to mining/quarry workers are usually higher than in the few other forms of readily available employment, particularly for low-skilled labour. Mine operators therefore find it very easy to obtain help in their operations, whether legal or illegal. Illegal quarrying practices are influenced by inter alia socio-economic factors as well as inadequate penalisation of offenders. Over the years, the responsible Ministry and the Mines and Geology Division, in a bid to combat illegal quarrying/mining, have implemented measures such as the establishment of Monitoring Committees, the promotion of manufactured sand as a substitute to the mined sand, and public awareness, which has resulted in the problem being somewhat abated. The MLE, the Mines and Geology Division, the Jamaica Bauxite Institute and other appropriate agencies are in the process of implementing a coordinated programme to ensure the efficient protection of the country’s mineral wealth. This is important since large areas of mineral bearing lands and minerals resources are being sterilised particularly by housing settlements, while on the other hand, good agricultural lands are being utilised by the mining/quarrying sector. 22.214.171.124 Watersheds Issues and Challenges Jamaica is divided into 26 Watershed Management Units. Each has areas that are considered to be degraded and in need of urgent remedial work to restore them to an acceptable state and to improve the availability and quality of water. Some of the problems associated with watersheds are as follows: Landslides and slope failures are very common in the non-limestone watersheds due to the presence of steep slopes, thin or erosive soils. These natural conditions are aggravated by the inappropriate use of slopes, especially poor farming practices. The large-scale removal of trees for mining and quarrying and the illegal removal of forest cover for lumber, squatter settlements, etc. have greatly contributed to the level of deforestation. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 51 The demand for and pressures on land and water resources have become greater due to increased population and industrial needs. Public behaviour and attitudes towards environmental issues (such as illegal logging) can be described as indifferent. Policy measures developed to address the issues and challenges include the Watershed Policy (in draft), the Forest Policy, and the Policy for the National System of Protected Areas. They all feature conservation and sustainable use of resources, cooperative management agreements, community participation, and integrated and collaborative management of resources among other strategies. Plans and programmes to improve watershed management and promote good environmental practices overall, include the National Integrated Watershed Management Programmatic Framework and the National Forest Management and Conservation Plan. These two comprehensive documents provide mechanisms for dealing with most of the challenges and are now being implemented. The National Integrated Watershed Management Council has been established by Cabinet to help develop and oversee a coordinated set of programmes and projects to deal with the issues. A number of local committees have been established to deal with issues at the local level. There is collaboration with the Forestry Department that is dealing with the improvements to forest reserves on their lands and encouraging conservation with private sector owners. The Forest Act and regulations and the Watershed Management Act, now being revised, provide a framework that supports the policies and further strengthens the efforts to manage and rehabilitate watershed and forestry areas. Projects and programmes ongoing in this area include: USAID/GOJ Ridge to Reef Project; GOJ Orchard Tree Crop Project; Rural agricultural extension services – including training for use of contouring, mixed cropping, integrated pest management and organic farming; and incentive programmes to encourage the involvement of private sector land owners. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 52 6.1.5 Energy List relevant national, sub-regional and regional projects related to development and provision of sustainable energy resources and systems, including energy efficiency and conservation and new and renewable energy sources. (Please indicate linkages or cross-cutting projects/reports, for example energy and natural resource management) 126.96.36.199 Projects 1. An important aspect of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the Clean Development Mechanism. This mechanism allows developed countries to achieve compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission limitation and reduction targets under the Protocol. The Government of The Netherlands, as part of its overall policy objective to meet its target of reducing 6% of its GHG emissions below 1990 levels, is collaborating with the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ) and Renewable Energy Systems (RES) Ltd. in the process of developing a 20.7 MW wind farm project in Wigton, Manchester. It is expected that this project will be operational by the last quarter of 2004. The major objectives of the Wigton Wind Farm project are: Implementation of provisions of the Jamaica Energy Sector Policy regarding renewable energy resources Diversification of Jamaica’s energy mix Utilisation of indigenous and renewable energy resources, especially the abundance of wind Reductions in petroleum based imports in view of the adverse balance of trade Emissions reduction 2. A feasibility study is being conducted on the introduction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to the Jamaican market for use primarily in the electricity and bauxite sectors. The study is being funded by the international community. A cogeneration implementation strategy is to be drafted by 2004 with special focus on the sugar industry utilising bagasse as one of its main sources in the energy mix. 3. The Caribbean Energy Development Programme (CREDP) funded by the GEF with the UNDP as the implementing agency is intended to promote investment in a range of alternative sources for the production of energy. Jamaica gave its commitment ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 53 to support the CREDP at the Committee on Trade, Environment and Development Meeting in January 2003. 188.8.131.52 Policies Jamaica gives high priority to energy efficiency and this is also part of the country’s sustainable development plans. Several programmes and policies continue to show commitment to the development of clean energy technologies and a strong desire to promote and encourage the development and use of renewable energy. The national targets set for contributions from renewable energy are as follows: 2001 4% (EXISTING) 2005 6% 2010 8% 2020 12% The 2005 target of 6% will be met at the end of 2004 when the 20MW wind farm at Wigton in Manchester is commissioned. It is expected that further wind (and hydropower) projects will allow the target of 8% to be met by 2010. The local energy sector continues to be guided by the overall objectives of the Energy Sector Policy developed in 1995 with the aim of ensuring stable and adequate energy supplies at the least economic cost. The objectives of the Energy Policy are to: i. promote the development of indigenous energy sources where appropriate, technically and economically feasible ii. encourage efficiency in energy production, conversion and use with the overall objectives of reducing the energy intensity of the economy iii. complement the country’s industry policy iv. fully protect the environment while ensuring that adequate supplies are available to the country to sustain the desired rate of economic growth v. foster, facilitate and encourage the development of all new and renewable energy sources where feasible but especially in the areas of hydropower, biomass, solar and wind. An important element in the promotion of conservation is the “Greening of Government” component of the GoJ/CIDA Environmental Action Programme (ENACT), which includes the development of an environmental stewardship policy, and guidelines that will further guide public sector entities on energy use and conservation. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 54 In 2001 Cabinet agreed that the PCJ, which already has responsibility for the accelerated implementation of the National Energy Policy, would: a) Continue the Demand Side Management Programme that was formally undertaken by the Jamaica Public Service Company (JPSCo) through a GEF funded demonstration project for both petroleum products and electricity on a nationwide basis; b) Promote and maintain public awareness programmes for securing the participation of all consumers; and c) Promote the more widespread use of alternative energy such as solar, hydropower and wind. Approval was also given for the creation of an Energy Fund to provide low-cost financing to enable the energy service company to meet the expenses of the desirable energy efficiency and alternative energy undertakings. The Energy Fund when established will provide financing for the energy sector as a whole including: Implementation of energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) by way of retrofitting plant and equipment through performance contracting; Purchase of solar water heaters for households, hotels and public buildings; Provision of compact fluorescent light, for example, at more competitive prices; Support of new and renewable energy projects The idea was to make it more attractive than is now the case for consumers (both commercial and domestic) to improve their efficiency in the use of energy and to utilise alternative sources, wherever feasible. Bilateral and multilateral sources will be approached for the support of this Fund. It will be a requirement for all public buildings that consume hot water (hospital, laboratories, official residences, etc.) to utilise solar energy for that purpose. Additionally, there is to be an encouragement of cogeneration on the part of medium to large scale users of electricity who also use steam on a daily basis. There will be a provision of tax relief for energy conservation retrofits, if even on a reimbursement basis, after the responsible Ministry certifies such retrofits as to cost ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 55 and efficiency gains. The PCJ was authorised to manufacture or import solar water heaters in competition with others and to release these to the trade at more attractive prices than consumers are now asked to pay from electric and gas heaters. The National Housing Trust and Building societies will be encouraged to find creative ways of accommodating a decrease in mortgage costs for homes in which solar water heaters are installed. Further, government is committed to the following: to encourage all electricity generating entities to continue the implementation of the loss reduction programmes; coordination between the transport sector and energy planning; to extend the appliance testing and labelling programme presently being carried out by the Bureau of Standards Jamaica to all appliances that use electric energy; promulgation and enforcement of the Energy Efficiency Building Code; and to make it a legal requirement for industrial boilers to be inspected annually. Based on all relevant national or regional reports prepared, please provide a summary of key national constraints (technical and institutional capacity, lack of financing, market distortions etc) related to the planning, production and distribution of sustainable energy resources and systems. 184.108.40.206 Constraints The plans for the Government’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programme reflect the areas of particular concern. It is considered that there is a need to encourage private sector participation and investments through a policy of divestment and the appropriate regulatory framework conducive to new investment. It is also critical for the general population to grasp the importance of and the need to take energy conservation and efficiency seriously. Although some public awareness programmes have been undertaken from time to time, they have not been sustained and were never able to secure the active participation of the consumer in a national energy conservation effort. Financing however is proving to be the greatest constraint as it relates to the planning, production and distribution of sustainable energy resources and systems. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 56 With respect to the Energy Fund, a Director of National Energy Conservation has been appointed to specifically establish the Fund and have it operational by 2004. However, sources of funding are still to be identified. The Fund is particularly important since the implementation of the recommended ECOs can attract high initial capital outlays. Lending institutions are not sufficiently aware of the economic financial viability and profitability of energy efficiency and conservation projects. Therefore loans are not readily available for such ventures. 6.1.6 Management of Wastes & Provision of Water and Sanitation Services List relevant national, sub-regional and/or regional projects related to the management of wastes and the provision of sanitation services. (Please indicate linkages cross-cutting projects/reports, for example waste and energy) Data from the 2001 census show that some 96.07 % of households had access to toilet facilities (water closet and pit toilets) in 2001; up from 92.83% in 1991. There was no significant change in the proportion of households without access to sanitary facilities in the 10-year period. In 2001 some 2.54% of households had no sanitary facilities as against 2.58% in 1991. In 1991, 27.4% of households were sharing toilet facilities; this declined to 21.1% in 2001. High-density areas such as Kingston and St. Andrew showed the highest level of sharing. Despite the steady improvement in the provision of water closets, a considerable proportion of households – 40.4% - still rely on pit latrines (these toilets dominate in 8 of the 14 parishes). Among the issues of concern are inappropriate disposal, seepage from defective toilets, the lack of connection to systems to hygienically dispose of human waste and the fact that a number of sewage treatment plants are non-functional. The Government of Jamaica recognises the need for the provision of adequate water and sanitation for the maintenance of health, to minimise the risk of diseases, improve living conditions and to push national development. Trade effluent and sewage effluent standards have been developed while sewage effluent and trade effluent regulations governing the location, maintenance, personnel qualifications and monitoring of operations are being developed. Draft guidelines and a draft policy for the management of medical wastes have also been prepared. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 57 Domestic and industrial wastes continue to increase each year. Although the amount of waste generated in Jamaica is comparable to rates of waste production in similar economies throughout the world, a significant problem is the disposal. Some of the programmes/projects dealing with the management of waste are outlined below. 220.127.116.11 The National Solid Waste Management Programme The National Solid Waste Management Programme (NSWMP) which is being implemented by the National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA), a statutory body under the Ministry of Local Government, Community Development and Sport, the country’s principal regulatory agency for the solid waste management sector. There are several components to the NSWMP including but not limited to: the development of a National Solid Waste Management Policy the enactment of the National Solid Waste Management Act, 2001. This piece of legislation, which inter alia, establishes the NSWMA and outlines its functions (section 4 of the Act), mandates: a. the licensing of contractors for the collection and transportation of different categories of solid waste; b. the licensing of persons or entities to operate solid waste disposal facilities and c. the appointment of persons to inspect disposal facilities d. instituting cost recovery measures e. regulating littering f. promoting public awareness the upgrading of the island’s major landfill site, Riverton City, to a sanitary landfill the closure of several dumpsites across the island and the upgrading of others to regional landfill sites the establishment of transfer stations across the island promotion of waste minimisation and recycling activities, and public education and awareness programmes and campaigns ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 58 18.104.22.168 UNDP/GOJ Waste Management Project This project has three (3) deliverables: a) a short-term strategy for the management of plastic packaging materials (PPM) b) a policy framework for the management of PPM in Jamaica, and c) a policy framework for the management of hazardous wastes in Jamaica Deliverables (a) and (b) above have been finalised and (c) is presently being completed. The policy framework for the management of hazardous waste is the precursor to the development of a hazardous waste management policy for Jamaica. This project is being implemented by the Ministry of Land and Environment. 22.214.171.124 Kingston Harbour Rehabilitation Project Kingston Harbour is Jamaica’s principal seaport and the seventh largest natural harbour in the World. The Government has sought an integrated approach to the rehabilitation of the Harbour. This involves the execution of a number of programmes spear-headed by the relevant public sector agencies in collaboration with members of the private sector, to address key issues relating to the Harbour, namely the management of sewage and ship-generated wastes, sedimentation, solid waste management, institutional strengthening, Rio Cobre Watershed management and public education and awareness raising. Two of the areas to be addressed are: a) Sewage Treatment – Soapberry Lands Approximately 20-25 million gallons of partially treated sewage flows into Kingston Harbour daily, from 2 primary sewage treatment plants. The National Water Commission (NWC), the country’s principal water and sanitation service provider, plans to rehabilitate these plants which will include the upgrading of the pumping systems and diverting the sewage flows towards government owned lands at Soapberry, located west of the capital. At the Soapberry site, there are plans to construct a new sewage treatment facility which will have the capacity to treat 30mgd of sewage. b) The management of ship-generated wastes Under the IDB Institutional Strengthening Support Environmental Management of Kingston Harbour Project, tender documents are being prepared for the construction ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 59 of a port reception facility for ship-generated wastes at the port of Kingston. This initiative is also in keeping with Jamaica’s obligations under the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, London (MARPOL 73/78). 126.96.36.199 GoJ/CIDA Waste Exchange Project The goals of this project are: improved efficiency, productivity and competitiveness create jobs opportunities, and reduction in the rate of environmental damage The sectors of primary focus for waste exchange are agriculture, construction, food and beverage, government agencies, mining and metals, manufacturing, transportation, energy and tourism. The main categories to be targeted within these sectors are agriculture and soils, building and demolition, chemicals and plastics, metals and motor vehicle parts, fuels, oils and fluids and paper and cardboard. Other projects dealing with waste management include the Hazardous Waste Inventory Project which is being implemented by the Chemistry Department, University of the West Indies; the Waste Oil Programme being implemented by the Motor Vehicle Repairers Association; and the Waste-to-Energy Programmes using bio digesters (see below), that are being promoted by the Scientific Research Council (SRC). There are also various small-scale waste management projects being co- ordinated by private sector companies, community based groups, civic organisations and schools (through the Jamaica Schools Environment Network). 188.8.131.52 Bio digester/Septic Tank The SRC is the major player and expert on anaerobic treatment technology in Jamaica promoting this technology with the implementation of cost effective and sustainable waste management systems. The significant work conducted by the SRC in this area is acknowledged by the fact that the company was awarded the International Green Apple Award for Environmental Best practices. The Green Apple Organisation recognises and publicises companies, corporations or individuals who are making an effort to preserve and protect the environment for future generations, with a Green Apple Award. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 60 184.108.40.206 Regional Waste Management Projects The following projects are being coordinated and supported by the Basel Convention sub-regional centre, Caribbean Research Institute (CARIRI), located in Trinidad: (i) waste lead-acid battery disposal (ii) waste oil project Jamaica is presently not included in these projects. (Based on all relevant national and regional reports prepared, please provide a summary of national constraints (technical and institutional capacity, lack of financing and infrastructure etc) related to the planning, development and implementation of waste management systems/services and sanitation services). 220.127.116.11 Constraints 1. There is presently no disposal/treatment facility to deal with either hazardous/medical waste. There is a proposal to allocate a hazardous waste cell as part of the upgrading exercise of the Riverton City landfill to a sanitary landfill. This may not be an adequate solution in the long term. 2. Financial constraint is the chief factor in the inadequate maintenance of existing sewage treatment plants and the development of new plants. 3. Training of personnel to maintain sewage treatment plants. The USAID/GOJ Coastal Water Quality Improvement Project had instituted a programme where a number of sewage treatment plant operators were trained. A framework document was also developed which made recommendations for the licensing and certification of wastewater operators 4. Sensitisation of the public to waste management issues and the role they can play in improving the national situation. (Please describe the progress made and constraints encountered in developing integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans in your country) 18.104.22.168 Integrated Water Resources Management The newly drafted and soon to be adopted National Water Policy is one of the many initiatives taken by the government to manage the country’s water resources, meet the demands and to provide the governance for the water and sanitation sector. The policy document clearly sets out the vision and objectives of the government and its agencies as well as the methodology to achieve the objectives. The policy recognises the ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 61 special circumstances of the island as a SIDS and its vulnerability to natural and man made hazards. Other initiatives at the national and regional levels include: a) The preparation of a national framework for the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The Organisation of American States (OAS) through the Caribbean Council for Science and Technology (CCST) provided the funding. The outputs to date include a national Framework for the implementation of IWRM. The major constraint to implementation has been the lack of the necessary capacity/expertise within the agencies and the lack of resources to generate the capacity. b) The development of a National Irrigation Development (Master) Plan (NIDP) that has mapped the irrigable lands across the island, identified the most suitable projects for these lands and has determined the water demands. The systems will be owned and operated by farmers through the formation of water users’ associations. The intention is for the major stakeholders (the farmers) to be involved in the development of the systems from the conception stage. c) The implementation of the Kingston Metropolitan Water Supply project which will have as an output the development of an integrated ground and surface water model to ensure that the management and supply of water resources will be in an integrated, sustainable and efficient manner. d) The provision of sewerage systems for the three major tourist areas was completed by the NWC. The systems were installed in Negril, Montego Bay and Ocho Rios. The sewage treatment systems will reduce the contamination of groundwater and reduce the discharge of untreated effluent into the coastal zone. The reduction of untreated waste into the coastal zone will lead to an improvement in water quality, protection of reefs and fish breeding areas. e) The establishment of the course in Integrated Water Resources Management at the University of the West Indies through the efforts of the Water Resources Authority which is aimed at strengthening the regional capacity to assess and provide integrated management water resources as well as to develop projects in an integrated and sustainable manner. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 62 f) The formation of the Caribbean Water Partnership to foster regional co-operation in integrated water resources management. This regional association will lead the exchange of technology and information to improve water resources management in the small island states of the Caribbean. g) The implementation of the regional project on saline intrusion into coastal karstic aquifers. This regional project is a cooperative effort between Jamaica, Barbados and Antigua. The objective of the project is to develop operational strategies and management models to ensure that groundwater can be optimally developed from coastal karstic aquifers without inducing saline intrusion into the aquifers. The project, which will last for three years, is in its second year. h) The development of programmes of horizontal co-operation between the small island states of the Caribbean to assist governments to develop and implement water monitoring programmes, water resources assessments and integrated water resources plans. i) The signing of an MOU with the South Pacific Islands (SOPAC) and the Maldives to improve co-operation between small island developing countries in water resources matters and climate change impacts. The agreement recognises the similarity between the small island states and the need for greater representation to secure funding for their special vulnerability to sea level rise and saline intrusion of coastal aquifers and freshwater lenses. Constraints The major constraint to the successful and timely execution of these initiatives has been the lack of financial resources to provide either the full funding or the counterpart resources in the case of internationally funded projects. The debt ceiling also impacts on the acceptance of offers for the development of water supply projects where government guarantees are required. Giving these guarantees would further raise the debt ceiling with adverse economic impacts. In some instances the lack of clear policy and long term plans hamper the access to loan funds. This was one reason for the development of the National Water Policy, the National Water Resources Master Plan, the National Irrigation Development Plan and the NWC’s corporate/business plan. The strengthening of legislation such as the promulgation of the Water Resources Act 1995, the amendments to the National Water Commission Act and the passing of the National Irrigation Act, enable more sustainable management and optimal supply of ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 63 water to all sectors in an equitable, cost effective and timely manner. The new legislation now being drafted includes the Water Services Act that will set out the conditions for the private sector involvement in the provision of water, remove the NWC from it monopoly position and allow for greater stakeholder participation in the management of water resources. The second piece of legislation is to harmonise the regulation and operations carried out under the Floodwater Control Act. The objective is to remove the regulation from the operations with the former responsibilities being expanded to include flood plain mapping, the approval of structural and non-structural methods for flood protection and the preparation of maps to guide planning and development to minimise risks and the impact of flood events on life and property (disaster mitigation). 6.1.7 Tourism List relevant national, sub-regional and/or regional projects related to development and implementation of sustainable tourism practices and services. (Please indicate linkages or cross- cutting projects/reports, for example tourism and ecosystem management) 22.214.171.124 Projects 126.96.36.199.1 The Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development (2001-2011) Tourism is a major productive sector, with a critically important role in the growth and development of the country’s economy. In fact, tourism is Jamaica’s major foreign exchange earner. It however has influence on settlement patterns, infrastructure development, town planning and the use of natural resources. Tourists are becoming more and more interested in new experiences and products and in interacting with the host community. They are increasingly consensus that they can cause environmental damage and that their presence may be resented. In creating the Master Plan it was realised that Jamaica’s tourism industry has to respond by enlarging the scope of the visitor experience outside of the confines of the traditional tourism products. To achieve sustainability however, , the key requirements are to ensure that tourism develops in line with the aspirations and culture of local communities, that benefits are spread evenly and that the environment is protected. The Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism development is designed to provide a comprehensive framework for the future development of Jamaica’s Tourism industry. It aims to: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 64 provide a comprehensive planning framework for the development of the tourism industry articulate a vision of the future direction, shape and composition of the industry to guide the actions of the stakeholders to a common goal and purpose. detail the sequencing of the major programmes, roles and responsibilities of the major players a, institutional arrangements, resources requirements. The Master Plan announces five key objectives to support the principles of sustainable growth and development. These are: a. Growth based on a sustainable market position – this includes promoting the unique Jamaican Heritage, natural surroundings, culture, history, historic buildings and sites. b. Enhancement of the visitor experience c. Community-based development – This will see a more participatory approach at the local level, including parish development committees and the Social Development Commission and other relevant agencies and organisations. d. An inclusive industry e. Environmental sustainability – improvement in environmental management are preconditions for the level of growth being recommended. The Ministry with responsibility for Tourism is the lead agency in the implementation of the Master Plan. The Plan outlines key actions, strategies and initiatives that need to be taken to implement the plan. Actions enunciated include, among others: a. establishing a Heritage Fund and a Heritage and Community Support Unit within the Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo) b. finalising environmental management plans within marine park trusts in 2 of the islands main tourist centres c. establishing mechanisms for undertaking environmental audits d. ensuring that marine parks have commenced expenditure on capital projects to increase coral cover 188.8.131.52.2 Environmental Audits For Sustainable Tourism (EAST) The EAST project is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity, coordinated through the Jamaica Hotel & Tourist Association (JHTA) and the Jamaica Manufacturers Association (JMA) to assist the tourism and ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 65 manufacturing industries in their implementation of effective environmental management systems. Since its introduction to Jamaica in 1997, the Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST) Project has had unquestionable impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, especially in the area of environmental reforms within private sectors operations. By becoming “Green properties”, these tourism entities will be required to establish environmental management systems which incorporates ISO 14000 standards. Entities therefore should reflect energy efficiency, water conservation and waste management practices. Over 50 hotels underwent environmental auditing and or assessments and over thirty of them actively implemented EMS in their operations. At least 19 have been Green Globe certified and over 15 Manufacturing companies have been audited and in the process of setting up EMS preparing for ISO 1401 certification. Jamaica has the distinction of being the first country in the world in a number of “Greening” initiatives including Negril and Port Antonio becoming the first destinations in the world to have hotels selected, audited and registered for Green Globe certification. In addition, two (2) attractions, YS Falls and Green Grotto Caves became the first attractions in the world to receive Green Globe Certification. The Runaway Bay HEART Hotel and Training Institute became the first hotel training school in the world to become Green Globe certification, with a “Green” curriculum in place. Through the project, stakeholders in the hospitality and tourism sector have become more aware of the importance of environmental management. The reduction in energy, water and fuel usage through the implementation of appropriate environmental management systems is usually reflected in their financial statement’s bottom line. EAST continues to work with the key sectors, NGO’s, Community Organisations and Government Agencies to promote environmental stewardship in their day-to-day practices. The project will be working with 22 communities, NGO’s and small business enterprises to implement environmental programmes and promote sustainable development. 184.108.40.206.3 Blue Flag Programme In October 2002 with the assistance of USAID through the Coastal Water quality Improvement Project (CWIP) a pilot project was started on four beaches and one marina for the Blue Flag certification. This is the premier environmental certification for ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 66 beaches, and marinas worldwide. The criteria for awarding Blue Flag certification has to do with water quality, safety, environmental management and environmental education. These types of environmental certification heighten the attractiveness and profile of Jamaica as a tourist destination and increase our competitiveness for foreign direct investment in the sector. 220.127.116.11.4 Small Tourism Enterprise Project The Small Tourism Enterprise Project (STEP), jointly funded by the OAS and the USAID assists Jamaica’s small hotels (75 rooms and under) in improving their ability to compete in the global marketplace. The programme was designed to assist and support small tourism enterprises, in a wide range of areas including marketing, technology, management, upgrading of physical product, coaching and training, environmental management, and community- based tourism development. Over 50 hotels in Jamaica have benefited through the STEP Programme since 2001. A STEP Resource Centre, the ninth in the region, was recently opened in Ocho Rios to provide easy access to resources such as training videos, manual, toolkits and has in place facilities for internet access. Please provide a brief summary of any community-based initiatives on sustainable tourism aimed at building capacity necessary to diversify tourism products, while protecting culture and traditions and effectively conserving and managing natural resources. 18.104.22.168.5 South Coast Sustainable Development Project The general objective of this project is to promote sustainable management of the region’s natural (terrestrial and marine) and cultural resources, while simultaneously diversifying the economy of the region and increasing the incomes and livelihood of its population. The specific objectives are: i) to raise the profile of the South Coast as the Caribbean’s new destination for nature tourism; ii) to improve the management of the South Coast’s natural and cultural assets and iii) to provide incentives and assist institutions, both public and private, and community groups in sustainable resource use and management ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 67 These objectives will be achieved through the implementation of components including: tourism development, protected area management and infrastructure development, fisheries improvement and capacity building and institutional development. 6.1.8 Trade Please provide a brief summary of any community-based initiatives related to trade practices and services, including those that aim to diversify exports. With the onset of globalisation and the phasing out of preferential trade arrangements, increased emphasis is being placed on export diversification and the identification of new export markets. In this regard a number of initiatives have been undertaken at the community level in a range of sectors including: Agriculture: the production of new varieties of yam (e.g. Miniset) in rural communities for export; the development of Sea Island Cotton; ornamental fish farming; the cultivation of brine shrimp, export of fresh produce and horticulture. Public education programmes have been developed to encourage sustainable agricultural production and greater respect for the environment in farming practices. Through the media of the Rural Agricultural Development Association (RADA), farmers’ co- operatives and export development agencies, inter alia, farmers have been assisted to adopt a sustainable development approach to the use of pesticides, crop rotation and other farming practices. Tourism: the promotion of community-based tourism (e.g. Meet the People Programme); heritage tourism, eco-tourism. As outlined earlier, the Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism recognises the integral role of communities, as entrepreneurs and service providers, in the industry. In this regard, stronger linkages have been fostered with sports, entertainment and the productive sectors while focusing on environmental management and protection. Manufacturing: the production of essential oils, fragrances and apparel exports as growth areas in the sector. Support has been provided for micro-enterprise development in a range of areas together with the provision of export credit facilities. Greater cooperation between the Government and the private sector has been encouraged particularly with the signing in October 2002 of an MOU between the Government and the Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 68 Provide a list of key national constraints that are trade related and have impacted on Sustainable Development in the country. 22.214.171.124 Constraints The following have been identified as constraints: 1. Predominance of small-scale agricultural production (over 75% of farm holdings are 5 acres and less) and dependence on a small range of primary exports 2. Lack of resources for adequate agricultural extension services 3. Need for enhanced training in global intellectual property systems 4. Budgetary constraints that impact on participation in trade negotiations 5. Need for funding to strengthen the consultation process with the farming community and other stakeholders in the productive sectors 6. Need for funding to support institutional strengthening at the multi-sectoral level, human resource development and capacity building, particularly in trade- oriented areas 7. Inadequate support for public education on environmental issues 8. Need for assistance in the maintenance of international standards both for production and export 9. Need for assistance in the conduct of multi-disciplinary impact assessment studies 10. Significant capacity building support is required to enhance Jamaica’s efforts to confront the demands of the global trade environment. Specific support is required in the areas of trade impact assessment on various sectors, funding for participation in trade fairs and exhibitions as well as sustained training programmes for trade negotiators and policy makers. 11. Budgetary constraints have affected the country’s ability to ensure consistency in representation in multilateral trade negotiations. Jamaica has benefited from multilateral support (WTO, EU et al) in relation to the funding of trade officers to participate in specific aspects of trade negotiations as well as short and medium term internships and training courses associated with these negotiations. Inter- agency consultations, coupled with in-country visits by trade experts/consultants has resulted in some transfer of knowledge to individuals and institutions involved in the trade negotiation process. Describe any national, sub-regional or regional initiatives which are currently underway that ensure that due account is taken of Small Island Developing States in the World Trade Organisation work Programme on Trade in small economies and within the context of the Doha development agenda. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 69 There have been no major initiatives within the WTO on SIDS although a Work Programme on Small Economies was developed in the aftermath of the Doha Ministerial Meeting in November 2001. Given the fragile consensus that was achieved with regard to the inclusion of support for small economies in the Ministerial Declaration, there has not been much scope for a further targeting of SIDS as part of the process. Very little progress has therefore been made on the Work Programme. In the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), however, a Consultative Group on Small Economies is in operation and some progress has been made in securing recognition for the trade, economic and development concerns of the small economies within the Caribbean. The GoJ has vigorously promoted measures to enhance the island’s ability to respond to the challenges of the hemispheric and international trade agenda. International donor support has been sought to facilitate training of trade negotiators as well as in the provision of resource material. Through the establishment of the Caribbean Institute of Technology, Jamaica has been developing a highly skilled cadre of software developers and information technology specialists to support the expansion of the services sector and boost business innovation. In addition, JAMPRO in collaboration with the private sector has developed an E-business platform as a means of assisting businesses to promote their goods and services to a wider audience. These measures have also been complemented by the introduction of productivity incentive schemes at the multi-sectoral level. In recognition of the increased complexities and challenges arising from the international trade agenda, Jamaica embarked on a comprehensive review of its trade policy in 2000-2001. A significant outcome of this review was the creation of the Jamaica Trade and Adjustment Team (JTAT) to promote multi-stakeholder participation in all aspects of trade negotiations in which Jamaica is involved. Moreover, through its active membership in CARICOM, the Alliance of Small Island Developing States (AOSIS) and the Africa Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), Jamaica contributes to efforts aimed at establishing a common position on trade and environmental issues of importance to developing countries and SIDS in particular. Capacity building lies at the heart of efforts to develop a positive agenda for future trade negotiations. Jamaica has therefore sought to develop a greater understanding of the linkages between trade, environment and development and to design policy responses to these linkages in order to secure the crucial objective of sustainable development. Additional bilateral and multilateral support is required to assist our efforts in this regard. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 70 Jamaica continues to lobby for measures to guarantee the provision of special and differential treatment to SIDS in the WTO and other multilateral fora. Jamaica has supported efforts to ensure recognition of the constraints faced by SIDS in fulfilling their obligations under the various multilateral agreements and has called on developed countries to engage in sustained capacity building and technology transfer partnerships with SIDS. Jamaica therefore contributes to the development of the work programme on special and differential treatment provisions within the WTO in order to make them more “precise, effective and operational” as endorsed by the Doha Ministerial Conference in November 2001. Various initiatives (JTAT et al) have been developed to encourage greater participation and collaboration between public and private sector entities as well as NGOs involved in analysing the dispute settlement mechanisms in international trade agreements. Emphasis has been placed on the acquisition of training opportunities in dispute settlement in the WTO especially as negotiations are underway to improve and clarify the Dispute Settlement Understanding within that body. Additional financial support would also be required to facilitate the participation of home-based policy makers in the ongoing negotiations. Jamaica is concerned that market access continues to be a major challenge at a time when most countries have expressed commitment to the removal of barriers to trade. In addition, the erosion of trade preferences is expected to have a major impact on employment, agro-industrial development and the generation of foreign exchange inflows. Through the work of JAMPRO and other agencies, Jamaica has encouraged the formation of joint venture operations and other forms of foreign direct investment to improve the scope of access to overseas markets. The thrust to attain international standards and certification is a further attempt to confront the challenges associated with market access. Jamaica’s long-standing policy of concluding Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITS) and Double Taxation Agreements with major trading partners is also designed to improve conditions for market access. Moreover, as part of a CARICOM strategy, renewed emphasis is being placed on the conclusion of free trade agreements with countries within the hemisphere and this is expected to generate increased market opportunities for Jamaica and other Member States. Economic and trade diversification have long been at the forefront of the sustainable development programme of the Government of Jamaica. In 1996 a National ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 71 Industrial Policy was developed to underpin a process of economic diversification and provide a framework for the transformation of the island’s productive capacity. At the domestic level, various studies have been undertaken to identify viable product alternatives and opportunities for the creation of niche markets. In this regard, non-traditional exports have been developed in a range of areas including agriculture and health. Product diversification has been undertaken in some sectors although more technical support is needed for research and development in this area. With the increased focus on the services sector, Jamaica has made a commitment to strengthen its capacity in this area particularly in relation to tourism as well as data processing and information technology. A number of measures also exist to support micro-enterprise development in a range of sectors. Greater access to credit facilities and increased technical and financial support for business development at the community level would be welcomed in this area. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 72 6.2 CROSS-SECTORAL AREAS 6.2.1 Financing and Investment for Sustainable Development (List national, sub-regional and regional initiatives in the areas of financing and investment for sustainable development that are related to your country. Identify the key problems and constraints encountered in securing financing/investment for SD at the national level.) 126.96.36.199 National Initiatives for financing SD The means for financing sustainable development initiatives, including environmental management and conservation, have been a challenge for Jamaica. In considering solutions several paths have been taken, leading to a wide range of initiatives. SD is being financed inter alia by economic instruments, command and control mechanisms and the establishment of environmental funds. The fund under the Environmental Foundation of Jamaica, which is the result of a debt-for-nature swap between the GOJ and US Government, also serves to increase the capacity of NGOs, which have significant roles in the successful implementation of the SD framework and policies. The “polluter pays” principle is already applied, but some regulations need revisions for increasing fines to punitive levels. Other instruments include the creation of incentives for the private sector, industries, private landowners, etc. to behave in environmentally responsible ways and thereby increase the chances of sustainable use of the resources. Efforts towards greening the government’s budget (i.e., changes in the structure of taxes, fees and incentives) and a removal of policy distortions are ongoing. 17 New charges are being considered, one of which is an ‘environmental levy’ on the importation of PET bottles of various sizes. The proceeds of the levy would be shared between the National Solid Waste Management Authority for solid waste collection, and the NEPA for environmental protection and conservation initiatives. The overarching principle is that the incentives, charges, fees etc, would not only achieve environmental goals but also those of social equity, economic growth or both. Identification of such strategies is very important because successful application can help in sustaining political will to continue the path of sustainable development. 17 Blommenstein, E. ECLAC: Issues In The Implementation Of SIDS Programme of Action ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 73 188.8.131.52 Challenges and Constraints Recognition has been made regionally of the need to share experiences and resources and coordinate at a regional level. The challenge will be for the organisations to agree on a distribution of duties and responsibilities in view of often overlapping mandates, so as to utilise the comparative advantages of each one. Resources will have to be pooled and full advantage taken of existing infrastructures. Of note however is the fact that international aid is much needed to assist the sustainable development efforts in developing countries. Overseas development assistance (ODA) however continues to decline despite pledges from developed countries at the Rio Summit. Given the current economic crisis in the country, this translates into less available local financing for sustainable development efforts. It is considered that the international community will be more effective and its efforts more enduring, when greater emphasis is placed on capacity building in the public and private sectors and in organisations of civil society. Harmonising the requirements for administering assistance programmes stipulated by all the international donor agencies, across agencies and simplifying them would go a far way in reducing the administrative costs of the recipient organisations and institutions. The international community will need to build the capacities of NGO’s for financing their administrative expenses, meaningful participation in policy-making and implementation if the NGO’s are to survive. Jamaica, like most SIDS, will require special and differential treatment under the WTO rules to manage its vulnerabilities and to facilitate the transition to a liberal economy engaging globalisation. The smoother the transition, the greater will be the chances for success in the pursuit of sustainable development. List national, sub regional and regional initiatives in the areas of institutional capacity and coordination for SD that are related to your country, such as membership in relevant regional organisations and mechanisms List national, sub regional and regional initiatives in the area of human resource (capacity) development for SD that are related to your country, such as cooperation between national mechanisms and regional and inter-regional mechanisms. Identify key problems and constraints encountered in the areas of institutional capacity and coordination for SD at the national level. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 74 6.2.2 Capacity Building and Coordination 184.108.40.206 Initiatives in the Area of Institutional Capacity: The Environmental Action Programme (ENACT) is a C$15m 10-year project, which is scheduled to come to an end in 2004. The goal of ENACT is to promote sustainable development in Jamaica by supporting the capacity development of key institutions in the public sector, private sector, education sector and communities to manage and use natural resources and the environment in a sustainable way. Achievements in capacity building include the recognition of the environment as an explicit ministerial portfolio responsibility, the empowerment of the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), and its subsequent consolidation in April 2001 into the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA) (see section 6.14). The Management Institute for National Development (MIND) has already begun to build its capacity to deliver courses in the areas of environment and sustainable development in order to become the repository of SD-related skills and knowledge. 6.2.3 Constraints Support is needed to enhance management and organisational skills, develop human resources, and thereby build capacity to implement sustainable development planning activities. Support is also needed in the areas of information gathering and management for SD, monitoring, enforcement and evaluation as well as resource mobilisation. These broad gaps are relevant to all levels, including the national, regional/parish level and the local level. However, they are particularly visible when it comes to required capacities at the regional/parish level. One area in which there is need for priority attention in capacity development is in the preparation of drafting instructions for legislation. There are also constraints to implementation of enforcement activities, and lack of funds hampers the relevant agencies in hiring sufficient investigative and field personnel to adequately carry out enforcement activities. In the government, at the national level, although SD is now recognised as a clear priority, the challenge is in building a central government function to steer the SD ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 75 process in Jamaica. There is also a long-term challenge to build strategic planning capacity and capacity to manage and mobilise resources around strategic priorities across government departments. At the regional/parish level there are capacity constraints in terms of adequate information and planning skills for SD, as well as the capacity to mobilise financial resources to sustain Local Sustainable Development Planning (LSDP) functions in the medium term and in all parishes. Numerous opportunities still remain to build capacity for environmental education for SD at all levels of civil society. The Environmental NGO (ENGO) sector has a crucial role to play in relation to all main capacity functions for SD. 3 Engaging the private sector remains a priority and further capacity development support will be required to address the challenges related to the governing institutions of that sector. The capacity of the environment consulting sector is also limited in terms of responding to an eventual demand for environmental services, should the efforts aimed at engaging the private sector in integrating environmental issues yield results. The NGO sector has a crucial role to play in relation to all main capacity functions for SD, but in particular for: information gathering and management for SD (including in particular public awareness raising as just noted); implementation of SD initiatives (in particular at the local level); monitoring and enforcement for SD (‘watchdog’ function); and human, environmental and financial resource mobilization in support of SD. Building capacity in the ENGOs to perform such a role requires a long- term holistic programme approach which is as yet not very well tackled in Jamaica in both the government sector and donor assistance schemes. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 76 7 The Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development in SIDS Jamaica’s National Report on the Millennium Development Goals is being prepared for the Planning Institute of Jamaica through funding from the United Nations Development Programme. The following sections of the SIDS report are largely based on the draft MDG report. 7.1 Poverty Eradication Describe any current national efforts and initiatives related to the eradication of poverty that could contribute to the international accepted target of reducing by half the number of people living in poverty by 2015. Please include any information on existing national constraints (capacity, financial and institutional) related to achieving the goal of poverty eradication. Examples of national initiatives could include: a. Development of national poverty reduction strategies, including local and community development programmes that promote the needs of poor. b. Support for local authorities in urban development and improve lives of slum dwellers. c. Improved access to credit, housing and employment opportunities for the urban and rural poor. d. Support for natural resource management with a view to creating sustainable livelihoods for the poor. With regard to the MDG to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, the country has been assessed as being on track to meet the target of halving, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. Analysis shows that the poverty gap index, an indicator of the mean depth of poverty as a proportion of the poverty line, is reasonably acceptable, showing a decrease over the years since 1994 (see table below).18 18 Neville Duncan and Aldrie Henry-Lee - DRAFT MDG Report submitted to the PIOJ ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 77 Year Poverty Gap (%) 1994 6.0 1997 4.9 1999 4.4 2001 4.6 The main concerns are public and private poverty19 in rural areas and in some marginalised urban communities,20 although urban poverty continues to be a serious problem. (See section 4.1 above and Appendix III). 7.2 Education and Reduction of Child Mortality Describe current national efforts and initiatives related to provision of universal primary education and the reduction of child mortality in the country, bearing in mind the internationally agreed target date of 2015. Please include information on existing national constraints (capacity, financial and institutional) Jamaica has already met the MDG to ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Based on the data available, Jamaica has achieved universal primary education, with the net enrollment ratio for the primary school age group (6-11 years) increasing over the years from 93.7% in 1994 to 98.6% in 1999 and 96.2% in 2001. The other indicator, which is the literacy rate among 15-24 year olds, increased from 86.5 in 1987 to 92.6 in 1999. In recognition of education as an important parameter for human development in Jamaica, the government has improved physical access to educational facilities. The Policy on Education, 2001: ‘The Way Upward - A Path for Jamaica’s Education at the Start of the New Millennium’, represents the commitment by the GoJ to engage the people of Jamaica in the development of human resources as a primary tool for economic and social development. The Policy addresses illiteracy at the primary 19 Private Poverty is defined as a condition in which people do not have the means to live above a minimum standard usually referred to as the poverty line which is determined annually. Public Poverty is defined as a condition in which a community lacks such basic amenities and infrastructure as piped water, toilet, electricity, roads, sanitation, etc. This in turn affects the life chances of the residents of the community. Within public poverty there may be Resource (or capability) poverty which is the most vital link in sustainable development and the ultimate eradication of poverty. It refers to those who are deprived of access to such private and public resources as a basic education, basic health care, basic housing, transportation, healthy environment, water and employment. Acquisition of these resources gives one the capability to escape from poverty and to fulfil one's potential.. 20 Draft MDG Report ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 78 level by stipulating that the automatic promotion of students in the primary schools is not allowed beyond the grade 4 level and that remediation in reading must take place to ensure that students in grades 5 and 6 are reading at an appropriate level. A large proportion of the budget continues to be reserved for the education sector. These budgetary allocations have been augmented by funds accessed from bilateral and multilateral agencies, the private sector and NGO’s. For the 2002/3 FY the government allocated some 10.4% of its total budget to education – an increase of 8.9% over the previous year. The major share of the overall budget for education (35%) was allocated to the primary level. The National Environmental Education Action Plan for Sustainable development (described above) is the national framework document that seeks to harmonise environmental education action towards measurable results related to Jamaican citizens in a sustainable future. It embodies the elements of knowledge, attitudes, and skills together with an orientation, which encourages action to achieve improved environmental health in the cause of sustainable development. The major concerns as far as the goal on universal primary education is concerned include: 1. the quality of access especially among the poor and in the rural areas. 2. the need for special policy attention to boys 3. greater efforts are needed to improve general school attendance. 7.3 Gender equality and empowerment of women Describe current national efforts and initiatives related to gender equality and the empowerment of women, bearing in mind the internationally agreed target date of 2015. Please include information on existing national constraints (capacity, financial and institutional). Gender mainstreaming is one strategy used to ensure that policy makers assess the differential impact of decisions on men and women and incorporate the assessment into public policies, planning and administration. The Planning Institute of Jamaica has developed a Gender Equity Instrument to be used in mainstreaming gender into the Government s project cycle. The guidelines for Cabinet Submissions require that due consideration be given to gender issues in policy development. To support this, the Policy Unit, Cabinet Office has organised training in gender awareness for policy analysts within the public sector. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 79 Steps have also been made with respect to the empowering of women and promotion of gender equality in all spheres of life, including the reduction in forms of discrimination of the girl child, and the promotion of male participation. New legislation and legal reform measures as well as legislation enacted from as early as the 1970s (such as Equal Pay and maternity leave) and the continued work of the Bureau of Women’s Affairs have been the main initiative of the government promoting the empowerment of women. A Child Care Protection Act is presently before Parliament which provides for protection against the sexual exploitation of girls, addressing the age of consent. The Act also widens the scope of persons able to take action to protect the rights of children where abuse is suspected. Other important legislative developments include: Enactment of the Domestic Violence Act (1995) which was devised to address the increase of violence within the home and also to remove such acts of violence from the ambit of criminal law to civil law. Amendments now being done on the Incest Punishment Act, the Family Property (Rights of Spouses) Act and the Offences Against the Person Act Drafting of a Sexual Harassment Act In terms of policies, the Women’s Centre of Jamaica Foundation, the Ministry of Justice and other stakeholders are working on policies to ensure re-entry to the formal education system for teenage mothers. The National Policy on Women, 1987 and the National Plan of Action, 1990 were reviewed in light of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995 and 2000) and other international conventions and charters. Capacity development initiatives include the collaboration between the Inter- American Development Bank and the HEART Trust/NTA to provide non-traditional skills training in several vocational areas (e.g. construction, computer repairs) to women from low income and marginalised communities. The Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) through its Social Services and Home Economics Unit focuses on rural women and improving their skills certain areas including in small business operations. Additionally, Women’s organisations and the men’s group Father Incorporated conduct workshops in schools and with men in communities on gender equality and gender relations. The women’s Centre of Jamaica Foundation for example through its Youth Activity Programme provides information and services to promote women’s rights and their empowerment. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 80 In respect of gender-based violence, there has been a national campaign involving several initiatives. Most noticeable are the various public events held each year in observance of the International Day against Violence against Women. 7.3.1 Constraints Limited financial and human resources to enable extensive and sustained programmes often result in pilot projects which lack continuity and is a limitation on organisations initiating programmes targeting gender. Other difficulties encountered in carrying out such social programmes include the entrenched attitudes of male dominance which impact on how messages on gender equity are received. In addition, the high levels of male underachievement in schools and involvement of male youth in crime and violence have raised concern about male marginalisation and to some extent this reduces the willingness of persons in the society to talk about women’s needs and rights. Despite progress made, women face some major challenges. Jamaica remains a patriarchal society with larger proportions of males in the top-management and decision making positions. Unemployment rates for women also remain higher than those for males. Other challenges include the high HIV/AIDS rate among women and the inadequate number of homes of safety for women. In terms of achieving the goal of eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the general state of progress towards this goal can be said to be ‘lagging’. 7.4 HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Describe current national, sub regional and regional efforts and initiative related to combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other vector borne diseases, bearing in mind the internationally agreed target date of 2015. Please include information on existing national constraints (capacity, financial and institutional). The high incidence of HIV/AIDS continues to be cause for grave concern and concerted action by the government and international agencies. HIV/AIDS is considered a sustainable development issue and not only a health concern. More than 50% of HIV/AIDS cases have occurred among persons aged 15-39, the prime productive and reproductive group, and HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death among the 30-34 age group. The prevalence of AIDS has been doubling every two years in Jamaica compared with 4 years in the Caribbean region. Preliminary results from a ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 81 Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC)/UWI study suggested that by 2005 HIV/AIDS could cost Jamaica up to 6.4% of GDP. With the Caribbean ranked second in the world behind southern Africa in terms of AIDS infection rate, the issue of HIV/AIDS has now become a national priority especially in a country that accommodates a large number of visitors yearly. Local programmes such as Jamaica AIDS Support to assist those individuals infected with the virus have in recent times been struggling financially. The fight against HIV/AIDS and the reorganisation of the public health system are therefore now the major thrusts of policy. In response to the threat to sustainability the Jamaica HIV/AIDS/STI National Strategic Plan 2002-2006 was developed and tabled in Parliament. Broad policy issues on stigma and discrimination, protection of privacy and confidentiality and access to care are addressed by the national plan. A five-year investment programme of approximately J$1.2 billion was also developed to stem the spread of HIV/AIDS and improve treatment care and provide support for AIDS patients as well as to strengthen the capacity to address their needs. Measures have been taken primarily in the context of behaviour change/information and education programmes associated with the HIV/AIDS/STI safe sex campaigns. 7.4.1 Constraints HIV/AIDS is a threat to the development of Jamaica as the most economically active and productive members of the population die prematurely. It impacts on all age and socioeconomic groups and can slow or reverse the gains that have been achieved in life expectancy. While global collaboration will be necessary, strong leadership will be needed to ensure that prevention, treatment and support remain a part of national development plans. Focus must be placed on high-risk individuals and the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections, which are cofactors for HIV transmission. Difficulties encountered in relation to combating HIV/AIDS include changing behaviour to include safe sex practices, particularly among women. In addition, there is a limit to the extent to which persons are comfortable communicating about their sexuality and about issues of reproductive health. Male socialisation also impacts on men’s health practices and their willingness to seek health care. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 82 7.5 Environmental Sustainability Describe current national, sub regional and regional efforts and initiatives related to ensuring environmental sustainability, bearing in mind the internationally agreed target date of 2015. Please include information on existing national constraints (capacity, financial and institutional). The MDG on environmental sustainability speaks to the integration of the principles of sustainable development into the country’s policies and program and a reversal of the loss of environmental resources. The indicators for the achievement of this goal are: proportion of land area covered by forest ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area, energy use per unit of GDP carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural. The goal of halving, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water has been met. According to the MDG report, Jamaica seems to be on track towards meeting these goals, although progress is inhibited by poverty. In 1990, 61.2% of persons had piped water and in 2001 this increased to 70.9%.21 The proportion of land area covered by forests has shown a slight decline over the years. In 1998, there were approximately 332,000 hectares of natural forests and over 8,000 hectares of pine forests and broad leaf species plantations in Jamaica. Only 30% of the island has natural forests remaining and so steps are taken to protect as much of it as possible. By comparing land cover data for the period 1989 and 1998 it was determined that loss in forest cover amounted to 3,304 ha, which is equivalent to an annual rate of 0.1 %. This loss was due largely to bauxite mining. A total of 8 terrestrial and marine areas have been declared protected under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act. This represents 13.3% or 146,000 ha of the total land area of Jamaica and 181,500 ha of marine space. 21 Draft MDG Report. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 83 7.6 Global Partnership for Development Describe current national, sub-regional and regional efforts aimed at fostering partnerships for SD in your country. Please provide a list of key existing national constraints related to the planning, development and implementation of partnerships for SD. This MDG examines several aspects of global cooperation such as official development assistance (ODA), market access, debt sustainability, access to essential drugs and access to improved technology. The specific targets and indicators include: making available the benefits of new technologies especially information and communication; cooperation with developed countries to implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth and; providing access to affordable, essential drugs. According to the draft National MDG report, there is a paucity of data for several indicators. In 2000, the proportion of ODA allocated to basic social services was 16.7 %. In keeping with the targets of the MDG the government in cooperation with the private sector agreed the benefits of new technologies (information and communication), which must be made available to citizens. Some evidence of significant advance has been seen over the years. Telephone lines and cellular connections increased from 4.7 percent in 1990 to 46.9 per 100 in 2001. Personal computers are now accessible with 5 in every 100 persons owning a computer. There is room for significant improvement. The number of Internet users is also on the increase with 3.85 persons in every 5 persons having access to the Internet. There are several government policies and programmes related to this MDG. The major concerns in relation to this goal are the debt burden and slow economic recovery as well as limited public expenditure on basic social services. In assessing the likelihood of achieving this target, Jamaica is on track to reaching the target although the state of the supportive environment has been described as weak but improving. Sustained economic growth and debt management are keys to achieving this goal. Additionally, stronger regulatory systems are necessary to avoid financial collapse, improved data monitoring is essential and there needs to be increased capacity of the PIOJ to help improve its delivery of coordinative function. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 84 8. Emerging Concerns and Special Needs (Please provide information on any emerging concerns or special needs that have not been discussed above. This could include, for example, the impacts of the global drug trade, the role of exogenous fiscal shocks, etc. This section could also be used to summarize project partnership proposals /concepts that have not been able to secure financing. Special initiatives that could be discussed at the upcoming regional and inter-regional level could also be enumerated.) 8.1 The Role of Culture in the development of SIDS The Caribbean is known to have contributed much to the world culturally, most notably in indigenous music – reggae, calypso, soca, merengue, salsa, zouk & steel pan – as well as through the literary arts, food, Rastafarian religion and culture; and produced many outstanding writers, producers, artists, musicians, actors and dancers. However, most of the regions’ artists cannot sustain themselves on a full-time basis in their area of creativity. They either have to seek other jobs to supplement their income, or migrate to other metropolitan centres to develop their skills and earn a living, most frequently to the United States and the United Kingdom. This represents a significant loss to the region socially and economically, and especially to the unique expression of the Caribbean people. Greater emphasis on culture and cultural development is recommended in the design of a national and regional strategy for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States, as any development strategy for Jamaica and the region should be located in a cultural framework; that is, such a plan should be cognisant of and responsive to the unique historical and cultural realities of the people. The cultural development that is envisioned is not only in the traditional areas and ways in which culture has typically been conceptualised – as identity, as heritage, as diversity and as the related institutions that have evolved to preserve and amplify those dimensions – but also culture as it relates to trade and economics. There are significant socio-cultural and economic benefits to be derived from developing cultural and entertainment industries in areas such as music, art, craft, the literary and culinary arts, fashion, festivals, theatre and film. The potential for transforming the wealth of creativity that resides in the people into commercially viable activities and exports for job and wealth creation is tremendous and largely untapped in the region. Further, the diversification of Jamaican and Caribbean economies through these innovative, indigenous industries should be viewed as an indispensable component of ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 85 any development strategy to assist Caribbean countries to make the necessary adjustments to survive in this globalised environment. These are the areas in which Jamaica has a natural strength or comparative advantage and for which we are known and respected internationally, and should therefore be the logical point of departure for building competitive export industries that are rooted in local talents and resources. The development of these creative industries that are well documented by UNCTAD and UNESCO as being among the fastest growing in the world economy today, will likely have a positive impact on the lives of the poorest in Caribbean society as many of the primary producers of cultural products are found in this social stratum. In this way, poverty reduction is a strategic development outcome of the creation of cultural industries. Many inner city youth in the Caribbean are tremendously skilled in the arts and craft and are seeking opportunities for growth that will provide alternatives to crime and drugs. Additionally, cultural tourism will also enhance and diversify the tourism product, while promoting greater sensitivity to the environment. At the regional level, cultural understanding, cooperation and awareness are central to the effective implementation of a CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME), as the foundation of our regionalism is located in the common historical and cultural heritage of the Caribbean. The only way that the people of the region will feel “intensely Caribbean,” with a strong sense of community and identity, is through sustained interventions in culture, largely through the media. In order to realise the tremendous untapped potential of Jamaica’s and the region’s cultural industries, products and services, the sector needs resources for a number of activities, most of which would be more efficiently and effectively addressed at the regional rather than national level: 1. Training and Technical assistance (both the artistic and business aspects). 2. Marketing (regional and international marketing of cultural products and services, a presence at trade shows and a regional media outlet for the promotion of Caribbean cultural products). 3. Strengthening of Intellectual Property protection and Copyright Collection Societies. 4. Capacity building of cultural organisations and professional associations. 5. Infrastructural development (venues, educational institutions etc.). 6. Data collection (employment, marketing, sales data etc.). 7. Venture capital, grant resources, and access to credit. 8. Strengthening of regional capacity to participate in international negotiations on issues related to intellectual property in the WTO, UNESCO, etc. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 86 8.2 The Brain Drain In the Caribbean there is a shortage of skilled human resource, perpetuated by the constant migration of highly skilled manpower. People have a right to choose where to work and pursue better opportunities for personal and professional growth. Emigration can have significant impact on the demography of a country and although this has reduced the rate of natural increase in Jamaica by 1 percent per annum, this has also led to loss of highly trained human capital as well as decrease in access to quality and availability of services such as in health and education, for example. The dynamic and open nature of Jamaica’s population has made the country particularly susceptible to the negative (and positive) factors that operate globally. The selectivity of migration for the nation’s skilled workers may give increasing cause for concern in view of the recent targeting of nurses and trained teachers. Current developments indicate that there is need for a collaborative approach to recruitment from developing countries such as Jamaica, while developing countries must identify ways of maximising their human resources. As such, a well-articulated policy on international migration (particularly emigration) is essential. Notwithstanding, SIDS can tap significant financial and human resources in their migrant communities overseas. It has already been noted how important remittances are to the economies of SIDS. Much more can be done to encourage repatriation of the services of SIDS nationals, especially where reliable, efficient and reasonably priced air transport services are available and where communication services facilitate the delivery of services via electronic means, such as the Internet. Equally important is that these communities are natural bridges into the markets of the developed countries. 8.3 Developing Competitive Advantage The rapid and dynamic changes currently reshaping the external environment are ultimately driven by the principle of comparative advantage, which is the primary reason and motivation for trade. Trade is in turn both one of the primary drivers of economic development and growth and one of the principal conduits for the dissemination of new ideas and technologies. To be able to trade effectively and profitably, however, a country must be able to identify and secure points of competitive (not comparative) advantage in a rapidly changing world, and specialise accordingly. Comparative advantage is dependent on costs of labour, knowledge and materials; competitive advantage requires diverse skills: ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 87 knowledge, dynamism, flexibility, innovative ability, marketing, branding, positioning etc. There are very complex choices involved in specialisation in an expanding global trading environment, partly because of the risks and uncertainties involved in dealing with a large and inherently dynamic and complex set of trading relationships with many different countries, each of whom will be innovating, developing, and changing their patterns of demand and consumer preferences accordingly. There are, however, new strategic management tools, such as scenario planning, technology foresighting, backcasting and foresighting for development that can allow a country to capture both the technological and economic changes in the external environment, and the central importance of the social factors and dynamics in the internal environment. The new emphasis on finding points of competitive advantage requires a focus on human capital, the processes of technological dissemination and uptake, and on the building of a more diverse set of skills and attributes, including technical knowledge, innovative ability and dynamism, flexibility, and an aptitude for marketing, branding and positioning. The development of points of competitive advantage requires building the innovative and technological dynamism, decision-making capacity, the knowledge networks and business clusters needed to develop and disseminate information and capitalise on the rapidly transforming array of problems and opportunities in the global . environment…that is, a culture of change. This in turn will require a range of institutional reforms and cultural changes, and a massive investment in education. 8.4 Conflict Resolution The inclusion of multiple forms of capital in the sustainable construct for Jamaica under SIDS and the new paradigm of partnership are encouraging and need to reach a broader public. Regarding the issue of conflict whether seen in the macro threat of the “failed state” overrun by crime and violence, drug abuse and trafficking or in the context of project implementation, the role of conflict awareness analysis and resolution capacity in Jamaica and the region is all the more relevant. Mediation and a Restorative Justice philosophy are critical components to effective change management and development to serve the interest of our Jamaican and Caribbean people and to facilitate partnerships. The UN Economic and Social Council passed a resolution on Basic principles on the use of restorative Justice in Criminal Matters, a further refining of its 1999 resolution on mediation and restorative justice in line with work worldwide on these processes for ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 88 criminal civil and environmental issues. This resolution calls on member states to develop programmes to exchange information. Conflict resolution is therefore very essential as an area for capacity building because at the local and national levels conflict threatens the achievement of not only some MDGs but overall sustainable development and that threat could be mitigated by the move to the use of the court connected and community mediation and a restorative justice framework for matters related to the environment and sustainable development. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 89 References Brown, Hilary (2003) - The Role of the Culture in Sustainable Development of SIDS: CARIFORUM Cultural Support Fund Field, Ralph(1987) – Jamaica Country Environmental Profile daCosta, Jacqueline - Land Policy, Administration and Management Case Study Jamaica. Prepared for a learning Workshop on Land Policy, Administration and Management in the English Speaking Caribbean March 19-21, 2003 Cabinet Office, Jamaica - Government at Your Service: Public Sector Modernisation Vision and Strategy 2002-2012 Jamaica National Habitat Report 2000 Jamaica HIV/AIDS/STI National Strategic Plan 2002 – 2006 Jamaica’s First Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade - Towards an Ocean and Coastal Zone Management Policy in Jamaica Ministry of Land and Environment - Jamaica National Report to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002 National Environment and Planning Agency – Jamaica National Environmental Action Plan (JaNEAP) National Environment and Planning Agency - Jamaica’s Environment 2001. Environment Statistics and State of the Environment Report National Environment and Planning Agency – National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Planning Institute of Jamaica (1995, 1999, 2002) – Economic and Social Survey Jamaica Planning Institute of Jamaica (1995, 1999, 2002) – Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 90 Planning Institute of Jamaica - (Draft Report) Millennium Development Goals Jamaica July 2003 Wright Raymond (1996) – Jamaica’s Energy Old Prospects New Resources. Cabinet Office – Government at Your Service: Public Sector Modernisation Vision and Strategy 2002-2012 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 91 Appendices Appendix I: List of Agencies with roles involving Sustainable Development The following table summarises the main agencies with the mandate and capacity for SD in Jamaica Main Agencies Existing Roles and Functions Relating to S D Ministry of Land and Setting national policy on environmental and development Environment planning Overall responsibility for national planning agencies including NEPA and National Land Agency Ministry of Local Setting national policy on local government reform Government and Overall responsibility for local government authorities including Community Development strengthening capacity Ministry of Education, Youth Setting national policy on primary, secondary and tertiary and Culture education Responsibility for public educational institutions including strengthening capacity of schools Member of NEEC Ministry of Finance and Responsibility for fiscal and monetary policy of GOJ Planning Overall responsibility for public sector budgeting Minister of Development in New ministry with specific responsibility for facilitation of Cabinet Office economic development projects National Environment and Preparing development plans and development orders at the Planning Agency national and parish levels Processing applications for sub-division and development of land Environmental management and conservation Providing advice and formulating policies on environmental and planning issues Participates in strengthening capacity of local planning authorities (parish councils) Counterpart implementing agency for major sustainable development projects including ENACT, CWIP, R2RW Cabinet Office Responsible for inter-ministry co-ordination and executive oversight Provision of logistical and technical support to Cabinet, Development Council and other Committees Planning Institute of Main agency responsible for provision of technical analysis and Jamaica resources in support of economic and social planning ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 92 Main Agencies Existing Roles and Functions Relating to S D Responsible for co-ordination and management of ODA projects on behalf of GOJ including training and capacity development projects Social Development Main public sector agency involved in capacity development at Commission the local/community level Implementation of Integrated Community Development Programme Parish Councils and KSAC Processing applications for sub-division and development of land Provision of municipal services KSAC is local authority for Kingston and St. Andrew with similar functions to Parish Councils Statistical Institute of Main central governmental agency responsible for collection and Jamaica presentation of economic, social and financial data and statistics Forestry Department Responsible for conservation and management of the forest resources of the island including those in watersheds and protected areas Planning Institute of Main agency responsible for provision of technical analysis and Jamaica resources in support of economic and social planning Responsible for co-ordination and management of ODA projects on behalf of GOJ including training and capacity development projects Social Development Main public sector agency involved in capacity development at Commission the local/community level Implementation of Integrated Community Development Programme Parish Councils and KSAC Processing applications for sub-division and development of land Provision of municipal services KSAC is local authority for Kingston and St. Andrew with similar functions to Parish Councils Statistical Institute of Main central governmental agency responsible for collection and Jamaica presentation of economic, social and financial data and statistics Forestry Department Responsible for conservation and management of the forest resources of the island including those in watersheds and protected areas ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 93 Appendix II: GDP by Major Sector 1994- 2002 Sector GDP in producers values at constant prices (J$ Million) 1994 1999 2002 Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing 1442.7 1549.4 1331.0 Mining & Quarrying 1679.9 1774.3 1871.0 Manufacturing 3360.1 3055.0 3097.0 Construction and Installation 1608.7 1454.0 1520.0 Electricity & Water 814.5 1020.2 1116.0 Distributive Trade 3855.0 3970.6 4040.0 Transport, Storage & Communication 2063.1 3002.7 3637.0 Financing & Insurance Services 2834.8 2605.7 2943.0 Real Estate & Business Services 1505.6 1751.2 1781.0 Producers of Government Services 1220.5 1231.0 1244.0 Miscellaneous Services 741.1 2184.2 2330.0 TOTAL GDP 18 135.0 19 471.7 20 146.0 ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 94 Appendix III: List of Poverty Eradication related Programmes being implemented by the Government of Jamaica. Programme Description JSIF The Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF) provides Infrastructural support to needy communities all over the island and for organisational development and social services. It remains a major source of financing demand-driven interventions designed to upgrade social and economic infrastructure, extend social services and build capacity at the community level. Potentially, these projects have a beneficiary coverage of 67,800. Most of the projects fall in the social infrastructure category and include construction and repairs of schools, health centres and integrated community spaces. Projects are implemented in poor communities or where there are pockets of poverty in other communities. MIDA The Micro-investment Development Agency has been providing funding to small and micro-enterprises. ICRP The Inner City Renewal Programme has been operational since 2001 and includes physical upgrading and development of 48 communities, cleaning and repair of drains and other social amenities. (See urbanisation below). Other Other programmes and projects such as the Rural Electrification Programme, the Catchment Tank Rehabilitation Programme, the Jamaica Drugs for the Elderly Programme, the Social and Economic Support Programme, the Food Stamp Programme, and the New Horizons for Primary Schools Project are also geared at poverty reduction. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 95 Appendix IV: Selected Environmental Treaties and Protocols to which Jamaica is signatory Name of Treaty Date of Entry into Accession Force For Jamaica For Jamaica Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes March 22, 1991 and other matter (as amended), London, Mexico City, Moscow, Washington, 1972 International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, June 13, 1991 London, 1973 [MARPOL ] Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the June 13, 1991 Prevention of Pollution from Ships, London, 1973 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Montego Bay, 1982 March 21,1983 [UNCLOS]. Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer, Vienna, 1990. March 31,1993 June 29, 1993 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, March 31,1993 June 29, 1993 Montreal 1987. London amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete March 31,1993 June 29, 1993 the Ozone Layer, London, 1990. Copenhagen amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Nov. 7, 1997 Feb 4, 1998 Deplete the Ozone Layer, Copenhagen, 1992 Montreal amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Sept. 24, 2003 Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal, 1997 Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Sept. 24, 2003 Substances, Beijing,1999 United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Jan. 6. 1995 April 6, 1995 Change, New York, 1992 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework June 28, 1999 Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto, 1997. ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action 96 Name of Treaty Date of Entry into Accession Force For Jamaica For Jamaica Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro, 1992 Jan. 6, 1995 April 6, 1995 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 2000 Convention on International Trade in Endangered April 23,1997 July 22, 1997 Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Oct. 7, 1997 Feb. 7, 1998 Waterfowl Habitats [RAMSAR] United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification Paris, 1994 Nov. 12, 1997 March 10, [UNCCD] 1998 Convention on Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and their January 2003 April 2003 Disposal [Basel Convention] Basel, 1989 Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for August 20, 2002 Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, Rotterdam, 1998. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Stockholm, 2001 Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine May 1, 1987 Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region, Cartagena de Indias, 1983 [Cartagena Convention] ___________________________________________________________________ Jamaica National Assessment Report of the Barbados Programme of Action Appendix V: Selected List of Achievements under the BPOA (1994-2003) BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Climate Change UN Framework Vehicle Emission Involvement in the Climate Branch in the Government continues and Sea Level Rise Convention on Climate Standards and regulations CARICOM project: Meteorological Service of to participate actively in Change ratified Jan 6 developed. Caribbean Planning for Jamaica made climate the work of the IPCC 1995 Regulations under the Adaptation to Climate change focal point including work impacting Accession to the Kyoto Trade Act promulgated Change (CPACC) and its National on Sea Level rise, Protocol June 28 1999 regarding ODS successor Mainstreaming Implementation forecasting of tropical Accession to the Vienna Motor Vehicle Import Adaptation to Climate Coordinating Unit for storms and change in Convention for the Policy amended to allow Change in 2003 CPACC rainfall intensity. Protection of Ozone Layer import of motor vehicles Wigton Wind farm Project National Ozone Unit Drafting instructions and the Montreal no older than 4 years to produce 20MW of established in 1996 at for Ozone Act prepared. Protocol, 1993 on the Quota system for the renewable energy (to be the Natural Resources The Ozone Act will phase- out of Ozone import of CFCs commissioned in 2004) Conservation Authority provide for the phase Depleting Substances established Montreal Protocol (NRCA) out, importation and (ODS) Country Programme National Ozone consumption of ODS Development of a Commission established and provide for future refrigerant Management actions under the Plan in 1999 Montreal Protocol. Involvement in the preparation of a Regional Halon Bank Management Plan Natural and The Disaster National Oil Spills ODPEM established as Office of Disaster Environmental Preparedness and Contingency Plan involving national focal point to Preparedness and Disasters Emergency Management the Office of Disaster implement policies and Emergency Management Act, 1993 Preparedness and programmes to achieve (ODPEM) works in Hazard Mitigation Emergency Management appropriate state of conjunction with Policy, which provides a (ODPEM), NRCA, Port national and sectoral National Disaster framework for integrating Authority, etc preparedness for coping Committee. hazard mitigation into Earthquake Hazard with emergency Hazard policies and programme Assessment Project for the situations. risk/vulnerability maps 97 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes at the national and Kingston Metropolitan Parish Disaster are being developed to community, levels. Region, 2000 Committees formed at support the National the local level to assist Disaster Management the ODPEM in the Plan and the National disaster management Land Policy. (response) system. Management of Acceded to the The Pesticides GoJ/CIDA Waste Establishment of the Government will Wastes Convention on the (Amendment) Act giving exchange initiative which National Solid Waste continue to educate Prevention of Marine responsibility to Pesticides enables waste reduction Management Authority in industries on the use of Pollution by Dumping of Control Authority to concepts and practices to be 2001 to implement The alternatives to methyl Wastes and other matter control the importation, implemented National Solid Waste bromide and halons. (London Convention of manufacture, packaging, Phasing-out of leaded Management Policy to be developed 1972) sale, use and disposal of gasoline in 2000 Programme on electronic waste Stockholm Convention pesticides in Jamaica (importation and sale has Establishment of Public awareness on Persistent Organic Standards for Air and ceased) Waste management campaigns on new Pollutants (signed May Water Quality developed Under the IDB Kingston technical committees. provisions under the 2001) Public Health (Garbage Harbour Project, tender National Solid Waste Acceded to the Basel Collection and Disposal) documents are being Management Act, 2001 Convention on the Regulations prepared for the Upgrading dumpsites Transboundary Movement National Solid Waste construction of a port across the island to of Hazardous Wastes and Management Policy reception facility for ship- regional landfill sites their Disposal, 2003. Plastic packaging generated wastes at the port NEPA will establish International materials and hazardous of Kingston (in keeping with guidelines and codes of Convention on the waste policy obligations under (Annex V practice for 2 industrial Prevention of Pollution National Solid Waste MARPOL 73/78). sectors each year. from Ships, London, 1973 Management Act The upgrading of the Medical waste policy and its Protocol, 1978 Regulations for ambient island’s major landfill site, being developed (MARPOL 73/78) air quality, and for Riverton City, to a sanitary protected areas landfill. Enacted standards for Public education 98 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes stack and vehicle campaign – “Create an emissions, and trade and environment for clean sewage effluent living” Hazardous Waste Regulations governing Transboundary Movement, 2003 Coastal and Agreement Relating to Montego Bay Marine In 1994, the NRCA Council on Oceans Fisheries Improvement Marine Resources Implementation of Part XI Park Order to declare the prepared a coastal and Coastal Zone Programme being of UNCLOS (signed July Montego bay Marine Park management plan, also Management established implemented 29 1994) in 1992 undertaking a study of with a mandate that Centre for Marine UN Agreement on Natural Resources beaches in Jamaica. included definition of a Sciences at the UWI Management of Conservation (Marine GoJ/USAID Coastal rational harmonised involved in coral reef Straddling and Migratory Park) Regulations, 1993 Water Quality Improvement national policy on ocean research Fish Stocks (SIGNED Fisheries Bill developed Project implemented and coastal resource The National Water 1995) in 1997 to enhance GoJ/USAID Ridge to Reef management, Commission (NWC) is Convention on existent legislation in Project coordination of developing a International Trade in respect of fines etc. GoJ/SIDA Coastal administ6rative and communication support Endangered Species Nation Policy on Planning Atlas and Manual operational function programme addressing (ACCEDED. April 1997) Ocean and Coastal zone for Integrated Coastal Zone among government sewerage and its impact IConvention on management Project to institute coastal agencies and civil on our coastal waters. Wetlands of International Declaration of Negril zone management in society, and ensure Through the Importance (especially as Marine Park, Coral Jamaica (completed in compliance with enacted GoJ/USAID CWIP Waterfowl Habitat Spring-Mountain Spring 1997) treaties and protocols Project, NEPA will (Ramsar) Protected Area, and Under CFRAMP, a Jamaica Maritime conduct studies (ACCEDED. Oct 7, 1997 Palisadoes/Port Royal functional catch and effort Training Institute addressing critical Global Programme of Protected Area system for all major fisheries established. coastal resources Action on Land-based Number of policies and is being implemented by the management issues and Sources and Activities that guidelines developed in Fisheries Division. A promoting improved Pollute the Marine 2000 including: Guidelines database capable of storing coastal water quality. Environment for the Construction, and retrieving information The Fisheries Division Convention for the Maintenance and on fisheries is now in place. has developed and will Protection and Monitoring of Underwater implement a pilot project 99 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Development of the Pipelines and Cables in the on the use of casitas as a Marine Environment of the Coastal Zone; Guidelines means of enhancing Wider Caribbean Region, for Planning and Execution lobster population. 1983 [Cartagena of Coastal and Estuarine Model National Convention] Dredging Works and Programme of Action on Protocol to the Disposal of the Dredged Land-Based Sources and Cartagena Convention on Materials; Guidelines for Activities that Pollute the Land-based Sources. the Deployment of Benthic Marine Environment Structures; Guidelines being prepared Pertaining to Marinas and Small Craft Harbours; Guidelines for Planning, Construction and Maintenance of Facilities for Enhancement and Protection of Shorelines. Declaration of the Black River Morass as a Ramsar site Freshwater Water Resources Act, Water Resources Master National Integrated Interagency Resources 1995 Plan, 1991 indicates current Watershed Management cooperation continues Watersheds Protection status and makes Council was established between the WRA, NEPA Act under review projections for the future. in 2000 to implement and Forestry Department Watershed Policy, 1998 Water Sector Strategy and rehabilitation of the with respect to developed, which seeks to Action Plan watersheds based on a watersheds management address the most severe Permits and License new Watersheds and the collection of constraints to watershed system introduced for water Management Policy. water quality data. management thereby allocation Water Resources employing strategies to GoJ/USAID Ridge to Reef Authority mandated to ensure the sustainable use Project, which aims to manage the water and development of improve lives in communities resources of the island 100 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes watersheds in Jamaica. by providing improved water (involves allocation in a National Water Policy supply and sanitation sustainable manner) Sewerage Connection services. Policy Dunn’s River Monitoring System Kingston Metropolitan Area Rehabilitation Project. Land Resources UN Convention to National Land Policy, Improved administrative Office of Titles, Formulation of a Combat Desertification 1996 identifies the framework to facilitate land Survey, Land Valuation policy to reduce the (UNCCD) (acceded Nov implementation of tenure under the Land and Estates Department incidence of squatting 12, 1997) sustainable strategies, Administration and merged to form the (draft has been prepared) including the regulatory Management Programme National land Agency Establishment of a framework, for land Inner-city and Urban that seeks to streamline National GIS Centre resources renewal Programme management and Revision of the Forest Act, 1996 Development of administration of land. National Land Policy Blue and John Crow Management Plans for Land Information Finalization of the Mountains National Park different parks and Council of Jamaica was National Action Plan (Declaration) order to protected areas created to promote the under the UNCCD declare area a National The Forest Management collection, equitable and Park and Conservation Fund was efficient use and Negril Environmental established in 1997, to management of land and Protection Area provide long term funding land information Regulation Order to for re-forestation and forest Greater Montego Bay declare Jamaica’s first conservation. The Fund will Re-Development Project EPA under the NRCA Act. be used exclusively for funded by private sector National Forestry activities specified in the and GoJ Management and National Forest Conservation Plan Management and Conservation Plan. Draft National physical Plan 101 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Energy Resources The Energy Policy Energy Efficiency Building Appointment of a PCJ carrying out enunciated in 1995 has Code National Director of Environment and Energy among its objectives the GoJ/CIDA-ENACT Energy Conservation Exhibition in schools as a promotion of the Project – Capacity for Clean Caribbean Energy means of public development of technologies resources Information Systems awareness to promote indigenous and renewable developed, including (CEIS) located in the energy conservation. energy technologies. feasibility for eco-efficiency, Scientific Research PCJ to continue the 2000 Council Fuelwood programme by A feasibility study is being Formation of a Solar its involvement in conducted on the Energy Association in Fuelwood production introduction of Liquefied June 1999 with the aim islandwide. Natural Gas (LNG) to the to promote the economic The Solar Energy Jamaican market. use of solar energy in Association of Jamaica SRC Biogas Technology Jamaica. will continue promoting Project the use of solar energy in Mona Institute f Applied the island. Sciences Photovoltaic Energy Supply System Feasibility Study Project. PCJ Demonstration Fuel wood project Tourism Resources Green Globe Environmental Master Plan for Implementation of the Certification Programme Management System Sustainable Tourism Master Plan for Tourism Policy drafted Development 2001-2011 Development. developed as a holistic The Government will approach to managing the develop environmental natural resources and the rewards and incentives to tourism product. It encourage hotels and incorporates elements for other Tourism related the preservation of cultural entities to adopt EMS's heritage, etc. and proposes Tourism Product to develop greater linkages Development Company 102 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes between the tourism sector improving public and the other productive awareness and sectors in the economy. understanding of the South Coast Sustainable potential positive impacts Development Study and a of eco-tourism. subsequent Programme. Carrying Capacity Assessments of major resort areas of Negril, Ocho Rios and Montego Bay carried out. Biodiversity Convention on Policy on Protected Black River Wetlands NEPA currently Resources Biological diversity Animals in captivity were designated as the conducting a biodiversity (ratified Jan 6) Draft Beach Policy to national Ramsar site in assessment of Jamaica to UN Agreement on streamline access to 1998. develop a database. Management of beaches etc. National Forestry Straddling and Migratory Policy for Jamaica's Management and Fish Stocks (signed 1995) System of Protected Areas Conservation Plan Convention on Mangrove and Coastal National Protected Areas International Trade in Wetlands Protection Policy System Plan Endangered Species and regulations Jamaica Coral Reef (acceded April 1997) Orchid Policy Action Plan, 1997 Ramsar Wetlands Coral Reef Protection Giant Swallowtail Butterfly Convention (acceded Oct and Preservation Policy Recovery Plan 7, 1997) and Regulations. This Iguana Conservation Cartagena Protocol to policy reviews the Strategy CBD on Biosafety (signed ecological and socio Biodiversity Strategy and May 30 2001) economic functions of Action Plan, which seeks to coral reefs, issues implement and develop affecting coral reefs and several projects, related to Government’s role and sustainable management of responsibility. Jamaica’s biodiversity 103 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Mariculture Policy, resources. 1997 Endangered Species (Protection Conservation and Regulation of Trade) Act, 2000 National National Industrial Preparation of the Sustainable Strengthening of the Institutions and Policy to shape industrial Jamaica National Development Council set environmental agency Administrative development Environmental Action Plan up in 1994 with responsibility for the Capacity Public Sector (JaNEAP) in 1992, a three- Jamaica National NRCA Act. NEPA formed Modernization Vision and year action plan addressing Parks Trust Fund in 2000 in recognition Strategy 2002-2012 environmental issues. It established with debt-for- that urban and rural Green Procurement seeks to link economic and nature swap. planning must be done Policy and Guidelines sustainable environmental Environmental within the context of the development (based on the Foundation of Jamaica wider thrust of principles of Agenda 21). also established under sustainable development National Environmental the Enterprise for the and management Education Action Plan for Americas Initiative. The Jamaica Sustainable Development National Council on Sustainable Development Technical and Vocational Network Programme Education (NCTVET) (JSDNP) established in became operational in 1997 as a means of 1994 information NEPA, formed as a dissemination to support merger of the LDUC, SD. NRCA and the Town Public Sector Planning Department in Modernisation 2000. Programme 104 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Regional Jamaica is a signatory to National Council on Institutions and a number of Caribbean Education made into a Technical initiatives including the statutory body Cooperation CSME. Support of regional institutions such as ACS /ECLAC/CARICOM through membership and contributions. Provide financial support in the form of budgetary allocations to IICA, CARDI etc Transport and WTO Agreement on Telecommunications Liberalisation of the Office of Utilities OUR continues Communication Basic Telecommunications Policy telecommunications sector (OUR) Regulation set up development of Quality Services, 1997 Drafting of an completed in March 2003. as a regulatory agency. of Service Standards for integrated Sustainable Northern Coastal Cable and Wireless National Transport Policy Highway improvement Jamaica. that will give support to Project the National Industrial Information policy and provide a Communications and framework within which Technology Project, 2000 transport infrastructure set up to facilitate the and services can be development of the developed and operated information and in an efficient and communications technology environmentally friendly industry. manner. Science and National Science and National Quality National Commission Together with the Technology Technology Policy, 1990 Infrastructure Project. on Science and NCST, the private sector identifiers S&T as essential Government has Technology (NCST) and the SRC, the MCST components for SD, is promoted research and established and chaired has been exploring currently under review. development in areas where by the Most Honourable options for improving the 105 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes National Industrial endogenous technologies Prime Minister has competitiveness of local Policy, 1996 and traditional practices among its focus areas, industries through Draft Patents and have great relevance e.g sustainable protection Science and Technology. Design Act, which deals Ethnobotany and use of the Technical competence with S&T novel inventions, The Ministry of Agriculture environment. is being gained by the discoveries as well as has begun work to In 2002 the Ministry of SRC in the area of DNA innovations. demonstrate organic crop Industry and Commerce Fingerprinting. production at Bodles became the Ministry of Research on Research Station. Commerce, Science and livestock/Feeding International Atomic Technology. Systems/Forages/Animal Energy Agency Coordinated Scientific Research Nutrition: Crossbreeding Research programme on the Council established in work continues on Validation of Plants as bio- 1960 made a statutory Goats. indicators of atmospheric agency with a mandate The Police Forensic pollution (undertaken by the to stimulate economic Laboratory continues to International Centre for growth and development use Science and Environmental and Nuclear through science and Technology in sharing Science – ICENS, UWI). technology. DNA fingerprinting Development of Establishment of a information with other Nutraceutical Products from National association of law enforcement Jamaican Plants. Laboratories in 2002. agencies throughout the GIS Technology being National Products world and in improving used by the Ministry of Land Institute, UWI focuses on the methodology. and Environment to inform investigating the potential planning decisions. of local plants for industrial or medicinal purposes. 106 BPOA Items International Convention Policy and Legislation Plans, Projects, Programmes Institutional Current Efforts and Arrangements Ongoing Programmes Human Resource Interantional Draft Early Childhood Inner city and Urban Early Childhood Development Convention on the Rights Act Renewal Programme Commission established of the Child Amendments in 2002 Social Safety Net Reform National Council on of to the Child Care and Programme. Education established to Protection Bill Programme of monitor educational National Education Advancement through programmes and policies Policy tabled in Parliament Health and Education to ensure that schools Healthy Lifestyle Survey function well. 2000 Social Development Jamaica Movement for Commission reorganised the Advancement of Literacy and strengthened to fulfil (JAMAL) programme to its mission to harness the assist adults to better mange collective efforts of in literacy and numeracy. people for sustainable GoJ/IADB Primary community development Education Support Programme (PESP) GoJ/USAID New Horizons for Primary Schools Project Hillside Farmer Support project Please note that gaps in the table do not necessarily mean inactivity. 107