The Bahamas' Top Thirty Crops
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The Bahamas’ Top Thirty Crops By Mr. Leslie Minns For Bahamas Agricultural Producers Association (BAPA) Product of Andros at the Agriculture Expo 2007 The Top 30 Crops When we speak of imports it is estimated import value of B$43,866,205 important to understand that crops are dollars. The total value in 2007 for these imported primarily as fresh, however same fresh and value-added products the fresh crop is a primary product. As had an estimated value of B$46,429,280 the primary product or the raw dollars an increase of B$2,563,075 material, that crop it must be dollars or 5.8%^. understood maybe converted from a raw material to a value-added product. This therefore means if the Bahamas were to grow, all, the fresh product for This project seeks to understand and these 30 crops we would stand to earn identify those crops that offer the best as much as B$31.5 – B$31.9 million potential to penetrate the Bahamian dollars per annum. Another B$12.7 – market. What we would like to show is B$14.5 million dollars could be realized the full potential for these crops. Firstly from their value-added products. there is the fresh product and secondly Therefore between B$43.86 – B$46.43 the value-added products that may million dollars could be injected into the come from the fresh product. Some Bahamian economy. This earning would examples of value-added products from translate into a savings on our import fresh fruit & vegetables are: frozen, bill thus lowering our Food Bill and preserved/ dried, canned (whole or increasing our foreign exchange pieces), juice, paste, puree, marmalade, reserves. jams, and jellies. The savings/earning from these crops In 2006 the total import value of these 30 may lead to investments into the other crops (as a fresh product) was estimated 78 crops, thus saving or retaining even to be worth B$31,201,006 dollars. By more of our money. With more money 2007 the import value for these had in the economy we would be able to increased by B$700,126 dollars an build agricultural industries, to increase increase of 2.2% to B$31,901,132 dollars. employment, increase wealth and decrease dependence on imports. With The value-added products for the same each passing year all countries not just crops in 2006 was worth B$12,665,199 the Bahamas will experience a growing dollars, by 2007 this value increased by population, Agricultural Land B$1,862,949 dollars or 14.71% to shrinkage and water shortages. By the B$14,528,148 dollars. year 2050 it is estimated that the world population will increase by three (3) Therefore in 2006 these 30 crops, fresh billion people. and value-added products had an The Bahamas must begin to produce, now, if we are to have a chance of Onion, the #1 ranked crop, saw the feeding ourselves or if we simply want value of imports increase over half a to make money. Conditions for million dollars from 2006 (B$2,303,714) Agriculture are ideal in the Bahamas, to 2007 (B$2,852,197). During that we have sunshine 365 days a year, we period both quantity and value have a relatively small population, we increased, in 2007 we imported enjoy close to five million visitors per 5,262,948 (lbs.) pounds while in 2006 we year, we have knowledgeable farmers, imported 4,585,969 lbs. The price from and we have knowledgeable buyers 2006 to 2007 also increased by two (2) who are experts in supplying the cents per pound. demand for this market. Our buyers understand agriculture and know Irish potatoes, the #2 ranked crop, has a quality. The Bahamas is blessed with potential to earn $3.4 million dollars more land than Jamaica, and although annually as a fresh product and up to our land is not as fertile, it’s better than B$7.0 million dollars as a frozen or Israel. Israel must produce from deserts prepared product, making it the crop and pump water from miles below the with the greatest potential, over ten ground. No such problem in the million dollars per annum. Bahamas although we lack rivers, we have a relatively high water table. In 2007, the Bahamas imported almost $4.0 million dollars worth of Lettuce, While in the Bahamas we do not have while in 2006 we imported $3.5 million much arable land, we do have some, it is all in its fresh form. Types of lettuce also possible to improve our soils and if imported include: iceberg, romaine and that fails we may also look to green head. houses and hydro phonics. Today’s agricultural technology is opening new Tomato, a favourite, was one of a few doors for agricultural production. crops where the import value decreased; this is attributed to the success of The time is ripe for growers and buyers tomato production in green houses. In to work as partners, growers produce, 2006 the value of tomato imports was buyers distribute, the money they earn B$2,962,731 by 2007 it decreased by and save can only benefit the Bahamas. $598,774 or 20.2% to B$2,365,957. The We must cease our dependence on value of imported by products of imported food, as the cost of that food tomato increased B$82,059 or 6.1% from will only continue to go up. Of the 30 B$1,341,295 in 2006 to B$1,423,354 in crops identified sixteen (16) more than 2007^. half, have a potential to be million dollar industries. The other crops with a potential to become million dollar industries are: Table 1^ Crop Rank Import Value Import Value 2006 2007 Carrot 5 1,044,106 1,211,915 Sweet Pepper 7 1,664,900 1,574,848 Lemon 12 1,051,441 859,532 Orange 14 4,969,256 5,545,036 Plantain 15 1,834,556 1,785,831 Grapefruit 16 1,075,225 1,048,720 Lime (Persian & Key) 20 2,090,936 2,459,110 Watermelon 21 1,109,836 485,943 Corn 22 1,651,794 1,885,379 Banana 24 2,439,283 2,509,408 Cantaloupe 25 1,043,949 1,145,558 Broccoli 27 1,048,853 1,189,438 Of the top 30 crops identified, Cooking Thyme did not appear to have any imports; we were unable to find any fresh or value-added products for 2006 and 2007. Another crop which seemed not to have an import was Key Lime. Sweet Corn in Abaco, Lenny Etienne The remaining crops that have been identified as having the best potential to penetrate the local market are: Table 2 Crop Rank Import Value Import Value 2006 2007 Cabbage 6 678,385 841,811 Sweet Potato 18 541,419 427,836 Celery 11 317,287 375,408 Cucumber 13 432,599 462,584 Mango 26 289,460 316,638 Cassava 28 253,050 275,398 Garlic 19 268,514 240,510 Papaya 23 155,269 171,233 Pigeon Peas ** 9 103,281 238,210 Hot Pepper 8 100,280 87,040 Goat Pepper 17 153,378 82,546 Okra 30 130,113 141,870 ** Pigeon Peas: In 2006 we imported $33,456 worth of fresh peas and $69,825 worth of prepared. In 2007 fresh was worth $183.00 and prepared was valued at $238,027.00. All of the above crops show they have the potential to earn more than $100,000 per annum with the exception of Pigeon Peas, although ranked high at #9. In this list of twelve (12) crops only one is a tree, the remaining vegetables, condiments and tubers have a history of being produced in this country^. Fruit and Vegetable display at the Agriculture Expo 2009 Local Production The Census of Agriculture in 1978 recorded 20 crops grown in the country at that time, by 1994 that number had increased by 68 to 88 crops an increase of 340%. The Crop profile in 2006/07 lists 108 crops, an increase of 20 crops or 22.7%. Table #3 gives a breakdown by crop category for these selected years. Table #3: Crops by Category for Selected Years Category 1978 1994 Change 2006 Change Legumes 2 8 +6 6 -2 Vegetable 5 22 +17 24 +2 Condiments 2 9 +7 20 +11 Soft Fruit 1 6 +5 6 nil Cereal 1 4 +3 5 +1 Tubers 2 7 +5 6 -1 Tree Crops 7 32 +25 39 +7 Others nil nil nil 2 +2 Total 20 88 68 108 20 % Change 340% 22.7% Source: Department of Agriculture, selected years, compiled by Mr. Leslie Minns (Senior Marketing Officer, Agricultural Economist) The Bahamian farmers have become more diverse, they have become more knowledgeable and are willing to grow and cultivate more varieties of agricultural crops. Preschoolers visit Screen house at GRAC Tomatoes at Lucayan Tropical In 1978 we reported for legumes, pigeon the Bahamas now (2006) grows a total of peas and bean, the number of legumes 20 condiments, 18 more (see the crop has increase by four, Kidney bean, Lima profile). bean, Cow peas and peanut. Soft fruit in 1978 we reported growing Vegetables grown in 1978 included just one watermelon, since 1994 we have cabbage, cucumber, pumpkin, sweet added cantaloupe, honeydew, papaya, pepper and tomato for a total of five. In pineapple and strawberry, five more. 1994 we reported growing 17 more varieties and by 2006 that number Cereal in 1978 corn was the only cereal increased by 2. Therefore between 1978 captured by the census since then and 2006 the numbers of vegetables Alfalfa, benny, guinea corn and grown in the Bahamas increased by 19 sorghum have been reported. bring it to a compliment of 24 varieties (see the crop profile). There were two tubers in 1978 dasheen and Irish potatoes, since then cassava, eddoes, sweet potato and yam have been reported. Tree crops in 1978 the census captured 7 tree crops avocado, banana, grapefruit, key lime, mango, orange and plantain. By 2006 that number has increased by 32 more varieties (see the crop profile). Source: Agriculture Census 1978/1994, Condiments the 1978 census reported Department of Agriculture two condiments onion and hot pepper Vegetable Display at Agriculture Expo 2009 Crop Production While the number of crops in 1978 was only 20, the quantity of crop produced could not be matched in 1994, 2004 nor 2006. In 1978 the Bahamas produced 103,386,742 (lbs.) pounds of agricultural produce from 20 crops. While in 1994 the country produced 76,203,051 lbs. from 88 crops, the Farmers register of 943 farmers in 2006 recorded 108 crops producing 57,079,926 lbs. The table below records production quantities for four (4) selected years 1978, 1994, 2004 and 2006, the significance of these years are: 1978 & 1994 were census years, 2004 represents the last crop report before the Farmers register and 2006 represents the crop estimate for the first year using the farmers register. The top 20 crop by selected years is as follows: Table # 4: Top Twenty (20) Crops for Selected Years (1978, 1994, 2004 & 2006). 1978 1994 2004 2006 Avocado Avocado Avocado Avocado Banana Banana Banana Banana Bean Cabbage Broccoli Cabbage Cabbage Cantaloupe Cabbage Cassava Cassava Cassava Grapefruit Coconut Corn Coconut Lemon Grapefruit Cucumber Corn Lettuce Persian Lime Grapefruit Cucumber Persian Lime Mango Irish Potato Grapefruit Mango Neem Key Lime Irish Potato Onion Orange Mango Lemon Orange Hot Pepper Onion Lettuce Goat Pepper Pineapple Orange Persian Lime Pumpkin Plantain Hot Pepper Mango Sugar Cane Pumpkin Pigeon Peas Onion Sweet Pepper Scarlet Plum Plantain Orange Sweet Potato Sour Orange Pumpkin Pumpkin Tangelo Sweet Pepper Sweet Pepper Sweet Pepper Tangerine Sweet Potato Tomato Sweet Potato Tomato Tomato Watermelon Tomato Watermelon Watermelon Watermelon Source: Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Census and selected years compiled by Mr. Leslie Minns (Senior Marketing Officer, Agricultural Economist) From these four lists the crops that appear in each are: 1. Avocado 2. Banana 3. Cabbage 4. Grapefruit 5. Mango 6. Orange 7. Pumpkin 8. Sweet Pepper 9. Tomato 10. Watermelon The crops that appear in 3 of these lists: 1. Onion 2. Cassava Over the past five years the Produce Exchange has played less of a role in marketing Agricultural Produce, for these years their budget was B$1.7 million dollars. Their budget is now (2008 – 2009) B$ 1.525 million dollars. In 2003 the Packing Houses purchased a quantity of 4,350,037 lbs. of produce valued at B$1.634 million dollars that was the highest volume of produce purchases for the five year period. In 2005 they purchased the least volume of 1,950,007 lbs. valued at B$ 0.993 million dollars. The remainder of produce is sold through formal marketing channels, by direct shipments, used, stolen or given away. Formal marketing channel are farmers who either sell to wholesalers themselves or market through a middleman for example F & V sales Abaco. Direct Shipment farmers bring their produce on the mailboat to Potter’s Cay sell from the boat or hire a truck to take them around. From the census of agriculture 1994 used, stolen and given away were categories used to record crop production. Source: Packing House purchases, Department of Agriculture, compiled by Mr. Leslie Minns (Senior Marketing Officer, Agricultural Economist) The Food Bill The food bill, how can we reduce it? But more importantly, how much is it? There is much speculation on the value of the food bill, we have heard thru the print media, radio and television that our food bill is estimated to be around B$ 500 million dollars. A quick look at the Import Trade Statistics published by the Department of Statistics^ that the value of Imported Agricultural products is around B$ 467 million. This figure is derived by adding the totals of Sections 1 thru 4: Table #5: Section (2007) 1. Live Animals Animal Products 128,486,134 2. Vegetable products 93,128,916 3. Animal or Vegetable, etc. 9,461,750 4. Prepared Food Stuffs 235,567,787 Total 466,644,587 However included in these numbers are fish, plants and tobacco (non-food items), but to us these are agricultural products less fish, have a potential to not only be produced in this country, but reduce this total as well. From the above table, the import of Vegetable products (Section 2) we see that from 1997-2007 the import of these products has risen from 50,704,177 (1997) to 93,128,916 (2007). An increase of 42,424,739 over ten years, that is an average of $42.4 million per year. In 2006 we imported 81,054,514, therefore 2007 increased by 12.07 million or by 14.89%. The largest increased in imported vegetable occurred in 2000 when we imported 72,986,313 worth of vegetable, however the year before 1999 we imported 59,021,594 worth an increase of $13.96 million or 23.6%^. Therefore the Value of Fish, Food and Agricultural Products for the Bahamas in 2007 we estimate to be B$578.152 million dollars Table #6. Lettuce being grown at Lucayan Tropical Micro-greens being grown at Goodfellow Farms Pineapple Fields in Hatchet Bay, Eleuthera Mango at Carey’s Farm Conchy Joe’s Hot Sauce Goats on Long Island Cabbage in Andros Pigs in Grand Bahama Table #6: Value of Fish, Food and Agricultural Products Value of Fish, Food and Agricultural Products Section 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 Imports 1 37.68 85.162 85.946 94.06 111.259 128.48 139.14 2 50.7 59.021 66.061 65.332 81.054 93.13 102.86 3 5.955 6.037 5.584 7.054 8.66 9.46 10.67 4 149.43 176.139 188.604 195.531 214.963 235.56 250.25 Total 273.765 326.359 346.195 361.977 415.936 466.63 502.92 Imports Agriculture Fisheries Total 1997 273.765 55.576 14.08 343.421 1999 326.359 46.348 12.359 385.066 2001 346.195 62.158 10.643 418.996 2003 361.977 47.959 1.787 420.723 2005 415.936 71.607 7.102 494.645 2007 502.920 72.013 3.219 578.152 Sources: Department of Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Department of Fisheries So what is the food bill from where we sit the food bill is the value of all food consumed, be it imported or produced locally. However we are interested in reducing the import of food. Therefore the Food Bill is the value of Food Imported: the value of imported food in 2007 was B$401,483,139 dollars^. CROPS IDENTIFIED COMPARED TO compared to the 30 crops identified by OTHER RECOMMENDATIOS. this survey. In the previous chapter we saw the 30 Rapid Assessment of Farming Practices Identified Crops the value of the fresh product imported and the value of by Therefore for this component of the products imported. In 2008 and 2009 program we will focus on Crops, (Page 10 of the Rapid Assessment) identified these there were two studies done on crops to crops as the top 10, Tomatoes, Watermelon, identify those which had potential to Sweet Pepper, Banana, Onion, Hot pepper, penetrate the local market. Pumpkin, Cabbage, Limes and Citrus (a grouping including Oranges, Tangerine, The first was the Rapid Assessment in Grapefruit, Sour Orange, Tangelo, Key that study there were four vegetables, Lime and Persian Lime). The identification two fruit, two condiments and citrus. of these crops would give us compliment of The Citrus identified were orange and 15 crops later in this paper we will examine tangerine, lime was also mentioned but these crops versus those of the survey. there was no distinction made whether it was Key or Persian. Other Bahamian Citrus not mentioned but that we felt The 30 crops identified by this survey should have been were lemon, when compared to the Rapid grapefruit, tangelo and sour orange. Assessment revealed the following (Table #7) The second study/recommendations From our understanding of the RA we were identified at the National identified fifteen crops eleven (11) or Economic Summit and that group of 73% could be, found in the 30 crops Bahamian Professionals came up with identified. Those not found and their 30 crops also. Both the Rapid rank, were pumpkin #35, tangerine #42, Assessment of Farming Practices and tangelo #57 and sour orange #55. the National Economic Summit were Seven of those eleven were listed in the 30 identified crops which were considered as having potential to be million dollar industries. Table #7: Onion #1 Tomato #4 Sweet Pepper #7 Orange #14 Lime #20 Watermelon #21 Banana #24 Onion shed in Abaco 1. Cabbage #6 has a potential to earn over six hundred thousand per annum. 2. Lemon #12 and grapefruit #16 have a potential to earn over three hundred thousand per annum. 3. Tangerine #42 is worth between $150,000 to over $200,000 per annum. This crop has the potential to be considered in the top 30. 4. Pumpkin and Tangelo fell below fifty thousand dollars per annum. 5. Hot pepper the remaining crop shows a potential of between eighty thousand to one hundred thousand dollars per annum. All fifteen crops can be grown successfully in the Bahamas. The RA listed it TOP 10 PRODUCE, citrus was listed as one but showed two types of citrus orange and tangerine. Another citrus lime was listed therefore in order to complete the citrus family we added lemon, grapefruit, tangelo and sour orange. Of these fifteen crops pumpkin, tangelo and sour orange may be considered the least valuable all remaining crops (all 12) show potential to penetrate the Bahamian Market. CROPS RECOMMENDED BY THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC SUMMIT (NES) NES recommended 30 crops of those twenty one (21) were identified in the top 30 of this survey eight (8) were not. (Table #8) Table #8: NES crops in the Top 30 Identified Broccoli #27 Cabbage #6 Carrot #5 Cassava #28 Celery #11 Corn #22 Cucumber #13 Garlic #19 Lettuce #3 Okra #30 Onion #1 Peas #9 ** Hot Pepper #8 Potato # 2 or 18 Tomato #4 Banana #4 Grapefruit #16 Lime #20 Orange #14 Plantain #15 Watermelon #21 Fruits and Vegetables at the Farmer’s Market, Blake Road NES crops not in the Top 30 Identified Asparagus #60 Bean #45, 64, 91 Mushroom (no rank) Spinach #48 Avocado #32 Grape (no rank) Honeydew Melon #34 Strawberry #36 Tangerine #42 Therefore of the twenty one crops recommended by NES twelve (12) have the potential to be million dollar industries: Carrot Corn Lettuce Onion Potatoes Tomatoes Banana Grape Lime Orange Plantain Strawberry While corn is included on this list its potential lies in the frozen and prepared or preserved market. Prepared or preserved are mostly in the form of cans. The variety of corn is sweet corn, in 2006 the Bahamas imported B$170,311 worth of fresh sweet corn and in 2007 imports were worth B$218,881. Frozen sweet corn in 2006 and 2007 respectively had a value of B$698,863 and B$686,602. Imported canned (prepared or preserved) corn in 2006 had a value of B$782,620 and in 2007 was worth B$979,896, for a total value in 2006 of B$1,651,794 and in 2007 B$1,885,389. Lettuce imports for 2006 was worth approximately B$3.5 million all fresh lettuce, cabbage lettuce or head lettuce, romaine and other. By 2007 we imported almost B$4.0 million dollars worth of lettuce. Grape another crop recommended by NES while we have a potential to produce it does not appear on our crop profile. The NES listed Potato in its recommendations however what type are the referring to Irish or Sweet*. Irish potato fresh and frozen has a potential to generate B$10.0 million dollars annually, sweet potato on the other hand is worth half a million dollars. Watermelon shows it has potential to be a million dollar industry however in 2007 watermelon imports fell by more than half a million dollars, from B$1,109836 in 2006 to B$485,943 in 2007^. The reasons for this decline are still unknown as Packing House purchases for this period reflected the same trend. If local production increased we will be able to determine that once all figures are in from the farmers register. From the survey we learnt that the watermelon in demand is the seedless variety. Local Seeded Watermelon Variety Of the remaining 18 crops three have an import value of over B$800,000 per annum they are: Broccoli (895K) Cabbage (842K) Mushrooms (821K) Broccoli and cabbage are grown successfully in the Bahamas however mushrooms do not appear in our crop profile. Other crops with relatively high import values or over B$200,000: Watermelon (486K) Asparagus (458K) Honeydew Melon (473K) Sweet Potato (428K) Grapefruit (378K) Celery (375K) Cassava (275K) Garlic (240K) Avocado (260K) Tangerine (222K) Spinach (230K) PEAS & BEAN** Total import value for all peas in 2007 That would leave four (4) four crops was B$389,245, the value in 2006 was peas, beans, okra and hot pepper. Both B$389,476. hot pepper and okra have a potential to earn under, one hundred thousand The Harmonized System Code 7133990 dollars. Peas and beans are a little more is labeled Peas or bean dried, however complicated because of the varieties and these are believed to be Pigeon Peas as the value-added products of these the code 7139010 does not reflect the varieties. However, combined they have amount of Pigeon Peas imported into a potential to earn over one million the country by local canners (Albury’s dollars annually. (Table #8) and Sawyer’s).The imported quantity and value for HS 7133990 was 401,556 Peas is imported into this country in pounds and worth B$188,904 or B$0.47 four varieties sweet peas, pigeon peas per pound. (Cajunus Cajun), black eyed peas and cowpeas. Pigeon peas come in four There were three types or varieties of forms fresh, frozen, preserved and dried bean, Lima, Kidney and others and they and had a total value of only B$53,844 had a combined import value of B$701, for 2007. 085. Other being the most valuable, value at B$456,650 and is imported Sweet pea may be imported fresh, fresh, frozen and dried. Lima beans frozen and dried and was worth more were the next valuable with an import than Pigeon Peas by more than a quarter value of B$221,194, its forms of of a million dollars, the total import importation are fresh, preserved and value for all types of sweet pea was dried. Kidney beans are imported fresh B$322, 085. and in 2007 was worth B$23,241. Black eye peas are imported fresh and The total imported value for peas and dry but in 2007 was only worth b$13, bean in 2006 was B$1,151,334 and in 198. 2007 they were worth B$1,279,234^. Cow peas is imported fresh only and in Of this list of 30 crops identified by NES 2007 total imports was worth B$118. two had no rank as they did not appear on the Crop Profile, all others are grown in the Bahamas and included on our Crop Profile. Kidney Beans Based on the survey done for this report (January-February 2009) on the top thirty crops, the following is a list of crops that buyers are interested in purchasing: Onion Tomato Lettuce Sweet Pepper Cabbage Okra Celery Cucumber Pumpkin Carrot Green Corn Cassava Sweet Potato Goat Pepper Pigeon Peas Parsley Rosemary Citrus Melons (water, Papaya seedless, honey dew) Pineapple Sugar Apple Cantaloupe Coconut (grated) Sugar Cane The livestock agricultural products that are estimated to offer the best market penetration potential are beef, mutton, pork, chevon and honey. Buy Bahamian! Acknowledgements: see full report References: 1) Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics, Mr. Leslie Minns, Senior Marketing Officer 2) Department of Fisheries, Fisheries Statistics, Mr. Greg Burrows 3) National Economic Summit, March 2009 4) Rapid Assessment of Farming Practices, Production Facilities and Marketing Operations – Miss LaMonica Glinton (May 2008), BAPA 5) The Census of Agriculture: 1978, 1994 (Department of Agriculture) 6) ^ Department of Statistics, Commonwealth of the Bahamas Annual Foreign Trade Statistics Report 2007 Key: B$ - Bahamian dollars K=thousands of Bahamian dollars The 2006 Bahamas Crop Profile: 1 Ackee 28 Coconut 55 Marjoram 82 Rosemary 2 Alfalfa 29 Collard Greens 56 Mammy 83 Sapodilla 3 Aloe 30 Corn 57 Mango 84 Scarlet Plum 4 Arugula 31 Cow Peas 58 Mint 85 Sea Grape 5 Asparagus 32 Cucumber 59 Mulberry 86 Sorghum 6 Avocado 33 Dasheen 60 Neem 87 Sour Orange 7 Banana 34 Dates 61 Noni 88 Sour Sop 8 Basil 35 Dill 62 Okra 89 Spinach 9 Bean, Kidney 36 Eddoes 63 Onion 90 Squash 10 Bean, Lima 37 Eggplant 64 Orange 91 Star Apple 11 Bean, Other 38 Garlic 65 Oregano 92 Strawberry 12 Beets 39 Gooseberry 66 Papaya 93 String Bean 13 Benny 40 Grapefruit 67 Parsley 94 Sugar Apple 14 Bok Choy 41 Guava 68 Passion Fruit 95 Sugar Cane 15 Breadfruit 42 Guinea Corn 69 Peanut 96 Sweet Pepper 16 Broccoli 43 Guinep 70 Pepper, Chili 97 Sweet Potato 17 Cabbage 44 Hog Plum 71 Pepper,Chr. 98 Swiss Chard Red 18 Cantaloupe 45 Honey Dew 72 Pepper, Goat 99 Tamarind 19 Carambola 46 Irish Potato 73 Pepper, Hot 100 Tangelo 20 Carrot 47 Jou-Jou 74 Pepper, 101 Tangerine Jalapeño 21 Cassava 48 Kale 75 Pepper, Salad 102 Thyme 22 Cauliflower 49 Lemon 76 Pigeon Peas 103 Tomato 23 Celery 50 Lemon Grass 77 Pineapple 104 Vanilla 24 Cherry 51 Lettuce 78 Plantain 105 Watercress 25 Chive 52 Lime, Key 79 Plum – June 106 Watermelon 26 Cigar/Tobacco 53 Lime, Persian 80 Pomegranate 107 Yam 27 Cilantro 54 Lychee 81 Pumpkin 108 Zucchini Source: The Department of Agriculture Avocado Fact Sheet When to harvest: Avocado does not ripen while still on the tree, but must be picked Common name: Avocado when full grown and mature. Scientific name: Persea americana Mill. Season: Bears from May to March, depending upon variety. Health Benefits: Varieties: Lula Monroe, Hall, Simmonds, Pollock (early) Source: FACT SHEET ON LOCAL FRUIT TREES, GRAC (various resources) Avocado Value in $ San Salvador Mayaguana Propagation: Fresh avocado seeds sprout in Acklins 4 to 6 weeks. Andros Abaco Cat Island Cultivation: Does not tolerate flood New Providence conditions. Eleuthera Grand Bahama Plant type: Medium-sized or large tree Long Island (usually up to 30 ft, but could be 60 ft or All Bahamas more. Time to maturity: Trees produced from seeds bear in 5-6 years, while grafted varieties bear fruit earlier, in 3-4 years. Source: Dept. of Agriculture 2006 Crop Estimates by Island Prepared by the IICA Bahamas Office 2009 Mango Fact Sheet When to harvest: When ready for harvesting, the fruit will break free from the stem at the slightest tug. Season: Fruiting season from May to January, depending upon the variety. Health Benefits: control blood pressure, promote the normal clotting of blood, help heal wounds and support the bodies’ immune system. Common name: Mango Varieties: Haden, Kent, Palmer, Carrie, Smith Scientific name: Mangifera indica L Source: FACT SHEET ON LOCAL FRUIT TREES, GRAC (various resources) Propagation: Usually grafted on rootstock, but germinates readily from Mango Value in $ fresh, fully matured seeds. San Salvador Mayaguana Cultivation: Plant tree in sunny Acklins location. Irrigate and fertilize for first 4- Andros 5 years of life. Abaco Cat Island New Providence Plant type: Large tree. Eleuthera Grand Bahama Time to maturity: Grafted trees can Long Island produce fruit within 2 years. Mangoes All Bahamas reach maturity about 5 months after flowering. Source: Dept. of Agriculture 2006 Crop Estimates by Island Prepared by the IICA Bahamas Office 2009 Source: FACT SHEET ON LOCAL FRUIT Guava Fact Sheet TREES, GRAC (various resources) Common name: Guava Scientific name: Psidium guajava L. Guava Value in $ San Salvador Mayaguana Acklins Andros Abaco Cat Island New Providence Eleuthera Grand Bahama Long Island All Bahamas Propagation: Seeds germinate in 3 to 6 weeks Cultivation: Drought tolerant, tolerates poor growing conditions, prefers full sunlight. Trees will flourish with little care, but respond to fertilisers. Plant type: Small tree with spreading branches Time to maturity: Trees bear first fruit 2 years Source: Dept. of Agriculture 2006 Crop after transplanting. Fruit matures 5 months after Estimates by Island flowering. When to harvest: Fruit flavour is best when Prepared by the IICA Bahamas Office 2009 allowed to ripen on the tree. Season: Bears throughout the year, but heaviest during summer months. Health benefits: Supports immune systems, lowers cholesterol, controls blood pressure and maintains healthy bones. Varieties: Beaumont Red, Mexican Cream, Pear, Red Indian, Red Malaysian, Ruby, South African, White Indian Sapodilla Fact Sheet Season: Produces fruit throughout most of the year, depending upon variety. Main production occurs from May to September. Source: FACT SHEET ON LOCAL FRUIT TREES, GRAC (various resources) Health Benefits: This food is low in Saturated Fat, and very low in Cholesterol and Sodium. It is also a very good source of Dietary Fiber and Vitamin C. Source: http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts/fruits-and- fruit-juices/2061/2 Varieties: Common name: Sapodilla Addley, Adelaide, Badam, Baramasi, Big Pine Key, Black, Brown Sugar Scientific name: Manilkara zapota van Source: Royen http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedi ngs1996/V3-439.html#CULTIVARS Propagation: Seeds germinate readily, but are slow growing. The plants can Sapodilla Value in $ also be grafted or air layered. San Salvador Mayaguana Cultivation: Requires full sunlight and Acklins is tolerant of drought and saline Andros conditions. Abaco Cat Island Plant type: Large tree (60ft) New Providence Eleuthera Grand Bahama Time to maturity: Trees take 5 to 8 years Long Island to bear. Fruiting occurs 4-6 months after All Bahamas flowering. Source: Dept. of Agriculture 2006 Crop When to harvest: Fruit mature over a 5- Estimates by Island month period. Pick when stem breaks Prepared by the IICA Bahamas Office 2009 easily. Coconut Fact Sheet Season: Produces all year round Source: FACT SHEET ON LOCAL FRUIT TREES, GRAC (various resources) Health Benefits: The good: This food is very low in Cholesterol and Sodium. It is also a very good source of Manganese. The bad: This food is very high in Saturated Fat. Common name: Coconut Source:http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts/nut- and-seed-products/3106/2 Scientific name: Cocos nucifera Varieties: Green Malayan, Golden Propagation: Seeds germinate in 4-6 Malayan, Fiji Dwarf, Jamaica Tall months Source: Dept. of Agriculture 2006 Crop Estimates by Island Cultivation: Propagate using seeds from fully matured nuts. The coconut Prepared by the IICA Bahamas Office 2009 palm is well adapted to sandy soils and saline conditions. It resists strong winds and often withstands hurricanes. Coconut Value in $ Plant type: Palm tree, ranging from dwarf types (5-6 ft) to tall trees reaching 90 ft in height. San Salvador Mayaguana Time to maturity: Trees begin to fruit in Acklins Andros about 5 years. Fruit set to maturity is 8- Abaco 10 months. Cat Island New Providence Eleuthera When to harvest: Mature fruit may be Grand Bahama Long Island picked for its juice and soft flesh when All Bahamas husk is still green, or dried and brown for its meat (copra).