The analysis contained in this memo is intended to by umi17017

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									ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                          Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

    Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm
               Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation

        Zi Liu, Ph.D.                               Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E.          Kelly Brumbelow, Ph.D.
      Research Engineer                              Professor/Assc. Director                Asst. Professor
  Energy Systems Laboratory                        Energy Systems Laboratory              Department of Civil
                                                                                               Engineering
      Charles Culp, Ph.D.,                             Don Gilman, P.E.
            P.E.                                    Senior Software Engineer         Bahman Yazdani, P.E., CEM.
 Assc. Professor/Assc. Director                    Energy Systems Laboratory                Assc. Director
  Energy Systems Laboratory                                                           Energy Systems Laboratory

                                                    Texas A&M University
                                                     ziliu@tees.tamus.edu

Abstract: This paper presents the procedures                          strategies that may be considered for inclusion as
developed to calculate the electricity savings and                    SIP measures comprise, but are not limited to, the
emissions reductions from the infiltration of storm                   Utility Water and Wastewater Energy-Related
water into sanitary sewage separation using a two-                    Improvements.        This    paper     describes   a
step regression method: one step to correlate the                     methodology that has been developed for the
gallons of wastewater treated to the rainfall, and a                  TCEQ to assess the potential emissions reduction
second step that correlates the gallons of wastewater                 from the implementation of the retrofit measures to
treated to the electricity consumed during a given                    city-wide, wastewater distributions.
period. The procedure integrates ASHRAE’s Inverse                          In come cities the municipal sewer system
Model Toolkit (IMT) for the weather-normalization                     collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in
analysis and the EPA’s Emissions and Generations                      the same system. During dry weather these sewers
Resource         Integrated     Database     (eGRID)      for         carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater
calculating the NOx emissions reductions for the                      treatment plant for treatment.       However, when
electric utility provider associated with the user.                   rainstorms or snow melt increase the amount of
                                                                      runoff, the combined flow of sanitary sewage and
1. INTRODUCTION                                                       storm water can exceed the capacity of the sewage
     On February 2004, the Texas Commission on                        treatment system, which can cause serious
Environmental Quality (TCEQ) issued a document                        problems when the storm water and sewage mix
entitled               “Incorporating                 Energy          are discharged untreated into rivers or the sewage
Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) projects                          backs up into streets and basements. In addition,
into the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)                        storm water treated in the sewage treatment plant
mandated State Implementation Plan (SIP): A                           causes   unnecessary     energy   use.    Therefore
Guide      for     Local      Entities”,   which     provides         separating the storm water/infiltration and sanitary
guidance on how political subdivisions can assist                     sewage reduces the possibility of sewage discharge
the TCEQ in taking credit for emissions reductions                    during heavy rain periods, and saves energy.
from energy efficiency measures implemented at
the political subdivision level. According to this                    2. METHODOLOGY
TCEQ guidance energy efficiency, renewable
energy and non-emission distributed generation
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                       Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

        The methodology developed in this study                    gallons per day (MGD). Analysis of the input data
calculates the potential emission reductions from                  also shows the wastewater treated in January and
storm water/infiltration sanitary sewage separation                December was low compared to other months due
using a two-step regression method: one step to                    to the holidays and school vocation period, which
correlate the gallons of wastewater treated to the                 was excluded in the analysis. During the non-rainy
rainfall, and a second step that correlates the gallons            days, the amount of wastewater treated averaged
of wastewater treated to the electricity consumed                  6.32 MGD and varied within a small range, from
during a given period.             The model that was              about 6 to 7 MGD except for several days.
developed uses pre-retrofit monthly data, i.e.,                                       In Fig.3, the average daily wastewater flow
wastewater treated and electricity use data, and                   was plotted against the daily rainfall data for the
daily rainfall data corresponding to the monthly                   period                       February              through                 November.                    The
period.         These data are then processed with the             application of a two-parameter linear regression to
ASHRAE Inverse Model Toolkit (IMT) analysis                        the average daily wastewater treated versus
software (Kissock et al. 2003; Haberl et al. 2003) to              average period rainfall shows that the treated
evaluate the performance of wastewater collection                  wastewater increases significantly as the daily
and treatment system, and any weather dependence                   rainfall increases. The offset of 6.3075 indicates
using average rainfall data. The pre-retrofit data are             the wastewater treated daily when there is no rain
weather normalized to the 1999 or 2002 base year                   (i.e., this is used to estimate how the municipal
through the adjusted regression coefficients based                 sewage treatment system would have operated if
on the growth rate from 1999/2002 base year to the                 there was no storm water or infiltration).                                                              The
studied year, so the evaluation of the potential                   slope of 1.9723 describes the increase of the storm
savings in 2007 and 2010 can be performed using                    water that infiltrates the sewer system and needs to
base-year weather conditions. Finally the potential                be treated as the rainfall increases.
annual and OSD (Ozone Season Days) emissions                                                               Wastew ater Treated for the Rainy Days

reductions        are   determined    using    the      EPA’s                        20                                                                                10
                                                                                     18                                                      Flow    Rainfal_NOAA      9
            1
eGRID           , emissions and generation resource                                  16                                                                                8




                                                                                                                                                                            Rainfall (inches/day)
                                                                                     14                                                                                7
integrated database.
                                                                        Flow (MGD)




                                                                                     12                                                                                6

                                                                                     10                                                                                5
                                                                                      8                                                                                4

2.1 Wastewater Treated versus Rainfall                                                6                                                                                3
                                                                                      4                                                                                2
        To investigate the influence of rainfall on the                               2                                                                                1
                                                                                      0                                                                                0
amount of wastewater treated, hourly, daily and                                           1/4      2/14            4/11           6/7        8/10     10/9      12/6
                                                                                                                                 Day
monthly wastewater data from several wastewater
facilities and the corresponding rainfall data from                  Fig. 1 Wastewater treated for the rainy days
the nearest NOAA weather stations were obtained.                                                        Wastew ater Treated for the Non-Rainy Days

Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show an annual time-series plot of                                 20
                                                                                     18
                                                                                                          Flow
daily wastewater data from a wastewater treatment                                    16                   Average MGD Excluding January and December Data = 6.32
                                                                                     14
facility and the coincident rainfall data. It shows                                                                  Data Used in the Analysis
                                                                     Flow (MGD)




                                                                                     12
                                                                                     10
that during the most rainy days, the amount of                                       8

wastewater treated rose as high as 19 million                                        6
                                                                                     4

                                                                                     2
                                                                                     0
                                                                                          1/1    2/21        4/9          5/26      7/17      8/25   10/5    11/18     12/30
1
    GRID, ver. 2, is the EPA’s emissions and generation                                                                                Day


resource integrated database. This publicly available
                                                                    Fig. 2. Wastewater treated for non-rainy days
database can be found at www.epa.gov/airmarkets/egrid/
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                                                                                                       Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2


                                                                     Daily Wastew ater Treated vs. Rainfall
                                                                                                                                                          having combined storm water/sewage treatment
              20
                                                              Raining Days
                                                                                                                                                          flows by design.
              18
                                                              No n-Raining Days
              16                                              Linear (Raining Days)

              14
                                                                                                                                                          2.2                                           Wastewater                      Treated            versus             Electricity
 Flow (MGD)




              12

              10

              8
                                                                                                                  y = 1.9723x + 6.3075                    Consumption
              6
                                                                                                                                                                                                      To calculate the electricity savings from the
              4
              2                                                                                                                                           reduced wastewater flow through separating storm
              0
                   0                                          0.5             1                  1.5          2                 2.5          3            water/infiltration from sanitary sewage, ASHRAE’s
                                                                                      Rainfall (inches/day)
                                                                                                                                                          IMT was used to determine the statistical
 Fig.3. Daily wastewater treated versus rainfall                                                                                                          relationship between the average daily wastewater
               In the next step, the daily wastewater treated                                                                                             treated                                                  and             the           electricity             consumption
was summed to monthly data and divided by the                                                                                                             corresponding to the billing period. Fig. 5 shows
number of days of each month, and then plotted                                                                                                            the two-parameter monthly regression model. The
against the corresponding average daily rainfall of                                                                                                       very low correlation of wastewater flow and
the month, as shown in Fig. 4. The two-parameter                                                                                                          electricity consumption is partly due to the
linear regression model developed using IMT is                                                                                                            electricity consumption dataset which includes not
shown in Fig. 4 as well.                                                                                                                                  only the electricity use for processing the
                                                                                       Wastew ater Treated 2P Model
                                                                                                                                                          wastewater, but also the office electricity use. In
                                                      8
                                                                                                                                                          the future it is expected that end-use metered data
                                                      7
                   Monthly Average Daily Wastewater




                                                      6
                                                                                                                                                          for only the wastewater treatment will better
                                                                                                                                                          represent the real savings that may be achieved.
                            Treated (MGD)




                                                      5                                                              y = 1.6851x + 6.3674
                                                                                                                        RMSE = 0.2233
                                                      4                                                               CV-RMSE = 3.358%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Monthly Daily Electricity Consum ption vs. Wastew ater Treated
                                                      3
                                                                                                                                                                                                      20000
                                                                                                                                                           Average Daily Electricity Consumption of




                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                      17500
                                                      1
                                                                                                                                                                                                      15000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           y = 627.32x + 12255
                                                                                                                                                                    A Month (kWh/day)




                                                      0
                                                          0         0.05     0.1          0.15         0.2    0.25        0.3         0.35   0.4   0.45                                               12500                                                 RMSE = 536.8661

                                                                                  Monthly Average Daily Rainfall (Inches/day)                                                                                                                               CV-RMSE=3.3%
                                                                                                                                                                                                      10000

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7500
Fig. 4. Monthly average daily wastewater                                                                                                                                                              5000

                                treated versus rainfall                                                                                                                                               2500

                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
               As seen from Fig. 4, the resultant coefficients                                                                                                                                            6.00        6.20       6.40     6.60      6.80     7.00      7.20       7.40   7.60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Average Daily Wastew ater Treated of A Month (MGD)
from the two-parameter monthly model were
sufficiently robust to allow for their use in                                                                                                             Fig. 5. Monthly average daily wastewater
projecting the daily wastewater treated into other                                                                                                                                                             treated versus rainfall
weather base years. The offset of 6.3674 from the
monthly model is very close to that of the daily                                                                                                          2.3 Calculation of Emissions Reduction
model (6.3075).                                                               The very low correlation of                                                                                             For this analysis special versions of eGRID
wastewater flow and rainfall in the college town                                                                                                          (2007 eGRID) was used that predicts the 2007
used for case study is heavily influenced by the                                                                                                          electricity and pollution for utilities in the ERCOT
relative                                                  newness                  of            the         city’s             wastewater                (Electric Reliability Council of Texas) Power
infrastructure. Therefore, it is doubtful that much                                                                                                       Control Area. For the Ozone Season Day (OSD),
water infiltrates the sanitary sewer system, and                                                                                                          the TCEQ uses the 2007-OSD eGRID to calculate
combined sewer lines are probably very few.                                                                                                               the daily emissions during Ozone Season Days.
Greater energy savings may be possible for older                                                                                                          The annual 2007 eGRID was used for the annual
systems suffering from higher infiltration and                                                                                                            calculations.                                                          Both            the       annual             and        OSD
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                            Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

calculations assume eGRID’s 25% plant capacity
factor. In eGRID the NOx production for each                            3.3 Predict Daily Wastewater Treated in Base Year
power plant is provided for ten electric utility                        1999 and 2002
suppliers in ERCOT (i.e., AEP, Austin Energy,                                After running the IMT 2P model, the growth
Brownsville Public Utility, LCRA, Reliant, San                          factors input by the user are applied to the
Antonio Public Service, South Texas Corp, TMPP,                         coefficients obtained in the previous step. Both the
TNMP, and TXU). In the case of an unknown                               slope (coefficient “X1”) and offset (coefficient
power provider, the model assigns the utility based                     “a”) are adjusted to reflect the growth of the
on the PUC’s 2002 Power Control Authority                               wastewater treatment system from 1999 and 2002
                   2
(PCA) listing . Once the utility provider has been                      to the input period. Then the weather normalized
chosen for a given county the eGRID emission                            daily wastewater treated in 1999 and 2002 is
factor for 2007 is used for both 2007 and 2010                          calculated based on the adjusted coefficients and
calculations.                                                           daily rainfall data in 1999 and 2002.            The
                                                                        wastewater treated annually and in OSD period in
3. APPLICATION                                                          1999 and 2002 are also calculated accordingly.

        In this section, the developed procedure (Fig.
                                                                        3.4 Predict Daily Wastewater Treated in Base Year
6) in the emissions calculator is explained in detail.
                                                                        1999 and 2002 if No Rain
                                                                             As discussed in the previous section, the
3.1 User Input
                                                                        offset indicates the wastewater treated daily when
        As shown in (c)
                                                                        there is no rain.      Based on this value, the
        Fig. 7, first the user needs to input the percent
                                                                        wastewater treated annually and in OSD period in
of storm sewer that can be blocked or percent of
                                                                        1999 and 2002 if there is no rain, or in another
infiltration that can be fixed. Next, the user inputs
                                                                        words, if the storm water is 100% blocked from
12 months of data for the wastewater treated and
                                                                        the sanitary sewer system, is then calculated.
coincident electricity use.                Finally, the user
provides the growth of their system covering 1999,
                                                                        3.5 Second Application of IMT
2002, 2007 and 2010. This allows the calculations
                                                                             IMT 2P model is run again to determine the
to evaluate the conditions in the base year (i.e.,
                                                                        coefficients   (“a”   and   “X1”)    of   electricity
1999 or 2002), and in the 2007 and 2010 future
                                                                        consumption versus the wastewater treated. The
years.
                                                                        following equation is then used to calculate the
                                                                        normalized daily electricity consumption using the
3.2 First Application of IMT
                                                                        predicted daily wastewater flow:
        Next, IMT is run to obtain the coefficients
                                                                             Electricity Consumption (kWh/day) = a + X1
(“a” and “X1”) of the two-parameter model for the
                                                                        * Predicted Daily Waste Water Treated (MGD)
wastewater and rainfall. The following equation is
used in the next step for calculating the normalized
                                                                        3.6 Predict Daily Energy Consumption in Base
daily wastewater treated using daily rainfall data:
                                                                        Year 1999 and 2002
        Wastewater Treated (MGD) = a + X1 * Daily
                                                                             To calculate daily energy consumption in
Rainfall (inches/day)
                                                                        1999/2002 first the growth factors input by the
                                                                        user are applied
2
    For more information on the assumptions behind this assignment
                                                                             to the coefficients obtained in the previous
see the ESL’s 2004 Annual Report to the TCEQ (Haberl et al.
                                                                        step. Only the offset needs to be adjusted to reflect
2004a, b, c).
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                                   Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

the growth of the wastewater treatment system                                                       daily,
from 1999 and 2002 to the input period. Then the

                     eCalc - Wastewater


                                                               Daily Rainfall
                           Input Screen                         Data for the                                                                                       Return An Error
                                                                 Input 12-                                                                                        Message and Ask
                                                               months Period                                                                                      the User to Check
                                                                                                                                                                     the Input or
                                                                                              IMT                                                                 Correct the Input
                      Input 12-months of Data on
                     Wastewater Treated in MG/mo                                                                                                                    and Rerun the
                                                                                                                                                                       Project
                                                                                                                                             IMT



                 Input Electricity Consumption Data for                                    Coefficients for                            Coefficients for
                the Same 12-months Period in kWh/mo                                    Wastewater Treated                            Electricity Usage in
                                                                                      in MGD/mo vs Rainfall                            kWh/day-mo vs
                                                                                         in Inches/day-mo                            Wastewater Treated
                                                                                                                                         in MGD/mo



                           Input Screen                                                                         Y
                                                                                        Coefficient X1=<0                                                         Y
                                                                                                                                      Coefficient X1=<0


                  Input the Percent of Storm Sewage                                                 N
                                                                                                                                                  N
                That Can be Blocked or Infiltration That
                             Can be Fixed
                                                                                      Adjust Coefficients for
                                                                                                                                     Adjust Coefficients for
                                                                                         1999 and 2002
                                                                                                                                        1999 and 2002



                           Input Screen                                                                                                                          Daily Rainfall
                                                                                      Calculate Wastewater             Calculate Daily
                                                                                                                                                                   Data for
                                                              Calculate Growth         Treated in 1999 and          Wastewater Treated
                                                                                                                                                                  Base Years
                                                              Factors Based on        2002 If There was No           in 1999 and 2002
                                                                                                                                                                   1999 and
                                                                Input Growth               Rain (MGD)                 with Rain (MGD)
                   Input Growth Rates from Current                                                                                                                   2002
                                                               Rates for 1999
                        Period to 1999, 2002,                     and 2002
                           2007 and 2010
                                                                                          Calculate Daily
                                                                                                                       Calculate Daily
                                                                                       Energy Consumption
                                                                                                                    Energy Consumption
                                                                                       in 1999 and 2002 If
                                                                                                                     in 1999 and 2002
                                                                                        There was No Rain
                               Calculate                                                                            with Rain (kWh/day)
                                                                                            (kWh/day)
                            Growth Factors
                            Based on Input
                             Growth Rates
                             for 2007 and                                           Calculate Annual Energy                        Calculate Annual Energy
                                 2010                                              Consumption (kWh/yr) and                       Consumption (kWh/yr) and
                                                                                     Average Daily Energy                           Average Daily Energy
                                                                                 Consumption (kWh/day) in OSD                   Consumption (kWh/day) in OSD
                                                                                   Period Due to Rain in 1999                     Period Due to Rain in 2002




                                                                                 Calculate Annual Energy Savings                Calculate Annual Energy Savings
                                                                                   (kWh/yr) and Average Daily                     (kWh/yr) and Average Daily
                                                                                  Energy Savings (kWh/day) in                    Energy Savings (kWh/day) in
                                                                                       OSD Period in 1999                             OSD Period in 2002



                                                                                 Calculate Annual Energy Savings                Calculate Annual Energy Savings
                                                                                   (kWh/yr) and Average Daily                     (kWh/yr) and Average Daily
                                                                                  Energy Savings in OSD Period                   Energy Savings in OSD Period
                                                                                  (kWh/day) in 2007 and 2010                     (kWh/day) in 2007 and 2010
                                                                                      Using Base Year 1999                           Using Base Year 2002



                                                                       eGRID
                                                                                                                                                                  PUC-PCA
                                                                     Emissions
                                                                   Database 2007
                                                                                                                    eGRID                                      Information By
                                                                                                                                                                   County
                                                                     by County



                                                                                 Annual and OSD Period Emissions               Annual and OSD Period Emissions
                                                                                   Reductions in 2007 and 2010                   Reductions in 2007 and 2010
                                                                                      Using Base Year 1999                          Using Base Year 2002



                                                           Fig. 6. Description of the procedure


    annual,    and        OSD                period          electricity                            calculated if the storm water is completely blocked
consumption in 1999 and 2002 is calculated using                                                    from the sanitary sewage using the same method
the adjusted coefficients and the predicted daily                                                   described in previous step.
wastewater data in 1999 and 2002.


    3.7 Predict Daily Energy in Base Year 1999
and 2002 if No Rain
    Next, the annual and average daily OSD
electricity consumption in 1999 and 2002 is
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                 Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

                                                             3.9 Project Annual and OSD Savings for 2007 and
                                                             2010
                                                                  To project the annual and OSD savings for
                                                             2007 and 2010, first the growth factor from 1999
                                                             to 2007/2010 and the growth factor from 2002 to
                                                             2007/2010 are calculated according to the user
                                                             input.    Then the annual and average OSD
                                                             electricity savings are calculated based on the base
                                                             year savings and growth factors from the base year
                            (a)                              to 2007/2010.


                                                             3.10 Project Emissions Reduction in 2007 and
                                                             2010
                                                                  Finally, in the next step the EPA’s eGRID
                                                             database is used to project annual and average
                                                             daily OSD period NOx, SOx, and CO2 reductions
                                                             in 2007/2010 using base year 1999 and 2002. Fig.
                                                             8 shows a sample of emissions reduction report
                                                             that will be sent to the user.
                            (b)
                                                             4. SUMMARY
                                                                  The Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) has
                                                             developed an emissions calculator to provide web-
                                                             based energy and emissions calculations for the
                                                             evaluation of new building models, community
                                                             projects and renewables. This paper has provided
                                                             a detailed description on the methodology and the
                                                             procedures that have been developed to calculate
                                                             annual and OSD period electricity savings and
                            (c)
                                                             emissions reductions from blocking storm water or
                   Fig. 7. Input Screens
                                                             fixing infiltration for the municipal sewer system,
                                                             including the use of ASHRAE’s Inverse Model
3.8 Calculate Energy Savings Due to % of
                                                             Toolkit in a two-step regression method to weather
Separation
                                                             normalize the calculated electricity savings to the
     In this step, the electricity consumption due to
                                                             1999 and 2002 base year and the use of the EPA’s
the storm water/infiltration is calculated first based
                                                             eGRID     for    calculating     the   NOx   emissions
on the results from the previous two steps. To
                                                             reductions for the electric utility provide associated
evaluate the electricity savings that could be
                                                             with the user.
achieved after the retrofit, the percent of storm
water that can be blocked or infiltration that can be
                                                             5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
fixed, which is provided by the user, is applied in
the calculation.                                                  This project would not have been possible
                                                             without the assistance and guidance provided by the
                                                             staff at the Texas Commission on Environmental
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China                 Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

Quality, especially the assistance of Mr. Steve              thank Ms. Jennifer Nations at the City of College
Anderson, who provided the overall project                   Station and Mr. Wayne Herman at the Wastewater
guidance, and testing of the software. Comments              Treatment of Texas A&M University for providing
from Juan-Carlos Baltazar (ESL), and assistance              the valuable data.
from Ms. Sherrie Hughes (ESL) are gratefully
acknowledged.     The authors would also like to




                                   Fig. 8. Sample emissions reduction report


REFERENCES                                                     the   Texas   Commission     on   Environmental
                                                               Quality, September 2003 to August 2004,
[1] Haberl, J., Culp, C., Yazdani, B., Gilman, D.,
                                                               Energy Systems Laboratory Report ESL-TR-
    Fitzpatrick, T., Muns, S., Verdict, M., Ahmed,
                                                               04/12-04, 351 pages on CDROM (December).
    M., Liu, B., Baltazar-Cervantes, J.C., Bryant, J.,
                                                           [3] Haberl, J., Culp, C., Yazdani, B., Gilman, D.,
    Degelman, L., Turner, D. 2004a. “Energy
                                                               Fitzpatrick, T., Muns, S., Verdict, M., Ahmed,
    Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the
                                                               M., Liu, B., Baltazar-Cervantes, J.C., Bryant, J.,
    Texas Emissions Reductions Plan (TERP)”,
                                                               Degelman, L., Turner, D. 2004c. “Energy
    Volume III – Appendix, Annual Report to the
                                                               Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the
    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality,
                                                               Texas Emissions Reductions Plan (TERP)”,
    September 2003 to August 2004, Energy
                                                               Volume I – Summary Report, Annual Report to
    Systems Laboratory Report ESL-TR-04/12-05,
                                                               the   Texas   Commission     on   Environmental
    217 pages on CDROM (December).
                                                               Quality, September 2003 to August 2004,
[2] Haberl, J., Culp, C., Yazdani, B., Gilman, D.,
                                                               Energy Systems Laboratory Report ESL-TR-
    Fitzpatrick, T., Muns, S., Verdict, M., Ahmed,
                                                               04/12-01, 10 pages (December).
    M., Liu, B., Baltazar-Cervantes, J.C., Bryant, J.,
                                                           [4] Haberl, J., Claridge, D., Kissock, K. 2003.
    Degelman, L., Turner, D. 2004b. “Energy
                                                               “Inverse Model Toolkit (1050RP): Application
    Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the
                                                               and Testing, ASHRAE Transactions-Research,
    Texas Emissions Reductions Plan (TERP)”,
                                                               Vol. 109, Part 2, pp. 435-448, 2003.
    Volume II – Technical Report, Annual Report to
ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China            Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-10-2

[5] Kissock, K., Haberl, J., Claridge, D. 2003.           Transactions-Research, Vol. 109, Part 2, pp. 425-
   “Inverse Model Toolkit (1050RP): Numerical             434.
   Algorithms for Best-Fit Variable-Base Degree-
   Day and Change-Point Models”, ASHRAE

								
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