NARRATIVE PROGRESS REPORT

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					NARRATIVE PROGRESS REPORT


Number of the EC Agreement:                  MAP/2004/88043
Title of the Action: Implementation of the Ottawa Convention through the disposal of
stockpiled anti-personnel landmines in Angola
Date of submission: November 21, 2006
Reporting period:     January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006
Sector of support:    15066 - Landmine clearance (category set by the EC)
Overall objective:    Consolidation of civilian security, peace and development in
Angola
UNDP management arrangement:                National Execution (NEX)

Implementing partner:      The National Inter-Sectoral Commission for De-mining and
Humanitarian Assistance (CNIDAH)

Other partners:     National De-mining Institute (INAD)
                     Angolan Armed Forces (FAA)
                     The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Original starting date of the Action: January 1, 2005
Effective starting date of the Action:       May 16, 2005

Original ending date of the Action:         December 31, 2006
Estimated effective ending date of the Action:   April 30, 2007 subject to the EC
approval

Total budget:                EUR 1,765,000.00

Expected sources of funds: The EC: EUR 1,500,000 or 84.99 %
                            UNDP Angola: EUR 95,000 or 5.38%
                            Angolan government (in-kind): EUR 170,000 or 9.63 %
CONTENTS

1.     Summary and context of the Action


2.     Achievement of results

2.1         Specific Objective 1: to fulfill Article 4 of the Ottawa Convention that aims at
the disposal of all stockpiled anti-personnel landmines by January 2007

2.2.        Specific Objective 2: to develop the technical, managerial and administrative
capacities of Angolan national authorities, CNIDAH, FAA, and INAD, to undertake the
stockpile destruction operation of anti-personnel landmines according to the international
humanitarian mine-action standards

2.2.1.      Technical capacities building

2.2.2. Managerial and administrative capacities building


3.     Results from Stockpile Survey & Analysis and Plan for Stockpile Disposal

3.1.          Results from verification of stockpiles

3.2.          Analysis of verified stockpile data and disposal strategies

3.3.      Retention plan


4.     Action plan and its implementation

4.1.          Activities planned and undertaken during the reporting period

4.2.          Reasons for delays in the implementation of planned activities

1)       Late receipt of funds
2)       Late appointment of Project Manager
3)       Late issuance of authorization for field verification visit

4.3.          Other difficulties encountered and measures taken to overcome problems

1)       Procurement difficulties
2)       Low capacities of managerial staff
3)       Increasing logistical administration
4)     Increased need for bigger office space
5)     Poor infrastructure in the country




5.     Partnerships, coordination and cooperation

5.1.        Fulfilment of the responsibilities by partners

5.2.        National Police’s collaboration

5.3.        Coordination at the Project Board meetings

5.4.        New partnership for environmental protection


6.     Building upon the CNIDAH’s existing capacities


7.     Visibility

7.1.    Media coverage

7.2.    Other visibility measures


8.     Publication and other outputs

8.1.        Technical publications

8.2.        Reporting to the United Nations


9. Lessons learnt

1)     Involvement of the top leader
2)     Establishment of governance structure within the Implementing Partner


10. Conclusion


ANNEXES:
Annex 1.      Data on stockpiled anti-personnel landmines in Angola.

Annex 2.      Sequence of visit for stockpile disposal from October to December 2006

Annex 3.      The 4th quarterly work plan from October to December 2006.

Annex 4.      Chronology: FAA’s authorization for SPD Project Team to visit anti-
personnel mines stockpiled in all military regions.
1. Summary and context of the Action
According to Article 4 of the Ottawa Convention, State Parties must destroy their
stockpiled anti-personnel landmines within 4 years of their accession to the anti-
personnel mine-ban convention. On March 1, 1999, the Ottawa Convention went into
effect for the first group of 45 countries, requiring them to meet a March 1, 2003
deadline. Reports submitted to the United Nations show that 98 percent of the countries
with a March 1 deadline achieved their goals. As of May 25, 2004, 142 countries were
parties to the Convention. Angola is among those 142 countries, and has a January 1,
2007 deadline for the complete disposal of stockpiles that are under its jurisdiction or
control.
In 2004, the Government of Angola officially requested for the technical assistance from
UNDP for the formulation and implementation of the stockpile destruction project. As a
result, this 2-year Action was developed.
Together with other projects implemented for the same causes, the Action collectively
pursues the achievement of the overall objective of consolidating civilian security, peace
and development in Angola. And the two specific objectives of the Action, which
Angolan government and UNDP are held accountable to achieve through this Action, are:
1) to fulfill Article 4 of the Ottawa Convention that aims at the disposal of all
stockpiled anti-personnel landmines by January 2007; and
2) to develop the technical, managerial and administrative capacities of Angolan
national authorities to undertake the stockpile destruction operation of anti-personnel
landmines according to the international humanitarian mine-action standards.
Angolan national authority for mine-action, the National Inter-Sectoral Commission for
De-mining and Humanitarian Assistance (CNIDAH) is responsible for the
implementation of the Action with technical support from the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP). Other project partners include Angolan Armed
Forces (FAA) under Ministry of Defense (MINDEF), and National De-mining Institute
(INAD) under Ministry of Social Assistance and Reintegration (MINARS). Throughout
the project-period, UNDP makes a particular effort in building up the capacities of
CNIDAH, FAA, and INAD to consolidate civilian security in the country. The EC is the
main donor of the Action with its contribution amounting to EUR 1,500,000, which is
84.99 % of the total budget.
In terms of strategic planning, the achieved specific objectives are expected to contribute
to accomplishing Goal 2 of Angola’s National Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS/ECP)
2004-2006, the protection of human security through de-mining, disarmament and social
order, as well as one of the UNDP country programme outcomes 2005-2008, the
consolidation of security in and access to all areas of the country. These goal and
outcome will be pursued both within the United Nations Development Assistance
Framework (UNDAF) 2005-2008 and under Service Line 4.4. Mine Action of Goal 4.
Crisis Prevention and Recovery within the UNDP Multi-Year Funding Framework
(MYFF) 2004-2007.
This Action is expected to ultimately benefit the entire population of Angola, including
returning refugees and IDPs, because it will remove from their communities both short-
and long-term threats posed by the stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines.
2. Achievement of results
At the end of the reporting period that covers from January 1, 2005 to September 30,
2006, the following progress was made towards achievement of two specific objectives:
2.1. Specific Objective 1: to fulfill Article 4 of the Ottawa Convention that aims at the
disposal of all stockpiled anti-personnel landmines by January 2007.
According to the 2 nd Article 7 transparency report submitted in May 2005 by the
Government of Angola to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the target number
of stockpiled anti-personnel landmines to be destroyed is 50,659, which consists of three
different types of landmines: 6,932 PMM-1; 1,377 OZM-4; and 42,350 M-90.
In order for the Government of Angola to fulfill its obligation under Article 4 of the
Ottawa Convention, this original target 50,659 must be destroyed before January 1,
2007. This critical condition was reconfirmed by the Co-chair of the Standing
Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention during the May 2006
meeting held in Geneva.[1]
During the reporting period, however, the Project Team of CNIDAH was unable to
complete the disposal of any stockpiled anti-personnel landmines. In other words, 0 % of
the targeted stockpiled anti-personnel landmines was destroyed by September 30, 2006
under the project.
Yet it is important to note that following the verification of the targeted stockpiled anti-
personnel landmines, the Project Team managed to start the process of actual stockpile
disposal in September 2006: The process of removing explosives from M-90 anti-
personnel landmines started on September 25, 2006. And the same process is scheduled
to begin for PMM-1 landmines in early November 2006. While the Project Team plans
to recycle plastic and metallic parts of M-90 and PMM-1 landmines after the complete
removal of their explosives, OZM-4 will be destroyed completely through the application
of identified disposal method.
As explained in the subsequent section of this report, the verification of the stockpiled
anti-personnel landmines so far completed under the project reveals that the magnitude of
Angola’s stockpile problems is larger than initially reported by the Government of
Angola in 2005. It is bigger in terms of both the number of mines and the number of the
type of mines.
Nevertheless, considering the reconfirmation obtained from the Co-chair of the Standing
Committee of the Convention, as of September 30, 2006, the CNIDAH Project Team
aims at complete destruction of the three types of mines initially identified in the 2 nd
transparency report, before January 1, 2007.
The number of the targeted three types of the mines thus far verified by the Project Team
also differs from those originally reported by the Government in 2005. This discrepancy
will also be explained later in this report.
2.2. Specific Objective 2: to develop the technical, managerial and administrative
capacities of Angolan national authorities, CNIDAH, FAA, and INAD, to undertake the
stockpile destruction operation of anti-personnel landmines according to the international
humanitarian mine-action standards.
2.2.1. Technical capacities building:
The project initially envisaged providing four technical training courses for stockpile
destruction operations. As a result, by September 30, 2006, the Project Team
successfully completed providing selected members of project partners with 100 % of
those official technical training courses originally planned.
From August to September 2005, the Project Team first provided operational partners
with 6-week intensive training courses on 1) Technical Survey & Analysis, 2)
Humanitarian vs Military Demining, and 3) Stockpile Destruction, thus completing 75 %
of the formal training courses planned under the project. In detail, 20 FAA Senior
Officers, 6 INAD Trainers, 2 National Police Officers and 2 CNIDAH Technical
Assistants successfully completed the training that consisted of both theory and
practice. And the successful completion of the training qualified those 30 trainees to
assume responsibilities for Stockpile Survey and Analysis at the subsequent phase.
In June 2006, the Project Team established and deployed 2 Operations Teams to the field
in order to undertake the 1 st phase of nationwide Technical Survey and Analysis on
stockpiled anti-personnel landmines. The 1st Team was comprised of 1 UNDP Technical
Advisor to CNIDAH, 2 FAA Senior Officers, and 1 National Police Officer, while the 2 nd
Team consisted of 2 FAA Senior Officers, and 2 CNIDAH Technical Assistants. 10
FAA Senior Officers who were stationed at respective military regional headquarters
throughout the country assisted these two Operations Teams in conducting filed stockpile
survey. All the members of the Operations Teams and FAA Senior Officers stationed at
military regional headquarters were the ones who had successfully completed pre-
requisite three formal technical training courses in September 2005.
In September 2006, after the completion of the 1 st phase of Stockpile Survey and
Analysis (June to August 2006), 19 members of operational partners, who had completed
pre-requisite courses in 2005, received a 2-week technical course on Demolition
conducted by the Project Team. As a result, all 19 trainees, including 2 INAD Trainers, 2
National Police Officers, 14 FAA Senior Officers and 1 CNIDAH Technical Assistant,
successfully completed the last technical training course. And this marked 100 %
completion of the formal capacity building training planned under the project.
At the end of the last technical training, the Project Team of CNIDAH selected 10
trainees who successfully completed the Demolition course, and established two
Operations Teams to undertake the Stockpile Disposal operations at the final phase.
2.2.2. Managerial and administrative capacities building:
It is UNDP’s responsibility to ensure proper administrative and financial management of
the project by the Implementing Partner, CNIDAH’s management team members,
through the provision of managerial training and coaching.
At the start of the project, UNDP organized two induction training courses in May and
August 2005, and provided the CNIDAH project management members, namely National
Project Director, Project Manager, and Administrative & Finance Officer, with 1) UNDP
policies and procedure for the administrative & financial management of the National
Execution (NEX)[2] project; and 2) Practical tools for administrative and financial
management.
Following a series of managerial on-the-job training, the CNIDAH Project Team started
managing project fund from October 2005. Independent audit report for 2005 account
rated the financial management of the project by the Project Team as satisfactory in
general. However, it also recommended enhancing internal control of cash by ensuring:
1) proper support of all expenses by payment receipts without exception, and
2)    written authorization by the senior managers before disbursement of cash at any
time.
In 2006, CNIDAH Project Manager is requested by the UNDP to ensure the
implementation of the recommendations from 2005 audit report. To review the results,
an independent audit of the project is scheduled to take place in early 2007 for 2006
account.
In order to improve the quality of the project management and ensure the delivery of
project outputs with expected quality, from January to September 2006, UNDP continued
supporting CNIDAH’s project management members in enhancing their managerial
capacities through ad-hoc project management team meetings, on-the-job training, and
periodical project managers’ meetings. In September 2006, a 2-day seminar jointly
organized by the Angolan Ministry of Planning and UNDP provided the project
management staff of all UNDP-supported projects, in particular the members of the
present project, with an opportunity to share with one another know-how, experiences
and lessons-learnt in implementing UNDP technical assistance projects.

3. Results from Stockpile Survey & Analysis and Plan for Stockpile Disposal
3.1. Results from verification of stockpiles
The CNIDAH Project Team started data collection of stockpiled anti-personnel
landmines from October 2005 after the completion of training in technical survey and
analysis. The scope of the data collection covered entire area of the country. The
collected data was recorded in the project database according to type, number and
location of stockpiled anti-personnel landmines. The source of data was mainly FAA,
National Police and Provincial Governments.
Upon the issuance of credentials by FAA, late June 2006 two Operations Teams were
deployed to the provinces to undertake verification of stockpiles that were identified
through data collection as part of Stockpile Survey and Analysis. Subsequently two-
month long field exercise verified 38 stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines in 16 of 18
provinces, which covered 8 of total 10 military regions established by FAA. Provinces of
Moxico (military region 10) and Kuando Kubango (military region 6) have yet to be
verified of their stockpiles from October to November 2006.
As a result of the field survey of 38 stockpiles in 16 provinces, the CNIDAH Project
Team verified 81,236 stockpiled anti-personnel landmines, which consisted of 24
different types.
3.2. Analysis of verified stockpile data and disposal strategies
It is important to note that as of September 30, 2006, the verified number of anti-
personnel landmines and the number of the type of landmines in stock (81,236 mines, 24
types) already exceed those reported by the Government of Angola in its 2 nd Article 7
transparency report of May 2005 (52,119 mines, 13 types plus flares) See Annex 1. Data
on stockpiled anti-personnel landmines in Angola.
Furthermore, when we examine particularly the three types of anti-personnel landmines
that were referred to in the 2 nd Article 7 transparency report, there are discrepancies
between the number reported to be destroyed by the Government and the number so far
verified by the CNIDAH Project Team, as depicted in the table below.
   Type          Number reported to be Number verified by               Discrepancy
                 destroyed                   Project Team
               (May 2005)                (September 2006)           (2) – (1)
               (1)                       (2)
  PMM-1        6,932                     6,463                      - 469
  OZM-4        1,377                     185                        -1,192
  M-90         42,350                    49,050                     + 6,700
  TOTAL        50,659                    55,698                     + 5,039

Concerning the discrepancies identified above, a representative of FAA explained that
there might have been technical errors in counting the number of the stockpiled anti-
personnel landmines at the time when the 2 nd transparency report was prepared in
2005.[3] And the CNIDAH Project Team considers that those discrepancies will be
adjusted after the verification of stockpiles in the remaining provinces of Moxico and
Kuando Kubango during the last quarter of 2006. The completion of stockpile
verification in those two provinces is certainly expected to help determine the definite
number of the three types of stockpiled landmines for disposal.
As of September 30, 2006, however, the Project Team plans to ensure the destruction of
all the number of the three types of stockpiled mines listed in the above table before the
established deadline of January 1, 2007. In other words, the current target number of
stockpiled anti-personnel landmines to be destroyed is 55,698, which consists of 6,463
PMM-1, 185 OZM-4, and 49,050 M-90. The Team also plans to destroy all the number
of those three types of mines that may possibly be found in Moxico and Kuando
Kubango provinces before January 1, 2007. However, it is important to note that this
plan still needs to be formally endorsed by the FAA that is currently reconfirming the
number of the mines that the FAA plans to retain for the training purpose.
Regarding all additional stockpiled anti-personnel landmines that have been identified
under the project, CNIDAH Project Team plans to complete the destruction of those
stocks in early 2007, after the complete disposal of PMM-1, OZM-4 and M-90 mines in
2006. To this end, the Team is currently studying a feasibility to continue stockpile
disposal operations from January 1, 2007 for the period as long as four months.
On the techniques to apply during the planned disposal of 81,236 mines, considering the
results from the technical analysis of identified stockpiled landmines and their
surrounding environmental conditions, the Project Team plans to employ two techniques:
1) to recycle plastic and metallic parts of 67,745 landmines (or 83 %) after proper
removal of explosives from those mines; and
2) to undertake complete disposal of 13,491 landmines (or 17 %) by applying
demolition method identified for each type.
3.3. Retention plan
As briefly stated above, according to Article 3 of the Ottawa Convention, state parties are
permitted to retain a number of anti-personnel mines for the development of and training
in mine detection, mine clearance, or mine destruction techniques. In the 2nd
transparency report of May 2005, the Government of Angola indicated its intension to
retain a total of 1,460 mines of 13 different types plus flares for training purpose. Also
see Annex 1. Data on stockpiled anti-personnel landmines in Angola.
At the time of this reporting, CNIDAH Project Team awaits reconfirmation from the
FAA concerning the number and types of mines for retention.
4. Action plan and its implementation
4.1. Activities planned and undertaken during the reporting period
To complete the stockpile disposal, the project initially aimed to complete the following
five distinctive phases of activities in order of listing starting from January 2005:
1. Preparation;
2. Planning and coordination;
3. Stockpile survey and analysis;
4. Project review, technology testing and staff training; and
5. Execution (Stockpile destruction).

Deadline for the completion of the first four activities from Preparation to Project Review,
Technology Testing and Staff Training was tentatively set to be June 2005, to enable the
start of actual stockpile destruction from July 2005.

However it actually took CNIDAH Project Team 21 months rather than six months, until
the end of September 2006, to conduct the first four phases of activities and prepare for
the actual stockpile destruction.

By the end of the reporting period, the CNIDAH Project Team has completed critical
tasks such as:

· Updating of stockpile destruction database,
· Formulation of general work plan,
· Preparation of detailed intervention plan per location,
· Identification of appropriate disposal technologies,
· Formation of two Operations Teams for Stockpile Destruction,
· Logistical preparation for the base and mobile teams,
· Preparation of communication plan, and
· Planning for continued project visibility through the media.

The Team is certainly prepared to undertake the disposal of verified stockpiled mines in
16 provinces starting from October 2006.

But as mentioned in the previous section, while the disposal operations commence
around the country, verification of stockpile data has yet to be completed in two more
provinces of Moxico and Kuando Kubango from October to November
2006. Immediately after the verification of stockpiles in the remaining two provinces, the
CNIDAH Project Team plans to undertake their disposals on the spot for operational
efficiency and for the delivery of results to comply with the deadline of stockpile
destruction. See Annex 2. Sequence of visit for stockpile disposal from October to
December 2006 and Annex 3. The 4th quarterly work plan from October to December
2006.

4.2. Reasons for delays in the implementation of planned activities
The Project Team severely suffered from three main problems in implementing five
phases of activities according to the initial action plan. And those three problems
significantly contributed to the fact that the CNIDAH Project Team was not able to
destroy any stockpiled mines during the period from January 2005 to September 2006.

1) Late receipt of funds
Although UNDP Angola and CNIDAH undertook preparatory activities such as
identification of project staff and preparation for procurement from January to April 2005,
due to late receipt of EC funds by UNDP Angola, the project effectively started
implementation of activities and allocated budget only on May 16, 2005, four and a half
months later than the start date of the Action initially established by the Agreement
MAP/2004/88043: On the effective start date of the project, an International Technical
Advisors, two Technical Assistants and an Administrative & Finance Officer commenced
their service under the project. After the EC took a due time to transfer the 1 st instalment
of funds to UNDP New York, an internal administrative delay at UNDP New York
apparently caused the delay in the receipt of the funds by UNDP Angola.

Upon conclusion of Agreement for the present Action between the EC Brussels and
UNDP Angola on December 31, 2004, UNDP Angola submitted the 1 st prefinancing
payment request to the EC Brussels at the beginning of January 2005. Subsequently on
March 15, 2005, UNDP New York received the 1 st payment of EUR 950,000 from the
EC to the present project. But only one month later, in mid-April 2005, UNDP New
York provided the UNDP Angola with the critical information that the office in Angola
required in order to program the received EC funds for expending. After the
programming of the EC funds, in mid-May 2005, UNDP Angola was finally authorized
by UNDP New York to spend the programmed funds for the implementation of planned
activities under the project.

2) Late appointment of Project Manager
Severe unexpected delay occurred in the appointment of Project Manager by FAA,
causing the absence of the manager of the project for the first half of 2005.

Right after the appointment of National Project Director by CNIDAH in January 2005, on
February 1, 2005, UNDP Angola officially requested FAA to appoint a Project Manager,
who would be responsible for the day-to-day management of the stockpile destruction
project on a full time basis under the overall supervision of the National Project
Director. In order to undertake activities such as preparation, planning and coordination,
UNDP planned to employ the Manager on the budget financed by the UNDP’s internal
resource early 2005. However, FAA completed this appointment only on June 30, 2005.

Originally the project planned to undertake competitive recruitment process in employing
all the project staff who would be financed by the project budget. But considering the
special nature of the stockpile destruction operations that required both entry into the
military facilities and handling of sensitive military information, FAA requested UNDP
to allow it to appoint the most appropriate FAA Senior Officer to be the Project
Manager. Subsequently UNDP agreed to the request made by the FAA on conditions
that FAA would appoint a Senior Officer who is duly qualified for the post of Project
Manager in view of Terms of Reference of the position and that FAA would ensure that
she or he should serve as the Manager on a full time basis, not a part time basis.

In mid-February 2005, FAA first nominated the Chief of CNIDAH Technical Department,
who was then seconded by FAA to CNIDAH, to be the Project Manager of stockpile
destruction project. But UNDP requested several times both FAA and CNIDAH to
ensure the fulltime availability of the nominee for the project. Consequently it took both
FAA and CNIDAH five months to ensure this critical point, enabling the employment of
the appointee as the Project Manager only at the beginning of July 2005.

3) Late issuance of authorization for field verification visit
The most significant delay occurred in FAA’s issuing authorization for CNIDAH to
undertake verification of anti-personnel mines stockpiled in all military regions. See
Annex 4. Chronology: FAA’s authorization for SPD Project Team to visit anti-
personnel mines stockpiled in all military regions.

On October 24, 2005, CNIDAH first made the request for FAA’s authorization to deploy
its Operations Teams to the field. CNIDAH Project Team planned to advance the 3 rd
phase of activities, Stockpile Survey and Analysis in the last quarter of 2005, leaving
adequate time for the actual stockpile disposal throughout 2006. However, CNIDAH
Operations Teams received official Credential Cards from FAA only in mid-June 2006,
almost eight months after the first request for authorization.

During the eight months of waiting period, while making continued efforts to obtain
necessary authorization from FAA together with UNDP, CNIDAH Project Team adjusted
the planned activities to complete feasible tasks, and maintained the minimum level of
operations, especially during the first five months of 2006. This however certainly
affected the smooth implementation of the project drastically: CNIDAH Project Team
managed to deploy its two Operations Teams to the provinces for the stockpile
verification exercise only from late June 2006, eight months after the original timing for
deployment, November 2005.

In retrospective, after the initial request of October 2005, it took approximately three
months the CNIDAH Project Team to obtain clarification on the entire process of FAA’s
issuing official Credential Cards: It was in fact only late January 2006 when CNIDAH
came to learn from FAA that the FAA still needed an order from the Head of the State in
order to issue official Credential Cards required by the Project Team. Subsequently in
February 2006, while enhancing coordination with the Chief of Staff of FAA, the
CNIDAH President briefed the Head of the State concerning the Stockpile Destruction
project and requested his order to authorize the FAA to issue official Credentials. But the
FAA required almost another four months since then, and only on June 2, 2006, it finally
obtained the direct order from the Head of the State.

After all, the 1st group of CNIDAH Operations Teams received official Credential Cards
from FAA on June 16, 2006, followed by the 2 nd group on June 19, 2006.
4.3. Other difficulties encountered and measures taken to overcome problems
The Project Team also encountered other five difficulties in managing the project day-to-
day, as explained below.

1) Procurement difficulties
Delay in delivery of goods ordered from abroad forced the CNIDAH Project Team to
adjust some project activities several times especially during the last half of 2005. UNDP
provided the Project Team with procurement service. But the delay of the delivery of
imported vehicles, equipment and tools was mainly attributed to the severe delay in the
customs clearance process. To overcome the unavailability of the project vehicles in
particular, UNDP provided the CNIDAH Project Team with a UNDP office vehicle until
the time when those project vehicles were released from the customs.

2) Low capacities of managerial staff
Relatively inadequate managerial capacities of the CNIDAH Project Management Team
have been posing difficulties for the smooth day-to-day management of the
project. While the International Technical Advisor has been essentially leading the Team
alone, Project Manager appointed by FAA and employed by UNDP has been
instrumental to some extent in fostering cooperation and contribution from FAA to the
project. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the Manager to enhance his competence
to fulfil his managerial responsibilities for the project through acquiring skills for
planning, reporting, tasking and supervision. Besides, the performance of Administrative
& Finance Officer has also been in need of further improvement in order to ensure the
proper administrative and financial management of the project.

To fill the managerial capacity gap, as mentioned in the earlier section, UNDP has been
supporting project staff members through ad-hoc project management team meetings, on-
the-job training, periodical project managers’ meetings, and formal management
seminars. Besides, the National Project Director of CNIDAH, experienced in
management, has also been assisting the managerial staff in ensuring proper day-to-day
management of the project. Support from the National Project Director has been part of
in-kind contribution from CNIDAH to the project, along with other administrative
support provided by the CNIDAH Secretariat to fill the administrative capacity gap of the
Project Team.

Considering the project’s contribution to national capacity development, UNDP has
repeatedly been encouraging all national project staff members, particularly the
managerial staff, to fulfil their responsibilities for their own learning.

3) Increasing logistical administration
Initially, it was planned that an Administrative & Finance Officer would complete all
administrative and logistical tasks as well as finance-related tasks under the project. In
the last quarter of 2005, however, as the Project Team continued implementing
procurement plan spending more than EUR 300,000, the volume of the logistical
administration significantly increased, making it difficult for the Administrative &
Finance Officer alone to manage both financial and logistical tasks.

In order to ensure a proper and accountable management of the administrative and
logistical work undertaken by the Project Team, CNIDAH and UNDP decided to employ
an additional staff who was fully dedicated to manage the concerned tasks of the
Team. Subsequently this decision was endorsed by the EC and an Administrative &
Logistics Officer was employed. While UNDP handles most of the procurement, this
employment of the dedicated officer has surely been helping the Project Team with
effective asset management in particular.

4) Increased need for bigger office space
At the beginning, while facing difficulties to find an appropriate office space for the
Project Team in the city of Luanda, CNIDAH agreed to provide the Team with an office
facility as the government’s contribution to the project. And the Project Team was
housed in the facility provided by the CNIDAH. However, the provided facility
increasingly required extra spaces to accommodate the project equipment purchased in
2006 and also to create a decent working environment for the project personnel with
adequate spaces.
Subsequently UNDP and CNIDAH requested the EC to enable the use of EUR 96,000
initially allocated for office rent for the extension work of the facility provided by the
CNIDAH. Upon approval from the EC, the extension work started in early 2006.

5) Poor infrastructure in the country
Long lasted war has devastated infrastructure capital in Angola. Conditions of most of
the roads are particularly poor throughout the country and this has been affecting so much
the smooth movement of CNIDAH Operations Teams in conducting stockpile
verification. The access to the mines stockpiled outside of FAA military compounds has
been made harder due to this problem. The poor communication routes have been not
only slowing the movement of the Teams from one location to another, but also quickly
exhausting the physical strengths of the Operations members. Lack of properly
maintained roads certainly appears to have been contributing to the less development of
the vast areas of the country outside of Luanda, and consequently the environment where
the Operations Teams operate is very hard and challenging, in many occasions without
easy access to proper foods and lodging.

The Operations Teams have so far been tackling the hardships described above by careful
logistical arrangement and also by taking time and energy as necessary. But to overcome
particularly the difficulties caused by the poor conditions of communication routes,
where necessary, CNIDAH Project Team plans to utilize the FAA’s helicopter to move
from one location to another in the last quarter of 2006.


5. Partnerships, coordination and cooperation

5.1. Fulfilment of the responsibilities by partners
Throughout the project period, all the project partners, CNIDAH, FAA, INAD and
UNDP are responsible for forging strategic partnerships for the achievement of the two
specific objective of the project. To this end, first and foremost, each partner has been
requested to duly fulfil its responsibility that was assigned to it considering respective
comparative advantage under the project.

Despite the both external and internal challenges faced by the Project Team, as the
designated implementing partner, CNIDAH has thus far been managing the project with
support from its staff and all other partners. As mentioned in the previous section, the
International Technical Advisor deployed by UNDP and CNIDAH National Project
Director have been assisting the Project Manager from FAA in ensuring CNIDAH
Project Team’s proper day-to-day administration and periodical reporting to the UNDP
and other partners. And it is also important to note that the CNIDAH President has been
taking critical role in facilitating an enabling political environment within the government
in order for the CNIDAH to manage the project according to the plan. He has also been
effective in fostering important civil-military cooperation under the project. The
CNIDAH President’s effort has been indispensable in Angola’s attempt to fulfil its
international obligation under the Ottawa Convention.

Under the project, FAA is particularly responsible for operational activities for the
identification and destruction of stockpiles on the ground. Although FAA faced great
difficulties in the appointment of Project Manager and issuance of authorization to the
CNIDAH-led stockpile verification exercise, it has surely been contributing to the project
especially in the identification of stockpiles by making available both the important
stockpile data and Operations Team manpower from FAA to the CNIDAH Project
Team. Besides, the FAA also facilitated the provision of official training courses by
offering good training facility for theoretical courses and logistical support. During the
practical demolition training, it also provided the CNIDAH Team with necessary
explosives.
After receiving Training-of-Trainer courses from the International Technical Advisor,
INAD was originally assigned to provide training courses to FAA Senior Officers in
order to establish the Operations Teams. However, due to the long delay caused in the
implementation of the project in 2005, the Project Team decided to shorten the entire
period of formal training and the International Technical Advisor offered all the required
training courses to both FAA Senior Officers and INAD Trainers concurrently. But
INAD made important contribution to the project by making available the INAD
Technical Demining School facilities for the CNIDAH Project Team to conduct all the
practical training.

As initially assigned, UNDP has been taking major role in supporting CNIDAH Project
Team through the UNDP Procurement and Recruitment Service. As a result, UNDP
Human Resource unit recruited one international and five national staff to successfully
establish the Project Team in 2005, and its Procurement unit has been procuring greater
part of project equipment and tools both domestically and internationally throughout the
reporting period. As evidenced in the results thus far achieved under the project, the
technical assistance provided by the UNDP-deployed International Advisor has been very
effective in both delivering the results from each phase of activities and contributing to
the technical capacity building of the national staff involved in the project. To ensure the
appropriate administrative and financial management of the project, UNDP Programme
staff members have continuously been supporting the CNIDAH Project Team through
both the formal and informal training and periodical review.

5.2. National Police’s collaboration
During 2005, through various contacts with Angolan National Police, the CNIDAH
Project Team assessed that at the phases of Stockpile Survey & Analysis and Stockpile
Disposal, the National Police’s collaboration would be critical, especially in the
collection of stockpile data and identification of the location of those stockpiles in the
provinces. The Project Team also recognized that considering its extensive network at
the field level, the National Police would be able to serve as an important liaison between
the Operations Teams and local authorities at various levels, when the Teams visited
stockpiles in the provinces.
Four project partners were originally established under the project with particular
activities, which they are responsible to complete during the course of the action. This
setting has been maintained. However, considering the important role that the National
Police could take, in early 2006 all project partners agreed to formally recognize the
collaboration, which would be sought from Angolan National Police under the
project. This was also endorsed by the EC subsequently. Since then, the Angolan
National Police has been formally collaborating with other four project partners through
the survey and analysis exercises: Two police officers have been involved as the member
of the Operations Teams, and critical information on stockpiles has also been provided by
the police.

5.3. Coordination at the Project Board meetings
Project Board is the governance body of the project and has oversight and monitoring
functions. It is the highest authority in project level decision-making. The Project Board
meeting is quarterly convened by the Implementing Partner, CNIDAH and chaired by the
CNIDAH President. Invited are senior representatives from all four-project partners, and
National Police, Ministry of Planning, MINDEF, MINARS, as well as the EC.

Since the effective start date of the project, the CNIDAH has been ensuring that Project
Board meeting takes place every quarter, allowing the senior representatives of
stakeholders to jointly review the progress made under the project and advise on the
corrective measures to be taken by the Project Team, if necessary. Moreover, the
quarterly gathering of the Project Board members has been severing as an important
forum to both ensure necessary coordination and foster cooperation between the partners
at the higher level than that of day-to-day technical management. For instance,
participation of the Vice Minister of MINDEF and Deputy Chief of Staff of FAA in the
Project Board meetings appears to have contributed to the much needed high-level
coordination and cooperation in several occasions.

5.4. New partnership for environmental protection
The CNIDAH Project Team currently plans to recycle plastic and metallic parts of 83 %
of the landmines so far verified after proper removal of explosives from those
mines. This measure is expected to particularly contribute to the protection of
environment that may otherwise be affected by the open destruction of those mines in the
various intervention areas.

To support this plan, the CNIDAH sought new partnership with the Ministry of Industry
and a protocol was prepared for the conclusion between the two parties in the last quarter
of 2006. Through this partnership, the Ministry of Industry plans to provide the
CNIDAH Project Team with the recycling service. To ensure the transparency of the
recycling process, the CNIDAH Team plans to undertake recycling activities with the
presence of the selected third party.


6. Building upon the CNIDAH’s existing capacities
The project was initially planned to build upon and possibly further contribute to the
efforts already made by CNIDAH and UNDP with support from the EC during the
preceding two years in empowering the national mine action authority, CNIDAH both at
the national and provincial levels.

As a result, from the start of the project, the Project Team established at the CNIDAH has
been benefited from both technical and administrative supports provided by the existing
capacities of CNIDAH’s Technical Department and Secretariat in Luanda. As already
stated, this support has been critical for the Project Team to cope with the managerial
capacity gap existent in the Team from time to time.

At the provincial level, the provincial Vice-Governors represent the CNIDAH and they
are charged with the coordination and prioritisation of mine action activities undertaken
by all operational partners in their respective provinces. In view of the CNIDAH’s
existing coordination mechanism at the provincial level, as initially planned, the
Operations Teams deployed by CNIDAH actually coordinated and cooperated with all
provincial Vice-Governors during the field visits to conduct Stockpile Survey and
Analysis, especially in the collection of stockpile data and identification of the location of
some stocks.

Proper coordination and cooperation between the Project Team and CNIDAH proper at
both central and provincial levels has also been one of the main recommendations given
by the Project Board members during the quarterly meetings.
7. Visibility
Considering the nature of the project that requires transparency and participation of the
people of Angola, the CNIDAH Project Team has been making particular efforts to
ensure the visibility of Angola’s Stockpile Destruction project in and out of the country.

Through the extensive use of mass media particularly TV and radio, progress made by
the Project Team was regularly reported to the general public, and the important
assistance provided by the EC and UNDP for the implementation of the project was also
highlighted at all time.

7.1. Media coverage
Some of the main events covered by the national and international media are listed below:

·   August 22, 2005:        The first public presentation of the project and the official
                 st
opening of the 1 phase of training course at Hotel Tropico.
·   September 27, 2005: Practical exercises and drills conducted at the INAD Technical
Demining school.
·   September 30, 2005: The closing ceremony of the 1 st phase of training course at
FAA Headquarter.
· December 12, 2005: The Project Board meeting for annual review 2005 and
presentation of the project office and technical equipment at CNIDAH.
·   September 6, 2006: Field exercise at Bengo province.
·   September 15, 2006: The last day of the demolition practical training at the INAD
Technical Demining school.

It is particularly worth noting that the head of the EC Delegation to Angola participated
in the closing ceremony of the 1 st phase of the training course in September 2005. In the
ceremony, on behalf of the government of Angola, the CNIDAH President expressed his
gratitude to the EC for its generous financial contribution to the Angola’s Stockpile
Destruction project. And he encouraged all the training participants to utilize the
acquired skills and knowledge to help Angola fulfill its international obligation under
Ottawa Convention.

7.2. Other visibility measures
One of the other measures to ensure project visibility was displaying of the logo stickers
of the project, the EC and UNDP on the project office, equipment and materials. All the
members involved in the project were also provided with a set of vest, cap and shirt with
those logos to ensure project visibility everywhere they worked.

To ensure project visibility, UNDP issued official press releases on the project twice in
January and August 2005. UNDP also issued periodical update on the project through its
quarterly publication, UNDP FACT SHEET, in March and June 2005, and March 2006.

From the beginning, a local media company ORION has been filming all the activities of
the CNIDAH Project Team in order to produce a documentary film of Angola’s Stockpile
Destruction at the end of the project. This company has also been providing news
footages on the project to the TV and radio programmes.

8. Publication and other outputs

8.1. Technical publications
To support the capacity building and actual operations by the Project Operations Team
members, the CNIDAH Project Team produced various manuals as listed below:
· Training manuals for technical courses: 1) Technical Survey & Analysis, 2)
Humanitarian vs Military Demining, 3) Stockpile Destruction, and 4) Demolition.
· Deminer Technical Handbook on mines used in Angola.
· ORDATA CD-ROM that contains international technical information on explosive
ordnances, personal protective equipment, mental detectors & UXOs, mechanical mine
clearance equipment, and information management system for mine action.
· Technical manual on handling of mines.
· Technical manual for demilitarisation.
·   Manual on explosives and explosive ordnances.

8.2. Reporting to the United Nations
During the reporting period, the CNIDAH Project Team contributed to the submission of
the following reports by the Angolan government to the Secretary General of the United
Nations with the updated information on the implementation of Article 4 obligation:

·   Article 7 transparency report - May 2005.
·   Article 7 transparency report - May 2006.


9. Lessons learnt
Two valuable lessons were drawn on from the experience during the reporting period, as
explained below:

1) Involvement of the top leader
As mentioned earlier, the Stockpile Destruction project suffered various problems in
implementing five phases of activities according to the initial schedule. One of the
significant delay happened in the issuance of authorization to the CNIDAH’s stockpile
verification exercise.

Multiple factors seem to have contributed to a series of delay in the issuance of
authorization by FAA. Some were within the control of the Project Team while others
were beyond. But one of the critical factors that were within the control of the CNIDAH
Project Team apparently concerned communication and coordination between project
partners, especially at the top level. To be precise, at the beginning of the project, or
even during the project formulation phase in 2004, the CNIDAH and UNDP should have
involved the Chief of Staff of FAA in the process of Stockpile Destruction. It should
have been fairly reasonable course of action to take considering the culture of military
command, as well as general top-down organizational culture of Angolan bureaucracy.
From the beginning of the project, CNIDAH and UNDP always involved a representative
of the FAA, the Chief of Battalion for Armament and Ammunitions. Subsequently the
Deputy Chief of Staff of FAA also participated in the project as a member of the Project
Board. But it was only in February 2006 when the CNIDAH and UNDP directly briefed
the Chief of Staff of FAA about Angola’s time-bounded obligation under Article 4 of
Ottawa Convention and the present project. At the same occasion, CNIDAH and UNDP
requested the FAA Chief’s assistance in issuing authorization to CNIDAH’s field
exercise and in turn the Chief officially explained to the CNIDAH and UNDP the
procedure that had to be followed for the issuance of requested credentials. CNIDAH
and UNDP spent in vain three long months from November 2005 to January 2006 just to
obtain that clarification from FAA through other channels than directly going to the top
of FAA. In retrospective, that three-month delay at least could have been avoided had
the Chief of Staff of FAA been involved in the project and briefed about the project from
the very beginning. And this was something that CNIDAH and UNDP could have
realized.

2) Establishment of governance structure within the Implementing Partner
Relatively weak managerial capacities of the Project Team posed challenges in ensuring
good day-to-day management of the project by the Implementing Partner,
CNIDAH. But two senior-level functions of CNIDAH supported the Project Team by
creating a governance structure within the organization, in which they actually guided
and controlled the work carried out by the Team: The CNIDAH President and the
National Director of the project in effect helped the Project Team go on the track.

The CNIDAH President’s timely guidance assisted the Project Team in overcoming the
difficulties that they encountered in many occasions. And his both political and practical
support helped the Team very much in communicating and coordinating with the Head of
the State and the Chief of Staff of FAA for the implementation of project activities
according to the plan. The National Project Director also certainly contributed to
ensuring proper management of the project by offering day-to-day support and
supervision to the Project Manager and his administrative staff.

As exemplified by the CNIDAH, the establishment of a governance structure within the
Implementing Government Partner that guides and checks the work of its project
management team seems to be one of the critical measures to ensure proper
administration of the project by the government partner. And this also appears to be an
important element of UNDP’s exit strategy under the capacity building assistance
project. It is because the established governance structure essentially helps the
government partner manage itself, much the same way as the CNIDAH President and
National Director helped the CNIDAH manage itself in implementing the Stockpile
Destruction project.


10. Conclusion
In December 2004, in a meeting that approved the implementation of the present
Stockpile Destruction project, while summarising it as an “ambitious challenge,” the
Resident Representative of UNDP Angola underlined that all partners were responsible
for the successful implementation of the project. And he expressed UNDP’s appreciation
to the President of CNIDAH for his leadership to take all the project partners forward in
this endeavour. In response, after expressing the government’s gratitude to the EC and
UNDP for their assistance to the implementation of the project, he encouraged all
partners to jointly face the challenge and requested to make all necessary efforts in
pursuing the important objectives set for Angola.

21 months have passed since then. As anticipated by the two representatives, this
endeavour has been proving very much challenging, affecting the achievement of the two
specific objectives of the project according to the initial schedule.

The Project Team encountered a series of unexpected problems, causing so much delay in
completing five phases of stockpile destruction operations. Consequently by the end of
the reporting period, the Team was only able to conduct the first four phases, leaving the
actual disposal of verified stockpiled mines for the last quarter of 2006. Moreover the
verification of the stockpiles so far completed reveals that the magnitude of the stockpile
problems faced by the Angolan government is larger than initially reported. Considering
the instruction from the Standing Committee of the Ottawa Convention, the Project Team
now aims to first complete the disposal of the original target by December 31, 2006 and
then the rest in early 2007:

Angola must complete the disposal of the original target that was reported in the 2 nd
transparency report prior to the end of year 2006. It is the condition that must be met for
the country to be recognized as a state party that has fulfilled its obligation under Article
4 of the Convention. But, in early 2007, the CNIDAH Project Team also plans to
complete the disposal of all the additional stockpiled mines that were newly identified
through the project in the spirit of the objective established by the Article 4 of the
Convention.
By September 30, 2006, the CNIDAH Project Team managed to achieve good results in
national capacity building, completing the provision of all the planned technical
training. Those trainees are now on the ground in utilizing acquired skills and knowledge
for the operations. Through day-to-day practice, they are expected to further develop
their technical capacities. And this also applies to the administrative and managerial staff
members of the Project Team.

Significant amount of time has already been spent, leaving a very limited time for the
Operations Teams to complete the critical task of actual stockpile disposal. Yet by
spending significant amount of time, the project partners also developed increasingly
effective coordination and cooperation between them at all levels. While duly executing
their assigned respective tasks, each partner must continue forging the strategic
partnerships.
It is also critical to apply valuable lessons learnt from the previous experience of 21
months. The governance structure within CNIDAH should be further enhanced under the
leadership of CNIDAH President, in order to ensure proper supervision of the work
undertaken by its Project Team within the organization. Furthermore involvement of the
very top leader of each partner in the project must also be ensured for the rest of the
project period. It is because their leadership and support are indispensable when the
Project Team attempts to overcome challenges.

In conclusion, despite all difficulties, with the guidance and strong support from the top
leaders of all project partners, the concerted efforts must continue under the present
project in order to ensure the fulfilment of international obligation by Angola, and also to
contribute to the recreation of an environment, in which all people of Angola can live in
security and with human dignity.


November 2006.



[1]
    Reporting by Mr. Adriano Gonçalves, National Project Director of Stockpile
Destruction project who represented CNIDAH in the May 2006 meeting of the Standing
Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention.
[2]
    UNDP’s NEX modality relies on the government’s capacities to undertake activities of
the project, namely technical, managerial, administrative and financial
capabilities. Under this modality, CNIDAH is the implementing partner responsible for
the effective management of the project, including administrative and financial
management and reporting to UNDP.
[3]
    Statement by Colonel José Domingos João Neto, Chief, Battalion of Armament and
Ammunition, FAA Headquarter, at the 3rd Quarter Project Board meeting, October 16,
2006.