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					                                                                                       Chapter 3



                                   CHAPTER 3
                       3.1 STAFFING AND TRAINING SKILLS


CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1.     Describe the human resource planning process.
2.     Define job analysis, job description, job specification and skills inventory.
3.     Describe the steps in the selection process.
4.     Define tests.
5.     Discuss the different types of employment interviews.
6.     Discuss potential problems in the inerviewing process.


SUGGESTIONS FOR PRESENTATION

Draw on student experiences

       Even the most inexperienced students have been through some form of applications and
       orientations, either for jobs or for the college or school in which they're taking this course.
       It is usually easy to get discussions going in this area. Questions to ask:

       How did you find your present job? (National averages for both blue & white collar jobs:
       10% newspapers, 10% state and private employment agencies, 9% union hiring and other
       formal methods such as college placement offices, and 71% through some informal
       means such as knowing a friend or just walking in off the street.)

       What was asked on the application? (It's surprising how many disallowed, i.e.,
       non-BFOQ questions still exist out there.)

       Did you have to take any test? (Skills, personality, polygraph, physical, performance?)

       How many of you are really challenged by your current job? (Usually less than half) How
       many of you believe you could do most or all of your supervisor's job right now? (Usually
       at least a third say they can or have.)

       What did you have to learn on your own that you should have been told? What's the worst
       training situation you've been in, and why? (Hopefully they won't specify your class!)




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LECTURE OUTLINE

Supervision Dilemma

            Jane needs to replace two employees. She would also like to train the whole
             department in claims processing.

Overview: Staffing is concerned with obtaining and developing qualified people. The major
activities of the staffing function are recruiting, selecting, orienting, and training. Supervisors
need to understand these activities because they are usually involved in one or more of them.

I.     Human Resource Planning

       Huaman Resource Planning involves applying the basic planning process to the human
       resurce needs of the organization.

       A.    Job analysis and skills inventory

             1. Job analysis determines the skills, personality characteristics, educational
                background, and training that are necessary to perform a job.

                 a. Results in a job description and job specification.

                     1. Job description is a written portrayal of a job and the types of work
                        required.

                     2. Job specification gives the qualifications necessary to perform the job.

             2. Skills Inventory consolidates information about the organization’s cuurent
                human resources

                 a. Seven broad categories of informaiton that may be included in a skills
                     inventory:

                     1.   Personal data history
                     2.   Skills
                     3.   Special qualifications
                     4.   Salary and job history
                     5.   Company data
                     6.   Capacity of individual
                     7.   Special preferences of individual

                 b. Primary advantage of a computerized skills inventory is that it offers a quick
                    and accurate evaluation of the skills available within the organization.


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       B.     Forecasting

              1. Answers the question, “Where do we want to go?”

              2. All levels of management should be involved in the process

       C.     Transition

              1. The organization determines how it can obtain the quantity and quality of
                 human resources it needs to meet its objectives

              2. Results in a statement of what the organization’s human resource needs are in
                 light of its plans and objectives

II.    Staffing from Internal and External Sources [see p. 169, Fig. 10.4]

       A. Internal Sources

            1. Advantages

            2. Disadvantages

       B. External Sources

            1. Advantages

            2. Disadvantages

III.   Recruitment

       A. Job posting and bidding

              1. Posting places notices of available jobs in central locations, giving job title, rate
                 of pay, and qualifications.

              2. Bidding requires employees to bid based on seniority, job skills, or other
                 qualifications.

       B. Advertising

              1. Ads placed in “Help Wanted.”

              2. Applicants are screened by human resources department.

       C. Employment agencies

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           1. State employment agencies have lists of people receiving unemployment
              compensation.

           2. Private employment agencies charge a fee and are used in hiring skilled
              personnel.

           3. Temporary agencies can meet seasonal demands or allow a company to preview
              the work of an employee before offering a permanent position.

      D.   Internship and co-op programs

           1. Co-op programs allow a local college student to alternate terms of work and
              school.

           2. Internships normally involve work for a student during the summer.

      E.   Employee referrals

           1. Generally informal and by word of mouth.

           2. May lead to formation of cliques if friends and relatives are hired.

IV.   Selecting Personnel

      A.   Who makes the selection decision?

           1. Human resources does the initial screening.

           2. Immediate supervisor usually makes the final decision, subject to management
              approval.

      B.   The selection process

           Figure 10.5 summarizes the selection process.

           1. Screening from the employment application.

              a. Screened by the human resources department to eliminate unqualified people.

              b. Should be designed not to discriminate against certain groups.
           2. Interview by human resources department.

              a. Eliminate additional unsuitable and unqualified applicants.


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   b. Used to explain the job and its requirements to the applicant.

3. Employment tests.

   a. The law requires a proven relationship between scoring high on the test and
      performing better on the job.

   b. Some types of tests are aptitude, psychomotor, job knowledge, proficiency,
      interest, and psychological.

   c. Polygraph tests and drug testing are controversial and should be used only
      with clear guidelines and appropriate restrictions.

4. Background and reference checks.

   a. Personal and academic references are generally of limited value because
      applicants usually only list people who will give a positive recommendation.

   b. Previous employers might give objective information, but they also might
      limit it to employment dates and job title.

   c. Applicants rejected because of an outside report must be given the name and
      address of the reporting organization.

5. Job interview by the supervisor.

   a. In a structured interview the supervisor knows in advance what questions are
       going to be asked, asks the questions, and records the answers.

   b. An unstructured interview requires more participation by the interviewee.

   c. Supervisors should be careful about their own personal biases in evaluating
      the applicant.

   d. The supervisor should review the previous steps, plan for the interview, try to
      put the applicant at ease, and take notes.

   e. Employment interviewing is subject to legal considerations. See Figure 10.5.

6. Selection decision by the supervisor.

   a. In some cases, none of the applicants may be satisfactory.

   b. In most cases, the decision to hire is subject to approval by your supervisor.


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           7. Medical examination.

              a. Take place only after a conditional offer of employment.

              b. May be used to determine eligibility for group insurance and whether the
                 person is physically capable of doing the job.

              c. Is usually handled by the human resources department.

V.    Orienting the New Employee

      A.   Orientation introduces the new employee to the organization and the job.

      B.   Figure 10.6 covers the information that should be covered in the orientation
           program.

      C.   Figure 10.7 shows what information is usually covered by the supervisor if a human
           resources department is involved.

      D.   Good, well-planned orientation programs reduce job learning time, improve
           attendance, and lead to better performance.

      E.   The supervisor should have a checklist of items to be covered in the orientation and
           provide an opportunity for questions.

VI.   Training Employees

      A.   Training involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes by employees
           in order to increase their performance.

      B.   In on-the-job training (OJT) the employee is shown how a job is done and then
           actually does it under the trainer's supervision.

      C.   Figure 10.8 outlines an OJT system called job-instruction-training.

      D.   In job rotation, or cross-training, an employee learns several jobs and performs each
           for a specific length of time.

      E.   Problems with training the supervisors should look for.

           1. Employees need feedback about their progress in doing the job right.

           2. They need time for practice.




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            3. People learn at different rates. A slow learner will not necessarily be a poor
               performer.

       F.   Other training techniques include vestibule training, apprenticeship training,
            classroom training, and programmed (or computer-assisted) instruction.

VII.   Steps in Training Employees in Job Skills

       A.   Get the trainee ready to learn

       B.   Break down the work into components and identify the key points

       C.   Demonstrate the proper way the work is to be done

       D.   Let the trainee perform the work

       E.   Put trainees on their own gradually

VIII. Solution to the Supervision Dilemma

IX.    Summary

Supervision Illustrations
      10-1: Results of Raytheon’s Hiring Process
      10-2: Excerpts from Pre-Employment Tests


Skill Building Applications
       Incident 10-1: Hiring a New Employee
       Incident 10-2: Lake Avionics
       Exercise 10-1: The Layoff
       Exercise 10-2: "OJT"

SUPERVISORY ILLUSTRATIONS

10-1 Q:     What was different about the hiring process of Raytheon Co. in comparison to their
            employees’ past employers.

10-1 A:     Raytheon Co. encurages diversity in hiring new employees.

10-2 Q:     Are pre-employment tests useful?

10-2 A:     Yes. However, they should be used with other data on the applicant as an aid in the
            selection process.


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REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.   Define the following terms:

     Recruiting - This involves seeking and attracting qualified candidates for job vacancies.
     [p. 165]

     Selection - An attempt to choose individuals who are most likely to succeed from among
     those who have been recruited. [p. 165]

     Orienting - The process of introducing the new employee to the organization and to his or
     her job. [p. 165]

     Training - (of employees) Involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes in
     order to increase employee performance. [p. 165]

2.   What is job analysis? What role does it play in recruiting and selecting employees?

     Job analysis involves determining pertinent information about the nature of a specific job.
     A job analysis generally determines the skills, personality characteristics, educational
     background and training which are necessary to successfully perform a job. [p. 165-166]

     Recruiting and selection cannot occur until the job is accurately defined through a job
     analysis. [p. 165]

3.   What are four methods of recruiting?

     Job posting and bidding, advertising, using employment agencies, internship, co-op
     programs, and employee referrals. [p. 170]

4.   Who usually makes the final selection decision for operative employees?

     In a large organization, the human resources department usually does the initial screening,
     with the supervisor having the final say among several finalists. Sometimes the
     supervisor's choice is subject to approval of higher levels of management. [p. 171]

5.   What are the seven steps in the selection process?

     Screening from the employment application, interview by the human resources
     (personnel) department, employment tests, background and reference checks, job
     interview by the supervisor, selection decision by the supervisor and , medical
     examination. [p. 171]




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6.   Outline some of the information that should be covered in an employee orientation
     program.

     Figures 10.8 and 10.9 on page 177-178 detail this information.

7.   Give several tips that can help a supervisor in training employees.

     The steps suggested on page 180 include: (1) get the trainee ready to learn; (2) break
     down the work into components and identify the key points; (3) demonstrate the proper
     way the work is to be done; (4) let the trainee perform the work; and (5) put trainees on
     their own gradually.

SKILL BUILDING QUESTIONS

1.   "The best way to train employees is to put them on the job immediately and let them learn
     from their mistakes. " Discuss your views on this statement.

     Not if the job involves setting blasting caps into explosives, and certain other examples.
     On the job training can be very effective, if properly handled. The job instruction training
     system (JIT) and other techniques discussed in the text can be used to help design an
     effective system. Usually, just leaving training to chance is a bad idea.

2.   "A company should be able to hire whomever it wants without government intervention.”
     Discuss how you feel about this.

     Many supervisors would agree with this statement. The question to ask, then, is why they
     feel the government legislated hiring practice laws in the first place. No matter how
     people feel, the laws do exist, and the supervisor must carry out their responsibilities
     within the law.

3.   What are some questions you might ask a job applicant in a structured interview?

     What skills did you use in your previous job? What training have you received in schools
     or your previous jobs? Have you ever been responsible for training another employee?
     What types of tasks do you like doing?

4.   "Some people just don't want to learn anything new." Discuss.

     There probably are some people like that, but they are the exception rather than the rule.
     People want to learn things they feel will help them. Part of encouraging people to learn
     means showing them how the new information will help, and supporting them in the
     process through effective teaching.




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SKILL BUILDING APPLICATIONS

Incident 10-1: Hiring a New Employee

       This case is designed to generate discussion on the role the supervisor should play in the
       hiring decisions of an organization.

1.     How can John prepare himself for his new responsibilities?

       John needs to clearly identify the skills necessary for the positions he will participate in
       hiring people to fill. He also needs to learn interviewing skills and plan his list of
       questions, making sure they are appropriate. It would probably be helpful for him to talk
       with either peers who have interviewed before, or people in the human resource
       (personnel) department to get some suggestions and some reading material.

2.     What do you think of the company's new procedure?

       It's probably good, however the supervisors will need support in learning new skills (how
       to interview & select employees). Unless they receive training, the supervisors probably
       won't be equipped to do a good job on this new task.

3.     What problems might arise under the new procedure?

       Supervisors might become frustrated; the best people might not be the ones chosen by
       inexperienced interviewers; the company could be opened to legal action, due to illegal
       questions or insupportable selection procedures by the supervisors; etc. In general, one
       could expect same kinds or problems to potentially arise as would if any management
       task is decentralized and delegated to people who don't have experience or training.


Incident 10-2: Lake Avionics

       This case describes an ineffective, yet typical new employee orientation program.

1.     What do you think of Sandra's training program?

       It effectively violates most of the rules of good training practice.

2.     How do you think Sandra feels about her new job?

       She is probably quite turned off. No doubt she has lost confidence in herself, and is
       feeling overwhelmed. Negative feelings about the company and her supervisor can be
       expected. This attitude will be difficult to turn around, and is a prime reason that new
       employee skill training should be carefully planned and administered.


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Exercise 10-1 : The Layoff

       This is a situation where personal feelings are probably impossible to avoid. Are some of
       these employees better "investments" than others? One suggestion is to draw a matrix on
       the board with the names of employees in the first column and the categories of
       "performance" and "personal need" in the next two. Have the class evaluate each
       employee on each category. Once the data have been gathered, have the class debate the
       importance of personal need. Try to build students' awareness of the potential impact of
       non-job related issues such as marital status, etc.

Exercise 10-2: OJT

       This experiential exercise gives students an opportunity to apply their thinking to a job
       they've all witnessed, if not done, and design a training program for that job.

1.     Design a three-day orientation/training program for new salesclerks. Be sure to outline the
       specific topics (subjects) to be covered and the techniques to be used.

       Figures 10-6 & 10-? list a variety of topics to include in the orientation. That part is likely
       to be largely lecture, with some discussion - mostly question and answer.

       Figure 10-8 and some of the introductory material to this Instructor's Manual provide
       some structure and format for the skills training part of the assignment. As JIT (Fig. 10-8)
       suggests, a good part of sales training could be role playing with other students.

       Basic concepts should include: Orientation, Salesmanship techniques, customer courtesy,
       product line, store policies, cash register operation, accepting returns, selling add-ons
       (shoe polish, laces, shoe trees, socks, etc.), and perhaps some basic medical facts about
       feet.

       Techniques should include basic lecture, discussion, role playing, case studies, and a
       variety of other ways to keep people interested and learning. Many films are available on
       salesmanship, for example.

2.     Specify what methods could be used to evaluate the success of the program.

       Conceptual acquisition and retention could be evaluated through written or oral tests, but
       these are only a means to the end.

       The real reason you'd evaluate this is to determine the effect it has on sales. Therefore,
       performance evaluations on the job are key. How do the trained salespeople compare to
       the untrained in such areas as sales volume, returns, customer complaints, employee
       turnover & other job satisfaction measures, add-on sales, etc.


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SUPERVISORY ANECDOTE

In recent years, many state courts have been holding employers responsible for employee
misconduct that is not work related. Typically, these lawsuits involve claims of negligence, or
carelessness on the part of the employer in the selection of employees. A negligent hiring
decision could involve anything from hiring someone who installs a new water heater improperly
and subsequently causes a tenant to be burned to hiring a groundskeeper with a history of child
sexual abuse who then abuses a tenant's child. Four elements are necessary to prove post-hiring
negligence - a duty, a failure to meet that duty, foreseeability, and harm. In addition to hiring,
negligence may also be found in supervision, training, and retention of employees. Property
owners sued over post-hiring employment decisions are often able to avoid liability by denying
that they knew or should have known of the danger presented by their employees. Owners and
managers should recognize this expanded liability threat and respond by always treating
employment as an ongoing process.

Source: "Minimizing Post-Hiring Liability." by Robert J. Walter in Journal of Property
Management Vol. 59, Iss. 2 Mar/Apr 1994 pp: 32-34.

RELATED VIDEOS

1.     High Performance Hiring, Crisp Publications, 19 mins. Illustrates interviewing and
             outlines all the major steps in a successful hiring effort.


2.     More Than a Gut Feeling (II), American Media, 28 mins. Updated version of one of the
             best sellers on the subject of interviewing. Dr. Paul Green presents a reliable
             system.

3.     Effective Training Techniques, American Management Associations, 62 mins. Focuses
               on learner as well as presenter.

4.     A Good Start, Dartnell, 15 mins. How to do an effective employee orientation on the job.

5.     Tell Me About Yourself, Rank/Roundtable, 27 mins. Helps an interviewer to be prepared
              to gain the information that's offered during an interview.

6.     Pattern for Instruction, Rank/Roundtable, 21 mins. How to coach and train on the job.

7.     Race and Sex Discrimination, Coronet, 21 mins. Deals with hiring practices as well as on
              the job issues.

8.     When Can You Start?, Video Arts, 27 mins. Selection process and interviewing skills are
             covered, along with properly defining the job and communicating the
             requirements.


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