Generic Components of Lesson Plans

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					ELED 3110       Instructional Design                                                                                          1


                                                  Content Analysis
How can you teach a good lesson if you don’t know the content you are
teaching? A thorough analysis of the content will help you teach it more
effectively. It will help you arrange the content you will teach into an
organized framework which will help you structure the content, help you
strengthen your understanding of the content, and ensure that you are
including all the information needed into the lesson. A content analysis
should be prepared in the beginning stages of planning a lesson.

We will examine four types of content analyses: subject matter outline, task
analysis, concept analysis, and principle statement. These four types of
content analyses reflect the four types of content teachers most often teach:
basic subject matter, procedures, concepts, and principles. Definitions of key
terms and vocabulary (written in student terms) and a list of prerequisite
skills and knowledge are also a part of a content analysis and should be
included in a lesson plan.

Identifying the type of content you will be teaching can also help you choose
the most appropriate instructional model. A how-to lesson generally works
better with a direct instruction lesson model. Lesson based on basic subject
matter, concepts or principles could be taught either with direct instruction
or structured discovery.


Subject Matter Outline

A subject matter outline is used when you are teaching basic facts and
knowledge or specific declarative information. This can be written in outline
form or a bulleted or numbered list. The outline or list serves two purposes:
it ensures that the teacher has included all pertinent information and it can
serve as a guide as the teacher is presenting information in class.

Procedure for writing a subject matter outline:



                                                   Organi ze the                                                        Organi ze the
                          Brain storm ,                                         Di sca rd        Add any other
  Brain storm ,                                     topics a nd                                                     i nforma ti on on the
                         resea rch, and                                    uni mpo rtant or        necessary
 resea rch, and                                   subto pics i nto                                                  outli ne or li st so i t
                             l ist th e                                   i rrelevant topi cs        content
 l ist th e topics                                 an outl i ne or                                                 flows logi cal ly from
                           subto pics                                       and subtopi cs        i nforma ti on       one top ic to the
                                                   bul leted li st
                                                                                                                            next




                                       Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
ELED 3110   Instructional Design                                                                        2


Subject Matter Outline Sample

        The Skeletal System

        1. Functions of bones
             a. Support
             b. Protection
             c. Locomotion
        2. Types of bones
             a. Long bones

             b. Short bones
             c. Flat bones
             d. Irregular bones
        3. Types of joints
             a. Hinge
             b. Ball and socket
             c. Fixed
        4. Bones to know
             a. Skull
             b. Mandible
             c. Clavicle
             d. Scapula
             e. Humerus
             f. Radius
             g. Ulna
             h. Carpal
             i. Metacarpals
             j. Ribs
             k. Vertebrae
             l. Pelvis
             m. Femur
             n. Patella
             o. Tibia
             p. Fibula
             q. Tarsals
             r. Metatarsals
             s. Phalanges




                                   Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
  ELED 3110   Instructional Design                                                                                                    3


  Task Analysis

  A task analysis is written when you are teaching a how-to lesson, that is,
  procedures and strategies for accomplishing a task. A procedure is a series
  of steps necessary for completing a task. These could be academic (how to
  convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit), social (how to join in a
  group), or describe a classroom routine (what to do with a late assignment).
  Strategies are a subcategory of procedures and are procedures that students
  follow to combine subtasks into larger tasks. Strategies are techniques that
  help students learn (how to take notes from a lecture), study (how to
  memorize lists of items), or get organized (how to maintain an assignment
  calendar).

  Task analyses can be written in two ways depending on the content to be
  taught. It can be written as a list of sequential steps that must be followed
  in order (how to do long division) or it can be written as list of various
  subskills that must be completed but not necessarily in a certain order (how
  to write out a check). It is always a good idea to work through the task
  yourself as you write down the steps to make sure you don’t miss any steps.
  Be sure to put yourself in the child’s shoes as you think through the task.

Procedure for writing a task analysis

                                                                                                                Doub le-check to
                                     Do th e ste ps      Wri te a li st o f           Work through                 be su re the
                                      need to be         steps to be                                              steps are i n
                                                                                       the steps
                                     completed in         foll owed in                                            l ogical order
                                                                                        yoursel f
                                        order?                order                                              and nothing is
                                                                                                                     missing
    procedures,
    strategies or
       skills (a
        how-to
       lesson)                                                   Wri te a li st o f
                                                                                                                         Doub le-check to
                                                               various subskil ls
                                                                                             Work through the               be su re all
                                      Is the order not           that mu st be
                                                                                             subski ll s yourself          subski ll s are
                                         i mporta nt?          completed but not
                                                                                                                         prese nt and are
                                                                necessari ly in a
                                                                                                                         i n l ogical order
                                                                 certai n order




          Task Analysis Examples

          How to Alphabetize to the First Letter
          1. Underline the first letter of each word in the list.
          2. If all letters are different:
                 a. Say the letters of the alphabet in order.
                 b. As you say each letter, scan the underlined letters.


                                     Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
ELED 3110   Instructional Design                                                                        4


                   c. Stop each time you say the name of an underlined letter.
                   d. Write the word that contains the letter you said.
                   e. Continue until all words are used.


Concept Analysis

A concept is “a set of specific object, symbols, or events which are grouped
together on the basis of shared characteristics and which can be referenced
by a particular name or symbol” (Merrill & Tennyson as cited in Smith &
Ragan, 2005, p. 172). Teaching concepts is efficient and allows us to
generalize. A teacher does not need to teach about every island in the world
separately because if the concept island is understood, new places can be
recognized as islands if they have the necessary characteristics. To
determine if something is a concept, see if you can think of more than one
example of it. For instance:

                           Concept                         Examples
                           lake                            Norman, Michigan, Placid,
                                                           Geneva
                           planet                          Mars, Jupiter, Earth
                           mammal                          dog, cow, squirrel
                           college                         two-year, four-year,
                                                           public, private
                           president                       George Bush, Harry
                                                           Truman
                           Poetry                          Haiku, ballad, free verse

                           Prime number                    1, 3, 13, 19,37




Concepts can be thought of on a continuum from broad to narrow:

Broad-----------------------------------------------------------------Narrow
living beings                                                       elephants
bodies of water                                                         bay


Concepts can also be thought of on a continuum from concrete to abstract.




                                   Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
ELED 3110        Instructional Design                                                                                   5


Concrete ------------------------------------------------------------Abstract
table                                                                                                            love
flower                                                                                                           emotions
clouds                                                                                                           profit

Concrete concepts are known by their physical characteristics which can be
perceived by any of the five senses. Abstract concepts may not be
perceivable by the senses. Remember that the distinction between concrete
and abstract can depend on many factors, including the age and
sophistication of your students.

Do not confuse the learning of a concept with the learning of the definition of
the concept – those are two different things.

            For example, if a child memorized the definition of a triangle as “a
            three-sided plane figure” but was unable to find the triangles in a set
            of figures, then the child would only have learned “triangle” at the
            declarative knowledge level. Another misunderstanding has to do with
            the labeling of things versus identification of membership in a class of
            things. A child who points to a dog and says “Gracie” has acquired
            declarative knowledge. If she points to the dog and says “golden
            retriever”, she has acquired a concept. Declarative knowledge learning
            enables a person to identify a particular member of the concept
            category, such as saying, “That is Mt. Kilimanjaro.” Concept learning
            allows a person to identify something when given a picture not
            previously seen such as saying, “That is an extinct volcano” (Smith &
            Ragan, 2005, p. 172).




The concept analysis needs to include certain elements so that the teacher
will have considered the essential elements of the concept. Here is the
process for writing a concept analysis:

                                                       Li st the                                    Li st some
                          Li st the cri ti cal                              Li st some                            Li st some
    Wri te a                                          noncritical                                 nonexammple
                          attributes of the                               examples of th e                         related
defini ti on of th e                                 attributes of                                   s of the
                               concept                                       concept                              concepts
    concept                                          the concept                                     concept


            Concept Analysis Examples




                                        Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
ELED 3110   Instructional Design                                                                        6


        Example #1
        Concept: square
        Definition: a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles
        Critical attributes: polygon with four equal sides and four right angles
        Noncritical attributes: length of sides
        Examples:


        Nonexamples:

        Related concepts: rectangle, polygon


        Example #2
        Concept: cloud
        Definition: A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water droplets or ice
               crystals suspended in the atmosphere above Earth's (or another
               planetary body's) surface
        Critical attributes: contains water droplets or ice crystals, visible from
               Earth’s surface
        Noncritical attributes: appearance, movement, color, height
        Examples: cirrus, cumulus, stratus, cirrostratus, altocumulus
        Nonexamples: tornado, hurricane
        Related concepts: thermal convection, frontal lifting, condensation,
               cold front


Principle Statement

Principles are statements that show a relationship between two or more
concepts. They are often described in the form of if-then, cause and effect,
or “rule of thumb” relationships. Principles can be complex or simple, and
there are examples of principles in all content areas.



        Examples of Principles

                  When water reaches 32 degrees Fahrenheit, it freezes.
                  When the temperature of a gas remains constant, if pressure increases,
                   then volume decreases ( and vice versa).
                  If your payment arrives late, then you will need to pay a late fee.
                  When a wasp’s food supply dwindles toward the end of the summer, it
                   is more likely to sting without provocation.


                                   Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006
ELED 3110   Instructional Design                                                                                             7


                   When effective memorization strategies are used for studying, then
                    retention of information is usually greater.
                   Regarding rounding numbers, when a number is 5 or more, round up.
                   If a society undergoes industrialization, then the population will grow
                    rapidly at first and then level off as a result of successive reduction in
                    death rates and birth rates.

The type of content analysis to write when you are teaching a principle is a
principle statement. It helps you to identify the information that will help you
clearly explain the principle to your students. The following information
needs to be included in a principle statement:


                                  Consi der whi ch
   Wri te out the                                                                                       Consi der the order i n
                                 words are best to
    complete                                                        Li st e xa mpl es of                whi ch you wi ll p resent
                                 use to explai n the
    princi pal                                                         the prin ci pl e                 the exampl es and the
                               princi ple. Brai nstorm
    statment                                                                                             princi ple statement.
                                  and ma ke a l i st.


   Principle Statement Examples
Example #1
Principle: Regarding rounding numbers, when a number is 5 or more, round
up.
Words to use in the explanation: rounding, round up, round down, estimate,
ones column, tens column
Examples: (rounding to the nearest ten) 8, 7, 9 (10) 15, 16, 19 (20) 27, 29
(30) 35, 36, 38 (40) 45, 47, 49 (50) 55 etc.
Order of presentation: Building on a previous lesson about estimating and
rounding down, begin with rounding up to nearest ten starting with single
digit numbers.

Example #2
Principle: When effective memorization strategies are used for studying,
then retention of information is usually greater.
Words to use in the explanation: memorization, memorizing, remembering,
retention
Examples: memorizing poetry, multiplication tables, addition facts, historical
facts
Order of presentation: memory model - attending to the material,
developing connections, expanding sensory images, practicing recall;
application model; mnemonic systems.

                                                            References
Some material adapted from Daily Planning for Today’s Classroom, 2nd edition, by Kay M. Price and Karna L.
Nelson.
Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc.



                                   Created by Leigh Ausband, Ed.D, Modified by Drew Polly, Ph.D, 2006