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					              Министерство образования
                  Российской Федерации


САМАРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРНО-СТРОИТЕЛЬНАЯ
                     АКАДЕМИЯ


 КАФЕДРА ЛИНГВИСТИКИ И МЕЖЪЯЗЫКОВОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ




  МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

                для работы над устными
               экзаменационными темами
                        Часть 2




               УТВЕРЖДЕНЫ РЕДАКЦИОННО-ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИМ
                  СОВЕТОМ АКАДЕМИИ 10 ЯНВАРЯ 2002 ГОДА




                      Самара 2003
Составители: С.Ф.Пудовкина, Л.В.Федотова, Ю.В.Лопухова, О.К.Гергенредер,
Т.А.Манакова, О.А.Телешевская, Г.А.Кандалова

ББК 42(57)


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ для работы над
устными экзаменационными темами. Часть 2/ Сост.: С.Ф.Пудовкина,
Л.В.Федотова, Ю.В.Лопухова, О.К.Гергенредер, Т.А.Манакова, О.А.Телешевская,
Г.А.Кандалова.
Самарск.гос.арх.-строит.акад. Самара, 2003. 32 с.



 Методические указания рассчитаны на подготовку устных тем в соответствии с
программой обучения студентов по строительным специальностям.
 Предназначены для студентов 2-го курса.


Номер лицензии на издательскую деятельность ЛР № 020726 от 25 февраля 1998 г.


Самарская архитектурно-строительная академия, 2003

 Настоящие методические указания не могут быть полностью или частично
воспроизведены, тиражированы (в том числе ксерокопированы) и распространены
без разрешения Самарской государственной архитектурно-строительной академии.


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                                            с       Самарская государственная
                                      архитектурно-строительная академия, 2003




                                                                       2
                           LESSON 7 BUILDING MATERIALS




  VOCABULARY


  consider - принимать во внимание,                     timber - лесоматериалы,
  property - свойство                                    availability - наличие
  requirement - требование                               hard - твердый, жесткий
  meet requirement - отвечать требованиям               purpose - цель
  fire-resistant - огнеупорный                          concrete - бетон
  steel - сталь                                         brick - кирпич
  decay - гнить                                         clay - глина
  ancient - древний                                     disadvantage - недостаток
  harden - твердеть                                      fine - мелкий
  coarse - крупный,                                      aggregate - заполнитель
  crushed stone - щебень                                cement - цемент
  prestressed - предварительно напряженный              gravel - гравий
  reinforced concrete - железобетон                      rod - стержень, брус
  reinforcement - арматура                              fibre - волокно
  glass reinforced plastics - стеклопластик             chemicals - химикаты
  polyester resin - полиэфирная смола                   glass - стекло
  on a large scale - в большом масштабе


                               Text A BUILDING MATERIALS


      In order to build a house the civil engineer must consider many important factors: the
choice of materials, their physical properties, availability, cost, etc. Materials to be used for
structural purposes should meet a number of requirements. In most cases they should be
strong, durable and fire-resistant.
      Steel, concrete, stone, timber and brick are the most commonly used building
materials. Timber is the oldest structural material known to mankind. It is light, cheap and
easy to work with. But timber has certain disadvantages: it burns and decays. Timber used
for building purposes is divided into two groups: softwoods and hardwoods. Softwoods are
chiefly used in construction, while hardwoods are generally used for decorative purposes.
      Bricks were known many thousands of years ago. They are molded from clay into the
required shape. Bricks are usually rectangular in shape. They are hardened by being fired in
a kiln.


                                                                                        3
     Concrete is one of the most important building materials. It is difficult to imagine
modern structures without concrete. Concrete is made by mixing together a proportion of
fine and coarse aggregates with cement and water. Crushed stone, broken brick and gravel
are considered to be coarse aggregates. Sand is the best fine aggregate. Both quarry and
river sands are extensively used.
     Reinforced concrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials
available - concrete and steel. There are two kinds of reinforced concrete: with ordinary
reinforcement and concrete with prestressed reinforcement. Concrete is reinforced by the
incorporation of steel rods.
     Plastics and glass reinforced plastics are comparatively new building materials, but
they have already found many uses in modern construction. Plastics combine all the best
characteristics of building materials with good insulating properties. Plastics are produced
from chemicals. Glass-reinforced plastics are produced from polyester resins reinforced
with glass fibres. Plastics and glass-reinforced plastics are the materials to be used in
modern construction on a large scale.

     Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. What must a civil engineer consider to build a house?
2. What requirements should building materials meet?
3. What are the most commonly used building materials?
4. Into what groups is timber divided?
5. For what purposes are they used?
6. What does concrete consist of?
7. What fine and coarse aggregates do you know?
8. What components does reinforced concrete include?
9. What is the process of reinforcing ordinary concrete structures.
10. Why have plastics already found use in modern construction?

     Exercise 2. Give the necessary English equivalents:

1. Materials used in modern construction should (отвечать нескольким требованиям).
2. (Лесоматериал) is light, cheap and easy to work with, but it has certain (недостатки).
3. (Кирпичи) are hardened (обжигом в печи).
4. Building materials should be (прочный, огнеупорный).
5. Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, gravel and water (в нужных пропорциях).
6. (Ввести стальные стержни в бетон) is to reinforce ordinary concrete structures.
7. Plastics are produced from (химикаты).
8. Sand is the best (мелкий заполнитель).

Exercise 3. Translate into English:

1. Для строительства здания необходимы разнообразные строительные материалы.


                                                                                    4
2. Кирпич, лесоматериалы, бетон, железобетон и пластмассы - это наиболее важные
   материалы, применяемые в строительстве.
3. Сталь используется в качестве арматуры в железобетонных конструкциях.
4. Бетон изготовляется путем замешивания в соответствующих пропорциях мелкого и
   крупного заполнителей, цемента и воды.
5. Кирпич - это искусственный материал, изготовленный из глины и закаленный
   обжигом на солнце или в обжиговой печи.
6. Железобетон состоит из двух прочнейших материалов - бетона и стали. Он широко
   применяется для строительства жилых и промышленных зданий.
7. Пластмассы и стеклопластики являются новейшими стройматериалами. Они
   обладают хорошими изоляционными свойствами.

Exercise 4. Translate into Russian:

                             Text C. REINFORCED CONCRETE


      Reinforced cocrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials,
concrete and steel.
      This term is applied to a construction in which steel bars or heavy steel mesh are
properly embedded in concrete. The steel is put in position and concrete is poured around
and over it, then tamped in place so that the steel is completely embedded. When the
concrete hardens ans sets, the resulting material gains great strength. This new structural
concrete came into practical application at the turn of the 19th century. The first results of
the tests of the reinforced concrete beams were published in 1887. Since that time the
development of reinforced concrete work has made great progress. And the reasons of this
progress are quite evident. Concrete has poor elastic and tensional properties, but it is rigid,
strong in compression, durable under and above ground and in the presence or absence of
air and water, it increases its strength with age, it is fireproof.
      Steel has great tensional, compressive and elastic properties, but it is not durable being
exposed to moisture, it loses its strength with age, or being subjected to high temperature.
So, what is the effect of the addition of steel reinforcement to concrete.?
      Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying but concrete does and therefore the steel
acts as a restraining medium in a reinforced concrete member. Shrinkage causes tensile
stresses in the concrete which are balanced by compressive stresses in the steel. For getting
the best from reinforced concrete the following consideration should be kept in mind:
1. For general use the most suitable proportions of cement and aggregate are: I part cement,
2 parts sand and 4 parts of gravel.
2. only fresh water free from organic matter should be used for reinforced work. Sea water
is not allowed.
3. Homogeneity of the concrete is a very important requirement.
Steel costructions with reinforced concrete have become the most important building
materials invented in centuries and they have given modern architecture its peculiar
features.
                                                                                        5
Exercise 5. Make up your own topic "Building Materials" on the base of the three texts.

    LESSON 8 PARTS OF A BUILDING


    TEXT A. THE VARIOUS PARTS OF A BUILDING


     A building consists of two main parts: the substructure and the superstructure. The
 substructure is the part of a building below ground level. It includes the footing, the
 basement and the foundation walls. The superstructure is the part of a building above ground
 level. It includes the walls, floors, roofs, beams, columns and trusses.
     To build a house first the excavation must be dug for the basement, then the foundation
 walls are constructed. After that the framework is erected, sheathed with various finishing
 materials and protected by several coats of paint.
     The foundation is the lowest part of the structure upon which the superstructure rests.
 Foundations are usually made of monolithic concrete, concrete blocks, piles or bricks. They
 keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, support the superstructure and prevent
 the building from sinking.
     Walls enclose internal spaces and support the weight of the floors and roof . Non-
 structural subdividing walls are called partitions. Walls also protect the interior from
 exposure to the weather. They are made of wood, brick, stone, concrete, concrete blocks,
 reinforced concrete and/or other natural or artificial building materials.
     A window is an opening in the wall of a structure which lets the light and air. Doors are
 constructed in walls to allow access. Floors divide a building into storeys. They may be of
 timber or constructed from fire-resistant materials. At present floors finished in wood or
 linoleum are very popular.
     Stairs are a succession of steps connecting two spaces located at different levels. They
 may be of wood, stone, reinforced concrete or metal.
     A roof is the topmost part of a building. Roofs cover the building and protect it from
 exposure to the weather. They should tie in the walls and give strength and firmness to the
 whole structure. Roofs must be well framed, strong enough to resist winds, sustain snow
 loads and serve as insulation to prevent heat transmission.
     Today every building should be beautiful in appearance, well proportioned and provided
 with all modern conveniences such as running water, gas, central heating, ventilation, air
 conditioning, waste disposal and telephone points.

    Exercise 1. Answer the following questions

 1. What parts of a building do you know?
 2.What is the substructure (the superstructure)?
 3.What parts does the substructure (the superstructure) include?
                                                                                    6
 4.What is the first step in building a house?
 5.What is the function of foundations (walls, floors, roofs)?
 6.What materials are foundations (walls, floors, roofs) made of ?
 7.What are stairs?
 8.What is a door (a window)?
 9.What should every building be provided with?

 Exercise 2 Make up sentences with the given word- combinations..

 To build a house, to dig the excavation, to protect by several coats of paint, monolithic
 concrete, to prevent the building from sinking down, to resist winds, to sustain snow loads,
 to prevent heat transmission, air conditioning.

 Exercise 3 Put in the necessary words and word- combinations.

 1. Any building consists of two parts: ... and ... . 2. ... is the lowest part of the structure
 upon which the superstructure ... . For different ... builders have developed ... . 3. ... of
 the structure depends on the ... . 4.For framework protection they ... it with several ... ... ... .
 5.Walls dividing flats into rooms are called ... . 6. ... divide the building into storeys.
 7.Walls and roofs protect the interior from ... ... ... ... .
8. ...are constructed to allow access.
9. Every building should be beautiful ... ... .

 Exercise 4 . Translate into Russian.

 1.If he were here, he would help us. 2.If you had left earlier yesterday, you would have
 arrived in time for dinner. 3.If it were not so late, I should stay. 4.If I had been you, I should
 have gone to the South last summer. 5.My article would have been ready last week provided
 I had had all necessary materials. 6.Were I in your place I should go there. 7.Had we seen
 them yesterday we should have told them about it. 8.Were they free tomorrow, they should
 go on an excursion. 9.Were she given this work, she would do her best to do it in time.
 10.The holidays would be wonderful, were it not so cold. 11.Could they look through this
 article, we should discuss it. 12.Had he learnt all grammar rules, he would not have made so
 many mistakes in his dictation.

 Exercise 5        Make up sentences according to the models:

 Model a) I have time - I shall do the work.
     If I had time, I should do the work.
 1.I shall go - he invites me. 2.He will answer your letter - he knows your address. 3.I write
 to them - they will come. 4.She made a promise - she keeps it. 5.He has this book - he will
 give it to you. 6.It will rain tomorrow - we shall not go on our excursion.



                                                                                           7
Model b):

I did not translate the article yesterday because I had no dictionary .
    If I had a dictionary ,I should have translated the article .
1.He was not in town therefore he was not present at our meeting .If ... . 2. It is
late and I have to go home .If ... .3. I have left the book at home: that is why I cannot read
that passage to you.4. We lost our way because the night was dark. If... .5.There were too
many unknown words in the text therefore i could not translate it without a dictionary. If ... .

Exercise 6. Open the brackets and translate the sentences into Russian
.
1.If I (am, were) you, I shouldn’t do that. 2.If I (know, knew) his language, I should speak
to him. 3.We (should be glad, are glad), if the rain stopped. 4.If you (see, saw) him, he
would tell you the news. 5.We should have arrived in time, if we (didn’t miss, hadn’t
missed) the bus. 6.If he worked hard, he (makes, would make) progress. 7.She would take
part in the discussion, if she (had, has) time. 8.If you (send, sent) a telegram now, he would
get it in the afternoon. 9.If you had sent a telegram in time, he (would learn, would have
learnt) the news. 10.If they had come yesterday, I (should be glad, should have been glad).
11.It is unusual he (left, should leave) his house so early. 12.If she (knows, knew) English
well, she would translate this article without a dictionary. 13.You (would pass, would have
passed) your examinations, if you had worked hard during the term. But you didn’t.




            TEXT B. PILE FOUNDATIONS

     Pile foundations are being used on a large scale in Russia. Their use makes it possible to
achieve considerable reductions in the volume of concreting and to increase the use of
prefabricated elements. Piles also speed up foundation work, reduce labour costs and
increase reliability. Piles enable foundations to be built in all seasons, and eliminate the
need for digging frozen ground. Subsidence with pile foundations is 80 per cent less than in
conventional foundations. This is particular important in the construction of buildings with
large wall panels, which are highly sensitive to uneven subsidence. Pile foundations are
therefore being applied extensively in this type of building. The most common type of piles
is a prefabricated, reinforced concrete pile, either solid or hollow.
     Research is going on into the question of reducing the amount of piling required for a
given building, the reinforcement required, while simultaneously increasing the cross
section and load-bearing capacity. This refers to piles with prestressed reinforcement, and
hollow piles. Piles of square section with a round cavity are being used, together with
tubular piles.
     The hollow square piles require less concrete, and are lighter, it makes them easier to
drive. The tubular piles, up to 80 cm in diameter are more economical than solid piles.
                                                                                      8
Furthermore, because of their large diameter and great load-bearing capacity, the number
required can be reduced. This type of pile has been found most useful where it must pass
through poor soil and enter relatively strong soils.

           TEXT C. ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE
    In discussing the materials in construction, we have also been considering many of the
elements of architectural construction such as walls, columns (or posts), beams, openings
(windows and doors), roof coverings, arches. Both the materials used and the elements of
construction were clearly associated with the practical function of each building.
    The wall.. As an architectural element the wall may vary in thickness, height, shape
(curved, straight, elliptical), completeness, manner of construction, basic function, and
ultimate esthetic purpose and effect. In some styles of architecture, the wall as a wall is
more important than in others, either for decorative or for functional reasons. In the chapel,
e. g., the false wall is an area to be covered with ornament and is otherwise relatively
functionless. In the house, the wall is a partly limiting, partly liberating surface, without
ornament of any kind.
    In some styles of architecture the wall is more important as a «bearing» or carrying
element, that is, for functional reasons. This is seen in Romanesque, Egyptian, Renaissance,
and many other traditional styles where the walls are the building, carrying themselves as
well as the floors.
    Ornament , in the traditional sense, is almost completely absent from the modern
building, which relies on the texture and color of its walls and similar elements for
decorative embellishment.
    Windows and Doors. Windows and doors constitute the two chief types of openings.
Their purpose is to afford ready access of light, air and entry for occupants. Different
climates and purposes naturally require different types of windows and doors. Even in
traditional architecture it was evident that whereas it was desirable to admit light in
northern buildings where there was relatively little sun, in southern buildings it was far
more advisable to keep sun out.
    Windows and doors whether traditional or modern, are also important elements in the
decoration of the building and its design qualities.
    Doors are also part of the a esthetics of a building. In some buildings their effect is far
less than in others - deliberately so. In traditional architectural forms, doorways often have a
ceremonial purpose associated with a religious or royal procession and therefore carry
importance in the architectural scheme together with their symbolic meaning.

Exercise 7. Make up your own topic "Parts of a Building".


LESSON 9: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning


               Text A. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning


                                                                                      9
 Ex 1. Read and translate the text. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian
 equivalents to the words marked out in the text.

       There are two branches of engineering: heating and ventilation. They are
very closely connected. Both are concerned with providing a required
atmospheric environment within a definite space.
       Air-conditioning is related to heating and ventilation. The most widely
used system of heating is the central heating system. The term ―central heating‖
applied to the heating of domestic and other buildings indicates that the whole
of a building is heated from a central source. In the central heating system the
fuel is burned in one particular place. It may be the basement of a building or a
specially designed room for the purpose. Then from there steam, hot water or
warm air is transmitted to all the necessary places to be heated.
       Heating system has the two most common systems: the hot water system
and the steam system.
       The hot water system consists of a boiler and a whole system of pipes,
which are connected to all the radiators in the building. The pipes are usually
made of steel, but they can be made of copper too. The cooled water is returned
to the boiler where it is reheated.
       The steam heating system consists of the single-pipe system and the two-
pipe system. In the single-pipe system the steam is conveyed to the radiator
through a pipe at the bottom of one of the end sections. In the radiator forms the
condensation, which flows back through the same pipe.
       In the two-pipe system a separate system of piping is provided. It carry
away the condensation and in some cases the air from the radiator.
       Of course, ventilation of buildings is a very important factor in modern
structures. It receives proper attention in housebuilding, because every person
in the building should have plenty of fresh air.

                                     Words:

ventilation – вентиляция ,                      heating – отопление
air-condition – кондиционирование воздуха       radiator – радиатор
to apply – применять,                           to be heated – отапливаться
to be transmitted – передаваться                uel – топливо,
to be burned – сжигаться,                       basement – подвал
a single-pipe system – система с одной трубой   pipe – труба
steam – пар ,boiler – котельная,
to be connected – быть соединенным ,
to be reheated – быть повторно нагретым ,
copper – медь, to be conveyed – передаваться
 domestic building – жилое здание
central heating system – система центрального отопления


                                                                                10
Ex. II. Answer the questions:

1. What branches of engineering are very connected?
2. Is air-conditioning related only to heating?
3. Where does the central heating apply?
4. Where is the fuel burned?
5. Call the two most common systems of heating?
6. What does the hot water system consist of?
7. How many systems does it include?
8. What can you say about the single-pipe system?
9. What can you say about the two-pipe system?
10.Why is ventilation of buildings a very important factor in modern structures?


Ex. III. . Translate the dialogue into English using words and phrases from the
text and tell it in pairs.


А: Можешь ли ты мне сказать, какая система отопления наиболее широко
используется?
Б: Я не специалист в этой области, но я уверен, что это система
центрального отопления.
А: Правда ли, что в системе центрального отопления топливо сжигается в
специальном для этого месте?
Б: Да, ты абсолютно прав. Этим местом может быть подвал здания или
специально созданная для данной цели комната.
А: Затем оттуда пар, горячая или теплая вода передается во все
необходимые места, чтобы они отапливались.
Б: Ты прав. Это то, что мы называем системой центрального отопления.

Ex IV. Tell about heating, ventilation and air conditioning.


Text B:

Ex 5.Read and translate the text. Give the text a suitable title.

 When designing a small home that is to be air-conditioned, many important
factors must be considered to achieve economical installation and low operating
costs. A system controlling the temperature, humidity and filtering of the air is
adequate for home conditioning.
 Units with very accurate controls, as used in industrial or large commercial
installations, are not required for small residences.


                                                                                  11
 A house to be efficiently and economically air-conditioned should be designed
so that the heat gain is as low as possible. This is achieved by proper
orientation, location of glass areas, and insulation and ventilation of roof.
Natural elements such as trees, planting and water areas should be utilized to
provide shade and cooling.
 It is not necessary to have a sealed house or a square plan to air-condition
efficiently. For the sake of economy and efficiency in the small home the center
core plan is often advised. The central service core has the following
advantages: 1. Economical structure. 2. Grouped plumbing. 3. Efficient
ductwork. 4. Flexibility of plan around core to utilize orientation.
 The air conditioning unit should be located in the center of the plan to
minimize ductwork and insulation. Oversize units are as inefficient as undersize
conditioning units. The proper unit that will operate steadily, rather than in
surges of cooling periods, will provide better results, because between surges
humidity builds up and destroys the comfort balance. Ideal interior humidity is
50%.
 The cost and availability of electricity and water should be obtained to
estimate operating costs of equipment. If supply of water is limited or
expensive, conditioning systems with water saving devices are necessary.

 Ex VI. a) Give synonyms to the following words:

      to use                      home                 to be located
      to design                  possible
        b) Give antonyms to the following words:

      important, expensive ,a small residence


Text C: “Designing a Heating System.”


 In general, a heating system should be designed so that the water will circulate
by gravity. In some installations, circumstances are such that a pump or
accelerator must be used to achieve a satisfactory circulation. This should be
avoided if possible.
 When designing a heating system for a large building, it is usual – in the
interests of economy and to ensure efficient heating – to first calculate how
much heat will be needed to maintain the building at the desired temperature.
Then the size of the boiler and the amount of pipe and radiator heating surface
required to give out this heat will be estimated. For small systems, ―rule-of-
thumb‖ methods and past experience are generally a sufficient guide.
 The overhead drop-feed system shows how the hot water from the boiler is
carried as high as possible in the building, from where it falls in cooling,
                                                                               12
through the various branch pipes and radiators, back to the boiler. In this type of
system, the maximum amount of ―circulating head‖ or pressure, would be
obtained.

 Ex 7. Find out the beginning of the following sentences:

 1)   ... will circulate by gravity.
 2)   ... will be estimated.
 3)   ... are generally a sufficient guide.
 4)   ... would be obtained.


LESSON 10              LET EARTH BE SAVED


    Ex. 1. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian equivalents to the words
marked оut in the text " LET EARTH BE SAVED"


                            Text 1. LET EARTH BE SAVED


     Look around you. Just think what the situation is like. People may be
suffering from cholera, typhoid or dysentery. Or it could be that somebody you
know has cancer, allergy or bronchitis. What is the reason for all this?
     Doctors may list thousands of causes. But, if you go deep into the problem,
you will understand that the atmosphere around us is severely polluted. Rather,
we have destroyed the environment to such an extent that the water we drink,
the food we eat, the air we breathe and the land we live and grow our food on,
are no longer safe. They are a source of danger to us, as much as we are dan-
gerous to Nature around us.
     In fact thousands of animals, birds and plants which lived for millions of
years, have now become extinct.
     Just consider for a moment! We will exhaust all available resources of oil
in about two decades. Likewise, resources like coal, iron, gold and copper may
not even last our lifetime. So, by the time we die, we would have ensured that
our children will never know what petrol or kerosene is like. They will probably
never see any of these and many more.
     It could be argued that plastics could replace metals. But are plastics and
synthetic materials bio-degradable? When a leaf falls from a tree, it is eaten by
insects or becomes manure for plants. Bad enough, plastics are not absorbed in
the soil. Worse, they are harmful if they are allowed to remain so.
     Similarly, consider a nuclear plant. We all know, that uranium [ju /reini m]
breaks down when struck with a neutron. Energy is the result. But what happens
                                                                                 13
to the fission fragments and other products that are not used? You cannot throw
them away as garbage is thrown away. A people in the neighbourhood are get
fatal diseases. Such nuclear wastes have to be stored till such time they lose
their potency. So the question of safely storing them arises. After all we would
not like to be victims ourselves.
      These are just superficial questions about environment before us. By all
our actions, we are destroying Earth. We have to help ourselves to prevent
dreaded problems such as industrial pollution, shrinking rain forests, ever
expanding deserts, ozone holes, over-population, acid rain, river and ocean
pollution and many more.
      How do we do this? People concerned the world over have been thinking
on these lines for well over 40 years. Later, well-meaning people from all round
the globe came together to celebrate the "International Earth Day" on April 22
each year. And last year, people from over 134 countries participated in these
celebrations. Many more countries participated this year.
      The aim of "Earth Day" is to create an awareness among people to save the
environment.
      June 5 is World Environment Day. It marks the anniversary of the
Stockholm Conference on Human Environment held in Sweden in 1972. At this
historic conference, nations of the world gathered to share their concern over
human progress at the expense of the environment. The meeting called upon the
world community to work towards "development without destruction".
      Two decades later the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development began in Brazil on Environment Day. As governments around the
world are discussing regional and global environmental issues, it is a good time
to educate and inform ourselves about our immediate environment and work
towards improving it.
     • Get to know your own neighbourhood better.
     • Bring the residents together to share their concerns about local en-
vironmental problems and identify the most pressing ones.
     • Organise a neighbourhood environment squad to tackle the problems. No
one is too old or too young to pitch in.
     On this day let us solemnly reaffirm our commitment to the Stockholm
Declaration to ensure, collectively and individually, that our small planet is
passed over to future generations in a condition which guarantees a life with
human dignity for all.
     You can make a difference too, no matter how small your contribution may
seem. Add these to your New Year resolutions:
     • I will switch off the lights when I am last person to leave a room.
     • I will walk or cycle whenever I can, rather than use a fuelconsuming
vehicle.
     • I will tightly close any tap I see dripping.
     • I will not litter.

                                                                              14
     These resolutions are not at all difficult to keep, but they will make a
difference — not just to you, but to the earth we all share


     Ex. 2. Arrange in pairs of antonyms.

     healthy, polluted, destroy, global, expanding, living, deep, enrich,
dangerous, shrinking, clean, sale, extinct, save, exhaust, superficial, harmful,
region


     Ex. 3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Discuss
and give your reasons. Use the following expressions of agreement and
disagreement; I couldn't agree more. Absolutely. Exactly. Well, actually, I'm not
sure I agree with that. I disagree entirely. Rubbish.


      1. Doctors may list thousands of causes for different diseases but if you
look deep into the problem, in the long run they all result from the severely
polluted environment.
      2. The costs of growth and development are already too high and the future
is bleak.
      3. Providing that development is controlled, it can do no harm.
      4. We need to rethink our whole way of life and live in small communities
which only produce the food and goods they need.
      5. It's ridiculous to expect people to give up the benefits of civilisation and
go back to the Dark Ages even if at the expense of the environment.


     Ex. 4. Answer these questions (Use vocabulary from the text).


     1. Which environmental problems does your town, village or city suffer
from? Which are the most serious?
     2. Do you think the situation in your country is better or worse than in
other countries?
     3. What can you do to help your local environment?
     4. Can anything be done about global environmental problems? Can the
world community solve them and on what conditions?
     5. If you had a chance to go on a nature study holiday anywhere in the
world, would you go? Or would you be bored? Where would you go?




                                                                                   15
     Words and phrases to remember.



       environment: to destroy/to save/to improve ...; at the expense of ...;
immediate ...; environmental (issues); to (severely) pollute; pollution: industrial
.... ocean/air ...;
       waste(s): bio-degradable ..., nuclear ...;
       to become extinct; to exhaust (resources);
       to tackle a problem; to go deep into a problem; to work towards; world-
community; well-meaning people;
       to bring smb together; to share (smb's) concern over; to call upon smb
to+V


       Vocabulary to the text " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS "


     Interaction                             Взаимодействие
     Relationships                           (взаимо)отношения
     Acid                                    Кислота, кислый.
                                             Кислотный
     Rainforests                             Тропические леса
     waste (n)                               1) .растрачивание, потери, ущерб:
                                             2).отходы, отбросы (организма в
                                             том числе)
     Deterioration                           Ухудшение, порча
     Destroy                                 Разрушать, уничтожать
     Destruction                             Разрушение, уничтожение
     Nourish                                 Питать, кормить, вскармливать
     Nourishing                              Питательный, сытный
     Nourishment                             Питание, еда, пища
     Create                                  Создавать, творить
     Mean                                    Означать, значить
     Pollute                                 Загрязнять
     Pollution                               Загрязнение
     Survive                                 Выживать
     Survival                                Выживание
     Restore                                 Возвращать, отдавать обратно,
                                             восстанавливать
     Borrow                                  Брать взаймы
     Conserve                                Сохранять, охранять
     Preserve                                Поддерживать, оберегать

                                                                                  16
                   Text 2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

We are in an environmental crisis because human beings have
broken out of the circle of life and are destroying the
environment. To survive, we must learn how to restore the wealth
we have borrowed from nature.



      A. What does the environmental crisis mean? To understand this we must
begin at the source of life itself: the earth's thin skin of air, water and soil,
bathed by the radiant solar fire. Life appeared here several billion years ago and
was nourished by the earth's matter. Living things formed a global network of
various habitats, where everything is directly or indirectly dependent on
everything. This is the ecosphere (biosphere), the home that life has built for
itself on the planet.
      B. In nature all processes are in constant balanced interaction. There is no
waste in nature. Nothing is created, nothing is lost. Everything is recycled
endlessly. The environmental crisis means that this perfect and delicate balance
has begun to break down, and the relationship between life and its earthly
surroundings have begun to collapse.
     C. The environmental degradation continues to accelerate. The ozone layer,
  vital for survival, is thinning. Acid rain is destroying huge areas of forest and
  tens of thousands of lakes. We pollute our rivers, lakes and oceans, and the
  sky, forgetting that we need water and air to live and breathe. We destroy
  rainforests, picturesque landscapes, and slaughter the world's most beautiful
  animals.
     As a result of our new technologies of land use we lose soil, which is the
  basis of civilization. And, worst of all, the earth is steadily warming with
  potentially dangerous effects.
     That is why the environmentalists of the world call for fundamental
  changes NOW!



Ex. V. Entitle all passages of the text " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS "


Ex. VI. Decide where these sentences go in the text.

1. In the ecosphere everything goes on in cycles: an animal's waste becomes
food for soil bacteria; bacteria's waste nourishes plants; animals eat plants.


                                                                                 17
2. Deserts are expanding so rapidly that they threaten to cover one third of the
earth.
3. Man is a newcomer: homo sapient probably appeared first about four million
years ago.
4. Man has converted ecological cycles of life into man-made linear events, and
at the end of the line there is smog, toxic chemicals, mountains of rubbish.
5. One of the effects of the ozone layer thinning may be genetic mutation.

Ex. VII. How do we say the following in Russian?

    Everything is dependent on everything; the earth's thin skin; nourished by the
earth's matter; perfect and delicate balance; the relationships between life and
its earthly surroundings; vital for survival; as a result of new technologies;
dangerous effects; fundamental changes; circle of life.

Ex. VIII Find in the text the word which means:
1. place from which something comes or is got;
2. natural home (soil type and climate) of animal or plant;
3. upper layer of earth in which plants grow;
4. the envelope surrounding the planet from the subsoil to the stratosphere,
occupied by living organisms;
5. gradual loss or decrease as a result of use;
6. physical breakdown;
7. results or consequences of action;
8. physical substance in general as distinct from mind and spirit.


Ex.IX. Translate into English.

1. Без воды, воздуха и почвы жизнь не может продолжаться на Земле.
2. В естественной среде обитания все процессы находятся в
сбалансированном взаимодействии.
...................................................................
 3. Взаимоотношения между живыми организмами и окружающими
земными условиями образуют круговорот жизни...............
4.Природа бесконечно перерабатывает свои ресурсы..................................
5. Современное производство нарушает хрупкое равновесие природных
циклов…………………………………………………….
6. Загрязнение окружающей среды ведет к (result in) уничтожению самих
источников жизни.
..............................................................................................
7. Для того чтобы выжить на земле, человек должен изменить технологии
производства коренным образом........................................................................

                                                                                                   18
8.Мы не должны превращать (turn … into) богатство Земли в опасные для
самой жизни отходы...................................


   Ex. X. Read Text 3 and fill the gaps, using the words before each
   paragraph.




                   Text 3 "OUR PLANET IS IN DANGER!"

                                     I.
Interconnected, сhopped, burn, enough, garbage, breathe, a mess, atmosphere,
exhaust, far away from.

Save our planet before it's too late! Humans have been living on this planet for
two million years, and in the last two hundred years humans have made …of the
planet:… trees, killed animals, polluted air, land, water, etc. Because of that we
now have a lot of problems. I'll name just a few of them: 1) the greenhouse
effect; 2) killing forests and animals; 3) water, air and land pollution; 4) rubbish
problems;
5) nuclear power, etc.
It's easy for us to see what we are doing to the air we breathe, water we drink,
we ….throw out! What about the habitat we don't see? E. g., rainforests, deserts,
grasslands, oceans. etc.? We don't see them, they are …..us. What does it have
to do with us? It is difficult to understand, but everything on the planet is
…..and when something goes wrong in some part of the world, everybody loses.
  The earth has been getting hotter because we are producing too many
greenhouse gases. These gases hold heat. Trees and plants help to take gases,
such as carbon dioxide from the…..but we have now destroyed too many trees.
There aren't …. trees and plants to do this job. We make carbon dioxide when
we …. wood or drive cars. CFCs (other dangerous gases) are in refrigerators
and spray cans. They are known for the damage they are doing to the ozone
layer.       .
Polluting gases fall as acid rains. Large forests and a lot of lakes have been
ruined already. Smoking chimneys and car …..pipes are pumping tons of
rubbish into the air all the time, and we ….it in. The air in big cities is very
much polluted. People feel it without any test. Doctors say that only 2—3 per
cent of healthy babies are born in big cities.

                                                 II

                                                                                  19
Acid, melting, protects, the warmest, a layer, since.

There is.... of gas called ozone. It covers the earth. It ....us from the dangerous
rays of the sun. But if ozone comes close to earth, in ....rains, for example, it is
also very dangerous itself and causes diseases. There are now holes in the ozone
layer because there are too many "greenhouse" gases. Scientists say they are
over the South Pole and over New York.
  Because the Earth is getting hotter, the ice is..... Because the ice has been
melting, the level of the sea is slowly rising. Scientists say that in the year 2050
some parts of Great Britain will be under the sea.
  Other examples:
  In 1972 Finland and Russia had the hottest heatwave for over 100 years.
  In 1976 Europe had the worst drought for 100 years.
  In 1989 Britain had the longest and the hottest summer ....people started to
keep information about the weather.
  In 1990 Sweden had ....February for 300 years.
  A giant iceberg, the size of Hong Kong, is slowly melting. It is the world's
largest iceberg., It broke away from Antarctic. It was 152 km long and 35 km
wide. Now it is 10 km shorter because it is melting.
                                        Ill
Rhinoceroses, alarming, disappearing, periwinkle, species, tusks extinction.

  Since the last Dodo bird died in about 1681, thousands of other ....of animals
and plants have become extinct or endangered.
  The Blue Whale, the Panda, the California Big Tree are on the verge of
....now. Gone forever are dinosaurs, passenger pigeons, California grizzly
bears. Elephants, jungle-cats and Asian... are being killed off for - their ivory
...., furs, or horns. Many animals have gone forever, as their habitats have been
destroyed at an ... rate: 340 miles a day! These are the rainforests which are in
Central and South America, Africa, Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, India and
Madagaskar.
  While rain forests are ...., so are animals and plants which live there. That
means we are losing medicines which people can get from these plants and
animals. For example, thanks to a little rosy .... found in Madagaskar, nearly all
children recover from the blood disease, leukamea.

Make up and tell your own topic " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS " on the
basis of the previous texts : " LET EARTH BE SAVED, " THE
ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS ", "OUR PLANET IS IN DANGER!".


LESSON 11               Modern Architecture

                                                                                  20
Ex. l. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian equivalents to the words
          marked оut in the text "MODERN ARCHITECTURE"


Text A.                   Modern Architecture


Modern architecture is the term universally applied to the style of building,
which evolved in a number of countries after the First World War as the
International Style, or Functionalism, and which has culminated in the current
designs of glass, concrete and steel based on module construction presently
being erected all over the world.
In the early 20th century an instinctive desire of architects to break away from
the confusions and contrivances of the 19th century, and their efforts to
introduce a style which responded to new social needs and exploited new
materials led to the changed appearance of buildings; simple rectangular
outlines; avoidance of symmetry as a result of the insistence of a building's
function determining its form rather than some picture in the architect's mind;
absence of applied ornament; flat roofs and white walls, resulting from the use
of reinforced concrete, now the favourite material; large windows, which new
structural techniques permitted, but which were encouraged too by the spirit of
the times, which believed in opening up the interiors of buildings to light and
air.
The development of the International Style was reinforced by two events: a
series of exhibitions at which architects from different countries saw and were
influenced by each other's experiments, and the formation of an international
organization through which ideas could be exchanged and mutual support
enjoyed.
Exhibitions provided opportunities to explore an environment created wholly by
modem buildings; they had been experienced only as single structures against
an alien background.
The international organization was the Congres Internationaux d'Architecture
Modeme, known as CIAM. Founded in Switzerland in 1928, the organization
lasted until 1959 and concerned itself especially with planning and the social
role of architecture. During the period of ClAM's greatest influence, in the
1930s, among its members were most of the great architects of the day,
including Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier and Alvar Aalto. Athens Charter is a
manifesto published by the CIAM in 1933, setting out data and requirements
connected with the problem of the modem city under 5 main headings:
Dwelling, Recreation, Work, Transportation, Historic Buildings. The pioneers
of modem design wanted to build constructions that reflected the modem age.
Until the 1930s, Germany was the main centre of the new architecture because
of the presence there of another unifying institution, the Bauhaus, a college of
design, established at Weimar by Walter Gropius in 1919. The Bauhaus became


                                                                              21
synonymous with modern teaching methods in architecture and the applied arts,
and with a functional aesthetic for the industrial age.
In the yea's after 1945 the emphasis was on town-planning and housing, and in
most countries also on legislation to control building in the public interest, in
which activities Britain set the lead. This was the era of new towns, vast
housing estates and attempts to gear building programmes both to social needs
and to industrialized systems and techniques.
     In matters of architectural style, it became less a question of conflict
between period revival and modern design than between buildings designed for
effect and those that aimed at the creation of a modem vernacular and a humane
and harmonious environment.

                  Vocabulary to the text "Modern Architecture"

Alien ['eilj n] a чужой, чуждый, несвойственный
Contrivance [k n'traivns] n выдумка, затея, изобретение
Desire [di'zai ] n (сильное) желание желать, хотеть
Event [i'vent] n событие, важное явление, случай
Exchange [iks't eind ] v обменивать(ся), променять
Explore [iks'pl :] v исследовать, изучать, выяснять
Gear [gi ] v V приводить в движение, направлять по плану
Humane [hju:'mein] a человечный, гуманный
Legislation [,led is'lei n] n законодательство, законы
Matter ['m t ] n сущность, вещество, материал, материя
Mutual ['mjurtju 1] a взаимный, обоюдный, совместный
Permit [p 'mit] v позволять, разрешать
Vernacular [v 'n kjul ] a национальный, народный, местный
Wholly ['houli] adv целиком, полностью, совсем, вполне


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions to the text:

1. What is the term of modern architecture applied to?
2. What led to the changed appearance of buildings in the early 20th century?
3. What events reinforced the development of the International Style?
4. What opportunities did exhibitions provide?
5. What organization was founded in Switzerland in 1928?
6. What was the goal of CIAM?
7. What architects greatly influenced the development of architecture during the
  period of CIAM?

                                                                               22
 8. What 5 main headings were mentioned in the Athens Charter published in
   1933?
 9. Who established the Bauhaus?
10.What country was the leader of modern architecture in the years after 1945?


Ex. 3. Fill in the necessary modal verbs and translate the sentences:


l. The building ... be oriented towards the south. 2. Light colours ... have been
used inside. 3. The walls ... (n't) have been faced with rough-hewn granite,...
they? 4. In which style ... we build? 5. Decoration ... have been kept to a
minimum. 6. ... the value of construction work be discussed? 7. The work... be
done quicker and at less cost.

Ex. 4. Entitle all passages of the text "Modern Architecture"

Ex.5. Extract all irregular verbs from the text " Modern Architecture " And
           give their Tense and Voice forms

Ex. 6. Give synonyms to the following words and word-
combinations

Building; current; to erect; in the early 20th century, desire; contrivance; to use;
favourite; large; formation; structure; town.

       Vocabulary to the text "The Age of Revivals"

Array [ 'rei] n масса, множество, совокупность
Assert [ 's :t] v заявлять, утверждать
Be concerned with заниматься (чем-л.), касаться
Choose [t u:z] (chose, chosen) v выбирать, отбирать
Conscientiously [ k n I'en sli] adv сознательно
Dignified ['dignifaid] a достойный
Fancy ['f nsi] n воображение
Glitter ['glit ] v сверкать, блистать
Leisure ['Ie ] n досуг
Miscellany [mi'sel ni] n смесь
Owe [OU] V быть обязанным
Rival ['raiv 1] a соперничающий,
конкурирующий
Stirring ['st :ri ] n активность, беспокойство
Vie [vai] v соперничать


                                                                                    23
                   Text B        THE AGE OF REVIVALS


The Industrial Revolution, which introduced new materials and techniques,
made the 19th century the time of the vast expansion of cities or urbanization in
Europe and America. Then more buildings were constructed than in all previous
ages added together.
The role of the architect was merely confined to decorating the building
facades. Throughout Europe nearly every past style was re-examined and
reused, but as the century wore on styles of the past were no longer imitated
exactly, but were looked on as a quarry from which architects could extract
whatever elements struck their fancy. A succession of rival styles came, vied
with each other and went, some conforming conscientiously to historic
precedent, but many more mingling reminiscences of different periods and
countries. This resulted in either beautiful or graceless eclecticism. Richness of
form and picturesqueness of effect were the principal aim.
   Styles began to be chosen not just for fashion but for their associative
   qualities:
Roman for justice, Gothic for learning and churches, Byzantine mainly for
churches, the Italian Renaissance for palaces and ministries, Greek for
government, Venetian for commerce. Oriental for leisure, Hansetic for housing,
the Baroque for theatres and opera houses, Romanesque for public architecture.
Colonial for bank buildings, churches and suburban homes. Nevertheless, the
19th century revival architecture was dominated by the Classic Revival, or Neo-
Classicism, and the Gothic Revival, or Neo-Gothic.
A reaction against stylizations came nearer the end of the century. It, too, was
concerned with decoration more than construction, and aimed at creating a style
-especially a style of ornament - that owed nothing to the past. It emerged as Art
Nouveau in France and Belgium, a little later as Jugendstil in Germany, and
spread throughout Europe and reached the USA.
Behind this picturesque play-acting glittered the iron and glass architecture of
the engineer-experimentalist, who created the impressive array of simple,
dignified and refreshingly functional buildings, the viaducts, dockyards, textile
mills and railway stations. There was Paxton's Crystal Palace (1851), one of the
most revolutionary buildings in the history of world architecture, and the daring
towers or skyscrapers of the Chicago School (1880-1900).
 The "Japonism" of the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and Crafts movement, the
 preachings of William Morris against opulence and the tyranny of the machine,
 the stirrings of Art Nouveau and the folksy aspirations of the garden city
 movement can now be seen to have been the ancestors of modem architecture.
                                                                                24
                                                Test

1. Choose the correct endings to the following sentences

2.
     1. The Industrial Revolution made the l9th century the time of...
          a) breaking the laws of architecture;
          b) usage construction more than decoration;
          c) the vast expansion of cities in Europe and America.

     2. Richness of form was ...
           a) the principal aim;
           b) the main disadvantage;
           c) the great desire.

     3. A reaction against stylizations came ...
           a) at the beginning of the l9th century;
           b) at the end of the l9th century;
           c) in the middle of the l9th century.

2. Fill in the necessary words and word-combinations

     1. The role of the architect... to decorating the building facades.
            a) was merely confined;
            b) was subjected;
            c) was aimed.
     2. Styles began to be ... not just for fashion but for their associative
        qualities. a) done; b) chosen; c) drawn.
     3. There was ... one of the most revolutionary buildings in the history of
        world architecture.
            a) St.Paul's Cathedral;
            b) Westminster Palace;
            c) Paxton's Crystal Palace.
Exercise VII. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the
GERUND in various functions:
Learn the patterns: l. (Подлежащее) Flooding the interior with light was
characteristic of the 18th century architecture. Интенсивное заполнение
внутреннего пространства светом было характерно для зодчества ХVIII
века. 2. (Именная часть сказуемого) The job of the engineer is making things,
or if you like, imposing an idea or form on material. Задача инженера -
создавать предметы или, если хотите, воплощать замысел или форму в
материале. 3. (Дополнение). The house needs repairing (= being repaired).
Дом требует ремонта. The planning authorities insisted on retaining some of


                                                                                  25
the many trees. Градостроители настаивали на сохранении некоторой части
деревьев..
 4. (Определение) The most efficient method of moving the structure. Самый
 эффективный метод передвижения сооружения.
 5. (Обстоятельство) Architects sharpen their skills by participating in
 competitions. Архитекторы оттачивают свое мастерство, участвуя в
 конкурсах.
 l. The facade is unusual in having round towers. 2. A base is distinguished from
 a foundation or footing in being visible rather than buried. 3. This project
 passed through many stages before being realized. 4. From the 17 th to the 19th
 centuries domes were an area for experimenting with new methods of
 construction. 5. The Pantheon is unique among the buildings of Imperial Rome
 in having survived intact. 6. Artology is distinguished from aesthetics in not
 being concerned with questions of beauty in nature. 7. Optimizing choices in
 the building community was the theme of a national symposium. 8. One of the
 ways of enhancing the beauty of architecture is by determining the quantity and
 quality of the architectural elements and their combinations.

    Ex. VIII. Read text C and fill the gaps using the
words before eash passage

1st passage


predict [pri'dikt] v- предсказывать
undergo[, nd 'gou] - испытывать, переносить, подвергаться (чему-л.)

2nd passage

explosion[iks'plou n] n - взрыв, вспышка
heretofore['hi tu'f :] adv - прежде, до
этого

3rd passage

advancement d'va:nsm nt] n - продвижение, успех, прогресс
refinement[ri'fainm nt] n - очищение, обработка, отделка,
усовершенствование
location[lou'kei n] n - определение места, размещение, участок
plug-in[pl g'in]a - вставной, блочный, съемный

4th passage

hamper['h mp ] v - препятствовать, мешать, затруднять
overuse[ 'ouv 'ju:z]v - использовать сверх предела
                                                                               26
utilizingE'jurtilaizin] a - использованный, утилизированный
shape[ eip] n - форма, очертание, вид, образ
versatile['v :s tail] a - многосторонний, разносторонний, непостоянный
enable [i'neibi] v - давать возможность или право, делать годным
reference['refr ns] n - ссылка, справка, упоминание, намек, рекомендация
diversified[dai'v :sifaid] a - - разнообразный, различный
flexible['fleks bl] a - гибкий, податливый

5th passage

ponder['p nd ] v - обдумывать, взвешивать, размышлять
replace[ri'pleis] v - ставить на место, вернуть,
восстановить

6th passage

anticipate[ n'tisipeit] v - ожидать, предвидеть, предчувствовать, опережать

7th passage

never-ending['nev r'endin] a - непрекращающийся, бесконечный
evidenceE'evid ns] n - очевидность, основание, доказательство
epoch['i:p k] n - эпоха, период


              Text C       TOWARDS THE FUTURE


No one can accurately... what the future of architecture will bring. The future
will be related to the development of new materials, new construction methods,
computer designing, and the sociological changes we ....
Size. The technological ... should enable us to build in sizes ... impossible. But
who can say what will be possible?
Location. In the future we should be capable of building structures on locations
that would now be unthought of. ... in transportation methods and ... in the
engineering of structures will make even more ... possible. There are books and
articles about ... cities and cities underground, in the sky, under the ocean, and
about other cities of the future.
Shapes. For centuries we have been ... in our architectural development through
the use and ... of the square and the cube as the basis for our structures. We are
just entering into a fuller realization of the possibilities of... other... such as the
triangle, the pyramid, the circle, and the sphere. The development of stronger,
more ... materials and new construction techniques should ... us to construct
buildings that are completely functional without... to any basic geometric form.
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Even the basic floor plans should be more ... with the development of new and
more ... building materials. Frank LWright demonstrated for 60 years that
interior space can be much richer and much more interesting than a box.
Dwelling. What our homes will look like in 10,20,30, or loo years is an
interesting question to.... Perhaps there will be no houses, they will be ... by
controlled environment. Indeed, houses as we know them may become museum
pieces, or only illustrations of architectural history.
With more leisure time ... in the future, more emphasis will be placed on
recreational activities within or about the home.
Architectural creation is a ... process. Modern architects should work so that
many buildings of the 20th century would not become for future generations ...
of an architectural dark....
Exercise IX. Make up and tell the topic "ARCHITECTURE" on the basis of the
given 3 texts : "Modern Architecture", "The Age of Revivals", "Towards the
Future".


LESSON 12                     Computer Science



Ex 1. Find in the dictionary some means of the underlined words. Write out
words and combinations of words from the text and find Russian
equivalents for them: гибкий диск, печатная плата, память с произвольной
выборкой, жесткий диск, набор инструкций, исполнять (команду), память
для хранения программ, получить, добиться, (универсальная)
вычислительная техника, постоянная память.

Ex 2. Make up sentences to the theme of the text below using words from
the text.

Ex 3.Read and translate the text A.


                     TEXT A.       СOMPUTER SIENCE


  Computer science is a part of an applied mathematics. Computers are intended
to improve the productivity of labour or scientists, designers, engineers,
managers and other specialists. Through a computer they can receive quick and
optimal solutions. The specialists use computer-aided-design (CAD) and
computer-aided-manufacturing (CAM). CAD and CAM help to shorten the
time between designing and manufacturing.

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  Computer can perform many functions: they can do mathematical and logical
operations, mathematical operations including arithmetic and algebraic
operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division raising to a
power differentiating and integrating. Logical operations include comparing,
selecting, sorting and matching. Computers can be divided into simple and
complex devices. Simple computers are calculators. A calculator can perform
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Complex computers can do
various logical operations and some of them even have artificial intelligence.
  Complex computers can be divided into following main classes:
- supercomputers
- mainframes
- minicomputers (personal computers)
- microcomputers
   A minicomputer is a computer manufactured on a single printed board which
contains one or more chips. Most microcomputers are personal computers
which have become so powerful through using CAD/CAM system.
Microprocessors can obtain from memory and execute a limited set of
instructions in order to perform addition or subtraction on a binary world and
to input or output binary data.
  Memory is a device for storing digital information. Memory should be small in
size and large in capacity. It must take little power and work at the same speed
as computer logic. All microcomputers use Random Access Memory (RAM)
and Read Only Memory (ROM). Trough RAM the information can be put into
or out of any single byte of memory. ROM is permanent memory for program
storage. People know many types of memory units. Hard disks and floppy
disks are widely used. Floppy disks (flexible plastic disks) are used in personal
computers.
  Thus in order to elaborate up-to-date and inexpensive programs as well as to
defend them from viruses, it is important to know some programming
languages: machine language (low-level programming language) and an
assembly language and high-level languages such as FORTRAN, PASCAL,
ADA, C, BASIC etc.
   Modern personal computers are used for automation of individual labour
places, information processing and training. Moreover, computers came in our
life and to our houses and now we can solve our everyday problems with their
help.

                               Words to the text:


a computer                             компьютер
a computer-aided-design (CAD)       автоматизированное проектирование
a computer-aided-manufacturing (CAM) автоматизированное производство
а mainframe                            универсальная вычислительная
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                                           машина
a printed board                             печатная плата
а microprocessor                            микропроцессор
a set of instructions                       набор инструкций
memory                                      память
Random Access Memory (RAM)                 память с произвольной выборкой
Read Only Memory (ROM)                     память для хранения программ
a program storage                          постоянная память
a hard disk                                жесткий диск
a floppy disk                              гибкий диск
to elaborate (to work out) programs        разрабатывать программы
a software                                 программное обеспечение
to input data                              вводить данные
to output data                             получать данные на выходе
a case                                     корпус
hardware                                   аппаратное обеспечение
a monitor                                  монитор
a keyboard                                 клавиатура
a mouse                                    мышь
a printer                                  принтер


Ex. 4.Give answers to these questions and write these answers in the order
like one in the text.

    1.   What high-level programming languages do you know ?
    2.   What are the computers used for ?
    3.   What operations can simple devices perform?
    4.   What classes are computers divided into?
    5.   What are RAM and ROM?
    6.   What are CAD/CAM systems intended to do?

Ex. 5. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

    1.   Computers are intended to improve…
    2.   Thus in order to elaborate up-to-date and inexpensive programs…
    3.   Computer can perform many functions…
    4.   Modern personal computers are used…
    5.   Computers can be divided into…


                     TEXT B              GATEWAY 2000



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    There are many hardware pieces such as the system board, power supply,
keyboard, mouse, hard drive, monitor, video card with its drivers in a computer
system.
    The system unit contenting power supply, system board, etc has the main
part called the case. The case is a metal box that protects the delicate electronics
inside, keeps electromagnetic emissions inside so your TV, cordless phone and
stereo don’t go haywire when you power up the computer and can also hold the
monitor. Don’t remove the case cover unless you need to do something inside
the unit, and always replace the cover when you are done.
   You communicate with your computer with the keyboard. You type
instruction and commands for the computer with it information to be processed
and stored. Many of the keys on the keyboard are like those on a typewriter;
letter keys, punctuation keys, shift keys, tab and the spacebar. Your keyboard
also has many specialized keys.
   The instruction manuals for most software applications contain a section
describing the functions of each key or combination of keys.
  The mouse works by sliding it around (ball down) on a flat surface. The
desktop is fine, but a ready-made mouse pad is the best surface to roll the mouse
on. Its surface is flat and usually somewhat textured. If the surface is too smooth
or rough, the ball inside can slip. As you glide the mouse, the ball inside moves
in the direction of your movement. You will see the arrow on your screen
moving in unison. The arrow is called a pointer, and the most important part is
the very tip of its point. That’s the only part the computer pays attention to. To
use the mouse, slide it on the mousepad until the pointer’s point is on something
like a button or an icon.
  Click – position the mouse pointer over an element, press and release the left
mouse button one time.
   Double-click – same as above except press the mouse button twice in a quick
succession without moving the mouse between clicks. Usually you double-click
on an icon to start the program.
  Drag – position the mouse pointer over an element, press and hold the left
mouse button, and drag the mouse across the screen. The pointer moves
dragging the element. At the desired location, release the mouse button. The
pointer lets go of whatever it was dragging.
  Your computer is not complete without the monitor, a TV-like device that
usually sits on top of the computer. The monitor displays text characters and
graphics. It allows you to see the results of the work going on inside your
system unit. The sharpness of the picture depends on the number and size of
pixels (tiny dots). The more pixels, the sharper the image. This is called
resolution.
  There are three types of drives. The floppy drive provides a way to pass files
to and from the hard drive or to and from another computer. Unlike the floppy
drive, the hard disk drive is inside the computer case and you cannot see it. The
smallest hard drives Gateway 2000 offers hold more information than 100
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floppies! The size of a hard drive is measured in megabytes or MB for short.
The CD-ROM drive is installed in the Gateway 2000. It can play music CDs as
well as read software program CDs and the new Kodak photo CDs. A CD disk
holds over 600MB of data. CD-ROM is just another hard drive, except that,
although you can read from it, you can’t save anything to it. All of them have
its drivers.


    Ex. VI. Reread the text and write a short summery of it in English.



         DIALOGUE                           BUYING A COMPUTER


Customer: Good morning.
Shop assistant: Good morning, sir. May I help you?
C. I want to buy a new computer and monitor.
S. Do you have anything special in mind?
C. Yes. I am a translator and must translate a lot. I need that my еyes don’t get
tired.
S. I see. You can buy a computer ―Pentium 4‖ and a monitor ―CTX‖. This
computer system is right for you.
C. How much is it?
S. $ 800. It is a new model.
C. Tell me, please, can I buy it on credit?
S. Of course. You can get a charge card . Apply directly to the shop for these
cards.
C. How much is the interest?
S. The interest can be as high as 15%. This means that you are paying much
more than the cost of your purchase.
C. And what does the computer system consist of?
S. Computer system consists of the system board, power supply, keyboard,
mouse, hard drive, monitor, video card with its drivers and printer.
C. Thank you for the information. I must go to the shop for credit cards.
S. You are very welcome.
C. Good bye!
S. Good bye!


Ex. VII. Read and translate this dialogue.
Ex. VIII. Learn this dialogues in parts.
Ex. IX. Make up your topic "Computer Science" and tell it.

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