AP Biology Assignment Sheet for
Animal Systems I
Chapters 40 – 44: 2010
Class Discussion Learning Objectives Assignment
Date Topic/Activity (Unless otherwise noted
assignments are due the
next day class meets)
Read chapter 40
Vertebrates Reading Guide
chapter 40 (1 – 7)
Chapter 40: Chapter 40 Read chapter 41
1. Identify the structure and functions of the following animal tissues:
Basic Principles of a. Epithelial Reading guide
Animal Form and b. Connective questions 8 – 9 Be
Function c. Muscle sure to complete this
d. Nervous reading guide table.
2. Identify the 10 different organ systems. List the organs involved in
Begin Chapter 41 each system and the general function of the body system.
3. Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for
4. Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic animals.
5. Describe the relationship between metabolic rate and body size.
6. Describe the natural variations found in the energy strategies of
endotherms and ectotherms.
7. Distinguish between regulators and conformers for a particular
8. Define homeostasis. Describe the three functional components of a
homeostatic control system.
9. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback mechanisms.
Define thermoregulation. Explain in general terms how endotherms and
ectotherms manage their heat budgets.
Complete Chapter 41 Chapter 41: Read chapter 42;
1. Define and compare the four main stages of food processing.
2. Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion.
concepts 42.1 –
3. Describe the common processes and structural components of the 42.4
mammalian digestive system. Reading Guide
4. Compare where and how the major types of macromolecules are Circulatory System
digested and absorbed within the mammalian digestive system.
5. Explain how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and
6. Describe the major functions of the large intestine.
7. Describe the roles of symbiotic microorganisms in vertebrate
Circulatory System Chapter 42:
1. Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems.
2. List the three basic components common to both systems.
3. List the structural components of a vertebrate circulatory system
and relate their structure to their functions.
4. Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians,
non-avian reptiles and mammals or avian reptiles.
5. Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits and explain
the functions of each.
6. Define a cardiac cycle and distinguish between systole and diastole
and explain what causes the first and second heart sounds.
7. Define cardiac output and describe two factors that influence it.
8. Define heart murmur and explain its cause.
9. Distinguish between a myogenic and nerogenic heart.
10. Explain how the pace of the SA node can be modulated by nerves,
hormones, body temperature and exercise.
11. Relate the structures of capillaries, arteries and veins to their
Finish 12. Explain why blood flow through capillaries is substantially slower Read lab 10
than it is through arteries and veins.
Circulatory System 13. Define blood pressure and describe how it is measured. Complete online
14. Explain how osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure regulate the labbench for lab 10
exchange of fluid and solutes across capillaries.
15. Describe the composition of lymph and explain how the lymphatic
system helps the normal functioning of the circulatory system.
Explain the role of lymph nodes in body defense.
16. Describe the composition and functions of plasma.
17. Relate the structure of erythrocytes to their function.
18. Outline the formation of erythrocytes from their origin from stem
cells in the re marrow of bones to their destruction by phagocytic
19. Outline the sequence of events that occurs during blood clotting and
explain what prevents spontaneous clotting in the absence of injury.
20. Distinguish between a heart attack and a stroke.
21. Distinguish between low-density lipoproteins (LDL’s) and high
density lipoproteins (HDL)
AP Lab 10 Read chapter 42:
Concepts 42.5 –
Reading guide on
No School Spring Complete practice
Break AP exam
Mar. 29 – April 2
Topics that you
questions that you
think may have
Finish Lab 10
Respiratory systems Gas Exchange: Read chapter 43
1. Define gas exchange and distinguish between a respiratory medium
and a respiratory surface. Reading guide
2. Describe the general requirements for a respiratory surface and list chapter 43
a variety of respiratory organs that meet these requirements.
3. Describe the respiratory adaptations of aquatic animals.
4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of water as a
5. Describe countercurrent exchange and explain why it is more
efficient thane concurrent flow of water and blood.
6. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of air as a respiratory
medium and explain how insect tracheal systems are adapted for
efficient gas exchange in a terrestrial environment.
7. For the human respiratory system, describe the movement of air
through air passageways to the alveolus, listing the structures that
air must pass through on its journey.
8. Compare positive and negative pressure breathing.
9. Explain how the respiratory systems of birds and mammals differ.
10. Explain how breathing is controlled in humans.
11. Draw the Hb-oxygen dissociation curve, explain the significance of
its shape and explain how the affinity of Hb for oxygen changes with
Immune System Chapter 43: Immune System Read chapter 44
1. Explain what is meant by nonspecific defense and list the
nonspecific lines of defense in the vertebrate body.
Reading guide chapter
2. Distinguish between: 44
a. Innate and acquired immunity
b. Humoral and cell mediated response
3. Identify the first line of defense in humans.
4. Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
5. Explain how B cells and T cells recognize specific antigens.
6. Explain why the antigen receptors of lymphocytes are tested for
self-reactivity during development. Predict the consequences that
would occur if such testing did not take place.
7. Describe the mechanism of clonal selection. Distinguish between
effector cells and memory cells.
8. Distinguish between primary and secondary immune responses.
9. Describe the cellular basis for immunological memory.
10. Compare the structures and functions of cytotoxic T cells and helper
11. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
12. Describe the roles of helper T cells in both humoral and cell
13. Explain how cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells defend against
14. Distinguish between T dependent antigens and T independent
15. Explain why macrophges are regarded as the main
antigenpresenting cells in the primary response but memory B cells
are the main antigen-presenting cells in the secondary response.
16. Explain how antibodies interact with antigens.
17. Diagram and label the structure of an antibody and explain how this
structure allows antibodies to recognize and bind to antigens, and
assist in the destruction and elimination of antigens.
18. Distinguish between active and passive immunity and describe
examples of each.
19. Explain how the immune response to Rh factor differs from the
response to A and B blood antigens.
20. Describe an allergic reaction.
Distinguish between inborn and acquired immunodeficiency
1. Define osmoregulation and excretion.
Immune System video
2. Distinguish between osmoregulators and osmoconformers.
3. Explain how the osmoregularoty problems of freshwater animals
Begin Excretory differ from those of marine animals.
System 4. Explain the role of transport epithelia in osmoregulation and
5. Describe production and elimination of ammonia.
6. Explain why ammonia excretion is most common in aquatic species.
7. Compare the strategies to eliminate waste as ammonia, urea, or
uric acid. Note which animal groups are associated with each
process and why a particular strategy is most adaptive for a
8. Describe the different excretory systems of platyhelminthes,
annelids, and arthropods.
Excretory system 9. Using a diagram, identify and give the function of each structure in Study for Systems I test.
the mammalian excretory system.
10. Identify and give the function of each region of the nephron.
11. Describe and explain the relationshops among the processes of
filtration, reabsorphtion and secretion in the mammalian kidney.
12. Distinguish between cortical and juxtamedullary mephrons.
13. Explain the significance of the juxtamedullary nephrons of birds and
14. Explain how the loop of Henle enhances water conservation by the
15. Explain how the loop of Henle functions as a countercurrent
16. Describe the nervous and hormonal controls involved in the
regulation of the kidney.
Systems I Test