"LABORATORY SAFETY DESIGN GUIDE"
LABORATORY SAFETY DESIGN GUIDE February 17, 2006 ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PAGE i Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS I. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES .................................................. I-2 A. Scope ................................................................................................................ I-2 B. Building Design Issues ...................................................................................... I-2 C. Laboratory Design Considerations .................................................................... I-3 D. Building Requirements ...................................................................................... I-4 E. Hazardous Materials Design Issues ................................................................. I-5 F. Entries, Exits, and Aisle Width .......................................................................... I-6 G. Electrical and Utility Issues ............................................................................... I-7 H. Accessibility ...................................................................................................... I-8 I. Non-Structural Seismic Hazard Abatement ...................................................... I-8 J. Teaching Laboratories ...................................................................................... I-8 II. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... II-2 A. Scope ............................................................................................................... II-2 B. General Environmental Design Criteria ........................................................... II-2 III. LABORATORY VENTILATION .................................................................................... III-2 A. Scope .............................................................................................................. III-2 General Laboratory Ventilation ....................................................................... III-2 B. III-2 C. Fume Hood Exhaust System Design Criteria (FHES) .................................... III-3 D. Fume Hood Exhaust System Testing ............................................................. III-4 E. Local Exhaust Ventilation................................................................................ III-4 IV. EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SAFETY SHOWER EQUIPMENT ........................... IV-1 A. Scope ............................................................................................................. IV-1 B. Applications.................................................................................................... IV-1 C. Equipment Requirements .............................................................................. IV-3 D. General Location............................................................................................ IV-3 E. Pre-commissioning Testing ............................................................................ IV-4 F. Approved Equipment ..................................................................................... IV-4 V. PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS, AND COMPRESSED-GAS CYLINDERS ....................................................................................................................... V-1 A. Scope .............................................................................................................. V-1 B. Compressed-gas Cylinder Storage ................................................................. V-1 C. Compressed-Gas Cylinder Restraint .............................................................. V-2 D. Requirements for Gas Cabinets ...................................................................... V-3 E. Design of Pressure Vessels and Systems ...................................................... V-3 VI. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE CABINETS .................................................. VI-1 A. Scope ............................................................................................................. VI-1 B. Approvals and Listings ................................................................................... VI-1 C. Design ............................................................................................................ VI-1 ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PAGE ii Rev. Jan-10 TABLE OF CONTENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide D. Venting Hazardous Material Storage Cabinets .............................................. VI-2 E. General Installation Requirements................................................................. VI-3 VII. BIO-SAFETY LABORATORIES..................................................................................VII-1 A. Scope ............................................................................................................ VII-1 B. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 1 ........................................... VII-1 C. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 2 ........................................... VII-2 D. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 3 ........................................... VII-2 E. Biological Safety Cabinets ............................................................................ VII-4 VIII. FIRE SAFETY ...........................................................................................................VIII-1 A. Scope ........................................................................................................... VIII-1 B. Fire Extinguishers ........................................................................................ VIII-1 C. Building Fire Service/Utilities ....................................................................... VIII-2 D. Fire Sprinklers/Standpipes ........................................................................... VIII-2 E. Fire Alarm Systems ..................................................................................... VIII-3 F. Fire/Smoke Dampers ................................................................................... VIII-5 G. Environmental Control Systems/Smoke Control .......................................... VIII-5 IX. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL LABORATORIES ...............................................................................................................IX-1 A. Scope ............................................................................................................. IX-1 B. Basic Laboratory Design ................................................................................ IX-1 C. Ventilation Considerations ............................................................................. IX-1 D. Radioactive Material Waste Management ..................................................... IX-3 X. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES WITH IRRADIATORS AND/OR RADIATION-PRODUCING MACHINES ..............................................................X-2 A. Introduction ..................................................................................................... X-2 B. General Requirements/Considerations: .......................................................... X-3 C. Basis for Shielding Specifications ................................................................... X-3 D. Special Considerations ................................................................................... X-4 E. Pre-Use Considerations .................................................................................. X-6 F. Facilities/Sources with Special Considerations............................................... X-7 G. Considerations for Facilities/Sources Used for the Healing Arts .................... X-7 H. Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Safety Basic Requirements.............................. X-9 I. Controlling Access to Laser Areas .................................................................. X-9 J. Beam Path Management .............................................................................. X-10 K. Fire Safety for Lasers.................................................................................... X-10 L. Electrical Safety for Lasers ........................................................................... X-10 M. Class 4 Laser Laboratories ........................................................................... X-11 N. Optical Bench Safety .................................................................................... X-11 O. Excimer Lasers ............................................................................................. X-11 P. Laser-Generated Air Contaminants (LGAC) ................................................. X-11 Q. Radio Frequency and Microwave Devices (30 kHz to 300 GHz) .................. X-12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PAGE iii Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Table of Contents R. Sub-radiofrequency Fields (<30 kHZ) ........................................................... X-12 S. Static (Zero Hz) Magnetic Fields ................................................................... X-13 T. Ultraviolet Radiation ...................................................................................... X-14 XI. APPENDIX A: Additional Fume Hood Exhaust Criteria for Facilities Not Owned By the University of Washington. ................................................................................... XI-1 A. Fume Hood Exhaust System (FHES) ............................................................ XI-1 B. Fume Hood Exhaust System Testing ............................................................ XI-3 XII. APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS .................................................................................... XII-1 ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The construction of laboratory facilities requires oversight. Regulatory requirements must be addressed and good practice must be considered. Laboratory facilities have architectural, space planning, HVAC, environmental control, and fire/life safety requirements not generally found in most types of construction. UW Environmental Health & Safety Department (EH&S) has prepared and will maintain this guide to aid the campus community and project design teams with planning and design issues. The intent of this guide is to improve design efficiency and minimize changes in conjunction with EH&S plan review and consultation services. The guide is a resource document to be used by design professionals, faculty, and staff, during the planning, design and commissioning phases of a project. It is applicable to all facilities occupied by UW employees with an emphasis on those facilities that will be used as laboratory buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas in which hazardous materials are used, handled and stored. The criterion in this guide represents the minimum requirement; more stringent requirements may be necessary depending on the specific laboratory and the type of research being completed. This guide applies to both leased and owned buildings. Supplemental requirements for UW owned and operated buildings are also noted herein and in the UW Facility Design Information (FDI) guide maintained by Campus Engineering and Operations. This Design Guide covers neither all regulatory issues nor all design situations. In all cases, EH&S should be consulted on questions regarding health, safety, and the environment. Design Guide Layout: Each specification is broken into two or three parts. The first part if the specification; the second is the specification source if it exists. The third portion is explanatory text. Definitions are found in Appendix A. Acknowledgement: This Laboratory Design Guide was adapted to the University of Washington from a 2003 Laboratory Design Guide produced by the University of California Industrial Hygiene Program Management Group. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-2 Rev. JAN-06 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES I. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES A. Scope The primary objective in laboratory design should be to provide a safe, accessible environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work. A secondary objective is to allow for maximum flexibility for safe research and teaching use. Therefore, health and safety hazards shall be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the design wherever possible. However, no matter how well designed a laboratory is, improper usage of its facilities will always defeat the engineered safety features. Proper education of the facility users is essential. The requirements listed below illustrate some of the basic health and safety design features required for new and remodeled laboratories. Variations from these guidelines require approval from the Environmental Health & Safety Department (EH&S). B. Building Design Issues Because the handling and storage of hazardous materials inherently carries a high risk of exposure and injury, it is important to segregate laboratory and non- laboratory activities. In an academic setting, the potential for students to need access to laboratory personnel, such as instructors and assistants, is great. A greater degree of safety will result when non-laboratory work and interaction is conducted in a space separated from the laboratory. 1. Noncombustible construction is preferred. Good Practice SBC/WSBC (IBC) Chapter 6 2. Offices should be separated from laboratories. Good Practice 3. An automatically triggered main gas shutoff valve for the building shall be provided for use in a seismic event. In addition, interior manual shutoff valves shall be provided for both research and teaching areas. Good Practice 4. Large sections of glass shall be tempered or laminated. Shatter resistant glass shall be used based on specific need. Good Practice In the event of severe earthquake, as the glass in cabinets and windows breaks, the large shards need to be minimized to prevent injury. Shatter resistant glass shall be considered where impact resistance is needed or as a security measure. 5. Outside air intakes must be at least twelve feet above grade level. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-3 Rev. JAN-06 SECTION 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide This is the minimum recommended height from NIOSH in DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2002-139, “Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks”, published May 2002. 6. The location of outside air intakes and all sources of emissions from the new facility must be evaluated by a consultant with experience in modeling to determine the best location of these components relative to themselves and to similar components of nearby existing facilities. C. Laboratory Design Considerations 1. The laboratory shall be completely separated from outside areas (i.e., shall be bound by four walls and a roof or ceiling). 2. Design of the laboratory and adjacent support spaces shall incorporate adequate additional facilities for the purpose of storage and/or consumption of food, drinks. Good Practice UW Laboratory Safety Manual, Section 2.A.4 3. Mechanical climate control should be provided as needed. Good Practice The laboratory shall be within normally acceptable thermal ranges prior to permanent occupancy. Electrical appliances often exhaust heat into a room (e.g., freezer, incubator, autoclave). Failure to take this effect into consideration may result in an uncomfortably warm working environment. See Chapter 3 of this Guide for laboratory ventilation design issues. 4. When office and laboratory spaces are connected, design pressure differentials across closed doors between the spaces to prevent lab emissions from entering office spaces. Good Practice 5. Design laboratory workstations to accommodate the needs of the work and the range of body dimensions that may be using the workstations. For example, computer and microscopes workstations may require height-adjustable work surfaces and chairs. Good Practice 6. Each laboratory where hazardous materials, whether chemical, biological, or radioactive, are used, shall contain a sink for hand washing. UW Laboratory Safety Manual, Section 2.A.3 7. All work surfaces (e.g., bench tops, counters, etc.) shall be impervious to the chemicals and materials used in the laboratory. Good Practice Many laboratory operations involve concurrent use of such chemical solvents such as formaldehyde, phenol, and ethanol, as well as corrosives. The laboratory bench shall be resistant to the chemical actions of chemicals and disinfectants. Wooden bench tops are not appropriate because an unfinished wood surface can absorb liquids. Also, wood burns rapidly in the event of a fire. “Fiberglass” (glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin) is inappropriate because it can degrade when strong disinfectants are applied, and it also releases toxic smoke when burned. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-4 Rev. JAN-06 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES 8. The laboratory shall be designed so that it can be easily cleaned. Bench tops should be of a seamless one-piece design to prevent contamination. Penetrations for electrical, plumbing, and other considerations shall be completely and permanently sealed. If the bench top abuts a wall, it shall be covered or have a backsplash against the wall. Good Practice Since portions of bench tops cannot be easily removed and replaced, the primary consideration shall be to prevent chemicals, radioactive materials and/or potentially infectious material from seeping into cracks. Of great importance is the absence of laminated edges, which can develop a crack between the top and the edge. Wood and wood-finish walls or floors are not appropriate because they can absorb chemicals, radioactive materials and/or potentially infectious material, particularly liquids, making decontamination virtually impossible. Surfaces should be as free as possible of cracks crevices, seams, and rough surfaces to avoid surface contamination traps. Tiles and wooden planks are not appropriate because liquids can seep through the small gaps between them. Seamless penetration-resistant construction is particularly important for radioactive materials, highly toxic substances such as cyanides or mercury, carcinogens, explosive or flammable substances, and materials which could become hazardous with the passage of time such as picric acid, nitrated organics and peroxidizable substances. 9. Laboratory flooring in chemical use areas and other high hazard areas (such as biological containment facilities) shall be chemically resistant and preferably one-piece construction with covings to the wall. Good Practice A continuous floor reduces the potential for liquid absorption. Covings are recommended to facilitate clean up. Surfaces should be as free of cracks, crevices, seams, and rough surfaces as possible to avoid surface contamination traps. 10. The walls shall be non-porous and painted with a durable, impervious finish in such a manner to facilitate decontamination and cleaning. High gloss paint is recommended. Good Practice 11. Vented cabinets with electrical receptacles and sound insulation should be provided for the placement of individual vacuum pumps, where their use is anticipated. A one- to two-inch hole for the vacuum line hose from the cabinet to the bench top should be provided as well as connection to an exhaust system Good Practice 12. Provide shelves with clear plastic lips for seismic restraint. Lips should be ¾ inch above the shelf surface for bookshelves and 1.5 inches above the shelf surface for shelves used to store breakable containers, chemicals, or other hazardous materials. D. Building Requirements 1. Designer Qualifications — The designer shall have the appropriate professional license in his/her area of expertise and have prior experience designing laboratories similar in scope to UW projects that he/she is being hired to design. Good Practice 2. Building Occupancy Classification and Control Areas— Occupancy classification and control areas should be based upon an assessment of the projected chemical inventory of the building. Early in building design, the Architectural/Engineering (A/E) design team will need to assign occupancy ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-5 Rev. JAN-06 SECTION 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide classification and control areas for specific areas of the building to ensure conformance with building and fire codes. 1997 SBC Chapter 3 & 1997 SFC Article 80, Section 8001.10.2 (Sections applicable for existing UW facilities. Consult with EH&S if project is located within an existing building.) 2003 SBC/WSBC (IBC) Chapter 3 & 2003 SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 27 and associated chemical specific chapters of the fire code. 3. Environmental Permits — The UW is the lead agency for compliance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). Project managers shall consult with the Environmental Planner for Capital Projects to identify environmental and permit requirements for the building. This should be done well before key resource allocation decisions are made. Permit Process: Project Manager’s Reference Document for Environmental Stewardship (UW Document) E. Hazardous Materials Design Issues 1. Facilities shall be designed so that use of a respirator is not required for normal operations. Good Practice 2. A pressure-differential system should be used to control the flow of airborne contamination. The flow should always be from clean areas to contaminated areas, but it shall be recognized that similar areas may not always require the same ventilation characteristics. Good Practice 3. There must be adequate in-laboratory storage cabinets to store reagents and chemicals and to provide segregation of incompatible materials. Storage design should be based on projected quantities and waste management practices. Chemical waste may be stored on site over a considerable length of time until a sufficient quantity warrants off site disposal. 4. Sufficient space or facilities (e.g., storage cabinets with partitions, secondary containment trays etc.) should be provided such that incompatible chemicals and compressed gasses can be physically separated. When designing shelves and shelf spacing, it is important to include enough space (height and depth) for secondary containers. NFPA 45, 7.2.1 and 7-2.3 Materials that in combination with other substances may cause a fire or explosion, or may liberate a flammable or poisonous gas, shall be kept separate. 5. An area for a spill kit must be provided within the laboratory or at a centralized area with a laboratory suite. Information on spill kits and procedures may be found at www.ehs.washington.edu Prudent Practices in the Laboratory Laboratory employees are responsible for minor spills of the chemicals they commonly use. Major spills typically result in a call to the local fire department’s Hazmat unit and are subsequently referred to an outside contractor. Equipment and supplies for large spills may be necessary on a case-by-case basis but is not common. 6. The laboratory shall have a means of securing specifically regulated materials such as controlled substances regulated by the Drug Enforcement Administration ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-6 Rev. JAN-06 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES and radioactive materials, select agents, etc. (i.e., lockable doors, lockable cabinets etc.), where applicable. 7. See Chapters 5 and 6 of the Guide for additional requirements for compressed gas storage and hazardous materials cabinets. F. Entries, Exits, and Aisle Width 1. Self-closing laboratory doors should be operable with a minimum of effort to allow access and egress for physically challenged individuals. A 36-inch- or 42- inch-wide door should be provided which opens in the direction of egress. (See the exception for BSL3 laboratories in Section 7 of this Guide). The exit access doorway(s) from the laboratory shall have a minimum clear width of 32 inches when the door is open 90 degrees. Good Practice A main design factor for sizing laboratory doors will be equipment size within the laboratory. Door width shall be based on the largest design factor whether that is code or equipment driven. 2. Laboratory benches, laboratory equipment and other furniture or obstacles shall not be placed so that there is less than five feet of clear egress. Good Practice Laboratory benches shall not impede emergency access to an exit. This is also applicable to placement of other fixed furniture and appliances such as, refrigerators, etc. 3. The space between adjacent workstations and laboratory benches should be five feet or greater to provide ease of access. In a teaching laboratory, the desired spacing is six feet. Bench spacing shall be considered and included in specifications and plans. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) NFPA 45, Chapters 2 and 3. 4. Spaces between benches, cabinets, and equipment shall be accessible for cleaning and servicing of equipment. Good Practice Laboratory furniture should have smooth, nonporous surfaces to resist absorption, and shall not be positioned in a manner that makes it difficult to clean spilled liquids or to conduct routine maintenance. For example, positioning a Class II biosafety cabinet in a limited concave space might not allow the biosafety cabinet certifier to remove the panels of the cabinet when inspecting the unit for re-certification. 5. Laboratory doors that separate laboratory areas from non-laboratory areas are to be automatically self-closing and may not be held open with electromagnetic devices connected to the fire alarm. Good Practice This will defeat secondary containment provided by the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. 6. Door swings should consider room pressure gradients to facilitate door closure operation (i.e., doors should swing into positive pressure areas and out at negative pressure areas). Doors at pressurized stairs should have a vestibule at the exit level to assist door closure operation. Good Practice This helps ensure secondary containment provided by the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-7 Rev. JAN-06 SECTION 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 7. Corridor width should be five to seven feet. Good Practice This width is generally optimal for moving equipment and preventing unwanted storage in the corridor. G. Electrical and Utility Issues 1. The laboratory shall be fitted with electrical circuits and receptacles that can accommodate existing requirements plus an additional 30% to 40% capacity. Good Practice The laboratory may have several pieces of equipment that require large amounts of electrical current. Such items include freezers, biosafety cabinets, centrifuges, and incubators. Permanent use of extension cords is not allowed by the fire code. 2. Electrical receptacles above counter tops within six feet of sinks, safety showers, or other sources of water, should have GFCI circuit protection unless there is a physical separation between the receptacle and the sink. NFPA Handbook 70, Chapter 2, 210-8 3. Laboratories shall be provided with light fixture on emergency power at the entrance/exit door. Hallway and corridor emergency light shall be provided based on the local code requirements. Good Practice SBC/WSBC (IBC) Section 1006.1 Pathway lighting in laboratories reduces the potential of personnel coming in contact with equipment and hazardous materials while evacuating the laboratory. See UW FDI for additional requirements for UW owned and operated Facilities. 4. Emergency shutoff valves for natural gas lines shall be located outside the lab behind an access panel (similar to a medical gas system). If the corridor is accessible to the public, valves should be secured behind a break-glass access panel, or equal. Provide at least one valve per floor. Consideration should be given to locating valves at a height that allows easy access and operation. Plumbing Code Local Interpretation and Requirement – in lieu of approved and accessible “service” valves Good Practice In the event of an emergency, the laboratory may be unsafe to enter. Hence, valves for should be located outside the laboratory. The local plumbing code authority has required these valves in research buildings where equipment and bench-top valves are either not AGA approved or inaccessible. See also “Non-structural Seismic Hazard Abatement”. 5. Flexible connections shall be used for connecting gas and other plumbed utilities to any freestanding device (Group II devices), including but not limited to biosafety cabinets, incubators, and liquid nitrogen freezers. Good Practice Seismic activity may cause gas and other utility connections to break as equipment moves. Leaking natural gas is a fire hazard, and flexible connections minimize this potential hazard. See also “Non-structural Seismic Hazard Abatement”. Group I equipment is considered fixed to the building structure and no subject to seismic movement. Group II equipment is considered equipment subject to seismic movement and is typically freestanding or movable. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-8 Rev. JAN-06 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES H. Accessibility Teaching and other public laboratory design should include adapted workbenches as necessary. It is preferable to have some adjustable workbenches to allow for the large variation in body size among individuals. Adjustable workbenches should include the following: 1. A work surface that can be adjusted to be from twenty-seven to thirty-seven inches from the floor; a twenty-nine-inch clearance beneath the top to a depth of at least twenty inches; a minimum width of thirty-six inches to allow for leg space for the seated individual, and Utility and equipment controls placed within easy reach. ADA, Title III Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities Sec. 303 New Construction and Alterations in Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities I. Non-Structural Seismic Hazard Abatement 1. All shelves shall have passive restraining systems. Shelf lips must be at least one and one-half inch high. For shelves that only store books, a rubber type sheet that you put under the books, designed specifically for this purpose, can be used in lieu of lips. The shelves themselves shall be firmly fixed so they cannot vibrate out of place and allow the shelf contents to fall. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 4.E.1 and 4.E.2 Installation of seismic lips on shelving areas will prevent stored items from falling during a seismic event. 2. Any equipment shall be permanently braced or anchored to the wall and/or floor. This includes, but is not limited to, appliances and shelving (to be installed by the contractor) which is forty-two inches or higher and has the potential for blocking corridors or doors, or falling over during an earthquake. All equipment requiring anchoring, whether installed by a contractor or the UW, shall be anchored, supported and braced to the building structure. Good Practice This practice keeps such items from falling in the event of earthquakes and assures that safety while exiting is not compromised. 3. All compressed-gas cylinders in service or in storage shall be secured to substantial racks or, even more appropriate, sufficiently sturdy storage brackets. They shall be secured with two chains, straps or equivalent, at one-third and two- thirds the height of the cylinders to prevent their being dislodged during a violent earthquake. NOTE: Clamping devices are not acceptable as cylinder restraints. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 4.E.4 See also Chapter 5 for other compressed gas design concerns. J. Teaching Laboratories Laboratory course instructors are faced with the task of introducing large numbers of inexperienced people to the practice of handling hazardous materials. Often, the student’s immediate supervisor is a graduate student Teaching Assistant (TA). The teaching ability, experience, and communication skill of TA’s vary widely. Therefore, it is very important to provide a quiet facility with clear lines of sight, more than sufficient room to move about, and chemical storage devices which are both safe and obvious. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION I-9 Rev. JAN-06 SECTION 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 1. Adequate laboratory fume hoods shall be provided. A facility designed for intensive chemistry use should have at least 2.5 linear feet of hood space per student. Less intensive application should have hood space adequate for the anticipated number of students. Hoods shall meet the specifications of applicable portions of Chapter 3 of this Guide. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 8.C.4 2. Noise levels at laboratory benches shall be designed not to exceed 55 dBA to allow students to see and hear the instructor from each workstation. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory Good Practice Students shall be able to follow the safety, health, and emergency information during the laboratory class period. It is very important to minimize the background noise, principally from air handling. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION II-2 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 2 - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS II. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS A. Scope This section presents general guidance to ensure a consistent approach to meeting environmental regulations associated with construction and renovation projects (UW owned and Non-UW owned). Environmentally-related issues addressed in this section include asbestos-containing materials (ACM’s), lead- containing materials, air pollution, laboratory decommissioning, waste management, ozone-depleting substances, PCB-containing materials, radiation sources, site contamination, storm water management, and underground storage tanks. EH&S maintains the design guides for Environmental Protection and Hazardous Materials (Design Guides) that outlines more specific criteria than are provided herein. It is available online at the EH&S Web site for review at www.ehs.washington.edu. The Design Guides is subject to revision in response to changes in environmental regulations, and EH&S policy and procedures. It should be noted that under certain circumstances issues may not apply to non-UW owned properties and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis through consultation with EH&S. B. General Environmental Design Criteria 1. All construction/renovation projects, including those occurring within new buildings or newly renovated areas, must be inspected to identify asbestos- containing materials (ACM), which could be impacted during construction/renovation. With limited exceptions, contract documents shall include abatement of all ACM, since there is a reasonable expectation that they will to be disturbed by construction/renovation activities. When inspecting for asbestos or preparing abatement contract documents, specific consideration shall be given to areas which may be impacted outside the immediate renovation/construction area, nearby restricted access areas, and abatement phasing requirements. The Design Guides should be consulted for these and other asbestos-related requirements and guidance. a) EH&S maintains restricted access reports identifying areas of asbestos contamination. Construction/renovation within or adjacent to these areas may require the implementation of enhanced safety precautions. Restricted access reports are available on the Asbestos Operations and Maintenance Web page at http://www.washington.edu/admin/asbestos/ehsrestricted.html b) Historical asbestos survey reports have been compiled on some University buildings. These survey reports are available for review via the Facilities Services Records Department. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION II-3 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 2 - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 2. Depending on work practices, lead-containing materials have the potential to adversely impact the health of construction workers and others located adjacent to the work area. Depending on lead concentrations and final waste streams, lead- containing materials may be designated as a hazardous waste when disposed. To address these issues, the Design Guides should be consulted. 3. Air pollution: Installation of fuel-burning equipment and air-pollution-control equipment (spray paint booths, baghouses, etc.) may require an air permit prior to installation. The Design Guides and the UW Air Operating Permit (AOP) should be consulted for specific air pollution requirements. A copy of the AOP (Permit No. 21320 Issued 11/27/01) is available via UW Facilities Services or EH&S. The AOP is also available at the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency web site at http://www.pscleanair.org/news/w.) 4. Laboratories that will be completely or partially vacated due to construction/renovation activities must be adequately cleaned during the process of decommissioning to ensure worker safety. The Design Guides should be consulted for specific laboratory decommissioning requirements to be implemented when vacating a laboratory. 5. Hazardous wastes must be handled, stored, and disposed of in accordance with all applicable University, state, and federal environmental requirements. The EH&S Environmental Programs Office will determine proper waste disposal procedures on behalf of the UW and arrange for disposal. Waste determination may require sampling and analysis, and may take several weeks for receipt of the necessary analytical data and final disposal facility approval for shipment offsite. The Project Manager is responsible to ensure waste is properly stored during this time. Hazardous wastes cannot be transported off UW property without a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest signed by a UW EH&S Environmental Programs Office representative. 6. The production, use, and handling of ozone-depleting substances (e.g., CFC- refrigerants and HCFC-refrigerants) are regulated by federal regulation 40 of the CFR Part 82. Pursuant to this regulation, CFC-refrigerants are no longer being manufactured, thereby encouraging the production and use of refrigerants that have less tendency to deplete atmospheric ozone. In addition, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations prohibit individuals from knowingly venting ozone-depleting compounds used as refrigerants into the atmosphere while maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of refrigeration equipment. The Design Guides should be consulted for specific requirements and guidance related to ozone-depleting substances. 7. PCB-containing materials: Oil-filled electrical equipment (transformers, bushings, capacitors, cooling and insulating fluids, contaminated soil, etc.) poses a long-term liability to the UW due to Washington State Department of Ecology and EPA regulation. These agencies have extensive requirements for waste labeling, handling, marking, storage, contingency planning, staff training, manifesting, transportation and disposal. The EH&S Environmental Programs Office will determine proper waste disposal procedures on behalf of the UW and arrange for disposal through the appropriate agencies. The Design Guides should be consulted for PCB-related requirements. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION II-4 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 2 - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 8. All sources of ionizing radiation are subject to state and federal regulations. The proper management of radioactive materials is required to ensure continued worker safety. The Design Guides should be consulted for specific requirements and guidance associated with radiation sources. 9. Site contamination: Performing construction in areas of known site contamination is likely to increase project costs significantly. The discovery of suspected environmental contamination during construction activities may require follow-up environmental investigation and reporting. The Design Guides should be consulted for a listing of all UW-owned sites known to be or suspected to be contaminated, and for other requirements associated with site contamination. Documents applicable to construction/renovation projects in the vicinity of the former Montlake landfill include: “The Montlake Landfill Project Guide”; “The UW Maintenance Plan for Sports Fields, Roads and Parking Areas in East Campus”; and “The Montlake Landfill Project Guide”; dated January 1999. These documents, available via UW EH&S, should also be consulted prior to project design. 10. Storm water management: Storm water runoff generated by construction/renovation activities can degrade surface water quality. The Storm Water EH&S Design Guide should be consulted for specific storm water management requirements. 11. Underground storage tanks: Underground storage tank systems can threaten the environment and pose a long-term liability for the UW. The Design Guides should be consulted for applicable management requirements. 12. Other environmental issues: Additional environmental issues will be incorporated into the Design Guides as they are identified. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION II-5 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 2 - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION III-2 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 3 – LABORATORY VENTILATION III.LABORATORY VENTILATION A. Scope The purpose of laboratory ventilation is to help provide a safe environment for scientific research and teaching. The expectation is that the design team will design using a combination of general laboratory ventilation, fume hood exhaust systems, and other local exhaust ventilation to contain emissions within the laboratory, depending on the specific needs of the laboratory . This guide provides minimum requirements; more stringent requirements may be necessary depending on the specific laboratory function or contaminants generated. B. General Laboratory Ventilation 1. All laboratories shall have mechanical ventilation. 2. All laboratory rooms shall use 100% outside air and exhaust to the outside. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 8.C, 8.D 3. There shall be a minimum of ten air changes per hour (ACH) of ventilation. 4. Fume hoods should not be the sole means of room air exhaust. 5. Locate supply and exhaust for good mixing and temperature control. 6. Provide excess capacity for equipment aging and future expansion. 7. Design for noise levels of 55 dBA or less. 8. Do not provide operable windows. 9. Direction of airflow should be from low hazard to high hazard areas. 10. Design to maintain negative pressure relative to adjacent non-lab areas. Provide an offset of 10% or 100 cfm – whichever is greater. Should use door method insead to save energy? Prudent Practices 8.D 11. Provide adequate makeup air (90% of the exhaust).Ties into #10 12. A corridor shall not be used as a plenum. – What is this? 13. Locate casework and equipment so as not to interfere with ventilation. 14. Do not line duct with insulation. Occupational Exposure, Toxic Properties, and Work Practices Guidelines for Fiberglass, AIHA 15. Ventilate and alarm cold rooms meant for human occupancy. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION III-3 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 3 – LABORATORY VENTILATION Laboratory Safety Design Guide C. Fume Hood Exhaust System Design Criteria (FHES) 1. Design to incorporate user needs, room configuration and general ventilation. 2. The FHES shall contain and remove fumes generated within the hood. 3. Design with adequate space for hood service and utility connections. 4. Constant volume and variable volume systems are acceptable. 5. Design VAV diversity, typically 80%, around needs and practices of facility. 6. Minimize cross-drafts to less than 50% of the hood’s target face velocity. ANSI Z9.5-1992 7. Located hood at least 6 feet from door. 8. For perchoric FHES, provide dedicated fan, duct and wash-down system. 9. Locate perchloric hood on building’s top floor to minimize duct. 10. For radioisotope FEHS, provide a dedicated fan and duct. 11. For acid digestion, FEHS must be made of fiberglass reinforced plastic or material with similar acid resistance. 12. FHES for research shall not have local on/off or high/low control. 13. Under hood storage units shall comply with Chapter 6 of this Design Guide. 14. Ductless hoods are not permitted. Exceptions may be granted for single-process applications if approved by EH&S. 15. Design face velocities for a target sash height of 18 inches 16. For standard FHES, provide a face velocity of 100 fpm +/- 10%. 17. For low velocity FHES, provide a face velocity of 70 fpm +/- 10% 18. Design for noise levels of 65 dBA or less measured per ANSI SI.4-1971 at a point three foot in front of the sash at a height of five feet from the floor. 19. Provide constant volume (CV) hoods with an air bypass that limits the maximum face velocity to 300 lfm at a sash height of 6 inches. 20. Provide variable air volume (VAV) hoods with an exhaust minimum of 20 to 25% of design cfm through air bypass and horizontal deflector vane. 21. Locate controls for hood utilities outside the hood 22. Hood lighting and other fixed electrical equipment within the hood shall be explosion proof. 23. Light fixture lamps shall be accessible from outside the hood. 24. For cup sinks, choose model with lip at least ¼ inch above the work surface. 25. Provide each fume hood with an audible and visible alarm that activate whenever the face velocity drops below 80 lfm. 26. Equip water faucets with a vacuum breaker located outside the hood. 27. For hoods located in basements, provide an approved, automatic fire suppression system. SFD Administrative Rule for Basement Labs 28. If this is not a University owned facility, see Appendix A for further design details of the FHES. If it is a University owned facility, refer to the FDI. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION III-4 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 3 – LABORATORY VENTILATION D. Fume Hood Exhaust System Testing 1. Measure FHES face velocities per ASHRAE 110 part 6. 2. Provide information on instrumentation including calibration dates and results. 3. Measure the velocity of cross drafts. 4. Once criteria above are met, provide test results to EH&S. 5. After review of test results, EH&S will test the hood to confirm adequate performance, label it appropriately, and approve for use. 6. If this is not a University owned facility, see Appendix A for testing details of the FHES ducts. If it is a University owned facility, refer to the FDI. E. Local Exhaust Ventilation 1. Design local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems per ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Manual or other professionally recognized design criteria. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION III-5 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 3 – LABORATORY VENTILATION Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IV-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 4 – EMERGENCY EYEWASH/SHOWERS IV. EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SAFETY SHOWER EQUIPMENT A. Scope This guide presents the minimum performance requirements for eyewash and shower equipment for emergency treatment of the eyes or body of a person who has been exposed to chemicals. It covers the following types of equipment: emergency showers, eyewash equipment, and combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash. B. Applications 1. Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious or corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use. These situations include: a) Areas where corrosive or injurious chemicals are used, such as; 1) solutions of inorganic or organic acids or bases with a pH of 2.0 or less, or 12.5 or more, 2) other organic or inorganic materials that are corrosive or irritating to eyes or skin (e.g., methylene chloride, phenol, etc.,), or, 3) organic or inorganic materials that are significantly toxic when absorbed through the skin (e.g., phenol), b) Areas where corrosive chemicals are used in a closed system that can catastrophically fail and cause the chemicals to leak (i.e., liquid lead-acid battery charging areas, or areas where pressurized systems with corrosive liquids are used), c) Storage areas where breakable containers of injurious or corrosive materials (one gallon or more) are handled outside their original shipping cartons, d) Waste accumulation areas that could contain corrosive waste materials, e) All work areas where formaldehyde solutions in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1% are handled, f) Areas where operations involve the use of air- or water- reactive liquids or solids, g) Areas where there is a potential for the eyes to be exposed to biological hazards that could lead to infection, and h) Areas where there is a potential for the eyes to be exposed to physical hazards such as chips or dust from sanding or grinding processes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IV-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 4 – EMERGENCY EYEWASH/SHOWERS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 2. Areas where emergency washing facilities are needed include chemical and biological laboratories, shops, janitor closets, industrial washing facilities, and similar spaces where a hazard exists. 3. A plumbed eyewash and safety shower meeting the specifications of ANSI Z358.1-1998 shall be provided. Drench hoses, sink faucets, or bathroom-type showers are not acceptable eyewash/safety shower facilities; however, they may be useful to supplement eyewashes/safety showers. 4. An emergency shower combined with an eyewash shall be provided at all work areas where, during normal operations or foreseeable emergencies, areas of the body may come into contact with a substance which is corrosive, severely irritating to the skin or which is toxic when absorbed through the skin. A combination eyewash/shower shall be provided at all work areas where formaldehyde solutions in concentrations greater than or equal to 1% are handled. NFPA 99 Chapter 10-6 5. A combination unit shall be installed within all acid-washing work areas and in all open- tray film-processing work areas using chemical developers and fixers. Good Practice 6. Generally, eyewashes shall not be required in areas where: a) Chemicals are stored in quantities less than eight ounces and used at room temperature at rates of less than two ounces per day. NOTE: Perchloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, formaldehyde concentrations 0.1%, and the alkali metals are not covered by this exemption. b) Compounds hazardous to eye or skin are used in sealed systems at or below atmospheric pressure and catastrophic failure or leakage is unlikely. However, an eyewash or shower may be appropriate if the system is filled, topped-off, or drained in other than a totally enclosed manner, or c) Materials hazardous to the eye or skin are stored in bulk in metal or plastic containers and are not decanted. 7. When chemicals are used in small quantities and the likelihood of exposure is limited, only an eyewash may be required. When quantities used are larger, and significant splashing or spraying may occur, a safety shower shall also be required. NFPA 99 Chapter 10-6 8. If an emergency eyewash/shower station is required, it shall be located within ten seconds of the injured person. There shall be no tripping or stumbling hazards in the path of travel to the eyewash. ANSI Z358.1-1998 A travel distance of fifty feet is deemed to satisfy the ten-second requirement. It is recommended that there should be no doors in the path of travel; however, if there are doors, there should be no more than one, and it shall swing in the direction of travel and shall not be a lockable door. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IV-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 4 – EMERGENCY EYEWASH/SHOWERS 9. An emergency eyewash/shower station shall be located as near as practical to fume hoods designed for handicapped access. Good Practice This is particularly important, as fume hoods are assumed to contain substances which are “corrosive or severely irritating to the skin or which is toxic are skin absorption.” Safety equipment shall be readily accessible to all persons. C. Equipment Requirements 1. Safety shower, safety eyewash, and combination units shall comply with the requirements of ANSI Z358.1-1998, with the clarifications noted in this section. 2. Eyewash units shall be equipped with a drain. . Compliance with WAC 296-800-13035 requires weekly activation of the eyewash. This is less likely to be done if the unit does not have a drain. 3. Tempered water systems shall be provided with nominal temperatures of 70F for eyewashes and safety showers. For systems serving multiple fixtures, a single mixing valve shall be provided; mixing valves at each fixture is NOT acceptable because of the need for increased maintenance and testing. Good Practice Exception: Facilities not owned by the University of Washington may have mixing valves at each fixture. 4. In new construction, showers and eyewash units shall be connected to potable water. During remodel of existing facilities, showers and eyewash units may be connected to laboratory water systems if potable water is not readily available. Signs stating water is non-potable shall be posted for all showers and eyewash units not connected to potable water. 5. The water supply to showers and/or shower/eyewash combination units shall be controlled by a ball-type shutoff valve which is visible, well marked and accessible to shower testing personnel in the event of leaking or failed shower head valves. Good Practice 6. The area around the emergency shower shall be painted a bright color and shall be well lighted. Whenever possible, the floor immediately beneath the eyewash and emergency shower, and to a radius of about twelve to thirty inches, shall be a distinctive pattern and color to facilitate clear access. Good Practice D. General Location 1. Emergency eyewash facilities and safety showers shall be in unobstructed and accessible locations that require no more than ten seconds for the injured person to reach along an unobstructed pathway. If both eyewash and shower are needed, they shall be located so that both can be used at the same time by one person. ANSI Z358.1, 4.6.1 and 5.4.4 Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, 5.C.3 ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IV-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 4 – EMERGENCY EYEWASH/SHOWERS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 2. No obstructions, protrusions, or sharp objects shall be located within thirty inches of the center of the spray pattern of the emergency shower facility (i.e., a sixty-inch clearance zone shall be provided). ANSI Z358.1, 5.1.2 3. No electrical apparatus, telephones, thermostats, or power receptacles should be located within six feet of either side of the emergency shower or emergency eyewash facility. If receptacles are necessary within six feet, they should be equipped with GFI. Good Practice 4. Specific locations for emergency eyewashes and safety showers are best chosen in consultation with EH&S. Good Practice 5. Opaque modesty curtains may be provided which can be drawn around safety showers. Good Practice While using a safety shower, personnel shall strip themselves of splashed clothing because the corrosive/toxic material in the clothing will continue to act. This has been known to cause skin burns, even after the original splashed chemical has been removed. Employees will resist stripping, if they are visible in surrounding areas, but opaque modesty screens can be used. The screens may be stored in a folded condition and deployed as needed, just as any ordinary shower curtain. E. Pre-commissioning Testing Proper operation of the equipment, in accordance within the specifications of the ANSI Z358.1 standard and the requirements of this section, shall be demonstrated prior to project closeout and facility occupation. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 6.F.2.6 ANSI Z356.1 section 5.5.1 F. Approved Equipment 1. All emergency showers and eyewash facilities shall meet the requirements of and be installed in accordance with ANSI Z358.1. 2. Swing-down eyewashes that drain into sinks are preferred. EH&S should be consulted for further information. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION V-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 5– PRESSURE VESSELS & COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS V. PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS, AND COMPRESSED-GAS CYLINDERS A. Scope This Design Guide applies to all facilities, including leased properties. It covers all unfired pressure vessels (i.e., storage tanks, compressed-gas cylinders) that have been designed to operate at pressures above 15 psi, including the storage and use of compressed-gas cylinders and cryogenic fluids. This does not cover utilities (i.e., “house air”) inspected and maintained by Facilities Services. B. Compressed-gas Cylinder Storage 1. Cylinders of compressed gases shall be stored in areas where they are protected from external heat sources such as flame impingement, intense radiant heat, electric arcing, or high temperature steam lines. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30, Section 3003 2. The heating of flammable-gas storage areas shall be indirectly heated, such as by air, steam, hot water, etc. Good Practice SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30, Section 3003.5.6 & 3003.5.7 3. Cylinders shall not be kept in unventilated enclosures such as lockers and cupboards. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30, Section 3007.2 and associated chemical specific chapters of the IFC 4. Adequate space shall be made available for the segregation of gases by hazard class. Flammable gases shall not be stored with oxidizing agents. Separate storage for full and empty cylinders is preferred. Such enclosures shall serve no other purpose. Inside buildings, cylinders shall be stored in well- protected, well-ventilated, dry locations, and flammable gas cylinders shall be at least twenty feet from materials classified as oxidizers and 10 ft. from combustible materials. Valves, pipe fittings, regulators and other equipment shall be constructed of materials and have pressure ratings compatible with the gas being used. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30 & Chapter 35 SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 27, Section 2703.9.8 Good Practice 5. Liquefied fuel-gas cylinders shall be stored/transported in an upright position so that the safety relief device is in direct contact with the vapor space in the cylinder at all times. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter38, Section 3809.3 NFPA 58 6. Storage rooms shall be provided with explosion control when toxic or highly toxic flammable gases are stored outside gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. Required for SBC/WSBC (IBC) H-5 occupancies. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION V-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 5 – PRESSURE VESSELS & COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 7. When separate gas storage rooms are provided, they shall operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area and they shall also direct the exhaust ventilation to the fume exhaust system assuring that incompatible gases are not mixed in the ductwork. Required for SBC/WSBC (IBC) H-5 occupancies. Where separate rooms are used to store nonflammable gases and/or storage is below “H” occupancies limits room exhaust ventilation can be to the general building exhaust system. 8. Storage areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30, Section 3003.3.1 9. The storage of compressed-gas cylinders shall not obstruct exits or routes of egress. Also, compressed-gas cylinders shall not be stored near in locations where moving objects may strike or fall upon them. Good Practice The design intent should be to locate gas cylinders in designated rooms for bulk storage and in locations within laboratories that would not impede exiting pathways. 10. Emergency power shall be provided for “H” occupancy gas storage rooms, gas-cabinet exhaust ventilation, gas-detection systems, emergency alarm systems, and temperature control systems. Required for H-5 occupancies, but good practice for other situations. C. Compressed-Gas Cylinder Restraint 1. Approved storage racks (e.g., Unistrut, pipe racks) shall be provided that adequately secure gas cylinders by chains, metal straps, or other approved materials, to prevent cylinders from falling or being knocked over. Chains are preferable to straps. Straps shall be non-combustible. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 30, Section 3003.3.1 NFPA 45, 8-1.5 2. Cylinder restraints shall be sufficient to prevent cylinders from tipping over. In seismically active areas, more than one chain/strap should be used (double chains/straps should be located at one-third and two-thirds the height of the cylinder. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 4.E.4 Good Practice 3. Chain/strap restraints shall be used to restrain a maximum of three cylinders per chain/strap or per set of chains/straps (if double-chained/strapped). Good Practice 4. Gas-cylinder securing systems should be anchored to a permanent building member or fixture. This connection is needed to prevent movement during a seismic event. Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION V-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 5 – PRESSURE VESSELS & COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS D. Requirements for Gas Cabinets 1. Storage and use of toxic and highly toxic compressed-gas cylinders shall be within exhaust-ventilated gas storage cabinets, laboratory fume hoods, exhausted enclosures, or separate ventilated gas storage rooms without other occupancy or use. It is acceptable to mount lecture bottles connected to a manifold in a fume hood. Required for SBC/WSBC (IBC) H-5 occupancies, but good practice for situations using toxic and highly toxic compressed gases. 2. Gas cabinets shall be located in a room which has non-recirculated exhaust ventilation; this room operates at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area, and is connected to the fume exhaust system. Good Practice 3. Gas cabinets shall have self-closing doors and may require internal sprinklers; they shall also be constructed of at least 0.097-inch (12-gauge) steel; and seismically anchored. 4. Gas cabinets shall be fitted with sensors connected to alarms that give warning in the event of a leak, or exhaust system failure, as appropriate. Required for H-5 occupancies, but good practice for other situations. For planning purposes, gas cabinets shall contain not more than three cylinders each, except where cylinder contents are one pound net or less, in which case gas cabinets may contain up to 100 cylinders each. Gas cabinets shall comply with semiconductor industry standards. E. Design of Pressure Vessels and Systems 1. Normal and emergency relief venting and vent piping for pressure vessels should be adequate and in accordance with the design of the vessel. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Unfired Pressure Vessel ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VI-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 5– PRESSURE VESSELS & COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS VI. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE CABINETS A. Scope This section of the Design Guide applies to the design, construction, and installation of hazardous materials storage cabinets. B. Approvals and Listings 1. Flammable liquid storage cabinets shall be UL listed. Good Practice. UL listing assures a minimum level of quality consistent with code requirements and Good Practice. “UL Listing” is not required for corrosive or toxic material storage cabinets. C. Design 1. During the building design phase a preliminary Hazardous Material Inventory Statement (HMIS) shall be developed to ensure the building and associated laboratory needs conform to code-governed quantity limits. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 27, Section 2705.5 An HMIS is required by the Fire Department for issuance of a hazards material permit, a requirement of occupancy. 2. Storage and use of Class I flammable liquids are restricted in basements. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.3.5.1 EH&S should be consulted regarding SFD Administrative Rule 79.2 for associated with the requirements for flammable liquids storage and use in basement level laboratories. Chemical quantities, ventilation, and electrical design issues are impacted by requirements of Administrative Rule 79.2. 3. Laboratories that store, use or handle more than ten gallons of flammable or combustible liquids shall have one or more flammable liquid storage cabinets. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.3.4.4 4. Flammable liquid storage cabinets shall be conspicuously labeled in red letters on contrasting background “FLAMMABLE – KEEP FIRE AWAY.” SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.3.2.1.2 5. When flammable or combustible liquids present multiple hazards, the storage requirements for each hazard shall be addressed. Good Practice For example acetic acid is a corrosive and combustible material. Therefore, if stored in a flammable cabinet with other flammable materials, it should be segregated (i.e., secondary containment). 6. Hazardous material storage capacities for buildings and laboratories shall conform to fire code limits based on the specific occupancy and material. IFC Chapter 27 and associated chemical specific chapters ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VI-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 6 – HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE CABINETS Laboratory Safety Design Guide 7. Corrosive/toxic material storage cabinet shelving shall be constructed to prevent spillage of contents with tight-fitting joints, welded or riveted liquid-tight bottoms, door sills of at least two inches, and lockable cabinet doors that are self- closing and self-latching. Corrosive materials should not be stored in metal cabinets unless the materials of construction are specifically treated to be corrosion-resistant. Good Practice D. Venting Hazardous Material Storage Cabinets Corrosive material storage cabinets, including those built into laboratory casework, should be vented. If built into laboratory casework, they should vent directly into the fume-hood plenum behind the baffle. 1. It is recommended that unless required by code, flammable liquid cabinets not be vented as it may compromise the cabinet’s fire-resistance performance during a fire. If a flammable liquid storage cabinet is ventilated, then it shall be connected through the lower bung opening to an exterior exhaust in such a manner that the specified performance or UL listing of the cabinet is not compromised. A flash arrester screen provided by the manufacturer with the cabinet shall replace the other bung. Exhaust vent materials for hazardous materials cabinets shall be compatible with cabinet contents. Vent materials for flammable liquid storage cabinets shall be resistant to high temperatures generated in a fire. Stainless steel, hard-soldered copper, and carbon-steel are all appropriate vent materials for flammable storage cabinets, provided the chosen material is compatible with the intended service. Non-metallic duct shall not be used to vent flammable storage cabinets. Compatible non-metallic duct material, such as PVC, can be used for acid- or corrosive-material storage cabinet service. Polypropylene is not appropriate vent duct material, since it is combustible. NFPA 30 (2003) Section 6.3.4, A6.3.4 Cabinet Manufacturer’s Requirements The citation does not specifically authorize or forbid venting flammable storage cabinets. The citation requires Piping, valves, fittings, and related components intended for use with flammable and combustible liquids shall be designed and fabricated from suitable materials equal to that of the cabinet. Such equipment shall be in accordance with nationally recognized engineering standards, and listed in the application. 2. Flammable cabinets built into laboratory casework are not to be vented into the fume-hood exhaust system. No acceptable method of doing this has been identified. Good Practice NFPA 30 (2003) Section 6.3.4 3. Class 1 flammable liquids stored in basements must be kept in vented flammable liquid cabinets. Please consult with EH&S to ensure conformance with this Administrative Rule. SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.3.5.1 4. If the cabinet is not vented, then it shall be sealed with the bungs supplied by the manufacturer. Good Practice Cabinet Manufacturer’s Listing Requirements ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VI-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 6 – HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE CABINETS 5. Toxic material storage cabinets, when used to store highly toxic materials in excess of an exempt amount, shall be vented in a manner similar to flammable liquid storage cabinets. Good Practice E. General Installation Requirements 1. Flammable liquid storage cabinets shall not be located near exit doorways, stairways, or in locations that would impede leaving the area. Good Practice SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.3.3.3 2. Flammable liquid storage cabinets shall not be wall-mounted. Good Practice Cabinet Manufacturer’s Listing Requirements Wall-mounted cabinets are not UL listed or FM approved. The mounting could breach the fire-resistant integrity of the cabinet. 3. Flammable liquid storage cabinets shall not be located near an open flame or other ignition source. Good Practice SFC/WSFC (IFC) Chapter 34, Section 3404.2.4 An open flame or other ignition source could start a fire or cause an explosion if an accident or natural disaster brought the ignition source and flammable liquids or vapors together. 4. Flammable and toxic/corrosive liquid storage cabinets shall be seismically anchored to prevent spillage of contents. Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VII-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 7 – BIOSAFETY LABORATORIES VII. BIO-SAFETY LABORATORIES A. Scope Most of the criteria presented in this chapter are taken from Biosafety in Microbioloical and Biomedical Laboratories(BMBL), 5th Edition authored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) . The criteria presented in this chapter are for general-use Biosafety Containment Levels 1, 2, and 3 for biological research laboratories. If vertebrate animals are involved in research with biohazardous materials, requirements of animal biosafety laboratories (ABSL), also provided in the BMBL, will apply as well. Furthermore, this chapter does not include Appendix G and Q of the NIH Guidelines for Recombinant DNA research which apply if recombinant DNA research will be performed in the laboratory. B. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 1 1. Each laboratory should have doors to control access. 2. Each laboratory must have a sink for hand washing. 3. The laboratories should be designed for easy cleaning. a. Carpets and rugs shall not be used. b. Spaces between furniture and equipment should be accessible for cleaning. c. Furniture must be covered with a non-porous material for easy cleaning. 4. Laboratory Furniture must be capable of supporting anticipated loads and uses. 5. Bench tops shall be impervious to water, and resistant to acids, alkalis, organic solvents and moderate heat. 6. Approved methods for decontamination of infectious or regulated laboratory wastes shall be available (e.g., autoclave, chemical disinfection or other decontamination procedure approved by the University Biosafety Officer (BSO) or designee). 7. Windows shall be fixed and not operable unless existing condition requires them to open for ventilation. If operable, they must be fitted with screens. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VII-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 7 – BIOSAFETY LABORATORIES Laboratory Safety Design Guide C. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 2 In addition to the requirements for a BSL 1 laboratory, the following are required: 1. Doors should be self closing and have locks in accordance with institutional policies. 2. The sink for hand washing should be located near the exit door. 3. Vacuum lines should be protected with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The preferred location of the HEPA filter is in the lab so as to minimize contamination of vacuum lines. If managed by lab ensure system design supports this approach. 4. An eyewash station must be readily available. See Chapter 4 for design details. 5. An approved method for decontaminating all laboratory wastes should be available in the facility. Optimize location to minimize travel distance for users. D. Basic Laboratory Design for Bio-Safety Level 3 In addition to the requirements for a BSL 2 laboratory, the following are required: 1. The lab must be separated from areas that are open to unrestricted traffic flow within the building. 2. Doors must be self closing and have locks in accordance with institutional policies. 3. Security systems shall be used to control access to the laboratory. 4. Access is restricted to entry by a series of two self-closing doors. The space between the two sets of doors can be used as an anteroom. 5. The sink for hand washing must be hands-free or automatically operated, and should be located near exit door. 6. Floors must be slip resistant, impervious to liquids, and resistant to chemicals. Consider the installation of seamless, sealed, resilient or poured floors, with integral cove base. 7. Walls should be constructed to produce a sealed smooth finish that can be easily cleaned and decontaminated. 8. Ceilings should be constructed, sealed, and finished in the same manner as walls. 9. All windows must be sealed. 10. Vacuum lines must be protected with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The preferred location of the HEPA filter is in the lab so as to minimize contamination of vacuum lines. If managed by lab ensure system design supports this approach. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VII-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 7 – BIOSAFETY LABORATORIES 11. An eyewash station must be readily available in the laboratory. 12. A fully ducted supply and exhaust air ventilation system is required. This system must provide sustained directional airflow from “clean” areas toward potentially contaminated areas. The system shall be designed so that under failure conditions, the airflow will not be reversed. In addition, the system must provide the following: a. Laboratory personnel must be able to verify direction of air flow by means of a visual monitoring device at the laboratory entry. Audible alarms should be considered to notify personnel of air flow disruption. b. Exhaust air must not re-circulate to any other areas of the building and the exhaust system should be dedicated to serve only the BSL-3. c. Exhaust air including that of the anteroom must be HEPA filtered through a BIBO i.BIBO unit must be designed to facilitate decontamination with our in-house unit. A schematic drawing of port locations and details is included at the end of this chapter. ii.Access to BIBO filter housings must be designed to allow scanning of the filters. If the BIBO unit is designed to have 2 banks of filters, side by side, access to both sides must be provided. A scanning rack should be included on larger models. 13. All Class II A2 BSCs shall have a thimble connection. 14. An approved method for decontaminating all laboratory wastes should be available in the facility, preferably within the laboratory. 15. Equipment that may produce infectious aerosols must be contained in devices that exhaust air through HEPA filtration before discharge into the laboratory. The HEPA filters should be tested and/or replaced annually. 16. Consider means of decontaminating large pieces of equipment before removal from the laboratory. 17. Enhanced design features may be required based upon specific research planned or funding conditions for the BSL3 in question. The enhancements may include one or more of the following; an anteroom for clean storage of equipment and supplies with dress-in, shower-out capabilities; gas tight dampers to facilitate laboratory isolation; laboratory effluent decontamination; advanced access control devices such as biometrics, fan redundancy, emergency power for HVAC, and specific room finishes. 18. The BSL-3 facility must be commissioned to include visual inspection and performance testing to verify that design and operational parameters have been met before research may begin. Facility performance must be re-verified and documented at least annually. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VII-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 7 – BIOSAFETY LABORATORIES Laboratory Safety Design Guide E. Biological Safety Cabinets 1. Review EH&S Web site at www.ehs.washington.edu/fsobiocab/index.shtm for information concerning BSC selection, location, procurement, and certification. 2. Locate the biological safety cabinets (BSC) away from doors, operable windows, high-traffic, ventilation diffusers and other possible airflow disruptions; use a guideline of six feet of separation. 3. Provide a minimum of six feet of clearance between BSCs installed directly opposite another. 4. Do NOT plumb the BSCs with natural gas. 5. Design Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) to be installed as follows: a. Class II, Type A2 BSC shall be connected to the general exhaust system via a thimble connection unless approved by EH&S to recirculate into the room. The thimble will be provided by the BSC manufacturer and installed per manufacturer’s instructions. b. Class II Type B2 BSC shall be directly (hard) connected to a dedicated exhaust system. c. Class II Type B BSCs shall be interlocked with the exhaust fan so they shut down and alarm in the event of an exhaust fan/system failure. d. Class II Type B BSC exhaust shall be provided with a gas-tight valve that is accessible from the front or side of the cabinet; the purpose of this valve is to facilitate decontamination of the BSC. 6. Provide each Class II Type B BSC with a dedicated exhaust system unless an alternative design is demonstrated to provide the precise control necessary for cabinets to stay in tight tolerance limits. 7. Provide each Class II Type B BSC with a bypass system for exhausting the room when the BCS fan is turned off; turning the BSC fan off saves filter life and the bypass facilitates decontamination of the BSC. 8. Thimble connection exhaust airflow shall be 120-125% of the BSC manufacturer’s exhaust specification. 9. Provide at least ten inches of clearance above a recirculating Class II A2 BSC; this is to facilitate decontamination of the exhaust HEPA filter. 10. Provide at least four inches of clearance behind and on the non-utility side, and six inches clearance on the utility side of the cabinet. 11. Provide a NEMA 5-20 (20-amp) receptacle located high so that unit may be easily unplugged for servicing. 12. Specify BSC to be seismically anchored per manufacturer recommendations and include seismic braces and other necessary components in the purchase. 13. Biosafety cabinets must be certified by University EH&S technicians prior to substantial completion and use. This should be scheduled directly with the EH&S technician at least 2 weeks prior to required certification date. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY VIII. FIRE SAFETY A. Scope This guide presents the minimum performance requirements for fire safety building features provided for laboratory buildings. It includes fire extinguishers, fire sprinklers, fire alarms, fire/smoke dampers, and environmental control systems/smoke control. This section is written primarily for leased buildings and other facilities not maintained by UW Facilities Services. For UW owned and operated buildings, see the UW Facility Design Information (FDI) for fire safety requirements. B. Fire Extinguishers Fire extinguisher shall be conspicuously located and within required travel distances as outlined in codes and standards. Travel distance and extinguisher capacity requirements vary significantly with occupancy. Below are common placement and design criteria specific to laboratory buildings. 1. Wet laboratories, hazardous material storage, dispensing, and mixing rooms require a UL rated 3A:40BC extinguisher within thirty (30) feet of travel distance from any point, but not necessarily in each room. Where extinguishers are provided inside wet laboratories, the extinguisher should be located near the egress door. SBC/SFC WSBC/WSFC (IBC/IFC) Chapter 9, Section 906.3 NFPA 10 Chapter 5 Wet laboratories are considered laboratories with significant amounts (greater than five gallons) of hazardous and flammable materials such as chemical research laboratories, semiconductor fabrication facilities, biological laboratories, and other laboratories using hazardous materials. 2. An UL-rated 3A:40BC extinguisher shall be required in ordinary-hazard occupancies within a travel distance of fifty (50) feet from any point, but not necessarily in each room. SBC/SFC WSBC/WSFC (IBC/IFC) Chapter 9, Section 906.3 NFPA 10 Chapter 5 Ordinary-hazard occupancies are considered to be: dry laboratories, computer laboratories, laundry rooms, library stacks, low combustible warehousing/storage mechanical rooms, fuel-fired equipment rooms, parking garages, and workshop-service-repair areas. Dry laboratories have five gallons or less of hazardous and flammable materials such as microscope rooms, physics laboratories, astronomy laboratories, electronics laboratories, and geology laboratories. 3. An UL-rated 2A:10BC extinguisher shall be required in light-hazard occupancies within (75) seventy-five feet of travel distance from any point, but not necessarily in each room. SBC/SFC WSBC/WSFC (IBC/IFC) Chapter 9, Section 906.3 NFPA 10 Chapter 5 Light-hazard occupancies are considered to be: assembly rooms, auditoriums, meeting/conference rooms, classrooms, common areas, corridors, hallways, dining and lunch or break rooms, electrical vaults, kitchenettes, locker rooms, mechanical rooms without fuel-fired equipment, medical/hospital In-patient/clinic and treatment rooms, offices, reception areas, waiting rooms, and lounges. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY Laboratory Safety Design Guide 4. An UL-rated 2A:10BC extinguisher shall be required in elevator machine rooms or just outside the rooms no further than fifteen feet from the access to the elevator machine room. Department of Labor and Industries Requirement ASME A17.1 5. Carbon dioxide or other clean agent (UL-rated 10BC) extinguishers shall be provided in dedicated computer rooms and clean rooms. Good Practice C. Building Fire Service/Utilities 1. A six-inch minimum fire service shall be provided. Engineering calculations shall be generated for lead-in pipe sizing to document pipe sizing. Good Practice 2. Water piping shall not be installed below slabs on grade. SFD Administrative Rule 9.03.04 3. Drains should parallel combination standpipes within stair enclosures and discharge to a minimum six-inch sewer drain with a short standpipe (e.g., eight- inch pipe to approximately thirty inches above finished floor) to prevent flooding. Good Practice D. Fire Sprinklers/Standpipes 1. Fire sprinklers shall be provided throughout laboratory buildings. Good Practice Although not required by code in all cases, the UW believes that providing fire sprinklers is a proven investment and provides related code benefits and increased flexibility for hazardous material storage and use. 2. Due to the high level of combustibles and hazardous materials, laboratories are considered as Ordinary-Hazard Group II for fire sprinkler design purposes. Floors not occupied by laboratories shall be designed based on their specific occupancies. NFPA 13 (1999), Chapter 2 3. Concealed sprinkler heads shall not be used in laboratories unless specifically listed for the laboratory environment being installed. Fire Sprinkler Head Listing Requirements Concealed fire sprinklers have specific installation requirements for Ordinary Hazard occupancies. Due to laboratories positive or negative pressure airflow past the fire sprinkler heads is possible, which voids the listing of the sprinkler head. 4. Quick-response fire sprinkler heads shall be used to satisfy accessibility standards instead of providing areas of evacuation assistance. Quick-response heads shall be installed in all areas allowed by governing standards. Good Practice WSBC Section 1104.1 (Existing Facilities) ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY 5. System layouts with a branch-and-tree configuration shall be provided, with identifiable and accessible cross-mains. A looped cross-main design with dead- end branch lines may substitute for a branch-and-tree layout provided, the cross main only uses a single loop (no grid) and the looped main is minimum 2.5 inches. Good Practice This performance criterion is given to ensure the fire sprinkler system can be easily modified over the life of the building to address changes in building function and configuration. 6. Ceiling systems collect heat and aid in the activation of fire sprinklers. Where partial ceilings are provided for architectural reasons, special attention should be paid to the design of the sprinkler system. Heads both above and below the ceiling may be required where the ceiling is not continuous. NFPA 13, Good Practice 7. Fire sprinkler mains shall be located outside of main hallways and corridors. Good Practice Locating fire sprinkler mains outside hallways and corridors allows more room in a commonly congested ceiling space. E. Fire Alarm Systems 1. The fire alarm control panel shall be addressable with analog sensor and PNIS proprietary station monitoring capability. Good Practice Addressable technology is preferred due to its ability to pinpoint a given specific location of incident occurrence. 2. All fire alarm system wiring and cable shall be installed in metal conduit. Good Practice 3. Service personnel must be able to perform comprehensive tests on the fire alarm system with minimum disruption to occupants. a) Fire alarm system control must originate from the control panel and/or programmable field devices. b) Individual bypass switches located at the main control panel must provide system-wide bypass for each type of output to accommodate testing with minimal disruption. c) For larger buildings (i.e. taller than four stories and buildings with a very large footprint) voice capability shall be provided to allow for announcing commencement and completion of routine fire alarm tests to reduce unnecessary disruption and evacuation. Good Practice 4. The design shall include complete smoke detection throughout public corridors and hallways. Detection shall be spaced thirty-five (35) to forty (40) feet on center. Detector locations shall be coordinated with ceiling diffusers; none may be closer than three (3) feet. Good Practice, NFPA 72 Detection provided in public egress pathways ensures that the building will be put into general alarm when smoke has begun to compromise an egress pathway. This is considered a more balanced approach to full detection, which makes the building more susceptible to false alarms. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY Laboratory Safety Design Guide 5. Smoke detectors shall be provided throughout rooms/areas dedicated for library stacks. Good Practice Additional detection is considered appropriate due to the concentrated value and potential limited replacement of library materials. 6. Smoke detectors shall not be provided in exit stairs or dirty environments that would be prone to false alarm unless required by code. Good Practice 7. For buildings not equipped with fire sprinklers, heat detectors shall be provided in kitchens, storerooms, mechanical rooms, janitor closets, etc. SFC, NFPA 72 8. Manual fire alarm pull stations shall be provided at all building exits in the direct path of egress, regardless of code requirements. Pull stations shall be provided on individual floors at the entrance to the exit stair. Good Practice, NFPA 72 9. Fire alarm audibility is required throughout the building by the Seattle Fire Code. The following guidelines are provided to ensure audibility is provided per code and occupant sensitivity to alarms is addressed. a) Typically, fire alarm speaker audibility can only be achieved through a single door. Therefore, an office inside a suite would require an audible device within the suite to ensure sufficient audibility in the office. Audible device placement in individual offices should be avoided where possible. b) Audible/visual alarms shall be provided in each laboratory to overcome ambient laboratory noise. c) Audible devices are typically required in acoustic (sound) rooms, coolers, environmental rooms, and other regularly occupied sound- transmission-resistant areas. Environmental rooms may require weatherproof devices. d) Audible devices located in restrooms should set at a reduced level. NFPA 72 SBC/SFC WSBC/WSFC (IBC/IFC) Chapter 9,Section 907.10.2 10. Visual alarms (strobe lights) are required throughout all public spaces and common areas as defined by the applicable codes and standards. Visual alarm design must include the candela rating on the individual device, and a template should be used to ensure sufficient intensity to provide coverage of all required areas. Synchronization of visual notification devices is required when multiple devices are in the line of sight. Providing synchronization for the entire building should be considered. SBC/WSBC (IBC) Chapter 11 NFPA 72 ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-5 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY When visual alarms are provided as part of a combination device (horn/strobe or speaker/strobe) in a non-public space (i.e., research laboratory), the visual alarm need not achieve the minimal candela rating throughout the room or area. NFPA 72 Public spaces include but are not limited to hallways, corridors, classrooms, meeting rooms, conference rooms, copy rooms, lounges, break rooms, and restrooms. F. Fire/Smoke Dampers 1. The number of smoke/fire dampers should be minimized through: a) Coordination of duct layout with suite configurations b) Close attention to code “exceptions” to standard smoke/fire damper placement requirements Good Practice SBC/WSBC (IBC) Chapter 7, Section 7220.127.116.11 The UW prefers the use of pneumatic dampers due to their reliability. If the building is connected to a reliable air supply, pneumatic dampers should be considered. Good Practice 2. The manufacturer shall stand behind the reliability of the actuators even if they are to be closed only once a year. The manufacturer shall not limit the warranty of the damper due to closure only once a year. Electric actuators shall have an end- switch or clutch to reduce force on the damper when it is being held open. Electric actuators shall not use stall-motors. Good Practice 3. Provide access panels associated with each fire/smoke damper. SMC Section 607.4 G. Environmental Control Systems/Smoke Control 1. Engineered smoke control systems should be provided only as value-added for the project or specifically required by code. The specific requirements of a smoke control system shall be reviewed to ensure a smoke control system will be value- added. SBC Chapter 9 The UW’s history with engineered smoke control systems is not favorable. Unless the systems are designed in detail and based on good engineering principles, these systems often increase project costs and are not reliable. 2. Only the fire alarm system should control life safety fans such as atriums, elevator shafts, and dedicated smoke control systems. Likewise, only the fire alarm system should control the smoke dampers at air-handler inlet and discharge. Shut down authority should be effective for all positions of the local HOA or VFD controls. The environmental control system shall not control fans after shutdown by the fire alarm system until after resetting the fire alarm system. Toilet and other non-recirculating exhaust fans shall remain on unless this creates a problem with air quality or excessive pressure on exit doors. SMC Section 608 Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION VIII-6 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 8 – FIRE SAFETY Laboratory Safety Design Guide 3. In buildings where mechanical systems operate under direct digital control in emergency power conditions, the environmental control system shall monitor the fire alarm panel to determine when the building is under a fire alarm condition. The environmental control system shall monitor the emergency power transfer switch to determine when there is loss of normal power and restoration of normal power. NFPA 72 Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IX-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 9 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR RADIOACTIVE MAT LABS IX. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL LABORATORIES A. Scope All radioactive materials and their uses are governed by the terms and conditions of the UW Radioactive Materials License, issued by the State of Washington Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection (DOH). UW Type A License of Broad Scope B. Basic Laboratory Design 1. A facility for handling radioactive material shall be located and designed so that the radiation doses to persons outside the facility can be maintained below applicable limits and are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 127 Section 4.1 2. Sinks shall be constructed of impervious material such as stainless steel. Faucets should be foot-, elbow- or knee-operated. Plumbing should be smooth and easily cleaned. UW Radiation Safety Manual NUREG 1556 Vol. 7 Appendix L 3. When required, radiation shielding shall be approved by the UW Radiation Safety Office (RSO). This applies to high-energy gamma and x-ray emitters. Facility-designed shielding is not usually needed for alpha- or beta-emitters. 4. The UW RSO shall determine whether High, Very High or Airborne radiation areas exist and specify requirements that may result from these unusual levels of radioactive materials. NCRP No. 127 Section 4.2 5. Floors should be smooth, nonporous, easily cleaned surfaces. Appropriate floor materials include sheet vinyl and sealed concrete. UW Radiation Safety Manual 6. Laboratory benches must have nonporous, easily decontaminated surfaces. Surfaces of high-quality plastic laminate or stainless steel are preferable. UW Radiation Safety Manual C. Ventilation Considerations 1. The UW RSO shall evaluate facilities performing procedures that involve any unsealed radioactive materials having the potential to emit airborne radionuclides for compliance with State of Washington Air Emission Standards. Calculations may reveal that the facility needs to be equipped with ventilation that will limit air concentrations to levels that are ALARA and are lower than allowed limits. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IX-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 9 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR RADIOACTIVE MAT LABS Laboratory Safety Design Guide Ventilation systems shall prevent the escape of the airborne contaminants to adjacent non-use areas to assure that air concentrations in those areas do not exceed allowed limits. Facilities using radioactive materials may need to be approved by the State of Washington Department of Health and a Notice of Construction (NOC) may need to be filed with the DOH, depending on what air emission calculations reveal. Washington Administrative Code 246-247 2. Hood inserts are only permitted for iodination procedures specifically approved by the UW RSO. UW Radiation Safety Manual NCRP Report No. 127 Section 4.5 3. Nuclear air cleaning (filtration) systems on major installations shall be designed in accordance with ASME N509 or AG-1, and should be designed in accordance with N509 and AG-1 whenever possible for all installations. The radiation exposure of individuals from the radioactive materials retained on the filter(s) shall be evaluated. Each filter stage shall be designed and located to facilitate independent testing in accordance with ASME N510 or AG-1. HEPA filters used in the last stage of a system just prior to discharge into occupied locations or the environment shall comply with DOE-STD-3020-97 (be “nuclear grade”). NCRP Report No. 127 Section 4.5 DOE Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors, DOE-STD-3020-97 ASME Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment AG-1-1997 ASME Nuclear Power Plant Air-Cleaning Units and Components ASME N509-1989 ASME “HEPA Filter Bank In-Place Test,” ASME N510-1989 Each filter stage should be designed and located to facilitate independent testing according to applicable standards. Proper design will allow the filters to be changed easily while minimizing the potential for release of radioactivity and worker exposure. Push-through bag-in/bag-out systems are preferable. While closed-face filters appear to be convenient to use, proper in-place testing is virtually impossible, so they should not be used whenever the filter will be subjected to in-place testing. Higher efficiency filters, such as ULPA filters, are available, but they are not as rugged as a nuclear-grade HEPA filters and they should not be used for nuclear air cleaning. It is noted that AG-1 is supplanting N509 and N510. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IX-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTON 9 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR RADIOACTIVE MAT LABS D. Radioactive Material Waste Management 1. Piping systems should be designed to minimize connections between sanitary and laboratory drains. NCRP Report No. 127 Section 4.6 NUREG 1556 Vol. 7 Appendix L 2. To reduce unnecessary exposure, radioactive waste should be stored in areas separate from work places. However, it is recommended that the transfer route of radionuclide to waste areas be over as short a distance as possible. NCRP Report No. 127 Section 4.6 ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION IX-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTON 9 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR RADIOACTIVE MAT LABS Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-2 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD X. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES WITH IRRADIATORS AND/OR RADIATION-PRODUCING MACHINES A. Introduction Machines, irradiators, and high activity non-sealed sources that produce ionizing radiation are common in research laboratories. These devices can include high- energy accelerators that require special shielding and control as well as devices that produce x-rays of such low energy and intensity that minimal shielding and controls is required. This wide variation in sources makes it difficult to write detailed guidelines for all radiation sources. It is important to involve the UW Radiation Safety Office (RSO) or a State of Washington Department of Health (Division of Radiation Protection) approved “qualified expert” in the processes related to design, installation, acceptance testing, and operations of all such sources. The purpose of this chapter is to identify common irradiators, sources, and machines that produce external ionizing radiation at research facilities and to give general guidelines regarding the planning, installation, storage and use of these sources. For details, always refer to the UW RSO or “qualified expert”. Though these recommendations deal mostly with radiation sources found in research facilities, most campuses have medical x-ray facilities as well (e.g., hospitals, medical and dental clinics); therefore, limited comments regarding these facilities have been included. Typical sources include: 1. Machines: a) X-ray radiographic and/or irradiation facilities b) Accelerator facilities c) Analytical x-ray machines (e.g., x-ray diffraction, electron microscopes) d) Cabinet radiography units e) Accelerators used for radioisotope production 2. Radioactive Materials: a) Sealed sources b) Irradiators c) Moisture/density gauges d) High activity non-sealed sources (i.e., sources which can produce high external radiation exposures, but do not satisfy the requirements to be considered sealed sources) ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-3 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide B. General Requirements/Considerations: Early in the planning stages when an irradiator or x-ray producing device is planned for installation in a building, the RSO shall be consulted. There are numerous regulatory and design requirements that shall be addressed (e.g., registration, licensing and shielding). 1. The State of Washington Department of Health (DOH), Division of Radiation Protection, requires registration of x-ray machines. Also, when constructing or remodeling a room that will house a radiation machine, the registrant shall notify the DOH prior to the possession of the machine or commencement of the construction. This includes re-installing a machine in a previously constructed facility. All machine registrations are recorded through the UW Radiation Safety Office. 2. Sealed and unsealed sources of radioactive materials shall be licensed by the appropriate regulatory agency. Licensing is through the State of Washington DOH, as a representative of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The UW RSO and/or Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) approve all used of radioactive materials. 3. The shielding design shall be prepared by a “qualified expert” as defined in “National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 49 (NCRP 49).” The State of Washington Department of Health Division of Radiation Protection keeps a list of qualified experts approved to perform this type of work within the State. Additional requirements for shielding design and selection of qualified experts is described below in the section on facilities used for the healing arts. 4. All shielding designs, floor plans, and equipment arrangements, including final construction drawings, shall be reviewed and approved by the UW RSO and/or RSC. C. Basis for Shielding Specifications 1. Facilities shall be designed such that the exposure limits specified in WAC 246-221 for controlled and uncontrolled areas are not exceeded when use and occupancy factors are taken into account. In addition, Washington Department of Health requires that shielding shall be designed to limit the dose equivalent in controlled areas to 10% of the regulatory limits. That is, 500 millirem/year. This requirement is in accordance with the intent of ALARA (keeping doses “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”). Washington Administrative Code, and State of Washington DOH Division of Radiation Protection advisory documents 2. Shielding specified for uncontrolled areas must be based on the current 100 millirem/year regulatory limit. These newer, lower limits must be adhered to in shielding calculations rather than higher values found in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) reports produced prior to 1994. In addition, some of the methodologies and assumptions (e.g., radiation attenuation ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-4 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD data) have been updated since they were originally published. Even though there have been changes in some regulations, methodologies and assumptions, the basic information contained in these publications is sound and can serve as a basis for conservative shielding specifications if they are corrected for the current exposure limits. NCRP 35, 39, 49, and 51 Washington Administrative Code, and State of Washington DOH Division of Radiation Protection advisory documents In the following journal articles, new methodologies, assumptions and attenuation data are described for specifying shielding. It is expected that the concepts and practices proposed in these publications will be incorporated into a new NCRP publication that will eventually replace NCRP 49: Dixon, R. L., “On the Primary Barrier in Diagnostic X-Ray Shielding”, Medical Physics(Med. Phys) 21, 1785-1794 (1994) Dixon, R. L., and Simpkin, D. J., “Primary Barriers for Diagnostic X-Ray Facilities: a New Model”, Health Phys.(H. Phys) 74, 181-189 (1998) Simpkin, D. J., “PIN A General Solution to the Shielding of Medical X and Gamma Rays by the NCRP Report 19 Methods”, H. Phys. 52, 431-436 (1987) Simpkin, D. J., “Shielding Requirements for Mammography”, H. Phys. 53, 267-269 (1987) Simpkin, D. J., “Shielding a Spectrum of Workloads in Diagnostic Radiology”, H. Phys. 61, 259- 261 (1991) Simpkin, D. J. “Diagnostic X-Ray Shielding Calculations for Effective Dose Equivalent”, H. Phys. 21, 893 (1994) Simpkin, D. J., “Transmission Data for Shielding Diagnostic X-Ray Facilities”, H. Phys. (1995) Simpkin, D. J. “Evaluation of NCRP Report 49 Assumptions on Workloads and Use Factors in Diagnostic Radiology Facilities”, Med. Phys. 23(4) (1996) Simpkin, D. J., “Scatter Radiation About Mammographic Units”, H. Phys. (1996) Simpkin, D. J., and Dixon, R. L., “Secondary Shielding Barriers for Diagnostic X-Ray Facilities; Scatter and Leakage Revisited”, H. Phys. 74, 350-365 (1998) D. Special Considerations 1. In facilities with high-energy radiation sources, walls, shielding and source components may become radioactive by the process of activation. The extent and magnitude or the activation is dependent on many factors including source “energy” and “on time”. In many cases activation occurs but is not a significant concern since the radioactive materials produced have a very short half-life. The extent and magnitude of activation should be evaluated for sources with energies greater than fifteen million electron volts (MeV). When appropriate such facilities should be designed such that activation is reduced or activated materials may be removed easily. Good Practice 2. Exhaust ducts and collectors shall be located and/or shielded such that personnel exposures along its route of travel and at the collector are ALARA and do not exceed regulatory limits. Collectors shall be equipped with bag-in/bag-out capability and located such that there is adequate space to change out collectors without contaminating uncontrolled areas and with minimum disruption of uncontrolled operations. Since such ducting and associated collectors are often located in uncontrolled areas occupied by individuals who are unfamiliar with radiation, even small exposures may be alarming to the occupants. Therefore, it may be advisable to design shielding in order to reduce exposures far below regulatory limits or to provide additional training to the occupants regarding the effects of radiation. Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-5 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide 3. Radiation source transport systems (“rabbits”) shall be routed and/or shielded such that exposure limits are not exceeded in controlled or uncontrolled areas during routine operations or emergency situations (e.g., stuck sources). To plan for emergency situations, an accident analysis shall be conducted and an emergency response plan prepared that will deal with any hazardous conditions that were identified. 4. For most single-floor facilities with energies less than 200 kVp (kilovoltage peak), shielding shall be extended from the floor to no less than seven feet high. In multi-floor/multi-level facilities, shielding walls may need to be higher than exactly seven feet. For single floor facilities with high-energy sources that can produce “skyshine,” ceilings may require shielding and the shielding in walls may need to extend from floor to ceiling. In multi-level facilities, particular attention must be paid to floor shielding, since the useful radiation beam is often predominantly pointed downward. NCRP 49 5. Nails/screws penetrating shielding material are not required to be capped with lead in walls that require less than four pounds of lead per square foot. 6. For operator protection, source controls shall be located such that no first- scattered radiation reaches the control area. These controls shall also be located such that exposures from primary and secondary radiation do not exceed regulatory limits when use and occupancy factors are taken into account. The operator shall be allotted 7.5 sq. ft. or more of unobstructed floor space in control booths to allow ease of movement behind barriers. No dimension of this space shall be less than 2 ft. An extension of a straight line drawn between any point on the edge of the booth shielding and the nearest vertical edge of a cassette holder, corner of the examination table, or any part of the tube housing assembly shall not impinge on this unobstructed space. The operator switch must be mounted so that the operator can avoid first-scattered radiation while energizing the machine. The requirement is for the switch to be permanently mounted 40 inches inside the protected control booth. A control booth-viewing window is required and shall have at least one square foot of viewing area. The viewing window must be equal or greater in lead equivalence to the shielding installed in the control booth walls. Good Practice WAC 246-225-030 7. Shielding required to protect people from radiation is often inadequate to protect unexposed film or emulsions stored near radiation sources. Shielding required to protect unexposed film or emulsions stored in areas near radiation sources shall be evaluated on an individual basis. Good Practice 8. The structure of the facility shall be designed (evaluated and updated for renovated facilities) to physically support required shielding (e.g., weight “cold flow”). It is important to recognize that some shielding materials (e.g., lead) can “cold flow” with time, particularly for tall and thick sections. It is necessary to support shielding in a way that will address this problem or to use an alternative shielding material (e.g., iron or concrete). 9. Some radiation sources and associated shielding are extremely heavy, so the structure of the facility may need to be specially designed (evaluated and updated for renovated facilities) to physically support the equipment. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-6 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD 10. Shielding and equipment shall be designed and installed to meet seismic restraint requirements. State and local building requirements 11. Hazards associated with moving heavy shields, high voltage, and high magnetic fields are often present around radiation sources. Often, special administrative and engineering controls are required to deal with these hazards safely. 12. Exhaust systems for hazardous materials (e.g., ozone, cryogens, and gaseous activation products) produced or present around radiation sources need to be designed to maintain exposure levels for hazardous materials below the respective occupational exposure limits (OEL). Care shall be exercised in selecting the discharge points for these exhaust systems. Industrial Ventilation, a Manual of Recommended Practice, latest edition 13. Interlocks are often required on access doors to radiation sources or on required shielding components that are movable. They disable the production of radiation if doors are not closed or if shielding is not positioned as required to provide adequate protection to controlled or uncontrolled areas. Such interlocks shall be failsafe and tamper resistant. 14. Emergency “Off” (mushroom) switches are typically required in areas where exposures to individuals could exceed the limits established by the RSO and/or RSC if administrative or engineering controls should fail. Such switches shall be centrally located and in sufficient number so each potential user has convenient access. 15. Warning lights, audible signals and signs shall be in compliance with the requirements in WAC 246-225, 227, 228, and 229. Signage shall be in compliance with the requirements in WAC 246-221, 225, 227, and 228. Washington Administrative Code 16. Radiation area monitors are typically required when exposure rates are such that the exposure of an individual in the area could exceed institutional administrative controls specified by the UW RSO and/or the RSC. Washington Administrative Code UW Radiation Safety Committee E. Pre-Use Considerations 1. The UW RSO or State of Washington Department of Health approved “qualified expert” shall inspect shielding during construction to assure that it is installed according to specifications. Deficiencies shall be corrected prior to operation of the facility. After construction, the attenuation of shielding can sometimes be verified using a radiation source; however this is not an optimum method. Attenuation measurements can help determine the overall effectiveness of shielding, but cannot easily find small voids in the shielding. 2. A radiation survey of adjacent controlled and uncontrolled areas before use of a radiation source shall be conducted at the discretion of the UW Radiation Safety Office. The RSO usually finds it necessary to make measurements to assure that shielding is adequate to meet regulatory exposure limits and/or limits specified in the shielding design. The radiation survey should be conducted under conditions that are representative of actual operating conditions at the facility. Deficiencies shall be corrected prior to operation of the facility. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-7 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide F. Facilities/Sources with Special Considerations 1. If a radiation source is totally surrounded by a shielded enclosure with “failsafe” interlocks on all access doors, no additional shielding is usually required to prevent or reduce x-ray diffraction. The RSO should be consulted for details. 2. Special consideration should be given to the storage location for moisture/density gauges. Storage locations may need to be shielded or in remote locations where the exposure limits for controlled and uncontrolled areas are not exceeded. The RSO should be consulted for details. Adequate security measures for the storage area need to be provided to prevent unauthorized removal. 3. Conventional electron microscopes operating at less than 40 kVp must be registered with the UW Radiation Safety Office, but may be exempt from shielding requirements. The RSO should be consulted for details. G. Considerations for Facilities/Sources Used for the Healing Arts Some facilities/sources are not covered specifically by these recommendations; however, most of the “General Requirements/Considerations” apply, as do additional requirements. It is important to remember that all facilities with radioactive materials and/or machines shall be reviewed and approved by the UW Radiation Safety Officer and/or Radiation Safety Committee prior to installation/operation. Due to the many safety and regulatory aspects related to the design, installation, commissioning and operation of such facilities, early involvement of the facility RSO is advisable. Unanticipated corrective actions can result in unpleasant, unnecessary, costly delays. 1. Clinical and Veterinary facilities/sources are as follows: a) Diagnostic Medical: Radiographic (e.g., fixed, portable, mammography), Fluoroscopic (e.g., fixed, portable), Cine, CT, Bone density, Nuclear medicine imaging, PET imaging b) Diagnostic Dental: (Radiographic, Cephalometric, Panoramic, CT) c) Therapy: (Accelerators, Brachytherapy sources, HDR, Gamma Knife, Ortho-voltage units, Grenz rays, Intravascular brachytherapy devices) Some important considerations for facilities/sources used for the healing arts are as follows: 2. Clinical Facilities shall include: a) Equipment for human use which meets FDA requirements b) Equipment, all of which has been checked for compliance with regulatory requirements prior to commissioning for use on patients. Equipment at JCAHO-accredited facilities shall be commissioned by a qualified expert prior to use ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-8 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD c) Facilities and/or equipment, which provide the operator with the ability to communicate with and view the patient continuously from an area protected from primary, secondary and first-scatter radiation (i.e., a controlled area) when patients are being exposed/irradiated. Exceptions to this general rule are operators of portable diagnostic x-ray equipment used at non-fixed locations, and most nuclear medicine imaging equipment. For most of these exceptions, the operator shall be at least six feet from the source of radiation and out of the primary beam. 3. Before construction, the floor plans and equipment arrangement of medical installations utilizing x-rays for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes shall be submitted to a “qualified expert” for shielding design plan review. The “qualified expert” shall be approved by the State of Washington DOH Division of Radiation Protection and shall adhere to shielding methodologies in the “National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 49” (NCRP 49), or equivalent. Completed shielding designs shall be submitted to the DOH for subsequent “plan review”. Diagnostic veterinary, podiatric, and dental facilities are exempt from plan review by the DOH. A copy of the DOH submittal and any approval documents or other communication from/to the DOH must also be forwarded to the UW RSO. Washington Administrative Code 246-225 4. For dental radiographic facilities, the ordinary walls in a building (two layers of 5/8 inch drywall) often provide adequate shielding to protect surrounding areas. It should be noted that one of the common layouts for dental equipment puts the head of the dental chair adjacent to central work or patient areas. Unless modified, this common layout can result in the unacceptable practice of exposing the central work or patient areas to unshielded primary radiation. For general stationary dental intraoral equipment, the control switch shall be permanently mounted in a protected area no less than 36 inches from access to the direct scatter radiation field. Because of the many variables involved, the UW RSO or designee shall evaluate the shielding in each dental x-ray room. JCAHO recommendations 5. The UW RSO or designee shall evaluate the shielding (design and testing) for each veterinary radiographic facility or room. NOTE: Operator control booths are not always required for these facilities. 6. Provisions should be made for storage of leaded aprons in medical fluoroscopic and cine facilities. Good Practice 7. Medical bone density units seldom require operator control booths or additional shielding. However, the UW RSO or designee should evaluate each unit. Good Practice 8. Each control booth shall have at least one viewing device so the operator can view the patient during exposure, and have a full view of entries into the room when using medical diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. If electronic viewing equipment is used, an alternate viewing system shall be available as a backup in the case of electronic failure.ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORIES USING NON-IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES, INCLUDING LASERS ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-9 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide H. Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Safety Basic Requirements 1. Laboratories using non-ionizing radiation sources (such as: lasers, ultraviolet lights, and large magnets) should be designed to minimize radiation exposure to personnel and the environment. Good Practice ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 4.1 ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 4.1 2. Laboratory designs shall utilize appropriate engineering and administrative controls to prevent radiation exposure in excess of the applicable regulations, standards, and guidelines. Good Practice ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 4.1 ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 4.1 3. Laboratory designs should be forwarded to the UW Radiation Safety Office (RSO) for NIR safety review and approval prior to being released for bid or beginning construction (for internal projects that are not put up for bid). Good Practice ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 4.1 ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 4.1 I. Controlling Access to Laser Areas 1. Doors providing access to spaces containing open-beam Class 4 lasers shall be fitted with interlocks to prevent emission from the lasers if the door is opened or to deny outside-to-inside entry during laser emission. Design of interlocks should favor the use of shutters or laser beam dumps to limit emission. Laser power supply shutoffs should not be used except where no other alternative exists. In certain situations (such as medical or surgical applications), interlocks may not be feasible or appropriate. For these applications, the EH&S RSO should be consulted regarding approval for alternatives to interlocks. ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 18.104.22.168.2 A laboratory containing a number of lasers and/or interlocked optical benches or beam paths may require a programmable logic controller to coordinate interlock functions and warning annunciations at the entrances. 2. All doors to Class 3b and Class 4 laser areas shall have ANSI Z136.1 (2000) specification laser warning signs. Signs should be mounted so as to be visible both at the doorway and at some distance from the doorway. Signs should not be mounted above doorways. Lighted laser warning signs (or status) panels that indicate the room access status) shall be used for Class lasers and are suggested for class 3b lasers. Good Practice ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 22.214.171.124.2 Electronic displays may be preferable for conspicuousness and/or to relate instructions for laboratories with complex laser setups. Electronic displays may be simple with on-off switch controls or highly complex with enunciators for systems interfacing laser-, room access-, and beam-enclosure interlocks. Modern LED displays and programmable logic controllers (PLC’s) can display access status and specify laser eyewear/PPE requirements. Electronic displays may also be used in addition to conventional warning signs. 3. Partitions, dogleg entrances or other provisions shall be made to allow persons to don laser protective eyewear and other required PPE before entering spaces where beam hazards exist or could exist. Preferably, this provision should be made before the entry to the laboratory. Good Practice ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-10 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laser eyewear is vulnerable to physical damage and expensive, so provisions should be made for proper storage to prevent scratching or other damage. 4. Appropriate barriers shall be provided to prevent Class 3b or 4 laser beams from leaving the confines of a laser laboratory through doorways, windows, etc. ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 Z136.1 recommends barriers for Class 3b lasers and mandates barriers for Class 4 lasers. Laser laboratories could be set up in rooms with windows but should not be set up in a space with operable windows. Windows need to be covered with appropriate materials (opaque at the laser wavelength and compatible with the beam energy) to prevent beams from escaping. A simple metal plate with a diffusely reflective finish at the laser wavelength is adequate. J. Beam Path Management 1. Provisions shall be made to enclose Class 3b or 4 laser beams whenever possible. Class 3b or 4 laser beam paths that cross between optical tables/equipment benches or pass through barriers shall be properly enclosed and marked identifying the hazard. All enclosures shall be compatible with the laser wavelength and beam power. All laser beam paths shall be maintained at a height either above or below the eye level of standing/sitting persons who may be exposed. Good Practice ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, and 18.104.22.168 2. Laser enclosures, beam stops, beam barriers and other exposed surfaces shall be diffusely reflective at the laser wavelength used. Surfaces that may create a specular reflection at the laser wavelength shall not be used. Good Practice K. Fire Safety for Lasers 1. Flammable/combustible construction materials shall be avoided in spaces housing Class 4 lasers. Materials used for beam stops or beam barriers shall not off-gas or be combustible at the beam power used. Curtains used as laser barriers shall not off-gas and shall be flame-retardant or, preferably, flameproof or laser- rated. ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 4.3.8 NFPA 115 Section 4, 6 NFPA 115 advises that laser beams with irradiances above 2 Wlcm2 be regarded as fire hazards. 2. Provisions shall be made for the safe storage of laser dye solutions, solvents, and other flammable materials. NFPA 115 Section 9 L. Electrical Safety for Lasers 1. Appropriate grounding connections shall be provided for laser power supplies and other electrical components. All optical tables shall be properly grounded. To facilitate use, all grounding connections should be properly marked. Good Practice 2. Electrical systems shall be marked to show voltage, frequency, and power output. All high voltage sources shall be properly marked and secured to prevent accidental access. Good Practice Many laser systems use banks of high-voltage capacitors. Access to these banks should be carefully marked and controlled, and provisions shall be made to properly maintain grounding and “bleed” charge during maintenance. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-11 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide M. Class 4 Laser Laboratories 1. Red mushroom-type room/area emergency shutoffs (to deactivate or reduce laser power below the Maximum Permissible Exposure, or MPE) shall be installed in a conspicuous location that is easily accessible from the laboratory entrances. The switch shall be clearly and conspicuously marked with the words “Notice – In emergency, push button to shut down laser”. ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 22.214.171.124.1 NFPA 115 Section 6-5.1 2. All laser laboratories shall be provided with easy egress. Crash-bar hardware can be used on outward-swinging doors. Good Practice N. Optical Bench Safety Optical benches shall be secured to prevent severe movements in an earthquake. This requires anchoring a sturdy frame to the laboratory floor that surrounds and is close to (within one-half inch), but not touching, the optical bench. Good Practice O. Excimer Lasers 1. Halogen gas mixtures shall normally be stored in gas storage cabinets. All transfer lines and components in contact with halogens shall be of compatible (non-reactive) materials. Institutional toxic gas program requirements will designate the specific storage quantities allowed (depending on toxicity and other factors). NFPA 115 Section 8 Conventional gas storage cabinets will effectively contain the dilute halogen and hydrogen halide in inert gas mixtures used in excimer lasers if the delivery lines are kept bone-dry. Gas storage cabinet hardware allows this to be done using bone-dry nitrogen purge gas. 2. The gas discharge from both the excimer laser and the associated halogen gas storage cabinet shall be connected to an appropriate exhaust ventilation system capable of maintaining an average face velocity of 200 fpm at the cabinet’s window opening when the window is fully opened. An alarming airflow meter should be used to monitor and indicate low-flow conditions in the gas cabinet. NFPA 115 Section 8 3. Halogen scrubber devices used on closed (non-ventilated) excimer laser systems shall meet appropriate safety standards and shall be pre-approved by the UW RSO prior to installation. NFPA 115 Section 8 P. Laser-Generated Air Contaminants (LGAC) Lens on laser conditions (or any place where the beam irradiance exceeds 1000 watts/cm2) should be jointly evaluated by an Industrial Hygienist and Health Physicist to identify engineering controls for laser generated air contaminants. Places where irradiances exceed 10,000 watts/cm2 shall be enclosed to the ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-12 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD maximum extent practical and properly ventilated. Exposure to LGAC shall not be managed with the use of PPE. ANSI Z136.1-2000 Section 7.3 ANSI Z 136.1 states that from 10 3 to 107 watts/cm2 contaminants MAY exist and could be air-monitored. Above 107 watts/cm2 contaminants CAN exist. Organic materials, including polymers and tissue, will produce plumes containing potentially carcinogenic materials. Polymers will pyrolyze to form toxic gases. Metals and inorganic materials will form fume clouds. These can be treated as common hot gas air contaminant sources in accordance with ACGIH and ASHRAE criteria. The interiors of the enclosures should be easy to clean/decontaminate. The usefulness of HEPA filtration of the effluent shall also be evaluated when irradiances exceed 10,000 watts/cm2. Q. Radio Frequency and Microwave Devices (30 kHz to 300 GHz) 1. Provisions shall be made to protect people from exposures at or above the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits. Engineering controls shall be used in lieu of PPE or other administrative controls whenever possible. Shielding shall be designed by or be reviewed by an electronic engineer experienced in radio frequency/microwave design. ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 6.2 Engineering controls, such as shielding and locked doors, are preferred over impromptu measures such as stanchions and portable signs or beacons. Because time limit controls are framed in six-minute intervals, limiting exposure duration is impractical in most cases. 2. Provisions shall be made to restrict access and post appropriate warnings for locations where field strengths could exceed the MPE. Appropriate ANSI specification warning signs shall be provided to identify such areas. Signs should be mounted so as to be visible both at the doorway and at some distance from the doorway. Signs should not be mounted above doorways. ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 4.1.1, 4.1.2 ACGIH-TLV/BEI 3. To prevent exposures exceeding the MPE for radio frequency electrical currents, barriers and/or cages shall be provided to protect persons from contact with or close proximity to such currents. These provisions shall be designed or reviewed by an Electronic Engineer experienced in radio frequency/microwave design. ANSI C95.1-1999 Section 6.7 ACGIH-TLV/BEI For radio frequency electric current flow limits, the ICNIRP current flow MPE is more restrictive and should be applied. Radio frequency current flow can begin when two conductors are separated by about a foot because of electric field interactions (capacitative coupling), so insulation by itself may not be sufficient. Increased separation distances may be needed in such cases. R. Sub-radiofrequency Fields (<30 kHZ) Magnetic Fields: Overexposures at these frequencies are very unlikely. The most likely situation will entail a frequency of 60Hz. The exposure limit for 60 Hz is 0.2 mT (2 G or 160 A/m). This is a partial and whole body ceiling limit, although limbs can receive 5 times this amount, and hands and feet 10 times. Electric Fields: Overexposures are unlikely if electric sources are insulated and grounded. The exposure limits vary according to the frequency range. For a 60 Hz filed, the limit is 25 kV/m. However, the worst-case situation would be at 30 kHz, where the limit is 625 V/m. There are a few types of cardiac pacemaker that are very sensitive. Some models are susceptible to interference by a power-frequency (50/60 Hz) as low as 2 kV/m. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-13 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD Laboratory Safety Design Guide It is recommended, therefore, lacking specific information that exposure to pacemaker wearers be maintained at or below 1 kV/m. ACGIH – TLV/BEI Overexposures are extremely unlikely because the exposure limits so high that few people (except for utility workers) encounter such fields. The carcinogenicity of power frequency fields is unproven, so no guidance is given concerning this issue. S. Static (Zero Hz) Magnetic Fields 1. As part of the design process, the magnetic field in the facility shall be mathematically modeled to identify where pacemaker hazards (>5 G) and kinetic energy hazards (>30 G) exist. Places where excessive whole-body exposures (>600 G) could occur shall also be identified. If it is determined that shielding is required, an experienced consulting firm should be hired to design all electric or magnetic field shielding. ACGIH – TLV/BEI ICNIRP “Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields” 2. Provisions shall be made to prevent access to places where whole-body magnetic fields exceed 600 G. Areas such as hallways, stairways, and offices shall be located where fields are <5 G to allow completely unrestricted access. ACGIH – TLV/BEI The University of Washington enforces ACGIH TLV guidelines for static magnetic fields, which is somewhat more restrictive than ICNIRP. 3. Provisions shall be made to secure and restrict access to places where whole- body fields exceed 5 G. This is based solely on the possible effect that 5 gauss fields can have on some pacemakers. ACGIH – TLV/BEI A variety of prosthetic devices, medical equipment, makeup, and personal articles can also behave in a hazardous manner in stronger fields. 4. Appropriate ANSI Z535 specification warning signs shall be provided to identify such areas. Signs should be mounted so as to be visible both at the doorway and at some distance from the doorway. Signs should not be mounted above doorways. 5. Provisions should be made for persons to securely store their wallets, magnetic media, keys, and other ferrous-alloy tools and articles for safekeeping before entering places where fields exceed 5 G. ACGIH – TLV/BEI ICNIRP “Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields” Engineered access controls, such as locked doors, are preferred over stanchions and portable signs. Ferromagnetic objects can become projectiles at 10 G. Kinetic energy hazards from even small ferrous items, such as razor blades, can cause serious injuries. Larger items, such as wrenches, could kill or cause major equipment damage. Magnetic storage media, such as credit cards, and some analog watches can also be damaged at 10 G. 6. Appropriate discharge shall be made to direct cryogenic gases from a quenched superconducting magnet to a safe, unoccupied location to avoid exposing persons to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. The issue of preventing oxygen deficiency during a quench condition shall be addressed in the design of locations for superconducting magnets. Doors to locations that may be subjected to gases during a quench shall open outwards to assure they can be opened should the laboratory become pressurized. It is estimated that eighty liters of liquid helium (56,000 liters of gas at the 1:700 expansion ratio) can be ejected from the magnet dewar in fifteen to thirty seconds. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION X-14 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 10 – ADDITIONAL REQS FOR LABS W/IRRADIATORS/RADIATION PROD T. Ultraviolet Radiation 1. Provisions shall be made to protect people from exposures at or above the Maximum Permissible Exposure Levels (MPE) defined for Actinic UV Radiation Effective Irradiances. Engineering controls may be used in place of PPE or other administrative controls but are not required. Proper UW rated plastics, glass and/or shielding design should be evaluated by the Radiation Safety Office. ACGIH TLV/BEI Engineering controls such as automatic shut off switches and locked doors provide superior protection over measures such as signage. Time limits for exposure are based on a person not using proper PPE. 2. Provision should be made to restrict access and post appropriate warnings for location where irradiance could exceed the MPE. Appropriate warning or caution signs shall be provided to identify such areas. Signs should be mounted so as to be visible both at the doorway and at some distance from the doorway. Signs shall be placed on the UV source if the source is portable or moveable. Signs should not be mounted above the doorway. ACGIH TLV & BEI 3. To prevent exposures exceeding the MPE for Ultraviolet Radiation, care should be taken to ensure that all glass, windows, or visible access to the area is covered with UV rated material for the wavelength of the UV source. These materials should be reviewed by the RSO prior to installation. ACGIH TLV & BEI 4. All overhead UV uses for germicidal purposes should be reviewed by the RSO prior to construction. Many portable and pre-constructed devices exist that would meet or exceed most requirements for overhead UV. 5. UV used for sterilization of water or other materials or solutions should be properly shielded. Devices of this type can put out significant amounts of UV above the MPEs and should be reviewed by the RSO prior to permanent installation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XI-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 11 – APPENDIX A: FH Exhaust Criteria Non-UW XI. APPENDIX A: Additional Fume Hood Exhaust Criteria for Facilities Not Owned By the University of Washington. A. Fume Hood Exhaust System (FHES) 1. Provide FHES fans with the following: a) Outboard “split” bearings b) Shaft Seal c) An access door d) Multiple 150 percent rated belts, or direct drive. In designing for explosion and fire control, the fan shall be of the non-sparking construction and the V-belt drive shall be non –conductive. 2. Provide a chemical resistant fan system. 3. Weld or permanently seal fan housing to avoid air leakage from the wheel shaft and discharge. 4. Choose fan type as follows: a) Use straight-radial fan for systems handling moderate to heavy quantities of particulate matter in air. b) Use backward-curved fans for systems handling relatively clean (low particulate) air. c) Provide perchloric acid hoods with a separate tainless steel bifurcated straight flow-through with motor outside the air stream of the fume exhaust fan and completely independent from any other exhaust. 5. Manifold fume exhaust systems shall use constant volume fans with make-up air/outside air bypass. 6. Mount the fan with vibration isolators. 7. Provide weather protected fans installed near the building roof. Fan installation in naturally ventilated penthouses is preferred. The fan shall be the last element of the system to assure that the ductwork throughout the building is under negative pressure. 8. Provide a drain to the acid resistant waste for FHES fans located in a penthouse. 9. Fans shall be installed so that they are readily accessible for maintenance and inspection without entering the plenum. If exhaust fans are located inside a penthouse, the ventilation needs of maintenance workers shall be considered. 10. Provide ducts that are round, non-combustible, inert to agents to be used, non- absorbent, and free of ay organic impregnation. 11. Choose duct material based on the compatibility with the materials handled in the hood. Basic characteristics of preferred hood and duct materials are as follows: ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XI-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 11 – APPENDIX A: FH Exhaust Criteria Non-UW Laboratory Safety Design Guide a) Provide new installations to be round 18 gauge minimum thickness Type 316L stainless steel. Exceptions: Use 16 gauge stainless steel for perchloric hood systems. b) Use fiberglass reinforced plastic or material with similar acid resistant material for acid digestion systems. However, A/E must confirm design acceptability with both the University Fire Engineer and the local fire authority having jurisdiction prior to Design Development Phase. c) Leave glazed ceramic ducts and vitrified clay tile ducts in place if possible. 12. Exhaust duct must have liquid and airtight joints with smooth interior surfaces free of cracks, joints, or ledges. 13. Provide smooth, non-porous lining surfaces free of cracks, joints, or ledges. 14. Use flexible connection sections of duct, such as hypolon or neoprene-coated glass fiber cloth, between the fan and its intake duct if compatible with chemicals used in hood. Provide the transition joint from duct to fan of a seamless, constant diameter, inert, corrosion and UV-resistant materials as approved by owner. Provide the duct alignment within ½ inch at the hood collar and fan. 15. Continuously "butt" weld (use appropriate filler rod for type of stainless) for stainless steel joint construction. Provide a weld sample for A/E and UW inspection. A VanStone flange can be used if the quality of the weld may be compromised because of inaccessibility to the area. 16. Install two Petes plugs made of non-corrosive material in the exhaust duct at 90˚ to each other around the circumference for the purpose of pitot tube insertion. 17. Enclose the VAV modulating damper in a “removable spool assembly” located in the mechanical room. Variable frequency fan drives with static pressure sensors are also acceptable in some installations. 18. Provide a flanged removable spool piece (minimum of 24 inches long) at each fume hood connection. Use spool sections for leak tests, inspection, and to facilitate removal of equipment. Install acceptable gaskets at flanged joint connections. 19. All horizontal ducting shall be sloped down towards the fume hood (a recommended guideline is that the slope should equal to 1/8 inch per foot). 20. Automatic fire dampers shall not be used in laboratory hood exhaust systems. Fire detection and alarm systems shall not be interlocked to automatically shut down laboratory hood exhaust fans. 21. Exhaust fans serving chemical fume hoods should be connected to emergency standby power. The ventilation system shall supply and exhaust at least half of the normal airflow during an electrical power failure. The design must also account for pressure differentials resulting from this condition with regard to egress from the laboratory and building. 22. Provide adequate space and easy access to facilitate inspection, repair, or replacement of exhaust ducts. 23. Provide perchloric acid FHES with a dedicated fan and duct and wash-down system that meets the following requirements. a) Design to provide as complete a wash down as possible with all duct at 45˚ or less from vertical. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XI-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 11 – APPENDIX A: FH Exhaust Criteria Non-UW b) Provide fan casings and hood bottoms with continuous gravity drainage to the sanitary sewer. c) Design wash down to be activated by a manual valve located at the fume hood. d) Prior to acceptance, testing of the wash down system must be witnessed and approved by appropriate University representatives. 24. The target design velocity in each duct shall be in the range of 1200 to 1500 fpm to prevent condensed fumes or particulate from adhering to the walls of the ducts or settling out onto horizontal surfaces and to address acoustical issues. The actual value needs to consider noise and prevention of product deposition in the ducts. 25. To overcome aesthetic objection, design the exhaust stacks in the conceptual stage by incorporating an exhaust tower or a cluster of exhaust stacks as an architectural element of the building. 26. Fume hood exhaust through roofs should have vertical stacks that terminate at least ten feet above the roof or two feet above the top of any parapet wall, whichever is greater, unless higher stacks are found to be necessary according to “The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals” or based on modeling. 27. Design the discharge velocity from the stack to be at least 3000 feet per minute. 28. Do not provide exhaust stacks with weather protection, such as rain caps, bird screens and goosenecks, which require the air to change direction or cause turbulence upon discharge. B. Fume Hood Exhaust System Testing 1. Test FHES duct as follows: a) Connect a blower to the duct specimen through a shutoff valve. Provide a magnehelic gauge or inclined manometer with 0 to 10 inch W.G. range on the duct side of the shutoff valve. b) Provide temporary seals at all open ends of the duct. c) Average test pressure shall be 6 inches W.G. Initial pressure shall be 7 inches W.G. d) All fume duct joints from the fume hood collar to the fan inlet flex connection, not inclusive, shall be tested. e) To prevent over-pressurizing the ducts, start the blower with the variable inlet damper closed. Controlling pressure carefully, pressurize the duct section to the required level. When the pressure of the duct reaches 7 inches W.G., close the shutoff valve. f) Using a stopwatch, measure the time elapsed from when the duct is at 7 inches W.G. to 5 inches W.G. Use the formula t=6.23D to determine if the duct passes the test. (“D” is the nominal duct diameter, measured in inches; “t” is the MINIMUM allowable elapsed time, measured in seconds.) g) If the test fails to meet the allowable rate, make necessary repairs and retest until satisfactory results are obtained. Contact the Owner’s Representative to witness the test. ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XI-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 11 – APPENDIX A: FH Exhaust Criteria Non-UW Laboratory Safety Design Guide h) Complete test reports. i) Comply with precautions listed in the current SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-1 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS XII. APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS ABSL Animal Biosafety Laboratory ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACM asbestos-containing materials A/E Architectural/Engineering design team Aerosols Colloids of liquid or solid particles suspended in gas. SBC Seattle Building Code AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable AOP Air Operating Permit ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers Biohazardous Materials - Infectious agents, the products of infectious agents, or the components of infectious agents presenting a real or potential risk of injury or illness. Biosafety Cabinet - A ventilated cabinet, which serves as a primary containment device for operations involving biohazard materials. The three classes of biosafety cabinets are described below: Class I Biosafety Cabinet - An open-fronted, negative-pressured, ventilated cabinet with a minimum inward face velocity at the work opening of at least seventy-five feet per minute. The exhaust air from the cabinet is filtered by a HEPA filter. Class II Biosafety Cabinet - An open-fronted, ventilated cabinet. Exhaust air is filtered with a HEPA filter. This cabinet provides HEPA-filtered downward airflow within the workspace. Class II cabinets are further classified as type A, type B1, type B2, and type B3. Class II, Type A Cabinets - May have positive-pressure contaminated internal ducts and may exhaust HEPA-filtered air back into the laboratory. 70% of the cabinet air is recirculated and 30% is exhausted. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-2 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Laboratory Safety Design Guide Class II, Type B1 Cabinets - Exhaust HEPA-filtered air through external ducts to space outside the laboratory, and have HEPA- filtered downflow air drawn in from the laboratory or outside air. 30% of the cabinet air is recirculated and 70% is externally vented. Class II, Type B2 Cabinets - Exhaust HEPA-filtered air through external ducts to space outside the laboratory, and have HEPA- filtered downflow air drawn in from the laboratory or outside air. 100% of the cabinet air is externally vented without recirculation. Class II, Type B3 Cabinets - Have positive-pressure ducts or plenums surrounded by negative-pressure plenums, exhaust HEPA-filtered air through external ducts to space outside the laboratory, and have HEPA-filtered downflow air that is a portion of the mixed downflow air and inflow air from a common exhaust plenum. 70% of the cabinet air is recirculated and 30% is externally vented. Class III Biosafety Cabinet - A totally enclosed, negative-pressure, ventilated cabinet of gas-tight construction. Operations within the Class III cabinet are conducted through protective gloves. Supply air is drawn into the cabinet through HEPA filters. Exhaust air is filtered by two HEPA filters placed in series or by HEPA filtration and incineration, and discharged to the outdoor environment without recirculation. Biosafety Level - Biosafety levels consist of laboratory practices and techniques, safety equipment, a laboratory facility appropriate for the operations performed, and the hazard posed by the particular biohazard material. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) define the four biosafety levels in the publication, “Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories”, and recommend biosafety levels for particular pathogenic microorganisms. Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure. For purposes of defining the boiling point, atmospheric pressure shall be considered to be 14.7 psia* (760 mmHg) BSC Biological safety cabinet BSL Biosafety Laboratory BSO Biosafety Officer CDC Centers for Disease Control CFC chloro-fluorocarbon CFR Code of Federal Regulations cfm cubic feet per minute ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-3 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Compressed Gas 1. A gas or mixture of gases having an absolute pressure exceeding forty psi at 70F (21C) in a container, or 2. A gas or mixture of gases having an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi in a container at 130F (54C), regardless of the pressure at 70F (21C), or 3. both 1) and 2) or 4. A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding forty psi at 100F (38C) as determined by UFC Standard No. 9-5. CT Computerized Tomography Containment The combination of personal practices, procedures, safety equipment, laboratory design, and engineering features to minimize the exposure of workers to hazardous or potentially hazardous agents. Cryogenic Fluids(“cryogens”) - Elements and compounds that vaporize at temperatures well below room temperature. Most common cryogens have a normal boiling point well below approximately 120K. Helium-4 (4.2K), hydrogen (20K), nitrogen (77K), oxygen (90K), and methane(112K) [normal boiling point temperatures in parentheses] are examples of cryogens. DCLU Department of Design, Construction, and Land Use DDC Direct Digital Control Decontamination - Removal or destruction of infectious agents; removal or neutralization of toxic agents. DEXA Dual Energy X-Ray Absorption DEA Drug Enforcement Administration DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOP dioctylphthalate DOE United States Department of Energy DOH State of Washington Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection EH&S Environmental Health and Safety EPA Environmental Protection Agency FDA Food and Drug Administration ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-4 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Laboratory Safety Design Guide Flammable or Combustible Liquids (definitions from NFPA 30, Chapter 1-7) Flammable Liquid - Any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point below 100F (37.8C). Class I Liquid - Any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point below 100F (37.8C) and a Reid vapor pressure not exceeding forty psia at 100F (37.8C). Class IA Liquids - Includes those liquids that have flash points below 73F (22.8C) and boiling points below 100F (37.8C). Class IB Liquids - Includes those liquids that have flash points below 73F (22.8C) and boiling points at or above 100F (37.8C). Class IC Liquids - Includes those liquids that have flash points at or above 73F (22.8C) but below 100F (37.8C). Combustible Liquid - Any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point at or above 100F (37.8C). Class II Liquid - Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 100F (37.8C) and below 140F (60C). Class IIIA Liquid - Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 140F (60C) but below 200F (93C). Class IIIB Liquid - Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 200F (93C). Flammable Anesthetic Gas Compressed-gas, which is flammable and administered as an anesthetic cyclopropane, divinyl ether, ethyl chloride, ethyl ether and ethylene. Flash Point: The minimum temperature of a liquid at which sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture with air, near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used. fpm feet per minute Fume Hood A device enclosed on three sides, as well as the top and bottom, with an adjustable sash or fixed partial enclosure on the remaining side. They are designed, constructed and maintained so as to draw air inward by means of mechanical ventilation, and so that any operation involving hazardous materials within the enclosure does not require the insertion of any portion of a person’s body other than the hands and arms into the work area. NOTE: Laboratory fume hoods prevent toxic, flammable, or noxious vapors from entering the laboratory, present a physical barrier from chemical reactions, and serve to contain accidental spills. GFCI ground fault circuit interceptor GFI ground fault interceptor ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-5 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS HCFC hydro-chloro-fluorocarbon HDR high dose rate radiotherapy HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HMIS Hazardous Material Inventory Statement HIV/HBV Research Facility - A laboratory that produces or uses research-laboratory scale amounts of HIV or HBV but not in the volume found in production facilities. HOA Hand Off Auto IAQ Indoor Air Quality IARC International Agency of Research on Cancer ICBO International Council of Building Officials ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations kVp kilovoltage peak Laser Hazard Class - The relative hazard of a given laser or laser system as specified in the ANSI Z136.1 Standard. Current laser classes are 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 4. Generally, only Class 3b and 4 lasers present hazards sufficient to require specialty laboratory designs. LC or LC50 lethal concentration LD or LD50 lethal dose LED Light-emitting diode lfm linear feet per minute LGAC Laser-Generated Air Contaminant Local Exhaust Ventilation - Exhaust applied close to a source of air contaminants to prevent the migration of those contaminants into the breathing zones of people. It is often used to control exposures to hazardous chemicals when an apparatus is not appropriate for placement in a fume hood. These applications shall be evaluated by EH&S for exposure control and possible impacts on other ventilation systems. LSO Laser Safety Officer Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) - The level of any radiation to which a person may be exposed without hazardous effect or adverse biological changes ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-6 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Laboratory Safety Design Guide in the organ(s) of concern. The MPE is normally expressed at a specific energy/frequency /wavelength and defined exposure duration. MeV million electron volts Microwave Radiation - That portion of radio frequency energy consisting of radiation with frequencies between 300 gHz and 300 mHz. NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NFPA National Fire Protection Association NIH National Institute of Health NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NIR Non-ionizing radiation NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NOC Notice of Construction Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) - All electromagnetic radiation with photon energy less than 12.4 eV (>100 nm wavelength) and electric or magnetic fields. Examples are: lasers, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), microwave devices, radio-frequency devices, high-intensity ultra violet(UV) and infrared sources, and high-powered magnets. It is usually assumed that energy at frequencies below 300 mHz exists as discrete electric and magnetic fields rather than as electromagnetic radiation. NSF National Sanitation Foundation NTP National Toxicology Program NUREG Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations OEL occupational exposure limits Operational Volumetric Flow Rate - The volumetric flow rate of supply air ventilation delivered to meet the minimum airflow requirements of a laboratory space for the comfort of the typical number of occupants plus sufficient volume to maintain negative pressurization of the space. The exhaust volumetric flow rate will be variable in laboratories equipped with variable air volume (VAV) hoods. Optical Radiation - Any radiation with a wavelength between 100 nm and 1 mm. Lasers normally fall into this area. OSHA United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration PCB poly-chlorobenzodiazepene ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-7 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS PE Professional Engineer PEL Permissible Exposure Limit PET Positron Emission Tomography PLC programmable logic controllers Design Guides Project Manager's Reference Document for Environmental Stewardship Power Frequency Field - Any field with a frequency between 3 kHz and 1 Hz. PPE Personal Protection Equipment Pressure Vessel A storage tank vessel that has been designed to operate at pressures above fifteen psig. RSC Radiation Safety Committee RSO Radiation Safety Office, Radiation Safety Officer Radio Frequency Energy (Radiation) - Any energy with a frequency between 300 gHz and 30 kHz. For the purpose of interpreting standards, any energy with frequencies between 3 kHz and 300 gHz. Safety Showers and Eyewashes: Emergency Shower or Deluge Shower: A unit consisting of a shower head controlled by a stay-open valve that enables a user to have water cascading over the entire body. Eyewash: A device used to irrigate and flush the eyes. Combination Unit: An interconnected assembly of an eyewash and safety shower, supplied by a single plumbed source. SBC Seattle Building Code SEPA State Environmental Policy Act SFC Seattle Fire Code SFD Seattle Fire Department SMC Seattle Mechanical Code Static Magnetic Fields - Direct current (zero Hz) magnetic fields. Magnetic flux density (often called magnetic field strength) is expressed in A/m, Gauss(G), or Tesla(T). The units are related as 1 A/m = 12.6 mG = 1.26 nT. TA Teaching Assistant ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-8 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Laboratory Safety Design Guide Tepid Water Water which is moderately warm or lukewarm. Threshold Limit Value/Ceiling(TLV-C) - The exposure limit that should not be exceeded, even for an instant. Threshold Limit Value/Time-weighted Average (TLV-TWA) - The time weighted average exposure allowed for an eight-hour workday and forty-hour workweek. TLV Threshold limit value TLV/BEI Threshold limit value Biological Exposure Index Toxic Material - Classes of toxicity include Acutely and Chronically Toxic. Included within the class of materials that exhibit chronic toxicity but still may present exceptional risk with a single exposure are carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. Acutely Toxic Material - A material for which the lethal exposure levels fall within the ranges below: Acute Toxicity Hazard Level Inhalation LC50 Inhalation LC50 Hazard Toxicity Oral LD50 Skin Contact LD50 (Rats, ppm (Rats, mg/m3 Level Rating (Rats, per kg) (Rabbits, per kg) for 1 hr.) for 1 hr.) High Highly toxic < 50 mg < 200 mg < 200 < 2,000 Moderately Medium toxic 50 - < 500 mg 200 mg - < 1g 200 - < 2,000 2,000 - < 20,000 Low Slightly toxic 500 mg – 5 g 1–5g 2,000 - 20,000 20,000 - 200,000 Toxic Material - A material which produces a lethal dose or a lethal concentration within any of the following categories: A chemical or substance that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than fifty milligrams per kilogram but not more than five hundred milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats of between two hundred and three hundred grams each. A chemical or substance that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than two hundred milligrams per kilogram but not more than one thousand milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for twenty-four hours, or less if death occurs within twenty-four hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits of between two and three kilograms each. A chemical substance that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than two hundred parts per million but not more than two thousand parts per million by volume of gas or vapor; or, more than two milligrams per liter but not more than twenty milligrams per liter of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour, or less if death occurs within one hour, to albino rats of two hundred and three hundred grams each. ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-9 Rev. Jan-10 Laboratory Safety Design Guide SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Highly Toxic Material - Material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration which falls within any of the following categories: A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of fifty milligrams or less per kilogram of body mass (mg/kg) when administered orally to albino rats of between two hundred and three hundred grams each. A chemical that has a median LD50 of 200 mg/kg or less when administered by continuous contact for twenty-four hours, or less if death occurs within twenty-four hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits of between two and three kilograms each. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of two hundred parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour, or less if death occurs within one hour, to albino rats between two hundred and three hundred grams each. NOTE: Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, may result in the classification of “highly toxic” not being warranted. While this system is basically simple in application, experienced, technically competent persons shall perform any hazard evaluation, which is required for the precise categorization of this type of material. Carcinogen: A hazard that can cause cancer. Substances and exposures which have been adequately proven to be carcinogens are defined as select carcinogens in the UW Laboratory Safety Manual, May 2000, Select Carcinogen, Appendix H, with examples listed. Or, if you want an excessively detailed definition…. Carcinogen (UW Laboratory Safety Manual, May 2000, Select Carcinogen): A hazard that can cause cancer, considered a carcinogen if: It is regulated by WISHA as a carcinogen; OR It is listed as “known to be carcinogens” in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (latest edition); OR It is listed as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs (latest edition); OR It is listed in either Group 2A (“Probably carcinogenic to humans”) or 2B (“Possibly carcinogenic to humans”) by IARC or in the category of ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SECTION XII-10 Rev. Jan-10 SECTION 12 – APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Laboratory Safety Design Guide “Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens” by NTP, and it causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3; or After repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week; or After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Mutagens and Teratogens: A mutagen is a substance or hazard that may cause heritable damage to reproductive cells which can result in a mutation. A teratogen is a substance or hazard that may cause damage to a developing embryo or fetus. “Workplace Hazards to Reproduction and Development,” Sharon L. Drozdowsky and Stephen G. Whittaker, Technical Report Number 21-3-1999, August 1999, Washington Department of Labor and Industries (L&I), Safety and Health Assessment & Research for Prevention (SHARP) Program contains listings of known and suspect mutagens and teratogens. UFC Uniform Fire Code UL Underwriters Laboratory USDA United States Department of Agriculture Vapor Pressure - The pressure, often measured in psia, exerted by a liquid. VAV Variable air volume VFD Variable frequency drive WAC Washington Administrative Code WSBC Washington State Building Code ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH AND SAFETY Laboratory Safety Design Guide ______________________________________________________________________ UW ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY