In the early decades of the 20th century, transportation planning was not a defined discipline, but there was an implicit direction in the first Federal Aid Highway Acts. Now, in the first decade of the 21st century, transportation planning is evolving in a different direction. Policy makers are thinking about sustainable communities and regions and want to know about the appropriate transportation underpinnings. Planners are being asked to focus on the performance of a regional multi-modal transportation system in terms of moving people and goods from origin to destination. There are many potential solutions to problems of congestion, reliability and safety, and constructing new capacity is less and less often the best answer. The Federal Highway Administration has been leading an effort for a number of years to link regional transportation planning and regional transportation system management and operations. This work helps planners understand how to add near- and mid-term operations strategies to their investment portfolio.