FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service

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 Food Safety and
Inspection Service
         Ensuring the safety
           of our nation’s
          meat and poultry
Public Health and Food Safety

     Ensure that the nation's commercial
           supply of meat, poultry,
     and egg products is safe, wholesome,
      and correctly labeled and packaged.
  Primary Statutory Authority
Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)
(21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)
Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) (21
U.S.C. 451 et seq.)
 Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA)
(21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.)
Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (HMSA)
All meat, poultry,
and egg products for
public consumption
  Import (equivalency)
Some states have
their own programs
  must be equal or
  cannot ship interstate
  (except T&A)
  Custom Slaughter
Domestic Product Inspections Per
    8.2 Billion Lbs. Poultry
  140 Million Lbs. Livestock
3.2 Billion Lbs. Egg Products
               Imported Product

      3.8 Billion Pounds
Meat, Poultry and Egg Products
           Per Year
Food Safety Inspection Service
                  Office of Field Operations

                                    Secretary of Agriculture
                                           Tom Vilsack

Policy Division                             Administrator                           Office of Public Health & Science

                                          Field Operations
                                             15 Districts
                                        DISTRICT MANAGER

                                         Frontline Supervisor

                            Public Health Veterinarian-Inspector in Charge

                    Consumer Safety Inspectors              Postmortem Inspectors
Approximately 1100 Public
Health Veterinarians
Approximately 7600
Approximately 6500 US
Federal plants
Regulates over 250,000
different meat, poultry,
and egg products
3 billion pounds of
Imported M&P from 32
countries was Insp’d &
Bison, Elk & Deer
processing facilities
  Functions of Meat/Poultry
Detection/destruction of
diseased meat & poultry
Assure sanitary
Prevention of adulteration
Insuring humane handling
Application of the inspection
Prevention of false labeling
  Purpose of AM Inspection
To assure that only animals capable of
producing a wholesome, safe product are
passed for slaughter.
Conditions observed on AM Inspection:
  Vesicular diseases
  “Cancer Eye”
  CNS Disease
  Non-ambulatory Animals
Pass for Regular
Pass for Slaughter as a
U.S. Suspect
U.S. Condemned
  humanely killed and
  held for observation
     Postmortem Inspection
Every carcass (livestock and poultry) must
receive PM inspection
Livestock inspection is divided into head,
viscera, and carcass inspection
 PM Veterinary Disposition
    Thought Process
Is there diseased or
abnormal tissue?
Acute or Chronic?
Localized or Generalized?
Is there derangement of
body functions?
Injurious to the health of
the consumer?
Offensive or repugnant?
Humane Responsibilities
  Humane Responsibilities

Truck Unloading
Water Available
Handling during AM
Electric Prod Use
Observations for
slips and falls
Unconsciousness &
Insensible to Pain
HACCP/Pathogen Reduction
Final rule written in 1996 & implemented 1998-
2000 dependent upon size of the plant
Requires the following of plants:
  HACCP system in place
  Microbiological testing (Salmonella, E. coli)
  Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
Developed by Pillsbury® and NASA to
insure a risk - free food source for astronauts
A “Farm to Fork” strategy to reduce hazards
found in the food supply
Adopted by all food safety agencies
  FSIS, FDA, State Public Health Depts. Etc
Each establishment conducts a hazard
analysis and adopts a written program
Preventative and
systematic approach to
prevent, eliminate or
reduce hazards
Perspective of Regulatory HACCP
Requires industry to develop HACCP plans for
applicable processes used by the firm.
  Raw Product - Not Ground
  Raw Product - Ground
  Not Heat Treated - Shelf Stable
  Fully Cooked -Not Shelf Stable
  Fully Cooked - Shelf Stable
  Thermally Processed – Commercially Sterile
       Food Safety Systems
A food safety system considers all control
measures an establishment takes to assure
product is safe, wholesome, and properly labeled
during processing, handling, storage, loading and
unloading, and during transportation.

Incorporates the all control measures of the
Sanitation SOP, HACCP Plan, GMPs, and
Prerequisite programs.
FSIS Monitoring & Verification
Monitoring and Verification Procedures include:
  Review and Observation of the implementation of
  the SSOPs, HACCP plan, GMPs, and Prerequisite
  Review of Records associated with the various
  components of the Food Safety System
  Sampling and Laboratory Analysis
    Process Control (Salmonella and E. coli Biotype 1)
    Pathogens (Lm, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, etc.)
    Residues (National Residue Program)
Shifting Spectrum of Pathogens
In the early decades of the 20th Century foodborne
diseases such as typhoid fever, tuberculosis, brucellosis,
and septic sore throat, (a zoonotic streptococcal
infection) and Trichinosis were common.

These conditions have largely disappeared from the
industrialized world as foodborne diseases, as a result
of milk sanitation and pasteurization, disease control
efforts in animals, better regulation of shellfish beds,
and other sanitary measures.
Shifting Spectrum of Pathogens
There are currently 27 principal foodborne pathogens.
They account for 19% of the total estimated number of
cases and attribute to 36% of the deaths
Of the 27 pathogens, we find that 13 of them have
been identified as foodborne pathogens only within the
last 25 years
These 13 pathogens account for the bulk of the burden
caused by the principal foodborne pathogens:
  82% of the estimated 13.8 million cases
  61% of the 1800 deaths attributable to all known
  foodborne pathogens in the United States.
Top 10 Contemporary Pathogens
   Norwalk-like Viruses       9,200,000
   Campylobacter              1,963,000
   Salmonella (non-typhoid)   1,342,000
   Clostridium perfringens      249,000
   Giardia lamblia              200,000
   Staph. Food Poisoning        185,000
   Toxoplasma gondii            112,000
   E. coli O157:H7               92,000
   Shigella                      90,000
   Yersinia enterocolitica       87,000
Source CDC MMWR April 30 2004
 Food Safety and
Inspection Service

         Dr. Mike Finley

Supervisory Public Health Veterinarian
 Enforcement Investigative Analysis