Chemistry 264 – Analytical Chemistry (Quantitative Chemical Analysis)
“…the role of a teacher is to inspire students to teach themselves.”
Qtd. in “Toward Better Teaching,” Award Address; Dennis G. Peters, 2001—American Chemical Society Northeast Section Teaching Award Recipient
Instructor: Dr. K. A. Kneas Office: Sutton Science Room 225
X 8055 Office Hours: …/Kneas/Kneas_Schedule.htm
Course Website: http://faculty.maryvillecollege.edu/Kneas/CHEM264/CHEM264.htm
Course Description and Context:
Analytical chemistry has as its foundation three main goals:
1. Separation of substance(s) of interest from a mixture
2. Identification of unknown substance(s) in a mixture (i.e., Qualitative Analysis)
3. Determination of amount of unknown substance(s) in a mixture (i.e., Quantitative Analysis)
This course is dedicated to classical methods of QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS and
separation of substances with emphasis on the proper skills, techniques, and data handling required
for analytical measurements of good quality. The techniques are discussed in the context of the
fundamental concepts (e.g. chemical equilibrium, stoichiometry, acid-base chemistry,
electrochemistry, etc.) on which they are based. Emphasis is placed on the analytical process; on
titrimetric, gravimetric, potentiometric, and chromatographic methods of analysis; and on statistical
methods and the use of spreadsheets for data analysis. A significant laboratory component involves
development of wet chemical skills as well as introduction to selected instrumental methods. A group
laboratory project allows students to apply the analytical process in order to solve a real-world
problem, thus affording an opportunity to further develop laboratory, problem-solving, communication,
and teamwork skills.
The continuation of this course (CHM 365), which is offered Fall 2006, is dedicated to
INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS that have been developed over the course of the past
century to accomplish the three main goals of analytical chemistry. It is important to recognize that no
matter how sophisticated the instrumentation, proper technique and careful data analysis on the part
of the experimentalist are essential if the resultant information is to be accurate and precise. Further,
it should not be assumed that instrumental methods are always superior to classical methods. For
these reasons, students must develop proper analytical skills such as those practiced in CHM 264
early in their scientific careers.
Course Prerequisites: Chemistry 122, or permission of the instructor
• To demonstrate that chemistry pervades our lives and to impress upon you the importance of an
understanding of chemical concepts and methods of scientific research
• To foster your development of the skills and confidence required to solve problems by application
of the analytical process
• To guide you as you develop the skills, techniques, and statistical data handling required for
analytical measurements of good quality
• To teach fundamental chemical concepts in the context of the “real world”
• To help you build confidence in your ability to critically analyze science, to apply the chemical
concepts that you learn, and to make important chemical connections
• To uphold the Maryville College Covenant
• To actively participate in the learning process (i.e., to read the textbook, to complete assignments,
and to attend class meetings)
• To gain an appreciation of how and why scientific research is done
• To develop the skills and confidence to solve problems by application of the analytical process
• To develop the skills, techniques, and statistical data handling required for analytical
measurements of good quality
• To build confidence in your ability to critically analyze science, to apply chemical concepts that you
learn, and to make important chemical connections
• To uphold the Maryville College Covenant
Class Meetings: Lecture: Sutton 231; M,W,F; 1:00-1:50 PM
Laboratory: Sutton 209; T; 2:00-5:00+ (Lab will be open from 1:30-5:30 PM.)
Quantitative Chemical Analyis (6th Edition), Daniel Harris
The Periodic Table, Primo Levi
Bound Laboratory Notebook with Numbered Pages
Bound Professional Journal
Splash-proof Safety Goggles
Laboratory Handouts (provided)
Additional Texts that may be useful:
Analytical Chemistry (6th Edition), Gary D. Christian
Analytical Chemistry: An Introduction (6th Edition), Skoog, West & Holler
Analytical Chemistry for Technicians (3rd Edition), Kenkel
Professional Notebook 5%
Weekly Quizzes (1.0% Each) 9%
Problem Sets (1.0% Each) 13%
Exams (8.0% Each) 24%
Final Examination 14%
Laboratory Exercises & Clean-up (2.5% each) 35%
Professional Notebook: As future scientists, it is essential that you begin to: record important thoughts
and ideas, familiarize yourself with the chemical literature, and network with those in careers and areas of
study that you wish to pursue. You will begin or continue an existing professional notebook in which you
will record: your research thoughts and ideas, summaries of literature articles that you have read (include
complete reference so that the articles can be found again), notes recorded during seminars and
professional meetings that you attend, and business cards or contact information for individuals in your
field that you meet. By the end of the semester, you should have at least 15 article summaries and notes
from at least one professional meeting. Analytical Chemistry must be the source of at least 8 of your
article summaries. You are encouraged to consider articles recommended by the instructor or those listed
at the back of your text in the “Notes and References” section (pp. NR1-NR24).
Weekly Quizzes: Weekly quizzes usually consisting of several questions or problems will be given on
Fridays to test your retention of material covered during the week and your development of problem-
solving skills. These quizzes will provide an opportunity for you to recognize any weaknesses and
uncertainties prior to the examination. The lowest quiz grade will be dropped.
Problem Sets: Problem sets will be assigned and graded to reinforce concepts that are covered in
lecture. To receive credit, you must show your work! You will work problems both individually and in
pairs. Since a solutions manual will hinder your progress toward mastery, only your textbook or the
textbooks available on reserve in the library may be used for reference. You may, however, check your
final answers with those found in the back of the book, when applicable, but only after you have worked a
problem to the best of your ability. Please include your partner’s name at the top of your paper. Assigned
problem sets are due at the beginning of class (usually on Friday) as indicated in the daily syllabus. You
are encouraged to work problems as the material is covered in lecture to prevent panic and frustration on
the night before a problem set is due. Late homework assignments are not accepted. To aid the grading
process, please circle or highlight your final answers, assure that pages are stapled together, and write
Exams: Three exams proctored during the semester will test your understanding of material covered in
lecture, problem sets, the laboratory, and your reading. While each exam will be focused on the most
recent topics of study, it should be noted that chemistry is a cumulative science; i.e., new material builds
on what you have previously learned. For this reason, it is imperative that you stay current with
assignments and that you seek assistance immediately if you have difficulty in grasping a particular
Final Examination: Your final examination is cumulative and will test your understanding of chemical
concepts that are covered during the semester.
Laboratory: The laboratory experience is described in a separate syllabus.
A+ A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D D- F
97- 93- 90- 87- 83- 80- 77- 73- 70- 67- 63- 60- 0-59
100 96 92 89 86 82 79 76 72 69 66 62
*Letter grades earned on individual assignments, examinations, etc. may be higher for a given percentage
than indicated on this scale.
Additional Opportunities for Teaching and Learning:
Office Hours: I wish to be as accessible and helpful to you as possible while maintaining a high level of
quality in my instruction. To this end, I uphold an “Open Door Policy.” That is, you are welcome to stop
by my office with questions during my regularly scheduled office hours and when my office door is open.
To assure that I have sufficient time to prepare for class and to grade your assignments, examinations,
and laboratory reports, please refrain from knocking on my closed door. You are certainly encouraged to
schedule (preferably in person or by e-mail) an individual appointment with me if you have difficulty
catching me at a time that is suitable to you.
Problem and Recitation Sessions: Should a number of students require additional assistance with a
particular topic, an evening problem session or recitation led by the instructor will be scheduled.
Exam Review Sessions: (Dates and times TBA) The instructor will be available to answer questions
related to concepts covered during lecture and laboratory and to help you work past lecture examples,
past assigned chapter problems, and additional example problems.
Accommodations: Should you need an accommodation based on the impact of a disability, please
contact Services for Students with Disabilities to discuss your specific needs and coordinate reasonable
accommodations. The Denso learning center is located in the Thaw Hall Annex, and Lori Hunter,
Director, can be reached at 981-8124.
Attendance Policy: There is no formal attendance policy for lecture. It is assumed that you will wish to
optimize your learning by attending all class meetings. Laboratory attendance is mandatory.
Make-up Laboratory Exercise, Examination, and Quiz Policy: Make-up laboratory exercises, exams,
and quizzes are offered only under extreme circumstances and with prior permission from the instructor
(e.g. family emergency, severe illness requiring off-campus medical attention, official college function,
etc.). Unless otherwise indicated by the instructor, these laboratory exercises and exams and quizzes will
be supervised/proctored during final exam week.
Academic Integrity Policy: Please familiarize yourself with the academic integrity policy found in the
Student Handbook and online (http://www.maryvillecollege.edu/students/pdf/ academic.pdf). Violations of
this policy will be handled according to the procedures described in the handbook.
Suggested Approach to Course Preparation: Students have often asked how best to approach the
course in order to optimize learning and performance. The design of the course assumes that you
prepare as follows:
(1) Before class, you read and work through the specified section(s) in the text. This involves
highlighting important points, making notes in the margins of questions that you have and
concepts that you don’t understand, and attempting to solve all sample problems.
(2) During class, you actively participate by taking good notes, responding to questions that are
posed, working problems that are suggested, and asking questions when you do not understand a
concept or problem.
(3) As soon as possible after class, you seek help to address any remaining questions, review your
lecture notes and my lecture notes found online, re-work practice problems from your notes and in
the text, get together with your partner to work related paired problems, and, once confident with
the paired problems, work related individual problems.
(4) Repeat (1)-(3).
(5) Prior to a quiz or exam, you review all material, including lecture notes, sample problems, problem
sets, and past quizzes and exams, being certain also to re-work example problems of each type.
(6) A few notes about problem-solving:
a. If you become stuck on a HW problem, you should review the relevant course material and
other example problems before trying again to understand what the problem is asking and
how you might solve it. If you are still stuck, you should come with your work to my office so
that I might offer assistance. You may not consult solutions manuals or other classmates,
with the exception of your partner for paired problems, since such actions will impair your
learning and performance on quizzes and exams.
b. Caution: Looking at the solution to a problem and thinking, “I understand,” or solving a
problem by finding the solution to a similar problem and mimicking it are highly unlikely to
enhance your learning or your performance on quizzes and exams. The best approach is to
attempt to solve problems without reference to examples. “Peek” at sample problems only
as necessary when you get stuck, and continue working similar problems until you can do
so comfortably without reference to examples.
DATE CH TOPICS* ASSIGNMENT*
THE ANALYTICAL PROCESS
Wed. Introduction to Analytical Chemistry and the
2/1 Analytical Process
1. Formulating the Question;
2. Selecting Analytical Tools and Procedures
Fri. Selecting Analytical Tools and Procedures
1 Quiz 1
2/3 Introduction to Basic Computations
Mon. Introduction to Basic Computations, Tools, and Problem Set 1
2/6 Operations Argon
2 LAB 1: Intro to Basic Tools and Operations
3 Experimental Error
3 Experimental Error Quiz 2
Mon. Problem Set 2
4 Experimental Error
2/13 Hydrogen & Zinc
2,4 LAB 2: Calibration of Analytical Pipets
4 Statistics and Spreadsheets
4 Statistics and Spreadsheets Quiz 3
Mon. Problem Set 3
4 Statistics and Spreadsheets
Tues. LAB 3: Density Determination of Unknown
2/21 Solution with Statistical Analysis
4 Statistics and Spreadsheets
0-4 EXAM 1 Problem Set 4
5 Calibration/Standardization Methods Potassium
All LAB 4: Group Laboratory Project I.
5 Calibration/Standardization Methods
29 Quality Assurance/Control Quiz 4
3. Sample Collection
4. Sample Preparation
Mon. Problem Set 5
28 Collection and Preservation of Samples
Tues. LAB 5: Collection, Preparation, and Storage of
3/7 Water Samples
23 Introduction to Analytical Separations
23 Introduction to Analytical Separations Quiz 5
5. Measurement and Analysis
Mon. Problem Set 6
18 Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry
Tues. LAB 6: Spectrophotometric Determination of
3/14 Nitrate Nitrogen in Water Samples
6 Chemical Equilibrium Professional NB DUE
6 Chemical Equilibrium Quiz 6
Have a save and relaxing SPRING BREAK!
All Group Laboratory Project Meeting Mercury & Phosphorus
All LAB 7: Group Laboratory Project II.
EXAM 2 Problem Set 7
Fri. Laboratory Project
6 Chemical Equilibrium
3/31 Progress Report
6 Chemical Equilibrium Gold & Cerium
Tues. Lab 8: Determination of Components in
4/4 Beverages by TLC
7 Titrimetric Methods of Analysis
7 Titrimetric Methods of Analysis Quiz 7
Mon. Problem Set 8
10,11 Acid-Base Equilibria
4/10 Chromium & Sulfur
Tues. LAB 9: Standardization of NaOH and Titrimetric
4/11 Determination of KHP in an Unknown Sample
10,11 Acid-Base Equilibria
No Class Meeting
Mon. Problem Set 9
12 Acid-Base Titrations
4/17 Titanium & Arsenic
Tues. LAB 10: Buffer Preparation and Determination
4/18 of Molar Mass of Acid by pH Titration
12 Acid-Base Titrations
27 Gravimetric and Combustion Analysis Quiz 8
Mon. Problem Set 10
27 Gravimetric and Combustion Analysis
4/24 Nitrogen and Tin
Tues. LAB 11: Gravimetric Determination of Ca in
4/25 Limestone I.
EXAM 3 Problem Set 11
4/28 12, 27
14 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry
5/1 Uranium and Silver
Tues. LAB 11: Gravimetric Determination of Ca in
5/2 Limestone II.
14 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry
14 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry Quiz 9
Mon. Problem Set 12
14 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry
5/8 Vanadium and Carbon
Tues. LAB 12: Laboratory Check-Out + Exercise to
5/9 be Determined
17 Electroanalytical Techniques Professional NB DUE
6. Interpretation and Reporting
Fri. Quiz 10
All Poster Presentations-Laboratory Group Project
5/12 Problem Set 13
Thurs. CUMULATIVE FINAL EXAMINATION
5/18 9:00 AM
*Subject to Change Depending on Time Constraints and Needs of the Class
Chemistry 264 – Analytical Chemistry (Quantitative Chemical Analysis) Laboratory
Laboratory Experience: The purpose of the laboratory session is to provide you with an opportunity
to develop the fundamental skills and learn the techniques required to obtain analytical measurements
of good quality in the scientific laboratory. You will gain an understanding of the manner in which
scientific research is carried out as well as the effect of various types of error on experimental data and
results. You will utilize statistical methods of analysis to evaluate the extent of indeterminate errors,
and you will learn to recognize and eliminate determinate errors whenever possible. A variety of
experiments have been chosen to demonstrate different scientific principles while exposing you to the
most common experimental techniques. General experiments are listed in your daily syllabus, and
more specific instructions will be provided prior to each experiment.
Lab Meetings: T 2:00-5:00+
Lab will be held each Tuesday from 2:00-5:00, and you have the option to begin as early as 1:30 PM
and to continue working until 5:30 PM. There may be additional times set aside for preparation of
reagents, equipment, etc. to be used in a particular laboratory experiment. Part of the challenge of this
laboratory will be to plan and budget your time carefully so that you can accomplish the assigned tasks
in the allotted time. It is not uncommon in a research setting to find one’s self competing for space,
equipment, and resources, and your Chemistry 264 laboratory experience is likely to simulate this real-
world situation. You will learn to work as both an individual and as a part of a larger team that shares a
common goal. In so doing, you will likely find that sharing of knowledge and resources is generally the
key to your individual success as well as the success of your group. Should you require additional time
to complete an experiment, you must request permission from the instructor.
Grading Scheme: Recall that the laboratory experience contributes 35% to your course grade. You
will complete up to 12 laboratory experiments for which your reports will be graded (100 points each).
Since this course is dedicated to methods of quantitative chemical analysis, you will be graded on the
methodological and mathematical correctness as well as the quality of your lab work and written
reports. Please note that though your laboratory notebook is not graded, your conscientiousness in
carefully recording all measurements and observations will impact your overall performance in the
Guidelines for Notebooks: You should use several pages at the beginning of your notebook to keep
a running table of contents. Pages in your notebook should be numbered, and your notebook should
be bound. With each experiment, begin a new page in your notebook, and include the complete
experiment title at the top. Prior to the lab period, compose several sentences in which you summarize
the purpose of the experiment, your predictions, and what you hope to learn from the experience. You
should also list the tools and materials that you will be using, any important equations or tips that you
might find useful, and your general plan of attack. Creation of such a list will better prepare you for the
task at hand.
During the laboratory session, add any notes given by the instructor including background information,
safety information, corrections to the experimental procedure, additions to your list of tools and
materials, etc. Also include the date and your partner’s name if applicable. During the experiment, all
data and observations should be recorded directly into your bound notebook using waterproof ink.
Prior to the lab session, you should prepare useful tables for data collection. You should be certain to
record all observations, hypotheses, and questions during the course of an experiment. Further, you
should include in your notebook all calculations whether carried out during or after the laboratory
session, and you should sketch unusual instrumentation or experimental set-ups for your future
reference. Corrections in your laboratory notebook should be made by crossing out incorrect entries
with a single line. White-out, massive scribbles, erasable ink, etc. should not be used, since you may
later find the “incorrect” data to be useful. Your notebook should be initialed by your instructor and
should be initialed and dated by you prior to your departure from the laboratory.
Following the laboratory session, you should complete data analysis and record all conclusions in your
notebook along with a brief summary of the results and conclusions. If you generate graphs, tables,
equations, etc. using a computer program, a hard copy should be printed and taped into your notebook.
Guidelines for Laboratory Reports: Specific instructions will be discussed for each experiment, but
the general guidelines follow the “Guidelines for Authors,” provided for those wishing to submit a
manuscript to Analytical Chemistry, an ACS journal. Please read the guidelines in their entirety,
making particular note of the following sections: Word-processing details, Title, Authorship, Abstract,
Text (including the specified sections), Figures and Tables, Nomenclature, and Ethical Guidelines to
publication of chemical research (particularly the Preface and Ethical Obligations of Authors sections).
You should also use the ACS Style Guide (available in my office or the MC library) and articles in
Analytical Chemistry to serve as references when questions about style and formatting arise.
Your report should be concise, complete, and clear. It should be written for a chemically-knowledgeable
audience, and it should include both creative and logical thought. Complete sentences, proper grammar,
and impeccable spelling are essential; you should put as much effort into clear writing, good grammar, and
proofreading as you would for a paper written for an English composition course. Past tense should be
used and the first person should be avoided by utilizing the passive voice (e.g. “I removed the flame…”
becomes “The flame was removed…”). The report will be evaluated on the basis of your ability to express
your ideas clearly, as well as on the empirical results. For some experiments you will not submit a formal
report, but instead you will submit only your data and results. Unless otherwise indicated, laboratory
reports are due at the beginning of the following laboratory session after completion of the experiment.
Some minor modifications to the “Guidelines for Authors” and additional notes about each section
follow. In addition, guidelines for Appendix 1 (Calculations) are included:
Title—The title should not be on a separate page from the rest of the manuscript.
Abstract—Assure that your final numerical results are reported to the proper level of significance.
Introduction—Also useful might be the following description of this section from the Introductory
Chemistry manual: This section serves two purposes: to acquaint the reader with the significance and
purpose of the experiment and to present other relevant scientific information. Begin by stating, in the
first few sentences, why the experiment you did is important, and provide references to support your claim.
For example, if you are investigating the response of fluorescence-based oxygen sensors, the experiment
is important because chemists need to understand the photophysical properties of fluorescence-based
sensors in order to design improved sensors.1 The sensors themselves are important for applications
such as pressure sensitive paints, measurement of biological oxygen demand, and monitoring of oxygen
concentration in the blood, during fermentation processes, or in meat packaging.2 Awareness of the
importance of your work helps to engage your audience. Then summarize in several sentences some of
the scientific information from class lectures and additional sources that help your reader understand the
context of the experiment and the chemical principles on which it is based. Important chemical or
mathematical equations should be included here. All equations should be numbered and referenced in the
text. All symbols must be defined. For the example described previously, a brief explanation of the way in
which a fluorescence-based oxygen sensor works and inclusion of the Stern-Volmer equation for oxygen
quenching of fluorescent molecules is essential. Any sources that you utilize should be paraphrased
rather than directly quoted, and a citation should be included. Please see the References section for the
correct format of citations and works cited.
Experimental Section—Authors often use sub-headings such as “Materials,” “Preparation of Standard
Solutions,” etc. to help organize information in this section. Note that you will describe all apparatus and
reagents prepared, and you will describe the procedure that you used.
Safety Considerations—Completion of this section will require that you read the Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) for reagents that you have used.
Results and Discussion—It is not sufficient to solely present the data in this section; you must also
interpret the data (e.g., highlight trends, discuss significance of results, comment on uncertainty in
Conclusions—Summarize the experiment in greater detail, with particular emphasis on your experimental
findings, statistical analysis, and whether or not your conclusions support your original hypothesis.
Specific questions that you will likely wish to address include: What can you conclude based on your
findings? Were your results surprising? What questions still remain? If you measured a known
quantity, does it agree with the accepted value? What were the sources of indeterminate and
determinate errors? Are the errors that you obtained acceptable and expected? Could the experiment
be improved? What would you do differently if you were to repeat the experiment? You will also wish
to address the usefulness of your results or the techniques that you have learned in other contexts.
References—A superscript number at the end of the sentence or group of sentences that is paraphrased
should indicate cited information within the text. Each new source should be assigned a new superscript.
Unlike in ACS publications, your works cited should be included in a list at the end of your laboratory report
rather than as footnotes throughout the report. Your reference list should be numbered, and the numbers
should correspond to the superscripts used in the text. The proper formats for a journal article1 and a
book2 are shown below:
(1) Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.; Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Abbreviated
Journal Title in Italics. Year in Bold, Journal Volume Number in Italics, All inclusive pages
(2) Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Title of Book in Italics; Publishing Company: City,
Abbreviated State or Country, Year.
More specific examples follow:
(1) Kneas, K.A.; Xu, W.; Demas, J.N.; DeGraff, B.A. J. Chem. Ed. 1997, 74, 696.
(2) Demas, J.N.; DeGraff, B.A.; Coleman, P.B. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 793A.
Appendix 1–Calculations. For each calculation type, set up equations with words and units, and then
plug in numbers for one sample calculation. Use Microsoft Equation Editor. An example is shown
1. Calculation of Pressure from the Ideal Gas Equation
L ⋅ atm
0 .36 mol ⋅ 0 .08206 ⋅ 295 .2 K
0 .976 atm = mol ⋅ K
8 .9 L
Laboratory Rules and Safety Instructions:
1. Splash-proof safety goggles must be worn at all times while in the laboratory. Contact lenses
are discouraged, but if you choose to wear them regularly, please alert your instructor and
bench mate. If a chemical gets into your eyes, rinse your eyes with copious amounts of water.
Alert your instructor, and you will be taken at once to Blount Memorial Hospital.
2. Laboratory coats will be provided and must be worn at all times while in the laboratory.
Appropriate laboratory clothing is required at all times while in the laboratory. Long pants and
impermeable shoes must be worn. Shorts, sandals, tank tops, cropped-tops, Capri pants,
exposed midriffs or backs, etc. are unacceptable in the laboratory. Loose-fitting long sleeves
and highly combustible clothing should be avoided. Long hair must be confined. You will be
sent home to change if you are not dressed appropriately.
3. Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing tobacco are strictly forbidden in the laboratory.
4. Talking on the phone and use of the computer for purposes other than those related to the
laboratory exercise are strictly forbidden.
5. Unauthorized experiments are strictly forbidden. You may work in the laboratory only during the
scheduled laboratory session under the supervision of your instructor.
6. All data must be recorded in your bound laboratory notebook; the instructor must initial your
notes prior to your departure from the laboratory.
7. Professional behavior is expected at all times, and your laboratory workspace should be
maintained in an organized fashion. Prior to departing from the laboratory, your lab bench
should be wiped thoroughly with a damp sponge, and the bench paper should be replaced if
8. Exercise great care when working with chemicals; many are toxic. Do not use your mouth to
open containers, and never attempt to taste a chemical. Do not directly inhale gases, fumes,
vapors, or aerosols of any kind. Do not put your nose directly over any container to smell its
contents, but instead waft fumes toward you.
9. Direct skin contact with chemicals should be avoided. Wash your hands and exposed skin
thoroughly with soap. Always wash your hands before departing the laboratory.
10. Do not use more material than necessary. Reagent bottles should not be removed from the
reagent bench. Never return unused chemicals to the stock containers or insert your own
pipettes or medicine droppers into reagent bottles.
11. Dispose of excess reagent, solvents, waste materials, and broken glass in the appropriately
labeled waste containers. Do not discard solid chemicals in the trashcan or waste in the sink
unless instructed to do so.
12. Never leave Bunsen burner flames unattended. Be cautious of ceramics, metal, and glass
heated by the flame. Turn off gas immediately after use of the burner.
13. Do not point heated test tubes at others. Be certain that all glassware is free of chips and
cracks prior to heating. Never apply heat directly to the bottom of a test tube; apply it to the
point at which the solution is highest in the tube, working downward if necessary. Never heat
graduated glassware, as the glassware will lose its calibrations.
14. When noxious gases are produced in chemical reactions, always carry out the reactions under
a fume hood.
15. With the help of your instructor, neutralize spilled acid or base as follows: (a) acid on clothing—
use dilute sodium bicarbonate solution. (b) base on clothing—use dilute acetic acid. (c) Acid or
base on bench or floor—use solid sodium bicarbonate for either, followed by water.
16. In case of fire, chemical spill, glass, breakage, or personal injury, please alert your instructor
immediately, and follow instructions for clean up or treatment. Be certain to know all
emergency procedures as discussed on the first day of lab, and note the location of fire
extinguishers, safety showers, eye wash stations, and first aid kits. Record important safety
information in the inside cover of your laboratory notebook. You will be taken to Blount
Memorial Hospital for treatment of severe cuts, burns, or inhalation of fumes. Other safety
issues will be discussed in the laboratory introduction.
17. Notify the instructor if you are certified to administer first aid so that you might be called upon to
help in an emergency situation.
18. Should you have reservations about the safety of a procedure, notify the instructor.
19. Should you at any time suspect that you may be pregnant, please notify your instructor in order
that additional precautions may be taken if necessary; this information will be treated with strict
20. Should you find it necessary to leave the laboratory at any time during the session, please
notify your instructor.
21. Laboratory clean-up will begin no later than 10 minutes before the end of the lab session. All
students must leave the lab by the end of the scheduled session.
22. Please sign and return to your instructor the safety statement, “I have read and will comply with
all laboratory rules and safety instructions provided in my laboratory manual, and I will further
comply with additional laboratory rules and safety instructions provided during the laboratory
VIOLATION OF ANY OF THESE RULES AND SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS WILL RESULT IN
YOUR IMMEDIATE EXPULSION FROM THE LABORATORY!!
FIRE: For minor bench-top fire, cover fire with large beaker, and alert laboratory instructor to
prepare fire extinguisher. In the event of a larger fire, sound the nearest internal alarm, and
evacuate the building immediately. Instructor will call fire department at 9-911 and give exact
location of fire.
VERY SERIOUS ACCIDENT: Instructor will call the rescue squad immediately at 9-911,
identify nature and exact location of accident, and arrange liaison with rescue vehicle.
SERIOUS ACCIDENT: Notify instructor. Injured individual will be driven to the hospital by
MINOR ACCIDENT: Alert instructor to all minor injuries including cuts, burns, etc. First aid will
be applied using materials from kit. Report usage of materials to instructor so that they may be
Emergency Telephone Numbers:
Fire Department & Rescue Squad 9-911
Emergency, Campus Security 8000, 8112, 740-2753 (Mobile)
Department of Student Health 8207